Lekh Dothraki

sunquan8094 May 21, 2013

Firstly, I would like to say that this is a work in progress; lessons are still being created and added to this text. This is a written compilation of my YouTube lessons, and as the YouTube tutorials are ongoing at the time of writing, there will be many additions to this text. Next, I have some people to thank. First and foremost, I would like to thank you, the reader, for your continued interest in learning the Dothraki language. You, along with the many others who have obtained this book in one way or another, have encouraged me to step in and help you learn such an interesting language. I wish that you enjoy learning this language. Dothras chek.


I Preliminaries 4

1 Pronunciation


Grammatical Lessons

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 27 29 31 33 35 37 38 40 2

1 Personal Pronouns and Affirmative Present Tense 2 Negative Present Tense 3 Accusative Case of Inanimate Nouns 4 Nominative Plural and Accusative of Animate Nouns 5 Accusative of Personal Pronouns and Future Tense of Verbs I 6 Future Tense of Verbs II 7 Adjectives I: “Being” an Adjective 8 Adjectives II: Adjectives That Modify Nouns 9 Genitive Case of Animate and Inanimate Nouns 10 Genitive Case of Personal Pronouns 11 Past Tense of Verbs 12 Allative Case of Animate and Inanimate Nouns 13 Allative Case of Personal Pronouns 14 Informal Imperative 15 Ablative Case of Nouns and Personal Pronouns 16 Expressing “Being” a Noun 17 Numbers 1-10 18 Negating Adjectives

. . . . . . . . . .5 Interrogative Pronoun Declension Table 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Personal Pronoun Declension Table . . . . . . . .1 Nouns . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. .4 Relative Pronoun Declension Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Dictionary of Vocabulary 3 . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Degree of Comparison Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Conjugation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Prepositions . . . .19 Comparing with Adjectives 20 Yes-and-No Questions 21 Relative Clauses with Inanimate Nouns 22 Prepositions I: Over and Under 23 Modal Auxiliary Verbs 24 Vocal Auxiliary Verbs 25 Creating New Adjectives 26 Numbers 11-19 27 Simple Nominalization and Manner Adverbs 28 Relative Clauses with Animate Nouns 29 Prepositions II: Front and Behind 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 III Conversational Lessons 62 63 64 65 1 M’athchomaroon 2 Hash Yer Dothrae Chek? 3 Aena Vezhvena IV Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .3 Demonstrative Pronoun Declension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 1. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Adjectives . . . 66 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 1 Grammar Reference 1. . . . . . .1.1 Declension Table . . . . 1. . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Part I Preliminaries 4 .

I have also included the International Phonetic Alphabet letter associated with the sound. Spanish casa ) • e: [e] (English set. even though other languages may use some of the same sounds but represent them entirely differently in writing.Chapter 1 Pronunciation Every language has a unique pronunciation scheme. Spanish beber ) • i: [i] (English bean. For this reason. Japanese kirin ) • o: [o] (English cocoa ) Consonants • ch: [tS] (English chafe ) • d: [d] (English dorm ) • f : [f] (English fief ) • g: [g] (English gig ) • h: [h] (English high ) • j: [dZ] (English jive ) • k: [k] (Japanese katakana ) • kh: [x] (Klingon Hol. I have put sound approximations in languages other than English so that one will have a better idea of how the language sounds. Lojban xu do ) • l: [l] (English live ) • m: [m] (English moon ) • n: [n] (English null ) 5 . For the sake of completeness. Vowels • a: [a] (English father.

kkh. stress is applied on the first syllable. r. stress is applied on the final syllable. French bonjour ) Epenthesis Epenthesis is the adding of vowels in order to aid pronunciation. Add the letter e to the end of a word when a word ends with: • the letters w.• q: [q] (Klingon qaw ) • r: [r/R] (Spanish querer ) • s: [s] (English Seuss ) • sh: [S] (English shoe ) • t: [t] (English tat ) • th: [T] (English thug ) • v: [v] (English vest ) • w: [w] (English wow ) • y: [j] (English yay ) • z: [z] (English pizzazz ) • zh: [Z] (English measure. 6 . and g • a double consonant (note that cch. If a word ends in a vowel. l. You will need to do this often because of the frequent “dropping” of endings you must do. y Stress If a word ends in a consonant. and ssh are double consonants) • consonant clusters ending in the letters w. q.

Part II Grammatical Lessons 7 .

Lesson 1 Personal Pronouns and Affirmative Present Tense Vocabulary Nouns • anha: I • yer: you • me: he. A conjugated verb often looks differently from its dictionary form. mori nesoe. There are two conjugations in Dothraki. -at and -lat verbs. mori thiri. yeri thiri.” There will be exceptions to the rule. yer nesoe. but we 8 .” while -lat verbs end in “-lat. kisha thiraki. me nesoe. -at verbs are identified as verbs that end in “-at” and not “-lat. At first glance. kisha nesoki. Dothraki has verbs that need to be conjugated. yeri nesoe. Anha nesok. Grammar As with most languages. a verb can be categorized into either conjugation almost immediately. it • kisha: we • yeri: you (plural) • mori: they Verbs • thirat: live • nesolat: learn Text Anha thirak. she. me thira. yer thiri.

3. Dothraki has conjugations for affirmative and negative polarity. Verb Type -lat -at Person Singular Plural Singular Plural First Person anha -k kisha -ki anha -ak kisha -aki Second Person yer -e yeri -e yer -i yeri -i Third Person me -e mori -e me -a mori -i Verb nesolat thirat Person Singular Plural Singular Plural First Person anha nesok kisha nesoki anha thirak kisha thiraki Second Person yer nesoe yeri nesoe yer thiri yeri thiri Third Person me nesoe mori nesoe me thira mori thiri Practice 1. (a) dothralat (b) ifat 2. unlike in Romance languages. Yer nesoe. Translate into English.” In this lesson. therefore the pronouns will be kept in the following tables. meaning that there are conjugations for verbs in sentences such as “I ate” and “I did not eat. You all live. (a) We live. (b) He learns.will cover that in a later lesson. Translate into Dothraki. (a) Anha thirak. For every verb tense. It is worth noting that the subject of the verb cannot be dropped. 9 . They learn. Me thira. Conjugate the following verbs in the affirmative present tense. (b) Kisha nesoki. we will cover only the affirmative present tense.

