service using


H. J. Park 1 J. H. Yang' J. K. Choi' H.S. Kim2 Information and Communications University' National Information Society Agency2

Abstract -This paper addresses QoS negotiation algorithm for IPTV services by using SIP. IPTV is be defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of QoS/QoE, security, interactivity and reliability by the ITU-T IPTV FG. As stated in its definition, IPTV provides the required level of QoS/QoE. To achieve this, IPTV service frameworks should be able to negotiate QoS/QoE with users or customers and SIP is one of the most proper methods for the SLA negotiation.

Keywords - SIP, IPTV, QoS/QoE negotiation, SLA

1. Introduction
According to the development of Internet access techniques through both wired line and wireless access, the number of customers using Internet has greatly increased. This increment caused active communication activities done by exchanging texts, audios, and videos, so called multimedia through the IP networks. With the increment of multimedia communications via IP networks, many network applications and services has been developed to encourage those activities. The IPTV (Internet Protocol based Television) service is one of these network applications. The IPTV service has the advantage of offering lower cost broadcasting service via a high speed and low-cost internet access line. This high speed network makes it possible to support real-time services like voice and video communication, in addition to best-effort data delivery [4]. Best-effort service has been traditionally used to provide Internet access services such as Web browsing. Current IP networks work well in this context at the end users. However, the new set of multimedia services requires end-to-end quality-of-service (QoS) or quality-of-experience (QoE) guarantees. Since customers are used to viewing television programs and using their telephones without noticing any jitter or delay, QoS/QoE guarantees are a must in IPTV service deployment over the IP networks. This becomes critical because, as the available bandwidth per customer increases, emerging suite of services will demand even more bandwidth, generating bottlenecks that can only be handled well via traffic management features [5]. To deal with this service requirement of the IPTV services, new mechanisms for ensuring QoS need to be developed, requiring fundamental changes to the Internet's existing connectionless best effort architecture. It is envisioned that in IPTV, users will enjoy different levels of service for their traffic by executing contracts with their service providers. An important characteristic of IPTV is to allow users to

dynamically adjust their desired service levels along with acceptable prices for the service. This feature is necessitated not only by the requirement to provide flexibility for users, but also by the heterogeneity in the both wired line and wireless subsystems and end device capabilities [8]. This dynamic QoS/QoE level negotiation can be referred as Service Level Agreement (SLA) negotiation, where the SLA is defined as following: A SLA is a service contract between a customer and a service provider that specifies the forwarding service a customer should receive (IETF RFC 2475). Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol for controlling various multi-media sessions. In other words, it provides a way to establish voice, video and messaging communication between devices [5]. Therefore, in this paper, we present the the QoS/QoE SLA negotiation scheme for IPTV services using SIP. We explain the QoS/QoE parameters and classifications of its quality levels for the IPTV services in the following chapter. With this quality parameter definitions and quality level classifications, we introduce our suggesting SIP message scheme for the efficient SLA negotiation on the chapter 3. In the chapter 4, we present the procedure of QoS/QoE SLA negotiation with our suggested SIP message format. Finally, we conclude this paper with the advantages of the suggested negotiation scheme and a discussion of future research directions in this area.

2. The QoS/QoE Classification for SLA
For the examination of the quality of IPTV service, we can utilize some relevant parameters with respect to the nature of the service such as, bandwidth required, packet delay, jitter, and loss rates. These parameters are indicating specific state of data transfer through IP network. It can be properly applied to determine the quality of IPTV services by defining their values mapping for each quality levels regarding for the characteristics of provisioned, that is being able to required, sub-services of the IPTV service by the service or network providers. However, users do not know what the parameters are and more importantly, how the specific parameters effect to their services. In other words, even though the parameters are really used to examine the quality of services for the service providers and network providers to guarantee the quality of service and to charge for that service, it is not a good way to use the exact parameters to negotiate with users for setting the SLA between providers and users. Therefore, we need other method to effectively negotiate the SLA.

