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# Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 1

## APPLICTIONS OF FIRST ORDER EQUATIONS

This section presents examples of first order models whose equations are linear or separable (or in some
instances both).
Population Models (The Malthusian Model)
This model, named after the English Scholar Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), assumes that the per-capita rate of
change in population is constant.
Let P(t) denote the population (humans, bacteria, or any other organism that increases in numbers) at time t.
This model assumes that
dP
dt
P(t)
= k
where k is a constant. The expression on the left-hand side of this equation is the per-capita rate of change in
population and hence the models name. If the initial population is P(u) = P
0
, then we can write this model as
the initial value problem

dP
dt
= k P(t); P() = P

(1)
which is a separable equation. Separating variables,
JP
P
= k Jt; P(u) = P
0

Integrating,
ln|P| = k t +c; P(u) = P
0

Applying the initial condition, lnP
0
= c. Thus,
ln|P| = k t +lnP
0

ln|P| -lnP
0
= k t
ln
P
P
0
= k t
P(t) = P

e
kt

Example 1 Assume a population obeys the constant per-capita rate law and suppose it starts with 100,200
individuals. One year later, the population has grown by 0.6%. Determine the population at the five-year mark
and the percent increase in population over that time period.
Solution
This population obeys the law
P(t) = P

e
kt

With P

= 1uu,2uu. Thus,
P(t) = 1uu,2uuc
kt

All we need to find is the parameter k in oiuei to fully ueteimine this population.

From the information given, we have
P(1) = 1uu,2uu (1.uu6)
or
1uu,2uuc
k1
= 1uu,2uu (1.uu6)
Solving for k:
Working with this Model: This model involves two parameters, the initial population P

## and the constant k.

Enough information will be provided so that both can be obtained and the population formula determined.
Pop. Increased by u.6%
in one year
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 2

k = ln1.uu6 = . 5982
Therefore:
P(t) = 1, 2e
.5982t

We can now predict the population at any time in the future:
P(S) = 1uu,2uuc
0.0059825
= 1uS,242
The percent change in population over the five-years period is
P(S) -P(u)
p(u)
1uu% = S.uS%
Example 2 Assume a population obeys the Malthusian model. Suppose that there are Suu,uuu individuals at
the end of year S and S4S,uuu at the end of year S. What was the initial population?
Solution
Our model is
P(t) = P

e
kt

We seek P
0
, the initial population. There are two quantities we need to determine: k and P
0
.
The information we are given is:
P(S) = Suu,uuu
P(S) = S4S,uuu
Thus,
P
0
c
k3
= Suu,uuu
and
P
0
c
k5
= S4S,uuu
These equations can be solved for the two unknown quantities P
0
and k: Dividing the equations (to
eliminate P
0
):
c
k5
c
k3
=
S4S,uuu
Suu,uuu

c
2k
= 1.u9 = k = . 4389
Having obtained the value of k, we can use either of the original equations to find P
0
, for example,
P
0
c
k3
= Suu,uuu = P
0
=
Suu,uuu
c
k3

Thus,
P
0
=
Suu,uuu
c
(0.043089)3
= 439, 37
Example 3 Assume a bacterial culture grows at a rate which is proportional to the bacterial population at time
t. Two hours after starting with a population A
0
a count shows a population of 9u bacteria per square cm in a
8u-cm
2
dish. Four hours later, a new count shows 14u bacteria per cm
2
. (a) How many bacteria were present
originally? (b) How long before the culture doubles in size relative to its original value?
Solution
The growth formula is given by
A(t) = A

e
kt

Let o(t) denote the population per square centimeter so that A(t) = 8u o(t). The reason why the
population is measured on a per cm
2
basis is because it is very difficult to accurately count the entire
population under a microscope. Hence, one concentrates on a small area of the dish and counts the
bacteria there at different times [we assume that the bacterial distribution is homogeneous and what
happens in one square centimeter more or less happens in all others].
(a) We seek A
0
, the original population in the dish. The information we are given is:
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 3

o(2) = 9u
bacteiia
cm
2

o(4) = 14u
bacteiia
cm
2

Thus,
o
0
c
2k
= 9u
o
0
c
4k
= 14u
Solve for k:

o
0
c
4k
o
0
c
2k
=
14u
9u

c
2k
= 1.SSS6
Therefore, k = . 229. Solving for o
0
,
o
0
c
2(0.2209)
= 9u
o
0
= S8
So the initial population is approximately A