Yeri vos zerqoo. The “+” sign before the ending indicates that you must drop the letter before it.Lesson 2 Negative Present Tense Vocabulary Nouns • alegra: duck [i] • eshina: fish [i] • hrakkar: lion [a] Verbs • ovethat: fly • zerqolat: swim • vrelat: leap [-at] Text Alegra ovetha.” which literally means “not. Yeri vos ovethi. Anha vos zerqok. Grammar The negative conjugations of all tenses contain the auxiliary verb “vos. Hrakkar vrela. Kisha vos zerqoki. Me vos ovetho. Anha vos ovethok. Kisha vos ovethoki. Me vos vrelo. Verb Type -lat -at Person Singular Plural Singular Plural First Person anha vos +ok kisha vos +oki anha vos +ok kisha vos +oki Second Person yer vos -o yeri vos -o yer vos -i yeri vos -i Third Person me vos -o mori vos -o me vos -o mori vos -i 10 . Yeri vos vreli. Anha vos vrelok. Kisha vos vreloki.” It has been included in every conjugation in the following tables. Me vos zerqoo. Eshina zerqoe.

Me vos ovetho. The lion does not fly. 2. Translate into English. (b) We swim. Translate into Dothraki. 11 . (b) Eshina zerqoe. Me vrela.Verb Type Person First Person Second Person Third Person dothralat Singular Plural anha vos dothrok kisha vos dothroki yer vos dothrao yeri vos dothrao me vos dothrao mori vos dothrao ifat Singular anha vos ifok yer vos ifi me vos ifo Plural kisha vos ifoki yeri vos ifi mori vos ifi Practice 1. (a) He learns. (a) Hrakkar vos zerqoo. The duck lives.

Yalli indee dranekh. Mai indee sewafikh. Hrakkar indee lamekh. while animate nouns do. In the table below. The accusative case of a noun is used when it is a direct object. Therefore. an uppercase “C” indicates a consonant. The nominative case of a noun. is used when it is the subject of a sentence. which is also its dictionary form. Yalli adakha vad. Inanimate nouns do not have plural forms. “V” indicates a vowel. the declension of a noun must be memorized right away. animate and inanimate nouns. Each declension of nouns has five cases: the nominative. accusative.Lesson 3 Accusative Case of Inanimate Nouns Vocabulary Nouns • mai: mother [a] • vado: turnip [i] • yalli: child [i] • dranekh: human milk [i] • lamekh: mare’s milk [i] • sewafikh: wine [i] Verbs • adakhat: eat • indelat: drink Text Mai adakha eshin. there are two declensions of nouns. and ablative cases. genitive. allative. Hrakkar adakha alegre. and “-” means “ends 12 . Grammar In Dothraki. There is no specific way to figure out a noun’s declension at first glance.

2. (a) The duck does not live. They drink human milk.with.” Ending -V -C -CCV Example Noun jano lamekh yalli Declension -+ (epenthesis if necessary) (same) -C Example Declension jan lamekh yal Practice 1. (b) Children do not drink wine. (a) Anha indek lamekh. Translate into Dothraki. Translate into English. 13 . Me vos adakho vad. The dog eats the duck.

Khal feja lajakis. mai declines in the accusative as mayes. Mai zhila khales. Lajak feja rizhis. Rizhi zhili mayes. -C -V khal ko Nominative Plural -i -si khali kosi Accusative Singular -es -es khales koes Accusative Plural -is -es khalis koes It is worth noting that the “i” in mai. and accusative plural of animate nouns. Khal zhila rizhis. all animate nouns have plural declensions. Below is the declension table for the nominative plural. Kosi feji khales. when declined in the accusative singular case. accusative singular. Rizhi zhili khales. Khal zhila mayes.” Thus. 14 . changes to a “y. Khal feja koes. Grammar As said in a previous lesson. Rizhi zhili lajakes. Lajaki feji khales.Lesson 4 Nominative Plural and Accusative of Animate Nouns Vocabulary Nouns • lajak: warrior [a] • khal: king [a] • rizh: son [a] • ko: bodyguard [a] Verbs • zhilat: love [-at] • fejat: hate Text Mai zhila rizhis.

Translate into English. (a) Lajaki adakhi alegri. (a) The guards love the king.Practice 1. Translate into Dothraki. 2. Rizhi indee dranekh. 15 .

Below is the pronoun declension table for the nominative and accusative cases. decline according to case as well. vosma yer vos zhili mae. vosma yer vos zhili anna. Mori zhili yera. like regular nouns. Yer azhili anna silokh ma anha vos ozhilok yera. Grammar Accusative of Personal Pronouns Pronouns.Lesson 5 Accusative of Personal Pronouns and Future Tense of Verbs I Vocabulary Adverbs • silokh: tomorrow Conjunctions • vosma: but • ma: and Text Anha zhilak yera. Kisha zhilaki yera. vosma yer vos zhili kisha. Yer azhili mae silokh ma me vos ozhilo yera. Nominative Accusative anha anna yer yera me mae kisha kisha yeri yeri mori mora 16 . Yer azhili kisha silokh ma kisha vos ozhilok yera. Me zhila yera. Yer azhili mora silokh ma mori vos ozhili yera. vosma yer vos zhili mora.

-o mori vos o. Translate into English.-i nesolat fejat S P S P anha anesok kisha anesoki anha afejak kisha afejaki anha vos onesok kisha vos onesoki anha vos ofejok kisha vos ofejoki yer anesoe yeri anesoe yer afeji yeri afeji yer vos onesoo yeri vos onesoo yer vos ofeji yer vos ofeji me anesoe mori anesoe me afeja mori afeji me vos onesoo mori vos onesoo me vos ofejo mori vos ofeji Practice 1.-i yer a. -lat -at S P S P anha a.-o yeri vos o. Translate into Dothraki.-i yer vos o.-i yer vos o. but we hate him. (a) I will learn tomorrow.-i me a. 2.-a mori a.-aki anha vos o-+ok kisha vos o-+oki anha vos o-+ok kisha vos o-+oki yer a. 17 .-o yer vos o.-e me a.-e yer a.-k kisha a. (b) He loves us.Future Tense of Verbs Beginning with a Consonant We will only Verb Type P +/+ 1st + 2nd + 3rd E P +/+ 1st + 2nd + 3rd cover the future tense those verbs that begin with a consonant.-e yeri a.-e mori a.-ak kisha a.-o mori vos o.-ki anha a.-o me vos o. (c) The warriors drink wine. but the children drink mare’s milk.-i me vos o.

