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Baking Techniques

Baking Techniques: Introduction

Key Terms

Course Materials

Key Terms

Syllabus Station Assignments Reading Assignments Key Terms

Baking or Bicarbonate of Soda: A sodium salt of carbonic acid having the ability to combine with acid to produce carbon dioxide. It is alkaline in nature. Baking Powder: A chemical leavening agent composed of baking soda, dry acid and usually cornstarch to absorb air moisture when wet; carbon dioxide (a gas) is given off to raise the batter. Batter: A pourable mixture of combined ingredients such as flour, sugar, eggs, shortening, milk, etc. Biscuit: Small roll made with yeast dough. Small round bread-stuff made of dough raised with baking powder. Kind of crisp or hard bread, thin and flat, made without leavening. Boil: To bubble, emitting vapor, when heat is applied. Boiling temperature for water is considered as 212F at ordinary altitudes, but varies with other liquids and other altitudes. Bouches: Very small puff paste patties, small enough to be a mouthful only. Cake: A leavened and shortened sweet product containing flour, sugar, salt, egg, milk, liquid, flavoring shortening and leavening agent. Caramelized sugar: Dry sugar heated, with constant stirring, until it melts and darkens in color; used for flavoring and color. Carbon dioxide: A colorless, tasteless, edible gas obtained during fermentation or from the combination of soda and acid. Cardamom: Angular, aromatic seeds of herb grown in India and Ceylon, and having anise-like taste. Used whole or ground in pickling, breads, cookies and many Scandinavian desserts. Cinnamon: The aromatic bark of certain trees of the laurel family; ground and used as a spice flavoring. Cocoa: A powder made from chocolate minus most of its cocoa butter. Cram chantilly: Cream whipped with vanilla and sugar. Cream pies: One-crust pies having cream filling, topped with

Daily Activities

Daily Activities o Pre- Day One o Day 1 o Day 2 o Day 3 o Day 4 o Day 5 o Day 6 o Day 7 o Day 8 o Day 9 o Day 10 o Day 11 o Day 12 o Day 13 o Day 14

Power Points

Power Points o Blending Method o Cooking Sugar o Creaming Method o Croissants and Danish o Custards o Cut In Method o Donuts o Foaming Method o Introduction to Baking Techniques o Lamination o Meringues

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Pate a Choux Science of Baking

whipped cream or meringue. Cream puffs: Baked puffs of Pat au choux which are hollow; usually filled with cream filling or whipped cream. Creaming: The process of beating sugar and a fat. Croissant: Rich crescent-shaped French roll usually served at breakfast. Custard: A sweetened mixture of eggs and milk which is baked, stirred or boiled. Danish pastry: A flaky yeast dough having butter rolled into it and filled with almond, cheese, jam or other filling. Doughnut screens: Screens used to lift doughnuts from fat or for keeping them under the fat surface during cooking. Doughnut sticks: Wooden sticks for turning doughnuts while cooking. Doughnut: A round cake, usually with center hole, made of yeast or baking powder dough and cooked in deep fat fryer. Eclair: A long, thin shell made of Pat a Choux Egg wash: A mixture of eggs applied to an unbaked product by brush to produce a glazed effect and to give the product a rich brown color. Emulsify: To combine ingredients together such as water and fat. Evaporated milk: Unsweetened canned milk from which water has been removed before canning. Foam: Mass of beaten egg and sugar, as in sponge cake, before adding flour. Fritters: Doughnuts made from cream puff paste and fried in hot deep fat fryer. Fruit-filled drops of heavy cake batter fried in deep fat. Frying: In the baking industry, cooking submerged in fat. Gelatinization of starch: Formation of jellylike substance when moistened starch is cooked. Gliadin: The part of gluten that gives it elasticity. Gluten: The protein part of flour which gives structure to bakery products by enabling flour to expand around air or gas and to hold the texture so formed, the determining quality factor. Glutenin: The part of gluten which gives it strength Leavening agent: An ingredient (or ingredients) used to introduce carbon dioxide: yeast, baking powder or soda plus sour milk.


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Angel Food Cake Crme Caramel Folding Lady Fingers Pate a Choux Pastry Cream Puff Pastry Sponge Cake Spritz Cookies

Quizzes and Exams

Quizes and Exams Skills Verification Form

Supplemental Materials

Links to Informational Websites


Formulas for Baking Techniques

Product Photos

Student Work


Handouts o Lamination Guidelines o The Stages of Sugar Cooking

Leavening: Raising or lightening by air, steam, or gas (carbon dioxide). Marble cake: Cake of two or three colored batters partially mixed. Melting point: The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid. Meringue: A white frothy mass of beaten egg white and sugar. Muffins: Small, light quickbread baked in muffin pans. Profiteroles: Small cream puffs filled with cream and covered with a sauce. They are sometimes made plain and small and served with soup. Proof box: Box or cabinet equipped with shelves; it also permits the introduction of heat and steam; used for fermenting dough. Proofing period: The time during which dough rises. Puff pastry: Rich pastry with rolled-in butter for flakiness. Quick bread: Dough for bread or rolls raised by baking powder. Sifting: Passing through fine sieve for perfect blending and to remove foreign or oversize particles. Tempering: Adjusting temperature of ingredients to a certain degree or adjusting to the same consistancy. Turn: When puff pastry is mixed, rolled out, folded over one third and then the other third is folded over; this operation is called giving one turn. Vanilla bean: Dried bean of a tropical orchid, used for flavoring. Extract is used in desserts, cakes and cookies. Vol-au-vent: A light puff paste container, made either round or oval.

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