= 4, 4 bacteria.
(b) we want to determine the time at which A() = 2A
0
. Thus, we solve the equation
A
0
c
0.2209:
= 2A
0

for . Cancelling A
0
,
c
0.2209:
= 2 = =
1
u.22u9
ln2 = S.14
The time to double is approximately 3.14 hours.
Another Characterization of the Malthusian Model
The Malthusian model tell us that P(t) = P
0
c
kt
. Thus, the population in year t +1 is
P(t +1) = P
0
c
k(t+1)
= P
0
c
kt
c
k

This means that P(t +1) = c
k
P(t). In other words, populations that grow this way are also said to grow in a
geometric progression: the population in year t +1 is a constant multiple of the population in year t, that
multiple being c
k
. We write this relation as
P
t+1
= rP
t

where r = c
k
. Malthus proposed that humanity would run out of food sooner rather than later because whereas
the human population was increasing in numbers in a geometric progression, food supply could be increased
only as an arithmetic progression:
"The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature
death must in some shape or other visit the human race. The vices of mankind are active and able ministers of
depopulation. They are the precursors in the great army of destruction, and often finish the dreadful work
themselves. But should they fail in this war of extermination, sickly seasons, epidemics, pestilence, and plague
advance in terrific array, and sweep off their thousands and tens of thousands. Should success be still
incomplete, gigantic inevitable famine stalks in the rear, and with one mighty blow levels the population with
the food of the world".
Malthus T.R. 1798. An essay on the principle of population. Chapter VII, p61.
A Radioactive Decay Model
Radioactive decay is the process by which atomic nuclei of unstable atoms decay spontaneously into other,
more stable, nuclei. This decay process is accompanied by the release of energy which manifests itself in the
form of alpha, beta, and gamma particles.
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Let N
0
be the original amount of radioactive substance and N(t) be the amount present at time t. This is a
discrete number, however, since it is so large (of the order of 1u
23
), we can treat is as if it were a continuous
variable.
We consider the one-decay process whereby nuclide A decays into a more stable nuclide B. The number of
decay events in a time interval of length t is a random variable. However, we will assume that this number is
jointly proportional to the number of nuclide present at the beginning of the time interval and its duration t:
N = -zN(t)t
where z is a positive constant
1
called the decay constant and its value changes from one species of radio
nuclide to another [the negative sign is necessary in order to ensure that N < u].
Dividing by t and letting t - u,

dN
dt
= -z N(t); N() = N

(2)
Observe that this is the same model as the population model we studied earlier except for the negative sign. Its
solution is
N(t) = N

e
-xt

Example 4 Suppose we start with 80 grams of a radioactive substance which exhibits exponential decay.
Suppose also that 1 hour later only 77.S grams are left. When will the substance decay to 2u% of its original
amount?
Solution
The model is
N(t) = 8e
-xt

We need z, which we obtain by applying the additional information stated in the problem:
N(1) = 77.S
Thus,
8uc
-x1
= 77.S
c
-x1
=
77.S
8u

Solving for z:
-z = ln _
77.S
8u
]
z = . 3175
Therefore, this substance is governed by
N(t) = 8e
-.3175t

When will N(t) be 2u% of what we started with? That is, when will N(t) = 16? The answer is
obtained by solving the equation
8uc
-0.03175t
= 16
Solving for t
t = -
1
u.uS17S
ln_
16
8u
]
= 5. 9 huurs
Example 5 (Carbon Dating) Carbon occurs naturally in the earths atmosphere in the form of two stable isotopes
(C
12
and C
13
) and the radioactive isotope C
14
whose half-life is 5730 years
2
. This radioactive isotope is

1
Physical constants are taken to be positive numbers.
2
The half-life of a substance is the time it takes for half of the substance to decay. Thus, if one starts with 80 grams of
carbon-14 today, there will be 40 grams of it left in 5730.

Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 5

produced when cosmic rays interact with the Nitrogen in the earths upper atmosphere and the assumption is
that this rate of creation is constant. It is also assumed that the ratio of carbon-14 to carbon is constant, but
there are studies that indicate the contrary and for that reason one must be careful when using carbon dating.
Nevertheless, here is the idea: when an organism is alive, the concentration of C
14
present in it is the same as
that of the surroundings. When it dies, it ceases to consume the isotope which then starts to decay. A
measurement of the amount present can be used to estimate how long the organism has been dead and therefore
date it.
The method is fairly accurate up to about Su,uuu years. For longer periods, other radioactive materials with
longer half-lives can be used, but these too are susceptible to errors.
Suppose a sample of material from an ancient burial case is found to have 60% of carbon-14 found on a sample
of similar material (wood in this situation). Approximately how old is the case?
Solution
Carbon-14, like any other radioactive substance, decays more or less according to
N = N
0
c
-xt

We begin by finding z because we know the half-life of this isotope. Since this value is S7Su,
1
2
N
0
= N
0
c
-x5730

Thus,
z = -
1
S7Su
ln_
1
2
]
Using the properties of logarithms, we can also write
z =
ln2
S7Su
= 1.2u97 1u
-4

Back to our problem. Now we know that
N = N

e
- 1.2971
-4
t

If the burial case contained N
0
carbon atoms (or grams of the isotope) originally, once it was placed
underground it ceased to absorb the isotope and what was originally present started to decay without
being replenished. We know that what remains is 60% of the normal value. Therefore,
u.6N
0
= N
0
c
-1.209710
-4
t

Solving for t:
u.6 = c
-1.209710
-4
t
= -1.2u97 1u
-4
t = ln(u.6)
Thus,
t =
ln(u.6)
-1.2u97 1u
-4
= 4, 222. 75 years
The half-life formula is worth remembering:

Using this relationship, we can also write
N(t) = N
0
2
-t:
12

2 =
ln2
z
12

Half-Life Formula
If a radioactive substance has a half-life of
12
time units, then the decay constant is given
by
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Heat Conduction (Newtons Law of Cooling)
This model describes something that is very familiar to us: if a hot object is placed in contact with a cold object,
the hot object cools down and the cold object heats up until an equilibrium temperature is attained. The process
by which this happens is called heat conduction.
Imagine an insulated container containing a fluid whose initial temperature is
0
and suppose that we place in it
a hot object whose initial temperature is I
0
>
0
:

We know from experience that the temperature, I(t), of the object will decrease and that of the fluid, (t),
will increase until both the fluid and object are at the same equilibrium temperature E, at which time no more
heat exchange takes place (we say that equilibrium has been reached). The qualitative behavior of the
functions I and is shown below:

Newtons model states that the rate of change in temperature of the object is proportional to the difference in
temperature between the substance and the object:

dT
dt
= -k(T(t) -Q(t)); k > u (3)
Clearly when I(t) = (t),
d1
dt
= u. Furthermore, notice that if the object is hotter than its surroundings then
I(t) -(t) > u. Thus
dT
dt
< u as expected.
We now make a simplifying assumption: The substance is of such extent and characteristic that its temperature
remains essentially constant, that is, (t) = T
S
for all t. Then
dT
dt
= -k(T(t) -T
S
)
In addition, we assume that I(u) = I
0
.
This model makes sense: as the object cools, it does so at a slower rate as it approaches the equilibrium
temperature I
S
.

0

I
0

E
Q
0

t
Q(t)
E
T
0

t
T(t)
The magnitude of this slope is proportional
to , that is, I
i
= -k(I -I
S
).
I
S

T
u

time
T(t)

t
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Exercise: Suppose instead that the fluid in the contained is hotter than the object. Show that equation (4) is still a valid
model for I(t).
Thus, we have the first order linear initial value problem

dT
dt
+kT = kT
S
; T() = T

(4)
Let us solve this equation in general terms. By separation of variables,

dT
T -T
S
= -kdt; T() = T

Integrating,
_
Js
s -I
S
1
1
0
= _-kJr
t
0

Note: I
S
is a constant. The solution is
ln|I -I
S
| -ln|I
0
-I
S
| = -kt
Simplifying,
ln_
I -I
S
I
0
-I
S
_ = -kt
Solving for I(t),
_
I -I
S
I
0
-I
S
_ = c
-kt

Thus,

I -I
S
I
0
-I
S
= _c
-kt

Observe that I -I
S
and I
0
-I
S
must always have the same sign (why?). Therefore, their quotient must always
be positive. Thus,

I -I
S
I
0
-I
S
= c
-kt

Hence,

Exercise: Solve the model for the case I
0
< I
S
and show that I(t) < I
S
for all t u.

