1. Carbon compounds 2. Periodic classification of elements
3. Reproduction 4. Heridity and evolution 5. Reflection and refraction of light 6. Human Eye 7. Management of natural resources 8. Our environment


Carbon Compounds
1. Carbon’s Capacity to Share Electrons: Carbon has four electrons in its outermost shell and needs to gain or lose four electrons to attain noble gas configuration. If it were to gain or lose electrons – (i) It could gain four electrons forming C4– anion. But it would be difficult for the nucleus with six protons to hold on to ten electrons, that is, four extra electrons. (ii) It could lose four electrons forming C4+ cation. But it would require a large amount of energy to remove four electrons leaving behind a carbon cation with six protons in its nucleus holding on to just two electrons. Carbon overcomes this problem by sharing its valence electrons with other atoms of carbon or with atoms of other elements. Not just carbon, but many other elements form molecules by sharing electrons in this manner. The shared electrons ‘belong’ to the outer shells of both the atoms and lead to both atoms attaining the noble gas configuration. This type of bond formed by sharing of electrons is called covalent bond. Covalently bonded molecules are seen to have strong bonds within the molecule, but intermolecular forces are small. This gives rise to the low melting and boiling points of these compounds. Since the electrons are shared between atoms and no charged particles are formed, such covalent compounds are generally poor conductors of electricity. Let us now take a look at methane, which is a compound of carbon. Methane is widely used as a fuel and is a major component of bio-gas and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is also one of the simplest compounds formed by carbon. Methane has a formula CH4. Hydrogen, as you know, has a valency of 1. Carbon is tetravalent because it has four valence electrons. In order to achieve noble gas configuration, carbon shares these electrons with four atoms of hydrogen as shown below:

Allotropes of carbon: The element carbon occurs in different forms in nature with widely varying physical properties. Both diamond and graphite are formed by carbon atoms, the difference lies in the manner in which the carbon atoms are bonded to one another. In diamond, each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms


but these compounds are very reactive. (ii) Since carbon has a valency of four. One reason for the formation of strong bonds by carbon is its small size. No other element exhibits the property of catenation to the extent seen in carbon compounds. double or triple bonds. Silicon forms compounds with hydrogen which have chains of upto seven or eight atoms. chlorine and many other elements giving rise to compounds with specific properties which depend on the elements other than carbon present in the molecule. This enables the nucleus to hold on to the shared pairs of electrons strongly. nitrogen. Many have the same noncarbon atom or group of atoms attached to different carbon chains. This property is called catenation.forming a rigid three-dimensional structure. giving rise to large molecules. each carbon atom is bonded to three other carbon atoms in the same plane giving a hexagonal array. 3 . it was postulated that a ‘vital force’ was necessary for their synthesis. branched chains of carbon or even carbon atoms arranged in rings. Graphite structure is formed by the hexagonal arrays being placed in layers one above the other. Compounds of carbon having double or triple bonds between their carbon atoms are called unsaturated compounds. These compounds may have long chains of carbon. except for oxides of carbon. put together give rise to a large number of compounds. VERSATILE NATURE OF CARBON The numbers of carbon compounds whose formulae are known to chemists was recently estimated to be about three million! This outnumbers by a large margin the compounds formed by all the other elements put together. sulphur. That is. Again the bonds that carbon forms with most other elements are very strong making these compounds exceptionally stable. But carbon compounds. In graphite. and thus the valency of carbon is satisfied. The carbon-carbon bond is very strong and hence stable. One of these bonds is a double-bond. which are linked by only single bonds between the carbon atoms are called saturated compounds. carbonate and hydrogencarbonate salts continue to be studied under organic chemistry. The nature of the covalent bond enables carbon to form a large number of compounds. that is. Organic compounds The two characteristic features seen in carbon. Two factors noticed in the case of carbon are – (i) Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other atoms of carbon. it is capable of bonding with four other atoms of carbon or atoms of some other mono-valent element. Compounds of carbon. hydrogen. The bonds formed by elements having larger atoms are much weaker. This gives us the large number of compounds with many carbon atoms linked to each other. Friedrich Wöhler disproved this in 1828 by preparing urea from ammonium cyanate. These compounds were initially extracted from natural substances and it was thought that these carbon compounds or organic compounds could only be formed within a living system. tetravalency and catenation. carbon atoms may be linked by single. In addition. Compounds of carbon are formed with oxygen.

one or more hydrogens can be replaced by these elements.Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds In order to arrive at the structure of simple carbon compounds. the first step is to link the carbon atoms together with a single bond and then use the hydrogen atoms to satisfy the remaining valencies of carbon. nitrogen and sulphur. For example. • Compounds formed by carbon and hydrogen only are called hydrocarbons. oxygen. In such compounds. the structure of ethane is arrived in the following steps – C2H6 Ethane C2H4 Ethene • In the first example of ethane all valency of carbon atoms is satisfied. the element replacing hydrogen is referred to as a heteroatom. So far we have been looking at compounds of carbon and hydrogen. But carbon also forms bonds with other elements such as halogens. hence this is called as saturated carbon compound or saturated organic compound. Generic formula for alkynes is CnHn Carbon seems to be a very friendly element. In a hydrocarbon chain. • Those hydrocarbons which have single bonds in molecular structure are called alkanes. hence this is called as unsaturated organic compound. These heteroatoms confer specific properties to the 4 . Generic formula for alkenes is CnH2n • Hydrocarbons with triple bonds are called alkynes. such that the valency of carbon remains satisfied. Generic formula for alkanes is CnH(2n+2) • Hydrocarbons with double bonds are called alkenes. • In the second example of ethane valency of carbon atom is not fully satisfied.