-aki kisha vos v.-o yeri vos v. kash.-i me v.-e mori v.-i yer vos v..-k kisha v. kash kisha vacchakoki.-o P kisha v. Kash kisha vos vastoki.Lesson 6 Future Tense of Verbs II Vocabulary Verbs • acchakat: be quiet • astat: speak • ammemat: play (musical instrument) • ezhirat: dance Conjunctions • kash. kash yeri vacchaki...-i 18 .-i yeri vos v.-ok yer v. Grammar Future Tense of Verbs Beginning with a Vowel Verb Type P +/+ 1 + 2 + 3 -lat S P anha v. kash yer vos vacchaki.-i mori v. Kash yer asti.+oki yer v.-ki anha vos v. kash kisha vezhiraki.-o me v. Kash yer ammemi.. kash anha vos vacchakok.-i mori vos v..: while. kash yeri vezhiri. Text Kash anha astak..+ok kisha v..-o -at S anha v.-e yeri v.-ak anha vos v.-o mori vos v. Kash anha ammemak..-oki yeri v.-e yer vos v.-e me vos v.-a me vos v.. Kash yeri vos vasti. ..

(a) While the dog eats. Translate into Dothraki. (b) While you speak. you will not play a musical instrument. 19 .Verb Type P +/+ 1 + 2 + 3 - astolat S P anha vastok kisha vastoki anha vos vastok kisha vastoki yer vastoe yeri vastoe yer vos vastoo yeri vos vastoo me vastoe mori vastoe me vos vastoo mori vos vastoo astat S P anha vastak kisha vastaki anha vos vastok kisha vos vastoki yer vasti yeri vasti yer vos vasti yeri vos vasti me vasta mori vasti me vos vasto mori vos vasti Practice 1. 2. we learn. Translate into English.

Anha zhokwak ma hajak. 20 . Vorsa avvirsae alegre. vosma anha vos zheanok. vosma yer vos haji. vosma me vos zhokwao. Anha zhilak yera. Yer zheanae.Lesson 7 Adjectives I: “Being” an Adjective Vocabulary Nouns • vorsa: fire [a] • zhavvorsa: dragon [i] Adjectives • haj: strong • virzeth: red • zheana: beautiful • zhokwa: big Verbs • sikhtelat: spit • avvirsalat: burn something • ostat: bite Adverbs • akka: also Text Zhavvorsa zhokwae ma haja. Me zheanae ma virzetha akka. Zhavvorsa sikhtee vorsaes. Alegra zheanae. Alegra osta anna. Vorsa zhokwae ma virzetha ma zheanae.

21 . (a) Alegra virzetha. (a) The dog is big and beautiful. and question how this problem is bypassed. 2. Translate into Dothraki. It is bypassed by turning the adjective into a verb and conjugating it appropriately. It is also beautiful. (b) The fire is red. Practice 1.Grammar One must sooner or later realize that there is no word for “to be” in Dothraki. the “-at” ending is attached. the “-lat” ending is attached. and it bites the child. Translate into English. Zhavvorsa virzetha akka. If the adjective ends in a vowel. Otherwise.

Mai erin zhila yal imeshi. Yalli imeshi zhili mayes erina. Lajak vezhven zhila rizhi vichomeri. Khaleesi zheana zhila khales haja.Lesson 8 Adjectives II: Adjectives That Modify Nouns Vocabulary Nouns • khaleesi: queen [a] Adjectives • erin: kind • imesh: young • vezhven: great • vichomer: respectful Text Khal haj zhila khaleesies zheana. Zhavvorsa ershe zhila zhavvors imesha. Zhavvorsa imesh zhila zhavvors ershe. 22 . Rizhi vichomeri zhili lajakes vezhvena.

keep it as it is. keep it as it is.Grammar Adjectives decline according to the case and number of the noun. 2. Follow the instructions below to modify a noun with an adjective. Practice 1. add the suffix -i. (a) Lajak vezhven zhila rizhes mae. • If the noun ends in a consonant: – If the noun is singular: ∗ If the noun is in the nominative. ∗ Otherwise. Translate into Dothraki. add the suffix -a. Translate into English. (a) The kind queen loves the great king. • If the noun ends in a vowel. – If the noun is plural. 23 . regardless of its animacy.

Arakh kosi haja. Jano lakkha tolor. Vorsa zhavvorsi vos hajo. Rizhi khali vichomeri. Mai rizhi erina. 24 . Tolorro jani chonga. Lekhi tolorri disa.Lesson 9 Genitive Case of Animate and Inanimate Nouns Vocabulary Nouns • tolorro: bone [i] • jano: dog [i] • lekhi: taste [i] • arakh: curved sword [i] Verbs • lakkhat: chew • chongat: be hard • lajat: fight Adjectives • dis: simple. plain Text Khal haja. Ko laja zhavvors.

Translate into Dothraki. (a) Rizhi khali zheanae. The genitive case of singular and plural animate nouns are the same. Type An -C An -V In -C In -V In -CCV Genitive -i -si -i +i -CCi Noun rizh ko lamekh alegra yalli Genitive rizhi kosi lamekhi alegri yalli Practice 1. Translate into English.” It is similar to putting “’s” at the end of a noun.Grammar The genitive case of a noun is used to indicate that something is “of the noun. (a) The warrior’s bones are hard. 25 . Below is the declension table. 2.

vosma mai yeri feja yera. (a) My king’s warriors and guards are strong. 26 .Lesson 10 Genitive Case of Personal Pronouns Vocabulary Verbs • lanat: run Text Jano anni lana. Rizh mae vos vichomero. Grammar Below is the declension table. Zhavvorsa kishi haja. Rizh anni vichomera. (a) Mai anni zhila anna. Zhavvorsa mori vos hajo. 2. Translate into Dothraki. Translate into English. Nominative Genitive anha anni yer yeri me mae kisha kishi yeri yeri mori mori Practice 1. Jano yeri vos lano.

vosma me vos davrao. Mori indesh sewafikh. useful Text Anha kem chiories.Lesson 11 Past Tense of Verbs Vocabulary Nouns • chiori: woman [a] • virzetha: red wine [i] Verbs • kemat: marry Adjectives • esina: different • davra: good. Anha vindek mae. Yer adakh alegre mae. vosma lekhi mae disa. vosma anha zhil yeri. Below is the conjugation table. Yeri fejish anna. Anha afejak yeri. Yer vadakhi alegra esina. 27 . Anha akemak chiories esina. Grammar The past tense of a verb is used to indicate that the action was done in the past. vosma mori vos indosh virzetha.

