Collective Identity and Representation

Essay review

Thursday, 28 February 2013

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LO
• To improve essay writing skills through:
– Defining focus of your essay writing – Research and note taking – Planning of structure and paragraphs – Consistent use of PEEL – Developing arguments and explanations

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Homework
• Due Monday • Essay (minimum 1000 words) • With reference to any group you have studied discuss how their ‘identity’ has been mediated.

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Mediated
• Discuss in pairs what is meant by this term. • Define • Give and example • Explain Write it all down
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Representation Terminology
• • • • • Dominant Alternative Redundant Absent Entropic

• Discuss what might be the meanings for these terms with regard to ‘representations’ of a particular group.

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Dominant Representations
• The main way in which a group are seen in society • Main issues around this:
– Who creates this representation? – What effect does this representation have on society/the group/individuals? – Who benefits from it? Who suffers by it? – How true is this representation?

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Alternative
• A different way to show a group • A different interpretation of the groups representation which challenges the dominant
– Who creates the alternative representation? – Who benefits from it and who doesn’t?

• Find an example of an alternative representation and explain why it is alternative
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Redundant
• When a group is shown so often in the same way that the image no longer has any power
– Can any representations be redundant? – If so give an example and explain.

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Absent
• When a group is not really represented in society.
– Can you find an example of a group which is seldom or never represented in the media? – What is the effect of absent representation?

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Entropic
• When there is a very challenging, controversial or unusual representation of a group.
– How do we find out about such representations? – What is there effect on subsequent representations? – How does the media respond to such representations?

• Try to find an example and explain it’s effect
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Black Representation
• Hollywood Shuffle • Watch clip • What issue regarding representation is being made? • Why is this important?

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Stuart Hall
• Stuart Hall • • • • Interrogating the image Active not passive Challenging NOT accepting Marxism

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Text 1
• Interrogate the text:
– Narrative – Images – mise en scene – Sound, dialogue, editing

• Example • Attack The Block • Make notes during the viewing

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Type of Representation
• • • • • Dominant Alternative Redundant Absent Entropic

• Which applies to the trailer? • Explain why

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Reference texts
• Make a list of texts you could use to explore representation of young black men – either Hollywood or nonHollywood, cinema, TV, games, advertising, print or moving image. • You will need at least 8 texts for this exercise from at least 2 media forms (eg. TV, cinema, advertising)

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Suggestions
• • • • • • • • • • • Crash (2004) Malcolm X (1992) Independence Day (1996) Blacula (1972) Django Unchained (2012) 50 Cent Reebok Advert (2006) Old Spice adverts (2009) Gillette Champions TV advert (2006) Bamboozled (2001) Kidulthood (2006) Black Mirror Ep2 (2013 – Channel 4)

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Theory
• What theories could you use to discuss representations?

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Marxism
• Classical Marxist theory • The media reinforces the ideological messages of those in power. • Owners of media use their control over cultural production to maintain the status quo. • Hegemony (Gramsci) • In order to maintain control and social order, the ruling elite ensure that even minor sectors of society ‘feel’ represented.
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Pluralism
• The consumer or audience is more important than the producer in a capitalist society. • Acceptance of bias and control BUT audiences ability to consume media is considered more important. • Audience active in the making of meaning and decisions over the interpretation of the representation.
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Postmodernism
• Audiences are consumers and define themselves through the products they consume. • Images dominate reality – consumption of media products for their own sake • Inter-textuality and surface reality – the references to other texts within a text points to the unreality of the form itself • Youtube allows everyone to be a producer
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Stereotyping
• Richard Dyer describing Walter Lippman’s 1922 definintion 1. An ordering process 2. A short cut 3. A way of referring to the world 4. An expression of ‘our’ beliefs and values

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Focus
• Focus on one area of representation only.
– – – – – Nationality Race Gender Sexuality Disability/ability

• Refine this through your choices of text and focus – ie young black British men, white working class teenage girls, disabled sports people, British Upper class etc.
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Planning
• Structure for the essay:
– Plan a 3 part essay with 6 paragraphs including introduction and conclusion – Define each paragraph with a topic sentence which identifies the purpose of the paragraph – List the texts you will use for each paragraph – List the points you will be making – List the terminology which you will use – List theories and theorists you will use
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