As the molecular mass increases in any homologous series. a gradation in physical properties is seen.compound. For example. remain similar in a homologous series. C2H5OH. regardless of the length and nature of the carbon chain and hence are called functional groups. Hence. C3H7OH and C4H9OH are all very similar. A compound having three carbon atoms would have the name propane. Homologous Series The presence of a functional group such as alcohol dictates the properties of the carbon compound. it is indicated in the name of the compound with either a prefix or a suffix. (ii) In case a functional group is present. 5 . regardless of the length of the carbon chain. Naming a carbon compound can be done by the following method – (i) Identify the number of carbon atoms in the compound. Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds The names of compounds in a homologous series are based on the name of the basic carbon chain modified by a “prefix” “phrase before” or “suffix” “phrase after” indicating the nature of the functional group. Other physical properties such as solubility in a particular solvent also show a similar gradation. such a series of compounds in which the same functional group substitutes for hydrogen in a carbon chain is called a homologous series. the chemical properties of CH3OH. This is because the melting points and boiling points increase with increasing molecular mass. But the chemical properties. The functional group is attached to the carbon chain through this valency by replacing one hydrogen atom or atoms. which are determined solely by the functional group.

Oxidation: Carbon compounds can be easily oxidised on combustion. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON COMPOUNDS Combustion: Carbon. a three-carbon chain with a double bond would be called propene and if it has a triple bond. In addition to this complete oxidation. then the final ‘ane’ in the name of the carbon chain is substituted by ‘ene’ or ‘yne’. burns in oxygen to give carbon dioxide along with the release of heat and light. If you observe the bottoms of cooking vessels getting blackened. However. Most carbon compounds also release a large amount of heat and light on burning. Their combustion results in the formation of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen which are major pollutants in the environment. Catalysts are substances that cause a reaction to occur or proceed at a different rate without the 6 . it would be called propyne. Saturated hydrocarbons will generally give a clean flame while unsaturated carbon compounds will give a yellow flame with lots of black smoke. (iv) If the carbon chain is unsaturated. a three-carbon chain with a ketone group would be named in the following manner – Propane – ‘e’ = propan + ‘one’ = propanone. For example. The gas/kerosene stove used at home has inlets for air so that a sufficiently oxygen-rich mixture is burnt to give a clean blue flame. limiting the supply of air results in incomplete combustion of even saturated hydrocarbons. we have reactions in which alcohols are converted to carboxylic acids – Addition Reaction: Unsaturated hydrocarbons add hydrogen in the presence of catalysts such as palladium or nickel to give saturated hydrocarbons. the name of the carbon chain is modified by deleting the final ‘e’ and adding the appropriate suffix. For example. it means that the air holes are blocked and fuel is getting wasted. giving a sooty flame. Fuels such as coal and petroleum have some amount of nitrogen and sulphur in them.(iii) If the name of the functional group is to be given as a suffix. in all its allotropic forms.

Effects of Alcohol: When large quantities of ethanol are consumed. and many tonics. This results in lack of coordination. Ethanol is an important industrial solvent. long-term consumption of alcohol leads to many health problems. However. This reaction is commonly used in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils using a nickel catalyst. the other product is sodium ethoxide. and muscular coordination have been seriously impaired. and finally stupour. It causes the protoplasm to get coagulated. it is also used in medicines such as tincture iodine. In addition. cough syrups. Also. Even though this practice is condemned. Ethanol is commonly called alcohol and is the active ingredient of all alcoholic drinks.reaction itself being affected. causing blindness. it is made unfit for drinking by adding poisonous 7 . Substitution Reaction: Saturated hydrocarbons are fairly unreactive and are inert in the presence of most reagents. SOME IMPORTANT CARBON COMPOUNDS – ETHANOL AND ETHANOIC ACID Properties of Ethanol: Ethanol is a liquid at room temperature. it tends to slow metabolic processes and to depress the central nervous system. in the presence of sunlight. intake of methanol in very small quantities can cause death. mental confusion. With ethanol. (ii) Reaction to give unsaturated hydrocarbon: Heating ethanol at 443 K with excess concentrated sulphuric acid results in the dehydration of ethanol to give ethene – The concentrated sulphuric acid can be regarded as a dehydrating agent which removes water from ethanol. To prevent the misuse of ethanol produced for industrial use. Unlike ethanol. because it is a good solvent. The individual may feel relaxed but does not realise that his sense of judgement. Reactions of Ethanol (i) Reaction with sodium – Alcohols react with sodium leading to the evolution of hydrogen. A number of products are usually formed with the higher homologues of alkanes. It is called a substitution reaction because one type of atom or a group of atoms takes the place of another. sense of timing. Methanol also affects the optic nerve. drowsiness. it is a socially widespread practice. intake of even a small quantity of pure ethanol (called absolute alcohol) can be lethal. Ethanol is also soluble in water in all proportions. Methanal reacts rapidly with the components of cells. Chlorine can replace the hydrogen atoms one by one. However. chlorine is added to hydrocarbons in a very fast reaction. Consumption of small quantities of dilute ethanol causes drunkenness. lowering of the normal inhibitions. Methanol is oxidised to methanal in the liver. in much the same way an egg is coagulated by cooking.