ISBN 978-89-5519-131-8 93560




Feb. 12-14, 2007 ICACT2007

Jitter Sensitive. in this paper. SIP header message formats for QoS/QoE negotiation [INVITE message] INVITE sip:<IPTV Service Channel URI> SIP/2. the Session Description Protocol (SDP) which is being used as a body Via: SIP/2. Drop 3 Interactive Priority Routing/ Distance (Short 4 Low Loss Only Transactions. QoS classes quantify user application needs in terms of IP network performance. in turn. Jitter Sensitive. we adopt this QoS classification for the SLA negotiation.0 Via: SIP/2. but also voice or audio services and interactive data communication services. that deals with sessions that use SIP as a signaling protocol and SDP to describe the parameters of the session. The session-layer SDP. Data. we suggest to use some of the fields to indicate that this is for the IPTV service. Because SIP is for the application layer protocol for session initiation. efficient. VideoDrpPiit Streaming) Separate Queue (Lowest Priority) Drop Priority Any Route/Path [OK message] Any Route/Path SIP/2. and BYE methods.0/UDP <local IP address>:<port number> From: User-id<sip:User-id@<local IP address>:<port number>> To: <IPTV Service ID><sip:<IPTV Service URI>> Call-ID: <randomly generated Call-ID>@<local IP address> CSeq: 3 BYE Max-Forwards: 70 Content-Length: <length of the body message> [BYE message] BYE sip:<IPTV Service Channel URI> SIP/2. Table 1 shows the guidance for IP QoS Classes by the ITU-T Y. As other SDP session descriptions are being used as specified in RFC 4566 [2]. besides not being central enough to SIP for augmenting its header. since we are focusing on the SLA negotiation. albeit feasible. SIP Message Formats for QoS Negotiation The base SIP standard contains no mechanisms for controlling network bandwidth and latency availability. This approach is also being applied in the RFC 3312. service providers and users can easily understand and negotiate their SLA and also can make the charging mechanism simple. Node Mechanisms Network Techniques Separate Queue with Preferential Constrained Routing/Distance Less Constrained Routing/ Distance Constrained Routing/Distance Less Constrained Servicing. Table 2. We apply the SIP URIs with the IPTV service channel URIs to indicate the relevant IPTV service servers and also use the IPTV channel IDs for the IPTV service provider side session ID. It chose to include the quality of service preconditions in the SDP description rather than in the SIP header because preconditions are stream QoS Class 0 1 2 Applications (Examples) Real-Time.0/UDP <local IP address>:<port number> From: User-id<sip:User-id@<local IP address>:<port number>> To: <IPTV Channel ID> <sip:< IPTV Channel URI>> Call-ID: <randomly generated Call-ID>@<local IP address> CSeq: 1 INVITE Max-Forwards: 70 Contact: <sip: User-id@<local IP address>:<port number>> Content-Length: <length of the body message> Separate Queue. VTC) Transaction Data.0/UDP <local IP address>:<port number> From: User-id<sip:User-id@<local IP address>:<port number>> To: <IPTV Service ID> <sip:<IPTV Service URI>> Call-ID: <randomly generated Call-ID>@<local IP address> CSeq: 1 INVITE Contact: <sip: User-id@<local IP address>:<port number>> Content-Length: <length of the body message> 5 Since IPTV includes various sub-services.1541 [3]. guaranteed quality can be provided [6].One good way of utilizing the original quality examining parameters for the SLA negotiation without disturbing users to deal with them is classifying the quality levels by assigning proper values for the parameters with regarding for the characteristics of sub-services. feasible. 12-14. Interactive (VoIP. There are several methods in SIP. OK. not only for the television broadcasting service. 1541. High Interaction (VoIP. appears as a suitable supporting protocol to place QoS-related connection parameters in. An alternative of adding the information to the SIP header would. however. VTC) Real-Time. is a suitable bearer for QoS information in the form of SDP attributes [7]. apply our QoS level classification information in the SDP description to specify the QoS level for SLA negotiation. and most current IP networks do not provide this either. As de-facto member of the SIP stack. However. Bulk Traditional Applications of Default IP Networks LnQueue. 3. with the rise of MPLS-based networks.0 now we With the indication ofthe IPTV session from the SIP header.0 200 OK Via: SIP/2. in contrast not fit the ISO/OSI 7 layer model paradigm of placing protocol information at the most appropriate layer. By classifying the quality of service with assigning relevant values to the parameters. Table 2 shows the SIP header message formats that are suggested in this paper. Traffic Grooming specific. For the clear. Highly Interactive (Signalling) Transaction Data. Table 1. and widely adaptable classification. 2007 ICACT2007 . and the use of SIP to control media flows over QoS networks. we concentrate only on the INVITE. ITU-T Y. there is the QoS class guidance from the ITU-T Y.1541 Guidance for IP QoS Classes message of SIP. we also adopt the specification for ISBN 978-89-5519-131-8 93560 - 946 - Feb.