(a) While you drank red wine. the children did not eat their turnips.Verb Type P +/+ 1 + 2 + 3 Verb Type P +/+ 1 + 2 + 3 - -at P S P kisha -sh anha -+ kisha -ish kisha vos +osh anha vos -o kisha vos -osh yeri -sh yer -+ yeri -ish yeri vos +osh yer vos -o yeri vos -osh mori -sh me -+ mori -ish mori vos +osh me vos -o mori vos -osh dothralat ifat S P S P anha dothra kisha dothrash anha if kisha ifish anha vos dothro kisha vos dothrosh anha vos ifo kisha vos ifosh yer dothra yeri dothrash yer if yeri ifish yer vos dothro yeri vos dothrosh yer vos ifo yeri vos ifosh me dothra mori dothrash me if mori ifish me vos dothro mori vos dothrosh me vos ifo mori vos ifosh S anha -+ anha vos +o yer -+ yer vos +o me -+ me vos +o -lat Practice 1. Translate into English. kash khal kem khaleesi. (a) Kash anha kem chiories. Translate into Dothraki. 2. 28 .

An -C An -V Type In -C In -V In -CCV S P S P Allative -aan -ea -saan -sea -aan +aan +aan Type khal khali mai maisi lekh alegra tolorro Allative khalaan khalea maisaan maisea lekhaan alegraan tolorraan 29 . Mai azh kimikh yallaan. Kosi chomi khaleesisaan. Khal rhaeshi jolin alegre. country • kimikh: date (fruit) Verbs • chomat: respect • jolinat: cook • azhat: give Text Alegra zerqo rhaeshaan. Grammar The allative case of a noun is used when an action is being directed toward the noun.Lesson 12 Allative Case of Animate and Inanimate Nouns Vocabulary Nouns • rhaesh: land. Below is the declension table. Yalli adakh kimikh. Lajak choma khalaan. Khal choma lajakaan. Khaleesi choma kosea.

2. 30 .Practice 1. Translate into English. (a) You will respect the king. (a) Anha azh alegre yerea. Translate into Dothraki.

Lesson 13 Allative Case of Personal Pronouns Vocabulary Nouns • azho: gift [i] Verbs • emat: smile • davralat: be useful Text Anha azhak azh yeraan. Translate into English. Me vos davrao kishaan. Kisha davraki maan. 31 . (a) I respected you all. 2. Translate into Dothraki. Grammar Nominative anha yer me kisha yeri mori Allative anhaan yeraan maan kishaan yerea morea Practice 1. Yer emi anhaan. Mori chomi yerea. Yeri vos chomi morea.

32 .(a) He will give to me the curved sword.

Translate into English. +/-lat -at dothralat adakhat + -s +as dothras adakhas vo +os vo +os vo dothros vo adakhos Practice 1. sikhtes vorsaes. (a) Zhilas anna. ma anha azhilak yera. rizh. 33 .Lesson 14 Informal Imperative Vocabulary Nouns • hadaen: food [i] Verbs • laqat: to cry Particles • zhey: (vocative particle) Text Zhey Zhey Zhey Zhey mai. Grammar The informal imperative is used to command others of an equal or lower status. adakhas hadaen yeri. Vo laqos. zheanas. Vo indos sewafikh. yalli. Vo ovethos. Below is the conjugation table. zhilas yal yeri. Vo fejos mori. zhavvorsa. There is no person column because commanding is done in second person.

34 .2. Translate into Dothraki. (a) O children. Smile. (b) Do not cry. respect your king.

Alegra lan yeroon ma zerqo rhaeshoon. Jano vigerera anhoon hajinaan me anha vigererak moon.Lesson 15 Ablative Case of Nouns and Personal Pronouns Vocabulary Verbs • vigererat: miss (long for) • yanqolat: gather • garvolat: hunger Conjuctions • hajinaan me: because Text Anha yanqo kimikhoon hajiinaan me yer garvoe kimikhoon. 35 . Khal vigerera kosoon hajinaan me ko vigerera khaloon. Yeri vigereri kishoon hajinaan me kisha vigereraki yeroa. Anha yanqo alegroon hajinaan me yer garvoe alegroon. Chiorisi rhaeshi vos vigereri moroa. Grammar The Ablative Case The ablative case of a noun is used when an action is being directed away from it.

Ablative of Nouns
Type Ablative Noun Ablative An -C An -V In -C In -V In -CCV S P S P -oon -oa -soon -soa -oon +oon +oon rizh rizhi ko kosi lekh jano rizhoon rizhoa kosoon kosoa lekhoon janoon

tolorro tolorroon

Ablative of Personal Pronouns
Nominative anha yer me kisha yeri mori Ablative anhoon yeroon moon kishoon yeroa moroa

1. Translate into English. (a) I hunger for duck and dates. 2. Translate into Dothraki. (a) I miss you because I love you. (b) The king’s warriors gathered dates and gave them to the king because the king hungered for dates.


Lesson 16

Expressing “Being” a Noun
• ave: father [a] • zafra: slave [i] • simonof: grandfather [a]

Anha khal. Anha lajakoon. Anha vos khaloon. Anha avesaan. Anha vos lajakaan. Yer khaleesi. Yer zafroon. Yer vos khaleesisoon. Yer maisaan. Yer vos zafraan. Me ave anni. Me khaloon. Me vos lajakoon. Me simonofaan. Me vos khalaan. Rizhi kishi lajakea haji. Rizhi kishi vos zafroon.

As said before, Dothraki does not have a word for “to be.” Below is how one expresses “being” a noun. Tense Case of Noun Example Present Nominative Yer lajak. (You are a warrior.) Past Ablative Mori kosoa. (They are guards.) Future Allative Anha khal. (I am a king.)

1. Translate into English. 2. Translate into Dothraki. (a) The warrior’s grandfather was king, but his father was a slave.


Lesson 17

Numbers 1-10
There is no vocabulary for this chapter because the text is a literal translation of “The Twelve Days of Christmas,” though some words may look unfamiliar.

She She She She She She She She She She asshekh asshekh asshekh asshekh asshekh asshekh asshekh asshekh asshekh asshekh ataki Christmas, mai anni azh anhaan at zir she feshith sovi. akataki Christmas, mai anni azh anhaan akat zir adrasi. senaki Christmas, mai anni azh anhaan sen jizis frenchi. toraki Christmas, mai anni azh anhaan tor zir kazga. mekaki Christmas, mai anni azh anhaan mek fire hoshora. zhindaki Christmas, mai anni azh anhaan zhinda jizis fin azh gal. fekhaki Christmas, mai anni azh anhaan fekh zir fin zerqo. oriki Christmas, mai anni azh anhaan ori zafre fin nirri lamekhoon. qazataki Christmas, mai anni azh anhaan qazat chiories fin ezhiri. thiki Christmas, mai anni azh anhaan thi khalis fin vreli.

