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FACT SHEET

Mycoplasma species demonstrate greatest sensitivity to Denagard in vitro

Issue
Recent in vitro studies conducted in various countries have shown that Denagard (tiamulin) is highly active against porcine M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis strains.1-8 What is the comparative sensitivity of these mycoplasma species to Denagard and other antibiotics by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment? Table 1 shows the high sensitivity of M. hyopneumoniae to Denagard (tiamulin) compared with other antibiotics. Denagard shows a consistently narrow MIC range and low MIC90 values, proving its efficacy against this pathogen.

Table 1: In vitro sensitivity (mcg/ml) of M. hyopneumoniae strains to various antibiotics (MIC ranges and MIC90, 2004-2011)
Author No. of strains tested Tiamulin (Denagard) Lincomycin Tylosin Tilmicosin Doxycycline Enrofloxacin Oxytetracycline

MIC range Makhanon et al., 20111 Thongkamkoon et al., 20102 Kobayashi et al., 20083 Maes et al., 20074 / Vicca et al., 20045 Stipkovits et al., 20046
ND = Not determined

MIC90

MIC range 0.098 -0.781 0.19 -0.78 0.125 ->64.0 0.06 ->8 0.25 -8.0

MIC90

MIC range 0.012 -0.391 0.48 -0.19 0.06 ->64 0.015 ->1 0.125 -2.0

MIC90

MIC range

MIC90

MIC range 0.7816.25 1.56 -6.25

MIC90

MIC range 0.3913.125 <0.024 -6.25 0.06 -1.0 0.03>1.0

MIC90

MIC range

MIC90

26

0.024 -0.19 0.048 -0.19 0.03 -0.125 <0.015 -0.12 0.06 -1.0

0.097

0.391

0.195

ND

ND

3.125

3.125

ND

ND

10

0.097

0.78

0.097

ND

ND

6.25

6.25

ND

ND

90

0.125

0.5

0.25

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.125

0.25 -4.0 0.12>2.0

2.0

21

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.25 ->16

0.5

0.12 -2.0 0.5 -32.0

1.0

0.5

2.0

10

1.0

8.0

0.06

0.125-2.0

2.0

16.0

ND

ND

ND

ND

Denagard is the most active antimicrobial inhibiting the activity of M. hyopneumoniae isolates.

FACT SHEET

Mycoplasma species demonstrate greatest sensitivity to Denagard in vitro

Table 2 shows the high sensitivity of M. hyosynoviae strains to Denagard (tiamulin) compared with other antibiotics. Again, tiamulin shows a consistently narrow MIC range and low MIC90 values, proving its efficacy against this pathogen.

Table 2: In vitro sensitivity (mcg/ml) of M. hyosynoviae strains to various antibiotics (MIC ranges and MIC90, 1998-2004)
Author No. of strains tested Tiamulin (Denagard) Lincomycin Tylosin Tilmicosin Doxycycline Enrofloxacin Tetracycline

MIC range 0.03 -0.25

MIC90

MIC range

MIC90

MIC range 2.0 -32.0 0.125 -16.0

MIC90

MIC range 2.0 -32.0

MIC90

MIC range 0.25 -4.0

MIC90

MIC range

MIC90

MIC range

MIC90

Stipkovits et al., 20046

10

0.25

0.5-8.0

4.0

16

16

2.0

ND

ND

ND

ND

Aarestrup and Friis, 19987


ND = Not determined

42

0.0156 0.0625 -0.0625

0.5-4.0

2.0

16.0

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.25 -1.0

0.5

0.5-2.0

2.0

Denagard is the most active antimicrobial inhibiting the activity of M. hyosynoviae isolates.

FACT SHEET

Mycoplasma species demonstrate greatest sensitivity to Denagard in vitro

Table 3 shows the high sensitivity of M. hyorhinis strains to Denagard (tiamulin) compared with other antibiotics. Yet again tiamulin shows a consistently narrow MIC range and low MIC90 values, proving its efficacy against this pathogen.

Table 3: In vitro sensitivity (mcg/ml) of M. hyorhinis strains to various antibiotics (MIC ranges and MIC90, 2004-2011)
Author No. of strains tested Tiamulin (Denagard) Lincomycin Tylosin Tilmicosin Doxycycline Enrofloxacin

MIC range Makhanon et al., 20111 Thongkamkoon et al., 20102 Kobayashi et al., 20058 Kobayashi et al., 20054 Stipkovits et al., 20046
ND = Not determined

MIC90

MIC range 0.781>12.5 0.78 -3.12 0.8 ->100 0.4 -50 1.0 -8.0

MIC90

MIC range 1.563>12.5 1.56 -6.25 0.8 -100 0.4 -25 4.0 -32.0

MIC90

MIC range

MIC90

MIC range 1.563 -6.25 0.39 -1.56

MIC90

MIC range 0.781 -50 0.78 -50 0.2 -1.56 0.2 -1.56

MIC90

21

0.1440.781 0.0480.097 0.2 -1.56 0.2 -1.56 0.06 -2.0

0.781

2.340

9.375

ND

ND

3.125

9.375

0.097

3.12

6.25

ND

ND

1.56

50

71 (weaners) 80 (finishers)

1.56

>100

100

ND

ND

ND

ND

1.56

0.8

1.56

1.56

ND

ND

ND

ND

1.56

10

1.0

8.0

32.0

0.5 -8.0

8.0

0.06 -8.0

8.0

ND

ND

Denagard is the most active antimicrobial inhibiting the activity of M. hyorhinis isolates.

FACT SHEET

Mycoplasma species demonstrate greatest sensitivity to Denagard in vitro

Conclusions
l Recent MIC data confirm the high sensitivity of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis strains to Denagard 1-8 l There is no evidence of a resistance pattern developing to Denagard1-8 l Denagard has the lowest MIC90 values and narrowest MIC ranges for mycoplasma species when compared with other commonly used antibiotics1-8 l From the recent evidence, Denagard can be considered as the most active antimicrobial inhibiting the activity of porcine mycoplasma species1-8 l These data provide a scientific basis for the clinical selection of Denagard as the drug of choice for more definitive treatment and control regimes against porcine mycoplasma species and for mycoplasma eradication programmes

References: 1. Makhanon M. et al., (2011). In vitro susceptibility study of two porcine mycoplasmas isolated from lung lesions of slaughtered pigs in Thailand. Proceedings of the 5th APVS Congress, Pattaya, Thailand, 065. 2. Thongkamkoon P et al., (2010). Proceedings of the 21st IPVS Congress, Vancouver, Canada, Vol 2, p638. 3. Kobayashi H et al., (2008). Proceedings of the 20th IPVS Congress, Durban, S. Africa, Vol 2, p187. domain II and V in 23S ribosomal RNA. J Vet Med Sci 67(8); 795-800. 4. Maes et al., (2007): In vitro susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 2007, 76, p.300-305. 5. Vicca J et al., (2004). In vitro susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48(11), 4470-4472. 6. Stipkovits L et al., (2004). Sensitivity testing of mycoplasma pathogens to antimicrobials. Proc 18th IPVS Congress, Hamburg, Germany, Vol 2, p518. 7. Aarestrup FM and Friis NF (1998). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated from pigs during 1968 to 1971 and during 1995 and 1996. Vet Microbiol 61, 33-39. 8. Kobayashi H et al., (2005). Macrolides and lincomycin susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyorhinis and variable mutation of domain II and V in 23S ribosomal RNA. J Vet Med Sci 67(8), 795-800.

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