This is called denatured alcohol. The group of organic compounds called carboxylic acids are obviously characterised by a special acidity. This gave rise to its name glacial acetic acid. The salt produced is commonly called sodium acetate. Properties of Ethanoic Acid: Ethanoic acid is commonly called acetic acid and belongs to a group of acids called carboxylic acids. which are completely ionised. ethanoic acid reacts with a base such as sodium hydroxide to give a salt (sodium ethanoate or commonly called sodium acetate) and water: (iii) Reaction with carbonates and hydrogencarbonates: Ethanoic acid reacts with carbonates and hydrogencarbonates to give rise to a salt. Ethanoic acid reacts with absolute ethanol in the presence of an acid catalyst to give an ester – Esters are sweet-smelling substances.substances like methanol to it. 8 . This reaction is known as saponification because it is used in the preparation of soap. Some countries now use alcohol as an additive in petrol since it is a cleaner fuel which gives rise to only carbon dioxide and water on burning in sufficient air (oxygen). Reactions of ethanoic acid: (i) Esterification reaction: Esters are most commonly formed by reaction of an acid and an alcohol. However. Alcohol as a fuel: Sugarcane plants are one of the most efficient convertors of sunlight into chemical energy. Esters react in the presence of an acid or a base to give back the alcohol and carboxylic acid. (ii) Reaction with a base: Like mineral acids. carboxylic acids are weak acids. Dyes are also added to colour the alcohol blue so that it can be identified easily. These are used in making perfumes and as flavouring agents. The melting point of pure ethanoic acid is 290 K and hence it often freezes during winter in cold climates. unlike mineral acids like HCl. carbon dioxide and water. Sugarcane juice can be used to prepare molasses which is fermented to give alcohol (ethanol). 5-8% solution of acetic acid in water is called vinegar and is used widely as a preservative in pickles.

The atomic radius decreases in moving from left to right along a period. which justifies similar chemical properties. All elements of a group contain same number of valence electrons. • Mendeléev arranged the elements in increasing order of their atomic masses and according to their chemical properties. Elements. Na. Periodic Law: ‘Properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic number. when arranged in order of increasing atomic number Z.Periodic classification of elements • Elements are classified on the basis of similarities in their properties. Atoms of different elements with the same number of occupied shells are placed in the same period. 9 .’ Atomic number gives us the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom and this number increases by one in going from one element to the next. Al. L and M shells. lead us to the classification known as the Modern Periodic Table. P. Si. Cl and Ar belong to the third period of the Modern Periodic Table. a fundamental property of the element discovered by Moseley. Prediction of properties of elements could be made with more precision when elements were arranged on the basis of increasing atomic number. • Elements in the Modern Periodic Table are arranged in 18 vertical columns called groups and 7 horizontal rows called periods. • Mendeléev even predicted the existence of some yet to be discovered elements on the basis of gaps in his Periodic Table. • Anomalies in arrangement of elements based on increasing atomic mass could be removed when the elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic number. valency or combining capacity and metallic and non-metallic character. • Elements thus arranged show periodicity of properties including atomic size. S. Let us see what decides the placing of an element in a certain group and period. since the electrons in the atoms of these elements are filled in K. This is due to an increase in nuclear charge which tends to pull the electrons closer to the nucleus and reduces the size of the atom. Mg. Position of Elements in the Modern Periodic Table : The Modern Periodic Table has 18 vertical columns known as ‘groups’ and 7 horizontal rows known as ‘periods’. • Döbereiner grouped the elements into triads and Newlands gave the Law of Octaves.

Metals tend to lose electrons while forming bonds. antimony. 10 . tellurium and polonium – are intermediate in properties and are called metalloids or semi-metals. these can be lost easily. silicon. The borderline elements – boron. Down the group. In the Modern Periodic Table. that is. These trends also help us to predict the nature of oxides formed by the elements because it is know that the oxides of metals are basic and that of non-metals are acidic in general.Metallic & Non-metallic Properties: Metals like Na and Mg are towards the left-hand side of the Periodic Table while the non-metals like sulphur and chlorine are found on the right-hand side. the effective nuclear charge experienced by valence electrons is decreasing because the outermost electrons are farther away from the nucleus. the tendency to lose electrons will decrease. germanium. they are electropositive in nature. arsenic. a zig-zag line separates metals from non-metals. Therefore. As the trends in the electronegativity show. Hence metallic character decreases across a period and increases down a group. In the middle. we have silicon. As the effective nuclear charge acting on the valence shell electrons increases across a period. which is classified as a semi-metal or metalloid because it exhibits some properties of both metals and non-metals. non-metals are found on the right-hand side of the Periodic Table towards the top.

Binary Fission: As the name suggests. 3. which are situated in the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid). The bud. As a result when both male and female gametes fuse to form zygote. Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction: In unicellular plants and animals and some multicellular organisms as well the mode of reproduction is asexual. This is necessary to maintain the unique identity of a species. Evolution is necessary for survival as environmental conditions keep on changing from time to time. As per Darwin nature has a method of selecting the best fit species for survival. 3. Human cell contain 23 pairs or 46 chromosomes. after growing to certain extent detaches from the parent body and goes on living like an independent organism. After zygote formation the number of chromosomes is once again 23 pairs. the organism breaks into two parts by cell division. Budding: Some multicellular organisms like Hydra and Yeast make a bud outside their body. Vegetative Reproduction in Plants: Certain plants have capacity to make a new plant from their vegetative parts.Reproduction Importance of Reproduction: 1. New species facilitate evolution of organisms. Unicellular organism like Amoeba and bacteria reproduce in this way. so genetic characters from both parents will help make a slightly different copy of themselves. Types of Reproduction: 1. For example if you plant a stem of rose it will 11 . 5. To create next generation. 2. As no two individuals are same. Asexual Reproduction 2. In this case the organism doesn't make zygote. Every animal cell has fixed number of chromosomes. To create variations in species. 2. After meiosis egg and sperm cells contain 23 chromosomes. the number of chromosomes becomes adequate for the species involved. These small variations accumulate over hundreds of years resulting in formation of new species. Unique property of a particular organism is transferred from one generation to the next generation through genes. During Meiosis number of chromosomes become half of that in the parent cells. There are following types of asexual reproduction: 1. 4.