Ordinal Numbers
Like every language, Dothraki has a counting system. Below is a table of Arabic numerals and the English and Dothraki words associated with them.


(a) My grandfather was the first king of this land.Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 English one two three four five six seven eight nine ten Dothraki at akat sen tor mek zhinda fekh ori qazat thi Cardinal Numbers To construct cardinal numbers. 39 . otherwise. Translate into Dothraki. (a) Zhinda yalli adakh ori alegre. 2. The newly formed word is treated like a regular animate noun. attach the suffix -ak if the number ends in a vowel. use the suffix -k. Translate into English. Practice 1.

if the adjective begins with a consonant. (a) Rizh lajaki ohaja. Practice 1. vosma me vos imesho. Grammar If an adjective is negated. 2. Khal dika. 40 . Translate into English. add the prefix o-. it means that the noun it modifies is not what the adjective describes. Anha ovezhvena.Lesson 18 Negating Adjectives Vocabulary Adjectives • dik: fast • toki: dumb Text Khaleesi zheanae. vosma anha vos otokok. Translate into Dothraki. vosma me vos ozheanao. • Otherwise. haj would become ohaj. vosma me vos hajo. Rizhi vichomeri. vosma mori vos zhokwao. vosma mori vos ovichomeri. Anha tokik. Thus. add the prefix os-. Khal osimesha. Rizhi ozhokwae. Khaleesi ohaja. (a) The queen is not beautiful. • The negated adjective is treated like any other adjective. esina would become osesina. follow the instructions below. Therefore. vosma anha vos vezhvenok. vosma me vos odiko. To negate an adjective. • If the adjective begins with a vowel.

Adjective Degree Inflection • To express a higher degree of an adjective: – If the verb begins with a vowel. Lekhi lamekhi adisana.Lesson 19 Comparing with Adjectives Vocabulary All words in the text should look familiar to you. (a) Lekhi sewafikh ahajana virzethoon. attach the prefix as-. attach the suffix -an Thus. The adjective inflects in order to express its degree. Grammar There is no word that corresponds to the English word “than” in Dothraki. Yalli osimeshana. zheana and imesh would become ozheanan and osimeshan. Otherwise. • To express a lesser degree of an adjective: – Negate the adjective. Rizh asimeshana. attach the suffix -n. Practice 1. Lekhi sewafikhi odisana. Mai ozheanana. Khal avezhvenana. If it ends in a vowel. Mai ozheanana chiorisoon. attach the prefix a-. Therefore. Lekhi lamekhi adisana lekhoon sewafikhi. Lajak ovezhvenana. Then place the suffixes -an and -n appropriately. Otherwise. Yalli osimeshana rizhoon. Translate into English. 41 . Lajak ovezhvenana khaloon. Chiori azheanana maisoon. respectively. Lekhi sewafikhi odisana lekhoon lamekhi. Khal avezhvenana lajakoon. Text Chiori azheanana. Rizh asimeshana yalloon. respectively. zheana and imesh would become azheanan and asimeshan.

Translate into Dothraki. (a) The slave is more beautiful than the queen.2. 42 .

khal vos vazho hadaen zafraan. Hash chiori maisaan? Sek. Hash chiori khaleesisaan? Vos. Add “hash” to the beginning of the statement and change the punctuation mark at the end appropriately.” turn it into “you are okay. For instance. Hash anha zhilak yera? Sek. if you want to ask “are you okay. anha vos fej yera.Lesson 20 Yes-and-No Questions Vocabulary Particles • hash: (yes-and-no question word) Interjections • sek: yes • vos: no Text Hash yalli imesha? Sek. Hash mai mae imesha? Vos. Hash anha fej yera? Vos. zafra garvo hadaenoon. yalli imesha. if your statement is “Yer cooked the duck.” meaning “no.” 3. Translate your statement into Dothraki. Hash zafra garvo hadaenoon? Sek. Make your question in English a statement. mai mae vos imesho. For example. chiori vos khaleesisaan. the above statement would become “Hash yer jolin alegre?” One must answer such a question with either “sek. To ask a yes-or-question. anha zhilak yera.” 2. Therefore.” translate it to “yer jolin alegre. there are two types of questions in Dothraki: yes-or-no questions and openended questions. follow the process below: 1. Hash lajak haja? Sek.” 43 .” or “vos. rizhi mae vos haji. Grammar As in other languages.” meaning “yes. lajak haja. Hash khal vazha hadaen zafraan? Vos. Hash rizhi mae haji? Vos. chiori maisaan.

(a) Did you cook and eat the duck? 44 . (a) Hash mori yanqo kimikhoon ma azh mora khalaan? 2. Translate into English.Practice 1. Translate into Dothraki.

Anha tih zafra fin zhil anha. Anha shilo yal fini neso anha hake. Anha zhilak krazaaj finaan averaki kisha.Lesson 21 Relative Clauses with Inanimate Nouns Vocabulary Nouns • hake: name [a] • krazaaj: mountain [i] Pronouns • fin: (begins a relative clause) Verbs • tihat: see • shilolat: meet • verat: travel Text Anha zhilak yal fini zhili zhavvors. Khal tih arakh fini azh anha yallaan. Mai anni jolin hadaen finoon garvok anha. Anha jolin hadaen fini davra. 45 .

respect the mother whose milk you drink. all relative clauses begin with the relative pronoun fin.Grammar Relative Clauses A relative clause modifies a noun similarly to how an adjective modifies a noun and how an adverb modifies a verb. (a) Zafra finoon azheanana krazaaj zhila anna. A mother loves a child whom she respects. In Dothraki. regardless of the noun. Mai zhila rizh finaan chomas me. Khal feja koes fin kem zafra. Krazaaj finoon if anha zheanae. The king hates the guard whom the slave married. The mountains I came from are beautiful. The order of the relative clause. I love ducks that swim. Translate into Dothraki. (b) The warrior whose name I did not learn was not dumb. Inanimate Relative Pronoun Declension Table Case Nominative Accusative Genitive Allative Ablative Declension fini fin fini finaan finoon Example Anha zhilak alegre fini zerqoe. Practice 1. Zhey yalli. (a) The duck which I ate was red. is Verb-Subject-Object. 46 . O children. chomas maisaan fini indee yeri dranekh. This pronoun declines according to the subject’s animacy and its role in the clause. 2. Translate into English.

