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Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Telecom Training Center

Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Telecom Training Center

What is Optical Fiber ? Thin Filament fiber material Which conducts Light

Working on Total Internal Reflection

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Advantages of OFC
Low Loss Wide Bandwidth Light Weight Higher Security Greater Safety Electro Magnetic Immunity Less Size

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Classification of OFC
Mode
Single Mode Multi Mode

Refractive Index
Step Index graded Index

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Classification of OFC
Multi mode Step Index- Step Index Multi mode Graded Index- Graded Index Single mode Step Index- Single Mode

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Numerical Aperture Typical Numerical Apertures and Acceptance Angles

C onstruction
A glass ll PCS A plastic ll

n1
1.48 1.46 1.49

n2
1.46 1.40 1.41

N A
0.24 0.41 0.48

13.90 24.20 29.00

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Dispersion
Modal or Inter Modal Dispersion Material Dispersion Wave length Dispersion

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Attenuation
Loss of Power Attenuation Varies with wavelength Single Mode loss = 2.0 to 2.5 dB/Km at 850 nm Single Mode loss = 0.4 to 0.5 dB/Km at 1300 nm Single Mode loss = 0.25 to 0.30 dB/Km at 1550 nm

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Sources of Losses
Absorption

Scattering Geometric Effects

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OPTIC FIBRE CABLE

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Limitations of copper network


Copper is costlier and scarce material. Fault prone. Maintenance difficult Vulnerable for EMI. Installation time consuming.

Limitations of copper based network


Expansions make congestions in MDF B/W LIMITED. Loop Resistance restricts the length of operation.

Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Telecom Training Center

Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Telecom Training Center

What is OFC ?
Fibre Optic cable functions as a LIGHT GUIDE, guiding the light introduced at one end of the cable through to the other end.

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Advantages of Optic Fibre


More Bandwidth - Thousands of Channels
Low Loss - 0.5db per km Less number of Repeaters Electro Magnetic Immunity Small size & Light Weight - Easy to handle Greater Safety - No Electric Hazards Higher Security

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OFC Construction
Construction of Fibre
Centre Core Glass More RI 8-10 micrometer
Light is transmitted through the core

Cladding Glass Less RI 125 micro meter


Outside optical layer that traps the light into the core by Total Internal Reflection and guides the light along the core

Primary Coating Protection & Identification of Fibre

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Principle of Working

Total Internal reflection


TIR is achieved since Core and Cladding having different Refractive Indices. Core RI 1.48

Cladding RI 1.47

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Construction of Cable
Centre Strengthening Member GRP, FRP Loose Tube Buffers 2.4 mm Dia Fibres are placed inside the Buffers along with Jelly to prevent moisture entry. Primary Strength Member Aramid Yarn -Kevlar Inner Sheath Black Outer Nylon Sheath - Orange

Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Telecom Training Center

Construction of Cable
Centre Strengthening Member GRP, FRP Loose Tube Buffers 2.4 mm Dia, Fibres are placed inside along with jelly. Primary Strength Member Aramid Yarn Inner Sheath Black Outer Nylon Sheath Orange

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Loose Tube Buffers


The Fibres are loosely drawn inside the Buffer Tubes to take care of Temp. Variations The OFC which is used outside is known as Loose Tube Buffers The Correction Factor is 0.985 985 metres of OFC will contain 1000 metres Fibre inside

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Construction Of Cable

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OFC types
Single Mode Fibre Multi Mode Fibre Plastic Optic Fibre

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Single Mode Fibre

A much smaller core Diameter The Core dia is 8 to 10 Micrometer Cladding Dia is 125 Micrometer Very large bandwidth Light can go for very long distances

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Multimode

Has a large Core Diameter Core Diameter - 50, 62.5, 100 Micro meter Cladding dia - 125 Micro meter

Light waves are dispersed into number of paths Multiple path of light cause signal distortion Suitable for shorter length like LAN

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Multi Mode Fibre


Step Index Fibre

Graded Index Fibre

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OFC LAYING
1. Pulling Method
HDPE pipe laying ( High density Poly ethylene ) OFC Pulling

Blowing Method

PLB Permanently lubricated Pipe laying Laying the OFC through blowing method

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Specification of Trench
Depth 165CM Top Width 45CM Bottom Width 30CM
After laying HDPE pipes, the depth should be 150CM from the top barrel of the pipe.

Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Telecom Training Center

Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Telecom Training Center

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