and development of embryo in a developed offspring. help transfer pollen grains or male gametes from male flower to female flower.develop root and ultimately a new plant is born. An organism develops embryo without fertilization. All the parts of a flower are arranged around an axis. Androecium. which ultimates gives birth to a separate plant. The embryo ultimately gives birth to a new generation. Leaves of Bryophyta grow roots at the margins of their leaves. which add attraction to a flower. 5. Parthenogenesis: Some lower plants and animals. 6. These spores. 3. Male Reproductive Organ of Plant: Androecium 12 . Sexual Reproduction: Sexual reproduction involves formation of zygote or embryo to facilitate transfer of genetic information from both parents. attracted by the colour. but a more important role in facilitating reproduction. Sexual Reproduction in Plants: Flower can be termed as the sexual organ of a plant. 4. Petals: Colourful structures. These are spores of fungi. 2. like some bees and wasps reproduce in this way. You must have noticed white cotton like growth on stale bread and food. 4. After that it manipulates the DNA of the host to reproduce a new virus. Reproduction in Virus: Virus enters the nucleus of the host cells. Gynoecium. This helps in pollination. Insects and birds. during favourable environmental conditions give birth to the new generation. Spore Formation: Some fungi and algae make spores. These are as follows: 1. This attraction is not only having ornamental value. Sepals: Green leaf like structure.

Gynoecium is pitcher shaped structure with a long tube protruding out of it. That is why for our daily need we depend on so many seeds like rice. 3. testis also produces certain hormones. Cross pollination can be facilitated by insects. Zygote Formation: Once pollen grains enter the androecium. Pollination: The process of transfer of pollen grains from androecium to gynoecium is called pollination. This can happen in same flower. Ovaries have an inner epithelial lining called endometrium. Reproductive System in Humans: Male Reproductive System: 1. Androecium is responsible for the production of male gamete also called pollen grains. During germination the food in the cotyledon is used to grow a new plant. Testis produces sperm or male gamete. wheat. Fallopian Tubes: Fallopian tubes extends on both sides of the uterus in transverse direction. Once green leaves come out. which is responsible for the production of eggs. 2. Seeds are the zygote or embryo of the plant. Vas Deferens: Vas deference is the tube through which semen containing sperm is transferred out. hair growth in pubic area and under armpits. they take care of further food production. 2. These are deep male voice. animals. To survive and to germinate seeds need source of food. or between different flowers of the same plant. When flowers of two different plants are involved. then it is called cross pollination. air or water. At the top of stamen is a chambered structure called Androecium. Female Reproductive Organs: 1. Female Reproductive Organ of Plant: Gynoecium Usually at the centre of a flower you can notice Gynoecium. like tetosterone which are responsible for secondary sexual characters in humans.The flower of a plant contains tube like structures called stamen. The gynoecium produces female gamete also called eggs. Fallopian tubes have finger like structures which catch the eggs to transfer them to the uterus. Testis: Testis is a galndular organ made up of fine tubules. Apart from producing sperm. and facial hair. groundnut for food. In all seeds there is abundance of food. Seminal Vesicle: Once sperm is produced it is stored in seminal vesicle. birds. one of them enters the egg to fertilize it to form a zygote. 13 . When only one plant is involved the process is called self-pollination. Ovary: Ovaries are situated on left and right side of the uterus.

This layer is called corpus luteum. with an opening in the vagina. then the embryo develops into a foetus and ultimately to a fully developed child over a period of about 9 months. Once eggs reach uterus.3. Apart from humans. which is responsible for secondary sexual characters in female. some primates like Chimpanzee and Gorilla also show same phenomenon. If fertilization takes place. Uterus: Uterus is a bag like structure. Ovary secretes one of the important hormones estrogen. a layer of soft tissues develops to support the embryo. Menstrual Cycle in Females: If no fertilization takes place then after about two weeks the dead eggs and corpus luteum gets expelled out of the uterus through vagina. The whole cycle from egg production to the expulsion of eggs takes about four weeks. This process takes place over a period of about three to four days. This cycle is known as Menstrual Cycle. like thin voice and breast enlargement. This clears the way for new batch of eggs to come in the uterus. 14 .

while the 'smooth character was dormant. This mixing up of characters creates slight variation in the genetic makeup of the offspring. Variation: As half of the chromosomes come from paternal side and rest half from maternal side. Rules for the Inheritance of Traits –Mendel’s Contributions: John Gregor Mendel (1856-63) conducted hybridization experiments on pea plants for many generations and studying how certain characters get transferred from one generation to the next generation.Heridity and evolution Heredity: Characters of parents get copied in children. appearance. In the next generation 25% of seeds were pure wrinkled with 'wrinkled' genotype. The results can be depicted by following diagram: Interpretation of Results: In the first generation all the seeds were wrinkled. Sex Determination 15 . so the offspring will have a mix of characters from both parents. etc. These variations accumulate over hundreds of years giving rise to a altogether new species. which work like a recording device recording all the genetic codes of an individual and transferring them to the next generation. hair colour. Both characters were present in the genotype or genetic makeup. Skin colour. 25% seeds were pure smooth with 'smooth' genotype and 50% of seeds were wrinkled with 'wrinkled+smooth' genotype. One of the experiments involved making hybrids of wrinkled seeds and smooth seeds. in children resemble either of parents or grandparents. He also studied how certain characters become dormant or prominent in a particular generation. The 'wrinkled' character was dominant. This shows how sometimes children of tall father can be of average height as the 'tall' character becomes dormant in that generation. Chromosomes contain genes. This phenomenon is known as heredity. height.