C. Conclusion In this paper.request [2] M. M.1541. 2006. 12-14. RFC 4566. ACK for the BYE request ACK for the BYE r. "SDP: Session Description Protocol".the session descriptions except one field. G. After enjoying the IPTV service. a=<attribute> II a: Media-specific attributes a=<attribute>:<value> a=<attribute>:<value> a=quality:<quality> 110 to 10. Handley. The SLA negotiation procedure us]ing SIP ISBN 978-89-5519-131-8 93560 - 947 - Feb. Peterson. RFC 3261. [Body of the INVITE message] Table 3. However. 1541. It has number of attributes that are defined by RFC 4566. Figure 1.Attribute field. This quality attribute is originally defined to give a suggestion for the quality of the encoding as an integer value. J. Gilheang Lee. If user receives the negative response message from the server. we have proposed to adopt the QoS classification guidance form the ITU-T Y. "Sip: Session initiation protocol".. In this chapter we explain the procedure of the SLA negotiation using the SIP messages. Hyuncul Kang. [3] ITU T Recommendation Y. SIP body message formats by SDP v=O o=<username> <IPTV session-id> IN IP4 <Origin IP address> s=<IPTV service session name> u=<IPTV service URI> c=IN IP4 <connection address> b=<bwtype>:<bandwidth> t=<start-time> <stop-time> m=<media> <port> <proto> <fmt> . or SIP reject response with relevant information. we suggest the "a=quality: <quality>" description to indicate the QoS class value to be used for the SLA negotiation based on the ITU-T Y. IEEE. Camarillo. However. user wants to finish the service and then it sends SIP BYE message to the IPTV server. user sends the INVITE message to request one of the IPTV service to the IPTV service provider with preferred service quality level. most of the current IP networks are not ready to guarantee that quality with abundant network resources for the IPTV service. Since users are familiar with clear video and audio streams that have been provided by the traditional televisions. Then the message is received by the IPTV server through the IPTV proxy and is examined by the server whether the request is proper or not and also available or not. Therefore. Jacobson. Eunjin Ko. IETF. And it was also supported in part by the supported in part by MIC. IPTV user IPTV proxy IPTV server INVITE with SLA request INVITE with SLA rcequest Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) under ITRC (ITAC 10900603 003 50001000100100) program supervised by IITA. and E. Use Y. server releases the session. IPTV needs to guarantee the quality of the service. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was 4. Rosenberg. we described the procedure for the QoS SLA negotiation using SIP for IPTV service. YoungSun Kim. and sends the SIP 180 OK message to notify that the service is successfully finished from the server. IETF. then the user can chose to try again with lower service quality or can chose to use another service based on the reason for the rejection. REFERENCES BYE with SLA rellease BYE with SLA release [1] J. Schulzrinne. the quality of encoding is not enough to decide the quality of IPTV service. H. The SLA negotiation procedure In the previous chapters. With the users releasing request. and one of the attributes is quality. Attributes are the primary means for extending SDP. firstly. June 2002. July 2006. A. finishes the service. As depicted in the figure 1. to negotiate the QoS/QoE of IPTV. Network performance objectives for IP-based services [4] Yongsun Ryu. 2007 ICACT2007 . Perkins. Schooler. we have proposed the scheme for QoS SLA negotiation for IPTV service using SIP. we need to negotiate the level of service qualities with relevant charging mechanisms.1541 class from 0 to 5 When the server finishes the examination. One of the important and optionally used descriptions is "a" . Korea under the OK with SLA agreeement OK with SLA agreement the ERC. Handley. Sparks. The IPTV service is basically provides television broadcasting service and other various services through IP network. Hence. it will send either SIP OK message to notify that the service request is being accepted and so does the quality level of the service. Finally.. assuming that the commonly used IPTV services are reliable enough that the service is tangible in the real world.1541 QoS classification guidance. However. V. "The Web based SLA System for Customer Quality Assurance in Providing IPTV Services". Johnston. To help with the efficient and feasible service quality negotiation. we have discussed the QoS level classification and the message format to negotiate the relevant SLA for IPTV service. Table 3 shows the SIP header message formats 5. Then we discussed the message schemes for the IPTV service session SLA by using the SIP header and the SIP body that is SDP. we can also assume that most of the service requests are acceptable and the SIP 180 OK response will be returned and then the IPTV service session is set up with the SLA. R.

Q2SWinet'06. 12-14. [8] Venkatesh Sarangan. IEEE Communications Magazine. Camarillo and P. "Update to the session initiation protocol (sip) preconditions framework". October 2005. [7] Michael Alexander and Peter Suppan. "Comparative Study of Protocols for Dynamic Service Negotiation in the Next-Generation Internet". Seong-Hwan Kim. and Deepak Kataria. Data Connection. "SIP MARKET OVERVIEW . 2007 ICACT2007 . [9] G. [6] Jonathan Cumming.K. Malaga. Kyzivat.[5] Sundar Vedantham. July 2006. Torremolinos. Jyh-Cheng Chen. ISBN 978-89-5519-131-8 93560 - 948 - Feb. October 2. RFC 4032.16 Networks". IETF.An analysis of SIP technology and the state of the SIP market".. U. September 2003. "Carrier-Grade Ethernet Challenges for IPTV Deployment". IEEE Communications Magazine. March 2006. 2006. "An Architecture for SDPBased Bandwidth Resource Allocation with QoS for SIP in IEEE 802. Spain.

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