47 . Rhoa torga osolethi. Feso thira torga rhaeshi. animal [u] • feso: carrot [i] • feshith: tree [u] • asavva: sky [a] • sorfo: dirt [i] Prepositions • oleth: over. Grammar Prepositions in Dothraki Dothraki prepositions are classified based on the specified case of the noun that follows it. meaning that the noun that follows these prepositions is always in the genitive case. Feshith thira oleth rhaeshi. Sorfo torga kishi. above • torga: under Text Anha oleth osolethi. The prepositions oleth and torga would be classified as genitive prepositions. Asavva oleth kishi.Lesson 22 Prepositions I: Over and Under Vocabulary Nouns • osoleth: bridge [i] • rhoa: beast.

Translate into English. (a) Rhoa thira torga kishi. 2.Practice 1. 48 . Translate into Dothraki. (a) The sky over the land is beautiful.

also known in English as “helping verbs. Me jif vos azho vos yeraan. Kisha laz vos ovethoki. Grammar Auxiliary Verbs Auxiliary verbs. Yer jif azhi hadaen maan. 49 . Lajak vil vos thiroo. Me ish vos zhilo anna. Anha ish zhilak mae. to miss (fail to see) Text Alegra laz ovetha. could • vil: manage to • eth: must • ish: might • jif: should Verbs • thirolat: survive • lostat: disappoint. Zhavvorsa vil thiroe.Lesson 23 Modal Auxiliary Verbs Vocabulary Nouns • vosi: nothing Auxiliary Verbs • laz: can.” aid in the clarity of the meaning of the sentence. Rizhi khali eth vos losti avees mori. Rizhi khali eth chomi avesaan mori.

modal auxiliary verbs include “can. Translate into Dothraki. Examples of Modal Auxiliary Verbs In English. 2. (b) I might eat nothing tomorrow.” “should.” “must. must or can do the action. 50 .” “may. Practice 1. (a) Anha eth thirak hajinaan me anha khal.Modality The modality of a sentence indicates if the subject may.” “could. might.” In Dothraki In Dothraki. Translate into English. (a) He cannot survive because he cannot swim. which is conjugated as if the auxiliary verb were omitted. but I will not be hungry. all auxiliary verbs are placed before the verb.” “shall.” and “might.

Dranekh nem inde ki yalli. and the optional agentive noun is indicated by the preposition ki in front of its genitive declension. Jano nemo osta. while adding nem indicates that the sentence is in the passive voice. Gezri nem vos tiha ki anni. Grammar Voice is the relationship between the subject and the verb. There are two known voices in Dothraki: active and passive. Anha nem ostak ki gezrisi. The omission of a vocal auxiliary verb in Dothraki indicates that the sentence is in the active voice. Alegra nem fona ki lajaki khali. Vocal auxiliary verbs indicate voice. 51 . vosma alegra nem vos ajolina.Lesson 24 Vocal Auxiliary Verbs Vocabulary Nouns • gezri: snake [a] Verbs • fonat: hunt Auxiliary Verbs • nem: (passive voice) • nemo: (reflexive) Prepositions • ki: by Text Kimikh nem adakh ki anni.

) The addition of “nemo” to a sentence indicates the reflexive. (I eat the duck.) Practice 1. Translate into Dothraki. (a) The snake that was hunted by the warrior was cooked by me. (The duck is eaten by me. (a) Gezrisi osta. 2.Examples • Anha adakhak alegre. and the sentence that it is in does not need an object. (I hate myself. Translate into English. • Anha nemo fejak. It is placed before the verb.) • Alegra nem adakha ki anni. 52 .

Me eth laja zhavvors. (a) Khal eth sandie. Translate into Dothraki. 53 . Translate into English. Zhavvorsa verven zora.” respectively. Practice 1. Grammar The suffixes -ven and -men are used to create new adjectives out of nouns.Lesson 25 Creating New Adjectives Vocabulary Nouns • ver: wolf [i] • lekh: languge [i] Verbs • zorat: roar • astolat: speak Adjectives • sandi: safe Text Khal lajakmen vos sandio. Me laz vos astoo Lekh Dothraki. 2. They correspond to the English suffixes “-like” and “-less.

but they are not safe.(a) Wolves are doglike. 54 .

Grammar The numbers 11 to 19 in English are commonly known as the “teens. Zhinda kolveri ovethi feshithaan. Adding a “thi” at the end of a number from 1 to 9 is similar to adding 10 to 55 .” hence the alternate name for adolencent ages. exist • yolat: be born • qoralat: seize Adverbs • ajjin: now Prepositions • ma: with • oma: without Text Mek kolveri vekhi she feshith. Atthi kolveri she feshith ajjin.Lesson 26 Numbers 11-19 Vocabulary Nouns • kolver: eagle [a] Verbs • vekhat: be present. Akat yalli nem qora ki kosi. Mek ma zhinda atthi. Fekhthi oma akat mekthi. Mekthi yalli she rhaesh kishi ajjin. Fekhthi yalli yol she rhaesh kishi.

the number Numeral 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 or a “-teen” suffix at the end. (a) Me khal qazatthiki. 56 . 2. (a) The warrior saw the fifteenth eagle under the tree. English Dothraki eleven atthi twelve akatthi thirteen senthi fourteen torthi fifteen mekthi sixteen zhindathi seventeen fekhthi eighteen orithi nineteen qazatthi Practice 1. Translate into English. Translate into Dothraki. Below are the numbers and their readings in Dothraki.

57 . Mai anni asta anhaan ki athyofizari. Me yofie hajinaan me anha jolin hadaen ki athesinazari. either adjectives or verbs can be turned into nouns. Yer lani maan ki athlayafari.Lesson 27 Simple Nominalization and Manner Adverbs Vocabulary Adjectives • manimven: anxious • nithmen: painless Verbs • essalat: return • layafat: be happy Text Anha azhak azh yallaan ki athzhilari. majin yeri thiri ki athlayafari. In Dothraki.and end with -ar. The letter z is added before the -ar only when the root word ends with a vowel. The newly turned nouns are then declined like inanimate nouns. Yalli ficha azh anni ki athchomari. Grammar Definition of Nominalization Nominalization is the process of turning a word that is not a noun into a noun. Me essae ki athnithmenari. Yer ayoli ki athmanimvenari. How to Spot a Nominalized Word All nominalized words begin with ath.

first take the verb’s ending off to get the verb stem (do not apply epenthesis rules). the root word is the adjective. 58 . (b) And they lived happily ever after. and then nominalize the verb stem appropriately. Ending -C -V imesh zheana Nominalized ath–ar ath–zar athimeshar athzheanazar Nominalizing Verbs To nominalize verbs. 2. Ending -lat -at garvolat zhilat Nominalized ath–zar ath–ar athgarvozar athzhilar Practice 1. (a) Athostar jani onithmena. (a) My fourth child survived with love. Translate into English. Translate into Dothraki.Nominalizing Adjectives In nominalized adjectives.