which had the power of replicating itself. Oxygen and Nitrogen. like crocodile. They have more offspring than can grow to adulthood. the temperature at which an egg hatches determines the sex of a newborn. Charles Robert Darwin (1809–1882) Charles Darwin set out on a voyage when he was 22 years old. The five-year voyage took him to South America and the islands off its coast. 22 pairs are alike and the 23rd pair can be of similar or dissimilar chromosomes. As you know human have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Origin of Life on Earth: All living beings are made up of basic elements like Carbon. In human it depends on the last pair of chromosomes. 16 . In some animals. but are relatively stable over time. EVOLUTION: Life started on earth as simple unicellular organisms. After analyzing all information he came up with his theory of evolution in his book 'Origin of Species. 2. In the initial period of earth's life these elements combined together to form the earliest living beings. During his voyage Darwin collected huge number of specimens for his study. In females both chromosomes of the 23rd pair consists of X type. In fact variations accumulating over a period of time created a new species and the process continued and will be continued in years to come. Food resources are limited. Darwin's Theory of Evolution: Struggle for Existence 1. When one gamete with X chromosome fertilizes another gamete with Y chromosome to make zygote the offspring will be male. Following diagram shows what happens when a zygote is formed: It is clear by above diagram that when two gametes with X chromosome make zygote the offspring will be female. Populations remain roughly the same size. 3. with small changes.This issue answers the question how it is possible that the newborn is a male or female. Species have great fertility. while in male the 23rd pair is made up of XY chrmosomes. These organisms through evolution over millions of years created hugely diverse life forms which we see today. Hydrogen.

4. This slowly effected process results in populations that adapt to the environment over time. Rudimentary Organs: Certain organs in human are having no functional value. 7. We need special goggles for that. these variations accumulate to form new varieties. Appendix is reduced form of an additional chamber in the digestive system of ruminating animals like cow. 2. This is like reliving your past lives. Developmental Stages in Foetus: This theory suggests that right after the formation of zygote up to delivery an animals passes every stage of evolution through which it has evolved. Natural Selection and Survival of the Fittest 8. digestive system. 9. Appendix and nictitating membrane are such examples. 6. while individuals more suited to the environment are more likely to survive and more likely to reproduce. In case of humans at certain stage the human embryo looks like that of a fish. Individuals less suited to the environment are less likely to survive and less likely to reproduce. of humans. new species. Analogous organs: Wings of bats and those of birds are different in design but serve the same purpose. 5. 10. and ultimately. In sexually reproducing species. after interminable generations. like forelimbs. The individuals that survive are most likely to leave their inheritable traits to future generations. Proofs of Evolution: 1. later it looks like that of a frog and ultimately it develops into a human being. Homologous organs: Organs. generally no two individuals are identical. Much of this variation is inheritable. 3. 17 . Humans no longer need them so they are functionless. and ultimately. birds. They provide us with linking proofs between various groups of animals. An implicit struggle for survival ensues. crocodiles and bat show same basic design. The similarity in purpose indicates towards single source of their origin. Some of these variations directly affect the ability of an individual to survive in a given environment. These rudimentary organs suggest that we have evolved from frogs. Fossils: Fossils are remains of living beings which were buried millions of years ago under the earth. Nictitating membranes in frog's eyes help them to see under water. 5. where they help in cellulose digestion. This similarity in design suggests that they have originated from same root. 4.

Evolution and Classification: Evolutionary principles has been used for classification of animals and plants. podium:Legs). All flowering plants come under angiosperms. Main Animal Groups 18 . For example all animals with four legs have been included in the class tetrapoda (tetra:four.

3. that is. In case of concave mirror it lies in front of the reflective surface. in case of concave mirrors.Reflection and refraction of light Laws of Reflection: (i) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. is called a concave mirror. Pole: The centre of the reflecting surface of a spherical mirror is called the pole. Key Terminologies: 1. in case of convex mirrors. Centre of Curvature: The centre of the sphere is called the centre of curvature. 5. Spherical Mirror: 1. 19 . 4. Further. It is represented by 'P'. The image formed is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front of it. 2. In case of convex mirror it lies behind the reflective surface. the image is laterally inverted. all lie in the same plane. Radius of Curvature: The radius of the sphere is called the radius of curvature. faces towards the centre of the sphere. The size of the image is equal to that of the object. the normal to the mirror at the point of incidence and the reflected ray. It is represented by 'R'. Convex Mirror: A spherical mirror whose reflecting surface is curved outwards. whose reflecting surface is curved inwards. These laws of reflection are applicable to all types of reflecting surfaces including spherical surfaces. Plane Mirror: Image formed by a plane mirror is always virtual and erect. Principal Axis: The line joining the pole and the center of curvature is called the principal axis. and (ii) The incident ray. Concave Mirror: A spherical mirror. At focus point all the light coming from infinity converge. is called a convex mirror. Principal Focus: In mirrors with small aperture (diameter) roughly half of the radius of curvature is equal to the focus point. The centre of curvature lies outside the mirror. 2. The light seem to diverge from f. The spherical mirror is part of a big sphere.

