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Dr. Mehran Shahhosseini Assistant Professor TC201J , 237-3349, ashahhosseini@indstate.edu College of Technology AETM Department Indiana State University Spring Semester 2013

REVIEW

SUMMARY OF KINEMATIC RELATIONS: RECTILINEAR MOTION Differentiate position to get velocity and acceleration. v = ds/dt ; a = dv/dt or a = v dv/ds

s v t v s t

dv = a dt or v dv = a ds

vo o vo so

ds = v dt

so o

Note that so and vo represent the initial position and velocity of the particle at t = 0.

CONSTANT ACCELERATION

The three kinematic equations can be integrated for the special case when acceleration is constant (a = ac) to obtain very useful equations. A common example of constant acceleration is gravity; i.e., a body freely falling toward earth. In this case, ac = g = 9.81 m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2 downward. These equations are:

dv = a dt

c

vo s o t

yields

v = vo + act

s = s o + v ot + (1/2)a ct 2 v2 = (vo )2 + 2ac(s - so)

ds = v dt

so v o s

yields

v dv = ac ds

vo so

yields

dx = v(t ) dt dx = v(t ) dt

x (t ) x0

0

v(t ) v0 = f (t ) dt

0

dx = v(t ) dt

0

x(t ) x0 = v(t ) dt

0

v= dx dx or dt = dt v a=

v( x ) v0

dv dv or a = v = f ( x ) dx dt

x

1 v( x )2 2 2 1 v0 2

v dv = f ( x )dx

v dv = f ( x )dx

x0

f ( x )dx

x0

dv = a = f (v ) dt

v (t )

dv = dt f (v )

v (t )

t dv f (v ) = dt 0 v0

dv f (v ) = t v0 v dv dx = f (v )

dv v = a = f (v ) dx x(t ) x0 =

v (t )

x (t )

v dv dx = f (v ) x0 v0

v (t )

v dv f (v ) v0

x = 6t 2 t 3 v= dx = 12t 3t 2 dt

dv d 2 x a= = = 12 6t dt dt 2

EXAMPLE Given: A motorcyclist travels along a straight road at a speed of 27 m/s. When the brakes are applied, the motorcycle decelerates at a rate of -6t m/s2. Find: The distance the motorcycle travels before it stops. Plan: Establish the positive coordinate s in the direction the motorcycle is traveling. Since the acceleration is given as a function of time, integrate it once to calculate the velocity and again to calculate the position.

EXAMPLE (continued) Solution: 1) Integrate acceleration to determine the vvelocity. t a = dv / dt => dv = a dt => dv = (6t )dt

vo o

=> v vo = -3t2 => v = -3t2 + vo 2) We can now determine the amount of time required for the motorcycle to stop (v = 0). Use vo = 27 m/s. 0 = -3t2 + 27 => t = 3 s 3) Now calculate the distance traveled in 3s by integrating the velocity using so = 0: s t v = ds / dt => ds = v dt => ds = (3t 2 + vo)dt so o => s so = -t3 + vot => s 0 = (3)3 + (27)(3) => s = 54 m

REVIEW

EXAMPLE Given: v-t graph for a train moving between two stations Find: a-t graph and s-t graph over this time interval

EXAMPLE (continued) Solution: For the first 30 seconds the slope is constant and is equal to: a0-30 = dv/dt = 40/30 = 4/3 ft/s2 Similarly, a30-90 = 0 a(ft/s2) 4 3 t(s) -4 3 and a90-120 = -4/3 ft/s2

EXAMPLE (continued) s(ft) 3600 3000 The area under the v-t graph represents displacement. s0-30 = (40)(30) = 600 ft s30-90 = (60)(40) = 2400 ft 600 30 90 s90-120 = (40)(30) = 600 ft t(s) 120

Given: The v-t graph shown Find: The a-t graph, average speed, and distance traveled for the 30 s interval

Plan: Find slopes of the curves and draw the v-t graph. Find the area under the curve--that is the distance traveled. Finally, calculate average speed (using basic definitions!).

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING Solution: For 0 t 10 For 10 t 30 a(ft/s) a = dv/dt = 0.8 t ft/s a = dv/dt = 1 ft/s

8 1 10 30 t(s)

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued) s0-10 = v dt = (1/3) (.4)(10)3 = 400/3 ft s10-30 = v dt = (0.5)(30)2 + 30(30) 0.5(10)2 30(10) = 1000 ft s0-30 = 1000 + 400/3 = 1133.3 ft vavg(0-30) = total distance / time = 1133.3/30 = 37.78 ft/s

REVIEW

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING Given: A particle travels along a path described by the parabola y = 0.5x2. The x-component of velocity is given by vx = (5t) ft/s. When t = 0, x = y = 0. Find: The particles distance from the origin and the magnitude of its acceleration when t = 1 s. Plan: Note that vx is given as a function of time. 1) Determine the x-component of position and acceleration by integrating and differentiating vx, respectively. 2) Determine the y-component of position from the parabolic equation and differentiate to get ay. 3) Determine the magnitudes of the position and acceleration vectors.