Lajaki finoa yanqoe khal laj ifakis. Ifaki fini astak anha lekhes laz vos lajo. However. except that fin is declined like a regular animate noun. Below is the declension table. thus making them finnaan and finnoon. Rizh fini don anha hakees lan. Nominative fin fini Accusative fines finis Genitive fini fini Allative finnaan finea Ablative finnoon finoa 59 .Lesson 28 Relative Clauses with Animate Nouns Vocabulary Nouns • ifak: foreigner [a] • chiorikem: wife [i] Verbs • vijazerat: protect • kadat: capture • donat: to shout Text Lajak fin laj zhavvors vezhvena. Kosi fini chomi khalaan vijazeri rizhis mae. Rizhi finea chomak kosi eth chomi anhaan. Grammar Relative clauses with animate nouns are constructed the same way as those with inanimate nouns. Kosi finis fejak anha kad mae. its allative and ablative forms use a geminate n. Chiori fines zhil anha khaleesisaan. Chiori finnoon vigererak anha chiorikem anni. Khal finnaan azh ifak hadaen inde sewafikh.

(a) The son whose name I know is famous. (a) Khal finnaan chomak anha thirak.Practice 1. Translate into English. Translate into Dothraki. 60 . 2.

) Practice 61 . For instance. (w/ abl. prepositions convey different meanings depending on the cases of the nouns that follow them. ma jano alana hatif khaloon.) to behind. if a noun in the allative case were to follow the preposition irge. facing. behind. opposite.Lesson 29 Prepositions II: Front and Behind Vocabulary Verbs • elat: go • ildat: strike Prepositions • hatif: (w/ gen. (w/ abl. their meanings are very obvious once their primary meanings are grasped.) from behind Text Khaleesi ma jano hatif khali. Grammar As stated in a previous lesson.) after. Lajaki vilda irge zhavvorsaan ma alana irge zhavvorsoon. (w/ all. (w/ all.) before. Rizhi khali vee hatif khalaan. the preposition itself would mean “to front of.) from front of • irge: (w/ gen. Lajaki irge zhavvorsi. In the case of hatif and irge.” (Remember that the allative case of a noun conveys that an action is coming toward a noun.) to front of.

Part III Conversational Lessons 62 .

” and is connected to the following word. Anha layafak shilolat yera. literally means “with respect. Ma yer? A: Anha (name ). or just m’ath for short. meaning “with.” is contracted to a single letter. either by saying who you are or what your name is. A: Dothras chek. B: Anha layafak akka. 63 . there are multiple ways to state your name. B: M’athchomaroon.” Ma. “m. Breakdown • The greeting phrase m’athchomaroon. Dothras chek. A: Fin hake yeri? B: Hake anni (name ).Lesson 1 M’athchomaroon Conversation A: M’athchomaroon. • Like in other languages.

the phrase kirimvose. anha dothrak chek asshekh. there are words for “yes” (sek) and “no” (vos).Lesson 2 Hash Yer Dothrae Chek? Conversation A: M’ath. Breakdown • The phrase dothralat chek. 64 . derived from the Valyrian word. zhey (name ). • No words of thanks are exchanged as there is no word for “thank you” in Dothraki. unlike in Chinese. However.” is the Dothraki equivalent to the English phrase “to do well.” Asking if someone “rides well” and answering the question is similar to the Chinese ni hao ma? and wo hen hao. Hash yer dothrae chek asshekh? A: Sek. B: M’ath. except that. anha dothrak chek akka. zhey (name ). Ma yer? B: Sek. can be used instead. literally meaning “to ride well.

the Dothraki use the adjective vezhven after the word for the occassion. coffee has become an orthodox alternative to traditional Dothraki morning cuisine. Drogo: Hash yer zali indelat koffi? Rhaego: Sek.” thus koffi is used instead. vosma anha zin haqak.Lesson 3 Aena Vezhvena Conversation Rhaego: Aena vezhvena. Rhaego: Hash yer remek chek? Drogo: Sek. zhey Drogo. There is no native Dothraki word for “coffee. Breakdown • To wish someone a happy or good occassion. indelates koffi. it is better to ask if someone has slept well. anha remek chek. In this instance.” • In the morning. 65 . hence the phrase remekat chek. Drogo: Aena vezhvena. aena vezhvena would be “good morning. • In modern western-influenced times. Ma yer? Rhaego: Sek. zhey Rhaego.

Part IV Appendix 66 .

2 Personal Pronoun Declension Table 1S anha anna anni anhaan anhoon 1P kisha kisha kishi kishaan kishoon 2S yer yera yeri yeraan yeroon 2P yeri yeri yeri yerea yeroa 3S me mae mae maan moon 3P mori mora mori morea moroa Case Nominative Accusative Genitive Allative Ablative 1. 67 .3 Demonstrative Pronoun Declension Demonstrative pronouns (jin. they decline like animate nouns.1.Appendix 1 Grammar Reference 1.1 1.1 Nouns Declension Table An -C An S P S – -i – -es -is -es -i -i -si -aan -ea -saan -oon -oa -soon rizh S P rizh rizhi rizhes rizhis rizhi rizhi rizhaan rizhea rizhoon rizhoa -V P -si -es -si -sea -soa In -C In -V In -CCV Type Case Nominative Accusative Genitive Allative Ablative Noun Case Nominative Accusative Genitive Allative Ablative – – – – + -CC -i +i -CCi -aan +aan -CCaan -oon +oon -CCoon ko dranekh jano S P ko kosi dranekh jano koes koes dranekh jan kosi kosi dranekhi jani kosaan kosea dranekhaan janaan kosoon kosoa dranekhoon janoon yalli yalli yal yalli yallaan yalloon 1.1. they decline like inanimate nouns. I have thus not included a table. haz.1. When used to refer to an inanimate object. rek) decline like regular nouns when they are used to refer to an object. When used to refer to an animate object or objects.