Doctors use concave mirrors to throw beam of light inside ears and mouth to examine patients. the pole (P) of the mirror is taken as the origin. Inverted (vertically). no image is formed or more properly the image is formed at infinity. Magnified (larger) 4. When S > 2F. Image Formed By Convex Mirror: The image is always virtual (rays haven't actually passed though the image). Headlights of automobiles use concave mirrors for better visibility. Magnified (larger) 2.) 1. In this convention. This implies that the light from the object falls on the mirror from the left-hand side. the image is: Real. so they cover a wider field of view than a normal plane mirror does as the image is "compressed". The principal axis of the mirror is taken as the x-axis (X’X) of the coordinate system. Same size 5. The conventions are as follows: (i) The object is always placed to the left of the mirror. the image is: Virtual. At hairpin bends on hilly roads convex mirrors are installed for motorists to see the traffic on the other side of the bend. we shall follow a set of sign conventions called the New Cartesian Sign Convention. and upright . Diminished (smaller) j Use of Concave Mirrors: They are used in torches. When S > 2F. When S = F. In this way. searchlights. Upright . Sign Convention for Reflection by Spherical Mirrors While dealing with the reflection of light by spherical mirrors.Image Formed by Concave Mirror: (S here stands for distance between object and mirror. the image is: Real. Inverted (vertically). 3. the image is formed at infinity. (iii) All the distances measured to the right of the origin (along + x-axis) are taken as positive while those measured to the left of the origin (along – x-axis) are taken as negative. 20 . Use of Convex Mirrors: Rear-view mirrors of automobiles are convex mirrors. diminished (smaller). When S < F. In this case the reflected light rays are parallel and do not meet the others. When F < S < 2F. the image is: Real. Inverted (vertically). These features make convex mirrors very useful: everything appears smaller in the mirror. to reflect a beam of light to great distance. (ii) All distances parallel to the principal axis are measured from the pole of the mirror. When S = 2F. They enable the driver to see through a wider vision field without craning his neck. the im5.

all lie in the same plane. then the magnification m produced by a spherical mirror is given by m = Height of Image (h') / Height of Object (h) = h' / h The magnification m is also related to the object distance (u) and image distance (v). This phenomenon is known as refraction of light. If i is the angle of incidence and r is the angle of refraction. This law is also known as Snell’s law of refraction. Mirror Formula and Magnification In a spherical mirror. 21 . the distance of the object from its pole is called the object distance (u).(iv) Distances measured perpendicular to and above the principal axis (along + yaxis) are taken as positive. It is expressed as the ratio of the height of the image to the height of the object. sin i/ sin r = constant This constant value is called the refractive index of the second medium with respect to the first. then. (v) Distances measured(v) Distances measured perpendicular to and below the principal axis (along –y-axis) are taken as negative. the direction of propagation of light in the second medium changes. It appears that when travelling obliquely from one medium to another. It can be expressed as: Magnification (m) = h'/h = -v/u REFRACTION OF LIGHT Light does not travel in the same direction in all media. There is a relationship between these three quantities given by the mirror formula which is expressed as 1/v + 1/u = 1/f Magnification Magnification produced by a spherical mirror gives the relative extent to which the image of an object is magnified with respect to the object size. for the light of a given colour and for the given pair of media. It is usually represented by the letter m. Laws of refraction of light (i) The incident ray. The distance of the image from the pole of the mirror is called the image distance (v). (ii) The ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is a constant. If h is the height of the object and h ′ is the height of the image. You already know that the distance of the principal focus from the pole is called the focal length (f). the refracted ray and the normal to the interface of two transparent media at the point of incidence.

hence convex lenses are called converging 22 . forms a lens. A lens may have two spherical surfaces. In air. It reduces considerably in glass or water. as given below: Speed of Light in Air = c Speed of light in a medium = v Then refractive index Then refractive index of medium nm = c/v The speed of light is higher in a rarer medium than a denser medium. When it travels from a denser medium to a rarer medium. compared to that in vacuum. The refractive index can be linked to an important physical quantity. a ray of light travelling from a rarer medium to a denser medium slows down and bends towards the normal. of which one or both surfaces are spherical. it speeds up and bends away from the normal.The Refractive Index A ray of light that travels obliquely from one transparent medium into another will change its direction in the second medium. the other surface would be plane. This means that a lens is bound by at least one spherical surface. bulging outwards. Light travels the fastest in vacuum with the highest speed of 3×108 ms–1. the relative speed of propagation of light in different media. Convex lens converges light rays. Such a lens is called a double convex lens. Thus. It turns out that light propagates with different speeds in different media. It is thicker at the middle as compared to the edges. It is simply called a convex lens. In such lenses. Refractive Index of Some Media Refraction by Spherical Lenses A transparent material bound by two surfaces. the speed of light is only marginally less. The value of the refractive index for a given pair of media depends upon the speed of light in the two media. The extent of the change in direction that takes place in a given pair of media is expressed in terms of the refractive index.

Image formed by convex lens Image Formed by Concave Lens Sign Convention for Spherical Lenses According to the convention. It is thicker at the edges than at the middle. Similarly. either a convex lens or a concave lens. object height h and image height h′. The lens formula is expressed as: 1/v – 1/u = 1/f<1/v – 1/u = 1/f Magnification 23 . Lens Formula and Magnification This formula gives the relationship between objectdistance (u). f. Such lenses diverge light rays as shown and are called diverging lenses. A lens. v. has two spherical surfaces. the focal length of a convex lens is positive and that of a concave lens is negative. The centres of these spheres are called centres of curvature of the lens. A double concave lens is simply called a concave lens. curved inwards.lenses. image-distance (v) and the focal length (f ). a double concave lens is bounded by two spherical surfaces. Appropriate signs for the values of u. Each of these surfaces forms a part of a sphere.