Example 6 Suppose that a small object initially at temperature I
0
= 2u C is placed in a bath whose
temperature is kept constant at I
S
= 4u C. Two minutes later the objects temperature is 24.S
o
C. a) find the
objects temperature at t = 1u minutes. b) how long will it take for the temperature to attain 99% of that of the
surroundings?
Solution
The initial value problem that we need to solve is:
JI
Jt
= -k(I -4u); I(u) = 2u
Solving the equation
JI
I -4u
= -kJt
Thus,
ln|I -4u| = -kt +c
Solving for I:
Working With This Model There is one parameter that need to be determined: the constant k. The temperature
of the surroundings will be given or will be implied by additional information and an additional temperature reading
at some time t > u allows us to find k.
T(t) = T
S
+(T

-T
S
)e
-kt

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I -4u = c
-kt+c

T(t) = 4 +Ae
-kt

[where c
c
= A]. Applying the initial condition,
I(u) = 4u +Ac
0
= 2u
Thus, A = -2 and
T(t) = 4 -2e
-kt

Notice that is conforms with the formula
I(t) = I
S
+(I
0
-I
S
)c
-kt

derived earlier. Since I(2) = 24.S
0
C:
4u -2uc
-k2
= 24.S
Solving for k:
4u -24.S = 2uc
-k2

oi
k = . 12745
Hence, the temperature function for this object is
T(t) = 4 -2e
-.12745t

To answer a),
I(1u) = 4u -2uc
-0.1274510

= 34. 41

C
To answer b), we seek the time at which I() = u.99 4u, that is,
4u -2uc
-0.12745:
= S9.6
Solving for ,
c
-0.12745:
= u.u2
= -
1
u.1274S
ln(u.u2)
= 3. 7 mtn
An application of Newtons Law of Cooling can be used to describe the temperature inside a building.
Suppose we have a building inside of which there are objects that might generate heat (lighting, people,
machines, etc.). We also have a devise which acts as a source or sink of heat a heater or air-conditioning unit.
Finally, we have the environment outside, whose temperature is not significantly affected by what goes on
inside the building, but which will have an effect in its interior since there is no such thing as perfect insulation.
From basic science, the of heat required to change the temperature of an object by an amount I is given by
Q = mcT
Thus,
I =

mc

If heat is added ( > u) to a system its temperature increases and if heat is removed ( < u), then it decreases.
Here where m = moss and c is a constant called the objects specific heat. The mass in question is the mass
of air inside the building.
Let
h(t) = rotc ot wbicb bcot is gcncrotcJ by ob]ccts in tbc builJing (ossumcJ to bc u)
u(t) = rotc ot wbicb bcot gcncrotcJ by Jc:iscs: ]
> u if heat geneiateu
< u if heat is iemoveu

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Let I(t) be the temperature inside the building and H(t) be that of the surroundings. In time t the buildings
temperature will change due to the heat produced by the objects, exchange with the surroundings, and operation
of the devises. Then,
I bcot rom sourccs +bcot rom Jc:isc +bcot cxcobngc witb surrounJings
or
I = o(h(t)t +u(t))t -k(I(t) -H(t))t
where o and k are positive constants [note that the last term corresponds to Newtons Law of Cooling].
Dividing by t and taking limos t -u:
JI
Jt
= o(h(t) +u(t)) -k(I(t) -H(t))
We may absorb the constant o into the functions b and u and rename them E and u. Then this equation
becomes the initial value problem:

dT
dt
= H(t) +U(t) -k(T(t) -M(t)); T() = T

(5)
Problems Involving Motion and Newtons Second Law
Free Fall with Air Resistance
Motion problems can be solved by applying Newtons Second Law, which states that an object that is acted
upon by a force will accelerate and this acceleration is proportional to the applied force:
Jp
Jt
= F
where p = mu is its linear momentum defined as the product of its mass and velocity. When several forces act
on an object of fixed mass Newtons Second Law states
m
Ju
Jt
= F ()
The units we use when we work with motion are
Quantity SI British
Distance Meter (m) Foot (ft)
Time Second (sec) Second (sec)
Mass Kilogram (Kg) Slug

Example 7 (Free Fall Motion with Air Resistance) An object is released from some height and allowed to drop
under the influence of the force of gravity. As it falls, it experiences drag which is assumed to be in magnitude
proportional to the objects speed but in the opposite direction of its motion. Determine the velocity vector.
Does the object attain a steady state of motion under these two forces?
Solution
The two force that act on the object are the force of gravity mg and the drag force D. The selection of
a frame of reference is crucial in problems like this because the wrong choice can make the
mathematics unnecessarily complicated. Let us choose our coordinate system with the positive y-axis
pointing down, in the direction of the force of gravity. This might be at first confusing since we
usually select up as the positive direction, but as you will see this simplifies the mathematics without
affecting the physics.
Let y denote the unit vector in the positive y- direction (see figure) and let :(t) denote the objects
vertical component of velocity at time t so that u(t) = :(t)y
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 10