x

Position:

dx

0

5 t dt

Acceleration: ax = = vx = d/dt (5t) = 5 ft/s2 x 2) y-components: Position: Velocity: y = 0.5x2 = 0.5(2.5t2)2 = (3.125t4) ft vy = dy/dt = d (3.125t4) /dt = (12.5t3) ft/s

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued) 3) The distance from the origin is the magnitude of the position vector: r = x i + y j = [2.5t2 i + 3.125t4 j] ft At t = 1 s, r = (2.5 i + 3.125 j) ft Distance: d = r = (2.52 + 3.1252) 0.5 = 4.0 ft The magnitude of the acceleration vector is calculated as: Acceleration vector: a = [5 i + 37.5t2 j ] ft/s2 Magnitude: a = (52 + 37.52)0.5 = 37.8 ft/s2

REVIEW

Since ax = 0, the velocity in the horizontal direction remains constant (vx = vox) and the position in the x direction can be determined by: x = xo + (vox)(t) Why is ax equal to zero (assuming movement through the air)?

Since the positive y-axis is directed upward, ay = -g. Application of the constant acceleration equations yields:

vy = voy g(t) y = yo + (voy)(t) g(t)2 vy2 = voy2 2g(y yo) For any given problem, only two of these three equations can be used. Why?

Example Given: Snowmobile is going 15 m/s at point A. Find: The horizontal distance it travels (R) and the time in the air. Solution: First, place the coordinate system at point A. Then write the equation for horizontal motion. + xB = xA + vAxtAB and vAx = 15 cos 40 m/s Now write a vertical motion equation. Use the distance equation. + yB = yA + vAytAB 0.5gctAB2 vAy = 15 sin 40 m/s Note that xB = R, xA = 0, yB = -(3/4)R, and yA = 0. Solving the two equations together (two unknowns) yields R = 19.0 m tAB = 2.48 s

REVIEW

EXAMPLE 1 Given: Starting from rest, a motorboat travels around a circular path of = 50 m at a speed that increases with time, v = (0.2 t2) m/s. Find: The magnitudes of the boats velocity and acceleration at the instant t = 3 s.

Plan: The boat starts from rest (v = 0 when t = 0). 1) Calculate the velocity at t = 3s using v(t). 2) Calculate the tangential and normal components of acceleration and then the magnitude of the acceleration vector.

EXAMPLE 1 (continued) Solution: 1) The velocity vector is v = v et , where the magnitude is given by v = (0.2t2) m/s. At t = 3s: v = 0.2t2 = 0.2(3)2 = 1.8 m/s . 2) The acceleration vector is a = atet + anen = vet + (v2/)en. . Tangential component: at = v = d(.2t2)/dt = 0.4t m/s2 At t = 3s: at = 0.4t = 0.4(3) = 1.2 m/s2 Normal component: an = v2/ = (0.2t2)2/() m/s2 At t = 3s: an = [(0.2)(32)]2/(50) = 0.0648 m/s2 The magnitude of the acceleration is a = [(at)2 + (an)2]0.5 = [(1.2)2 + (0.0648)2]0.5 = 1.20 m/s2

EXAMPLE 2

SOLUTION: Calculate tangential and normal components of acceleration. Determine acceleration magnitude and direction with respect to tangent to curve. A motorist is traveling on curved section of highway at 60 mph. The motorist applies brakes causing a constant deceleration rate. Knowing that after 8 s the speed has been reduced to 45 mph, determine the acceleration of the automobile immediately after the brakes are applied.

EXAMPLE 2 (continued)

SOLUTION: Calculate tangential and normal components of acceleration. ft v (66 88) ft s = at = = 2.75 2 8s t s

an = 60 mph = 88 ft/s 45 mph = 66 ft/s v2

(88 ft s )2 ft = = 3.10 2

2500 ft s

Determine acceleration magnitude and direction with respect to tangent to curve. ft 2 2 2 2 a = 4.14 2 a = at + an = ( 2.75) + 3.10 s

= tan

1 a n

at

= tan 1

3.10 2.75

= 48.4

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING Given: A jet plane travels along a vertical parabolic path defined by the equation y = 0.4x2. At point A, the jet has a speed of 200 m/s, which is increasing at the rate of 0.8 m/s2. Find: Plan: The magnitude of the planes acceleration when it is at point A.

1) The change in the speed of the plane (0.8 m/s2) is the tangential component of the total acceleration. 2) Calculate the radius of curvature of the path at A. 3) Calculate the normal component of acceleration. 4) Determine the magnitude of the acceleration vector.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued) Solution: 1) The tangential component of acceleration is the rate of . increase of the planes speed, so at = v = 0.8 m/s2. 2) Determine the radius of curvature at point A (x = 5 km): dy/dx = d(0.4x2)/dx = 0.8x, d2y/dx2 = d (0.8x)/dx = 0.8 At x =5 km, dy/dx = 0.8(5) = 4, d2y/dx2 = 0.8

3) The normal component of acceleration is an = v2/ = (200)2/(87.62 x 103) = 0.457 m/s2 4) The magnitude of the acceleration vector is a = [(at)2 + (an)2]0.5 = [(0.8)2 + (0.457)2]0.5 = 0.921 m/s2

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