40 m.0 D. The power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of its focal length. similar to that for spherical mirrors. It is represented by the letter m. It is denoted by the letter D. Thus. Opticians prescribe corrective lenses indicating their powers. P2. Power of a convex lens is positive and that of a concave lens is negative. then the magnification produced by the lens is given by: m =Height of the Image/Height of the object = h'/h = v/u Where object-distance Where object-distance is u and the image-distance is v. They are combined to increase the magnification and sharpness of the image. This means the lens prescribed is convex. a lens of power – 2. If h is the height of the object and h ′ is the height of the image given by a lens. P3. 1D = 1m–1. then. … as P = P1 + P2 + P3 +… 24 . It is represented by the letter P. Similarly. The lens is concave. Let us say the lens prescribed has power equal to + 2.The magnification produced by a lens. If f is expressed in metres. Many optical instruments consist of a number of lenses. power is expressed in dioptres. 1 dioptre is the power of a lens whose focal length is 1 metre. The power P of a lens of focal length f is given by: P =1/f The SI unit of power of a lens is ‘dioptre’.5 D has a focal length of – 0.50 m. The focal length of the lens is + 0. is defined as the ratio of the height of the image and the height of the object. Power of a Lens The degree of convergence or divergence of light rays achieved by a lens is expressed in terms of its power. The net power (P) of the lenses placed in contact is given by the algebraic sum of the individual powers P1.

Retina is full of light and colour sensitive cells. Both the eyes enable us to see upto a field of 180 degrees.Human Eye THE HUMAN EYE: Structure: 1. They control the size of opening if pupil. 3. 2. Pupil: Pupil is the round black spot in front of eye. upon receiving image send electrical signals to the brain. This reduces the vision in old age. But there is a limit. This enables us to see distant objects clearly. In early stages of the disease cataract can be cured by eye surgery. Moreover. Retina: Retina works like a screen or camera film. It regulates the amount of light entering the eyes. Benefits of two eyes: One eye is having a field of vision of about 150 degrees. Cataract: In old age the cornea becomes cloudy. which processes these information to make a mental image of what we see. Sometimes artificial lens is also transplanted during cataract surgery. as two different images get juxtaposed in the brain. The minimum distance of clear vision is 25 cm. To focus on nearer objects lens becomes thick to decrease its focal length. Below this distance we cannot see things clearly. Pupil works like aperture of a camera. Lens becomes thin to increase its focal length. Malfunctions of Eyes: 1. These cells. This is called Intra Ocular Lens Transplantation. Lens: Lens lies just behind the pupil. In case of dim light pupil dilate to allow more light to enter the eyes. In case of strong light pupil constrict allowing less light to enter. Iris: Iris is made of muscles. so we are able to see a three dimensional view of the world. 25 . 4.

they approximate point-sized sources of light. A person with hypermetropia can see distant objects clearly but cannot see nearby objects distinctly. It facilitates near vision. In a myopiceye. The near point. the near point gradually recedes away. This defect is called Presbyopia. the image of a distant object is formed in front of the retina and not at the retina itself. It arises due to the gradual weakening of the ciliary muscles and diminishing flexibility of the eye lens. They find it difficult to see nearby objects comfortably and distinctly without corrective eye-glasses. Myopia: Myopia is also known as near-sightedness. or (ii) elongation of the eyeball. Hypermetropia: Hypermetropia is also known as far-sightedness. 3. The star appears slightly higher (above) than its actual position when viewed near the horizon . which is the twinkling effect. is farther away from the normal near point (25 cm). and at some other time. Since the atmosphere bends starlight towards the normal. or (ii) the eyeball has become too small. 4. This defect arises either because (i) the focal length of the eye lens is too long. Presbyopia: The power of accommodation of the eye usually decreases with ageing. since the physical conditions of the earth’s atmosphere are not stationary. on entering the earth’s atmosphere. a person may suffer from both myopia and hypermetropia. Such a person has to keep a reading material much beyond 25 cm from the eye for comfortable reading. Since the stars are very distant. this apparent position of the star is not stationary. It facilitates distant vision. ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION Twinkling of stars The twinkling of a star is due to atmospheric refraction of starlight. Such people often require bifocal lenses. fainter. This defect may arise due to (i) excessive curvature of the eye lens. for the person. The atmospheric refraction occurs in a medium of gradually changing refractive index. This is because the light rays from a closeby object are focussed at a point behind the retina.2. The starlight. the apparent position of the star fluctuates and the amount of starlight entering the eye flickers – the star sometimes appears brighter. but keeps on changing slightly. The upper portion consists of a concave lens. Sometimes. as was the case in the previous paragraph. A concave lens of suitable power will bring the image back on to the retina and thus the defect is corrected. A person with myopia can see nearby objects clearly but cannot see distant objects distinctly. This defect can be corrected by using a concave lens of suitable power. For most people. 26 . Eyeglasses with converging lenses provide the additional focussing power required for forming the image on the retina. This defect can be corrected by using a convex lens of appropriate power. As the path of rays of light coming from the star goes on varying slightly. The lower part is a convex lens. A common type of bi-focal lenses consists of both concave and convex lenses. undergoes refraction continuously before it reaches the earth. Further. the apparent position of the star is slightly different from its actual position.