The force of gravity in this coordinate system is given by
mg = mgy
where g has a value of 9.8 m/s
2
in the SI system and S2 ft/s
2
in English units.
We also assume that the drag force D is of the form
D = -bu(t)
where bis a positive constant. This is a typical assumption made in cases of low speeds in a normal
medium (e.g. not too viscous) and we will refer to these media as Type I media.
Applying Newtons Second Law,
m
Ju
Jt
= mg +D
or
m
Ju
Jt
= mg -bu(t)
Hence,
m
J|:(t)]
Jt
y = (mg -b:(t))y |vecoi equation]
Equating components,
m
J
Jt
:(t) = mg -b:(t) |scalai equation]
The corresponding initial value problem is
m
J:
Jt
= mg -b:(t); :(u) = u (7)
Equation (7) is an autonomous equation which we can write as

J:
Jt
= g -
b
m
:; :(u) = u
and it has one critical point:
:
ctcuI
=
mg
b

This critical value is called the objects terminal velocity, denoted by :
1
, and it represents the constant
speed which it will eventually attain.

mg
b

:(t)
t
:
0

y(t)
mg
D
u(t)
Objectmovingdown
y
0
+y
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Let us solve the equation using Separation of Variables:

J:
Jt
= g -
b
m
:
is a separable equation:

J:
g -
b
m
:
= Jt
or

mJ:
b: -mg
= -Jt
Integrating,
_
m
b: -mg
J: = _-Jt +k
Let u = b: -mg. Then Ju = bJ: and

m
b
_
b
b: -mg
J: = _-Jt +k
or

m
b
ln|b: -mg| = -t +k
Since : = u when t = u, we have
k =
m
b
ln|-mg|
Therefore,

m
b
ln|b: -mg| = -t +
m
b
ln|-mg|
Multiplying by bm:
ln|b: -mg| = -
b
m
t +ln|-mg|
ln_
b: -mg
-mg
_ = -
b
m
t
We can solve for :(t):
_
mg -b:
mg
_ = c
-
bt
m

Since mg > u,
|mg -b:| = mgc
-
bt
m

mg -b: = _mgc
-
bt
m

What is the sign of mg -b:? it must be positive for the case under consideration because of the
choice of coordinates as well as the initial velocity assumption.
Exercise: show that in this problem, mg -b: u
Solving for :(t),
:(t) =
mg
b
_1 -c
-
b
m
t
]
Once again,
lim
t-
:(t) = mgb
Furthermore, observe that :(t) < mgb at all times.
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When does the object actually attain its terminal velocity? Considering the equation for :(t) we derived the
answer is never. The terminal velocity is a limiting value because e
-
h
m
t
never becomes identically 0.
Therefore, u(t) never attains its limiting value
mg
h

Example 8 A 120 lb parachutist jumps from an altitude of 10,000 ft and free falls for 3 minutes. Suppose
b = u.7 and that we are in a Type I environment. a) what is her terminal velocity? b) does she attain it before
the three-minute free fall period? c) at what time does she attain 99% of her free fall velocity?
Solution
Using the equation for :
1
:
:
1
=
mg
b
=
12u
u.7
= 171.4S tscc
Remarks: 1) weight is not mass. When we are given the weight of something, we are actually given its
mg value. Thus, the mass of a person whose weight is 120 lb is
120
32
= S.7S slug. 2) 171.4S ftsec is
approximately 116.88 mph.
To answer b) we need do nothing since we know, from the formula we derived, that the terminal
velocity is never attained.
To answer c) we want to know when will :(t) = u.99 171.4S = 17u tscc. Thus, we must solve
the equation
17u =
mg
b
_1 -c
-
b
m
t
]
for t. Substituting the given values,
17u =
12u
u.7
_1 -c
-
0.7
3.75
t
]
Solving for the exponential part,
c
-
0.7
3.75
t
= 1 -
17u(u.7)
12u
= u.uu8SS
Hence,
t = -
S.7S
u.7
ln(u.uu8SS)
= 25. 5se
So make a note next time you jump out of a plane you will have attained your terminal velocity in
about 30 seconds after you are out. Safe landing!
Example 9 Obtain a more general expression for the position function of an object that is free to move
vertically in a Type I medium assuming it has an initial velocity :
0
j and initial position y(u) = y
0
.
Solution
Unlike the previous discussion example, we no longer know in which direction the object is initially
moving because we are not given the sign of :
0
. Therefore, we choose a coordinate system that is
familiar to us, as shown below.