1.1 Form Verbs Conjugation Table P 1 +/+ + + + + + + + + + davralat S anha davrak anha vos davrok yer davrae yer vos davrao me davrae me vos davrao anha davra anha vos davro yer davra yer vos davro me davra me vos davro anha adavrak anha vos odavrok yer adavrae yer vos odavrao me adavrae me vos odavrao davras vo davros P kisha davraki kisha vos davroki yeri davrae yeri vos davrao mori davrae mori vos davrao kisha davrash kisha vos davrosh yeri davrash yeri vos davrosh mori davrash mori vos davrosh kisha adavraki kisha vos odavroki yeri adavrae yeri vos odavrao mori adavrae mori vos odavrao astat S anha astak anha vos astok yer asti yer vos asti me asta me vos asto anha ast anha vos asto yer ast yer vos asto me ast me vos asto anha vastak anha vos vastok yer vasti yer vos vasti me vasta me vos vasto astas vo astos P kisha astaki kisha vos astoki yeri asti yeri vos asti mori asti mori vos asti kisha astish kisha vos astosh yeri astish yeri vos astosh mori astish mori vos astosh kisha vastaki kisha vos vastoki yeri vasti yeri vos vasti mori vasti mori vos vasti Present 2 3 1 Past 2 3 1 Future 2 3 Imperative 68 .2.1.4 Relative Pronoun Declension Table Animate Singular fin fines fini finnaan finnoon Animate Plural fini finis fini finea finoa Inanimate fini fin fini finaan finoon Nominative Accusative Genitive Allative Ablative 1.2 1.1.5 Interrogative Pronoun Declension Table Animate Singular fin fines fini finaan finoon Animate Plural fini finis fini finea finoa Inanimate fini fin fini finaan finoon Nominative Accusative Genitive Allative Ablative 1.

before after by. in under into onto through. concerning on. upon. along off of across in spite of 69 .3.1 Adjectives Degree of Comparison Table imesh zheana + zheana azheanan azheananaz ozheana ozheanan ozheananoz + imesh asimeshan asimeshanaz osimesh osimeshan osimeshanoz Degree Basic More/Less Most/Least 1. above about. because of within over.1.4 ha haji Prepositions Nominative Accusative Genitive Allative for to front of to before to behind Ablative from because of from front of from before from behind with out of hatif irge ki ma mra oleth qisi she torga vi yomme facing opposite to.3 1.

plain donat: shout dothralat: ride dranekh: human milk E emat: smile erin: kind esina: different essalat: return eshina: duck eth: must ezhirat: dance F fejat: hate feso: carrot feshith: tree fonat: hunt G garvolat: hunger gezri: snake H 70 . useful davralat: be useful dik: fast dis: simple.Appendix 2 Dictionary of Vocabulary Dothraki-English A acchakat: be quiet adakhat: eat ajjin: now akka: also arakh: curved sword alegra: duck ammemat: play (mu.asavva: sky astat: speak sical instrument) astolat: speak anha: I ave: father avvirsalat: burn azhat: give azho: gift Ch chiori: woman chiorikem: wife chomat: respect chongat: be hard D daeni: leaf dahaan: green davra: good.

she.hake: name hrakkar: lion I ifat: walk imesh: young indelat: drink ish: might J jano: dog jif : should jolinat: cook K kadat: capture kash: while kemat: marry kimikh: date (fruit) kisha: we ko: guard kolver: eagle krazaaj: mountain Kh khal: king khaleesi: queen L lajak: warrior lajat: fight lakkhat: chew lamekh: mare’s milk lanat: run laqat: cry layafat: be happy laz: can. miss (fail to see) M ma: and mai: mother manimven: anxious me: he. could lekh: language lekhi: taste lostat: disappoint. it mori: they N nakhok: last navakh: urine nesolat: learn nithmen: painless O oleth: over.hadaen: food haj: strong hajinaan cause me: be. above oma: without osoleth: bridge ostat: bite ovethat: fly Q qoralat: seize qoy: blood R 71 .

zhilat: love cle) zhokwa: big English-Dothraki A 72 .rea: organ reaven: purple rhaesh: land. not vosi: nothing vosma: but Y yalli: child yanqolat: gather yer: you yeri: you (plural) yolat: be born Z zafra: slave zorat: to roar Zh zhavvorsa: dragon zheana: beautiful zhey: (vocative parti. animal rizh: son S sandi: safe sathomakh: (fruit) sathomakhven: orange ange (color) sek: yes or. exist veltor: yellow ver: wolf verat: travel vezhven: great vichomer: respectful vigererat: to miss vil: manage to virzeth: red virzetha: red wine vishiya: color vorsa: fire vos: no. country rhaesheser: world rhoa: beast.sewafikh: wine sikhtelat: spit silokh: tomorrow simonof : grandfather sorfo: dirt Sh shilolat: meet T tih: eye tihat: see toki: dumb tolorro: bone torga: under Th thelis: blue thirat: live V vado: turnip vekhat: be present.

able to: laz also: akka and: ma animal: rhoa B be happy: layafat be hard: chongat be quiet: acchakat beast: rhoa beautiful: zheanae big: zhokwa bone: tolorro bridge: osoleth burn: avvirsalat but: vosma by: ki C can: laz capture: kadat carrot: feso chew: lakkhat child: yalli color: vishiya cook: jolinat could: laz country: rhaesh curved sword: arakh D dance: ezhirat date (fruit): kimikh different: esina dirt: sorfo disappoint: lostat dog: jano dragon: zhavvorsa drink: indelat duck: alegra dumb: toki E eagle: kolver eat: adakhat F famous: hakeso father: ave fight: lajat fire: vorsa fish: eshina fly: ovethat food: hadaen G gather: yanqolat gift: azho give: azhat good: davra grandfather: simonof green: dahaan great: vezhven guard: ko H hate: fejat he: me human dranekh milk: hunt: fonat I I: anha it: me J K 73 .

vigererat (long mountain: krazaaj might: ish for ) must: eth miss: lostat (fail to mother: mai N never: vossechi no: vos not: vos nothing: vosi now: ajjin O organ: rea over: oleth P painless: nithmen plain: dis play: ammemat (mu. astolat spit: sikhtelat survive: thirolat T 74 .purple: reaven sical instrument) Q queen: khaleesi R red: virzeth respectful: vichomer return: essalat run: lanat S safe: sandi seize: qoralat shout: donat simple: dis slave: zafra son: rizh speak: astat.kind: erin king: khal L land: rhaesh language: lekh last: nakhok leaf : daeni leap: vrelat learn: nesolat lion: hrakkar live: thirat love: zhilat M manage to: vil mare’s milk: lamekh marry: kemat meet: shilolat see ).

taste: lekhi they: mori tomorrow: silokh travel: verat turnip: vado U urine: navakh V W warrior: lajak we: kisha while: kash wife: chiorikem wine: sewafikh wolf : ver woman: chiori X Y yellow: veltor yes: sek you: yer (singular ). young: imesh yeri (plural ) Z 75 .

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