Therefore. These particles include smoke. Then. The scattered blue light enters our eyes. The red is least scattered by fog or smoke. If the size of the scattering particles is large enough. The colour of the scattered light depends on the size of the scattering particles. The light reaches us. You might have observed that ‘danger’ signal lights are red in colour. Why is the colour of the clear Sky Blue? The molecules of air and other fine particles in the atmosphere have size smaller than the wavelength of visible light. when sunlight passes through the atmosphere. This phenomenon is seen when a fine beam of sunlight enters a smoke-filled room through a small hole. Thus. Tyndall effect can also be observed when sunlight passes through a canopy of a dense forest.8 times greater than blue light. there would not have been any scattering. 27 . then. tiny water droplets. The phenomenon of scattering of light by the colloidal particles gives rise to Tyndall effect. By actual sunrise. Very fine particles scatter mainly blue light while particles of larger size scatter light of longer wavelengths. The red light has a wavelength about 1. it can be seen in the same colour at a distance. If the earth had no atmosphere. The time difference between actual sunset and the apparent sunset is about 2 minutes. as scattering is not prominent at such heights. the scattered light may even appear white. tiny water droplets in the mist scatter light. SCATTERING OF LIGHT Tyndall Effect The earth’s atmosphere is a heterogeneous mixture of minute particles. the path of the beam becomes visible. we mean the actual crossing of the horizon by the Sun. The apparent flattening of the Sun’s disc at sunrise and sunset is also due to the same phenomenon. When a beam of light strikes such fine particles. suspended particles of dust and molecules of air. Here.Advance sunrise and delayed sunset The Sun is visible to us about 2 minutes before the actual sunrise. scattering of light makes the particles visible. the fine particles in air scatter the blue colour (shorter wavelengths) more strongly than red. The sky appears dark to passengers flying at very high altitudes. after being reflected diffusely by these particles. and about 2 minutes after the actual sunset because of atmospheric refraction. These are more effective in scattering light of shorter wavelengths at the blue end than light of longer wavelengths at the red end. the sky would have looked dark. Thus.

Management of natural resources Major Natural Resources: (i) Water (ii) Forest (iii) Soil (iv) Fossil Fuel (v) Sunlight (vi) Air Management: Management of natural resources can involve judicious use. Sewage treatment plant filters out all the muck and cleanses water before releasing it into the river. reduction of wastage and proper recycling. (II) Ban on bore wells will help reduce depletion of underground water reservoir. As most of the natural resources are limited in quantity so we should take every possible step to prevent their exhaustion. Water: Source of Potable Water: Rivers. Even those resources which are available in plenty. This will reduce the need for private bore wells. like sunlight and air. Proper management will ensure that we would leave a conducive environment for our future generations. Depletion of Underground Water: Excess exploitation of underground water by bore wells is a major cause of depletion of underground water reservoir. Lakes and Underground Reservoir. Source of Water Pollution: Industrial Effluents. Sewage Sewage in most of the cities in India flows into rivers or nearby ponds polluting the water. Some of the sewage percolates down to pollute even the underwater reservoir. Remedies: (I) Sewage treatment plants should be utilized to prevent water pollution. 28 . Like UK water supply can be privatized to ensure adequate supply of drinking water to masses. need to be preserved from pollution.

Paper bags made of old newspaper should be used as extensively as possible. commercial and agricultural purpose. like jute bags. should be recycled to make new items. etc. 3. 29 . Recycle & Reuse: Recycle as much as possible. Aluminium cans. 2. Trees balances the excess Carbon Dioxide during photosynthesis. Forest is a source of livelihood for tribes. this will help preserve the fossil fuel.(III) Rainwater Harvesting is a process of catching rainwater and allow it to seep down the ground which helps recharge the underground water reservoir. Conserve forests to conserve biodiversity. Need of timber for construction. Biodegradable packing materials. Reduce use of plastic bags can help in minimizing garbage. Increasing human need for land for residential. Trees help prevent soil erosion. Forest is necessary to maintain the biodiversity and ecological balance of the earth. Three Way Approach of Natural Resource Management: Reduce: Reduce usage of natural resources. furniture and industrial use. paper. 2. 4. Causes of Deforestation: 1. should be used instead of polythene bags. reducing greenhouse effect. Forest: Benefits: 1. Indians are the best at recycling and reusing newspaper. Remedies: Find a proper balance to address the need of all who are dependent on forest. Avoid going by car to short distances. glass.

etc. 30 . Secandary consumers : animals like lion.Our Environment Our environment consists of following components: 1. This is possible because of interdependency all living and non-living form on this earth. Abiotic Component: Soil. also move in the ecological system. This energy is transferred to other living being through an elaborate and complex food chain. donkey etc. nitrogen. decomposers. Gases. Energy Cycle or Food Cycle: Sun is the main source of energy and green plants are the ones which harness this energy. other abiotic components like hydrogen. tiger etc. like bacteria. carbon. oxygen. Natural system is made in a way which helps prevent the misuse of abiotic component and facilitates a cycle which helps the return of all abiotic component to the environment. decompose their bodies and all the abiotic components return to the environment. This is system is called as ecological system. Producers Primary consumers : Plants : animals like goat. That is how the natural cycle of conservation goes on. Ecology: All biotic and abiotic components function under perfect harmony to ensure a balance in the environment. Biotic Component: All living being 2. Minerals Every abiotic component is in fixed quantity in the environment. Ultimately when a plant or animal dies. Through the food chain apart from energy.

Recycle as many things as possible. 5. It may hamper in recharging of underground water reservoir. 2. High concentration of Carbon Dioxide is creating greenhouse effect. Burning of fossil fuel is creating heavy pollution. Chlorofluorocarbon being used in refrigerators. 3. 2. Ozone layer protects the earth from ultraviolet rays from the sun. Reuse things as many times as possible. 4. 31 . resulting in hihger average temperature across the globe. 1. Reduce energy consumption. Use of Bio-degradable packing materials.Mankind's Bad Effects on Environment: Man is consuming all natural resources in a mindless way. Use of renewable energy sources. 3. Use of no-biodegradable materials like polythene is choking the ground. ACs and pressurised cans has caused hole in the ozone layer of atmosphere. It will reduce the soil fertility. Preventive Steps Needed to Protect the Environment: 1.

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