Objectmovingdown
u(t)
mg
D
y(t)
y
0
+y
y
0

u(t)
Objectmovingup
mg
D
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 13

At some instant t the object is acted upon by the forces mg = -mgy and D = -bu where u(t) =
:(t)y. The function :(t) is now arbitrary and its sign will depend in which direction the object is
moving. Newton tells us that
m
Ju
Jt
= mg +D
Thus,
m
J:(t)
Jt
y = (-mg -b:(t))y
Equating components,
m
J:(t)
Jt
= -mg -b:(t); :(u) = :
0

we will solve this problem using an integrating factor. Writing the equation in standard form,
J:
Jt
+
b
m
: = -g; :(u) = :
0

An integrating factor is p = c
btm
. Therefore,
J
Jt
(:(t)c
btm
) = -gc
btm

Integrating from u to t,
:(t)c
bt
m
-:(u)c
0
= -g_ c
bum
t
0
Ju
or
:(t)c
btm
-:
0
= -
mg
b
(c
btm
-1)
Solving for :(t):
:(t) = [:
0
+
mg
b
c
-
bt
m
-
mg
b

Observe that :(t) < u as t - . This must be so because we selected a coordinate system in which
down is negative; eventually (provided that :
0
is not too large) the object will move in the
downward direction and will only stop when it makes impact with the gorund.
We integrate :(t) to obtain the position function:
y(t) = __[:
0
+
mg
b
c
-
bt
m
-
mg
b
_ Jt +k
= -
m
b
[:
0
+
mg
b
c
-
bt
m
-
mg
b
t +k
Applying the initial condition y(u) = y
0
:
-
m
b
[:
0
+
mg
b
+k = y
0

Therefore,
k = y
0
+
m
b
[:
0
+
mg
b

The position function is
y(t) = -
m
b
[:
0
+
mg
b
c
-
bt
m
-
mg
b
t +y
0
+
m
b
[:
0
+
mg
b

Simplifying,
y(t) = y
0
-
mg
b
t +
m
b
[:
0
+
mg
b
_1 -c
-
bt
m
]
Let us graph a typical position function with the following assumptions: m = Su Kg, b = 1.uu,
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 14

y
0
= 1uuu m, and :
0
= 1 ms and compare it to the position function for an object which free-falls
without any resistance. The position function for such free-falling body is given by
y(t) = 1uuu -49ut +Su(1 +49u) _1 -c
-
t
50
]
= 1uuu -49ut +24SSu _1 -c
-
t
50
]

Since :
0
> u, the object must initially move up. Here is the graph in a different time scale:

Exercise: Compare these results to the ones obtained when no resistive forces are present, in which case
y = y
0
+:
0
t -
1
2
gt
2

Example 10 (Two Regimes Problem) A SKg object is released from rest and free falls under the influence of
gravity from a height of Su m above a body of water. When it strikes the water, it sinks and its motion is
governed by three forces: the force of gravity, the buoyant, and a drag force. Assume that the buoyant force is
u.Smg. Also assume that air resistance is proportional to velocity with proportionality constant 10 and water
offers a resistive force proportional to velocity with proportionality constant 6u. Find the objects equation of
motion and its velocity one minute after it is released. Use g = 1u to simplify the calculations.
Solution
For falling objects, it is better to place the origin of coordinates at the starting point of the motion and
align the axis so that positive is in the direction of motion:

2 4 6 8 10
600
700
800
900
1000
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
999.4
999.6
999.8
1000.0
m
J:
1
Jt
= mg - 1u:
1
; :
1
(u) = u
m
J:
2
J
= mg - 6u:
2
-
1
2
mg; :
2
(u) = :
1,tc

Part 1: During free fall:
Part 2: After entering the water:
Where :
1,tc
is the speed with which the object hits the
water and will be obtained from part 1. is the time as
measured by a clock at the surface of the water. It starts
the moment the object strikes the water.
0
+y
R
1

R
1

mg
B
mg
y
Su
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 15

Let us solve each part:
Part 1:
S
J:
1
Jt
= S 1u -1u:
1
; :
1
(u) = u
a separable equation
J:
1
:
1
-S
= -2Jt; :
1
(u) = u
Integrating,
_
J:
1
:
1
-S

1
0
= -2_ Jt
t
0

ln_
:
1
-S
S
_ = -2t
Solving for :
1
(t):
|:
1
(t) -S| = Sc
-2t

So that
:
1
(t) = S _Sc
-2t

We select the function that satisfies the initial condition and that would be
:
1
(t) = S -Sc
-2t

Exercise: show that both S +Sc
-2t
and S -Sc
-2t
satisfy the differential equation.
Thus, the solution for part 1 is
u
1
(t) = S(1 -c
-2t
)y
To determine the objects velocity one minute after it is released, we need to know whether it is still
free falling, or it is already in the water, so let us first calculate how long it takes for the object to hit
the water.
The objects position function before impact is found by integration:
y
1
(t) -y
1
(u) = _ S(1 -c
-2s
)
t
0
Js
[note: our origin was located at the point where the object started its motion, therefore, y
1
(u) = u.
Furthermore, y
1
(t) is an increasing function oftbecause we picked down as the positive direction].
y
1
(t) = _ S(1 -c
-2s
)
t
0
Js
y
1
(t) =
5
2
|e
-2t
+2t -1]
The object hits the water when y
1
(t) = Su. Thus, we need to solve the equation
S
2
|c
-2t
+2t -1] = Su
There is no simple way to solve this equation. Numerical techniques may be used and of course a
computer can help a great deal. Let T the time of impact. Then it can be shown
3
that T = . 5 se.
Thus, the oneminute mark takes place once the object is in the water and we need to solve the
velocity function for this portion.
First, we need to find the velocity just as the object hits the water because this is the initial condition
for Part 2. This velocity is u
1
(6.S) = S(1 -c
-26.5
)y. We denoted this vectors magnitude by :
1,tc
:
:
1,tc
= S msec

3
The value 6.S was found using the NSolve command in Mathematica.
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 16

We are ready foiPart 2. The objects motion is now governed by the equation
4

S
J:
2
J
= S 1u -6u:
2
-2S; :
2
(u) = S
Simplifying:
J:
2
J
= 1u -12:
2
; :
2
(u) = S
Note: is measured by a clock at the water level and it starts ticking the moment the object enters the
water. At that time, the towers clock already reads 6.S sec. Thus, the connection between these two
clocks is t = z +. 5.
Separating variables,
J:
2
S -6:
2
= 2J; :
2
(u) = S
Integrating,
-
1
6
_
-6Js
S -6s

2
5
= 2_ Jr
:
0

ln|S -6s|

2
5
= 12
ln| -2S| -ln|S -6:
2
| = 12
Solving for :
2
(),
:
2
() =
S
6
(1 +Sc
-12:
)
In order to find the velocity at the oneminute mark from the moment the object was released, we use
the relation t = +6.S. The one-minute mark corresponds to = 6u -6.S = SS.S sec. Thus,
:
2
(SS.S) =
S
12
(1 +c
-1253.5
)
= . 42 m se
or about 42 cm/ sec.
Example 11 In order to dispose of used up nuclear material form operation of nuclear reactors, waste is placed
in drums and dropped in the ocean. As the drums sink, their speed :(t) varies in response to the forces acting
on it.
Suppose a typical drum weighs w = 64u lb and has volume 8 ft
S
. If it is released into the ocean and it is
assumed that the force of resistance in water is equal to 1 lb for each foot per second of the drums velocity,
what is the maximum depth to which it can be dropped given that it is likely to burst upon impact at speeds
higher than 7S ft/sec?
Solution
Assume a vertical axis in which positive displacement is measured downwards. Newtons Second
Law tells us that
m
J:
Jt
= w-B -R
wheie w = the weight of the uium, B = buoyant foice, anu R = foice of watei iesistance.
We have: w = 64u lb, the buoyant force which can be obtained using Archimedes Principle, and the
resistive force which is assumed to be equal to 1 lb for each foot per second of the drums velocity.
hence,
B = wcigbt o wotcr JisploccJ

4
We made the following assumption: as the object hits the water, its terminal velocity at the end of motion in the first
regime equals its initial speed in regime 2.

Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 17

Since the drums are dropped in the ocean, the weight of the water displaced is equal to the specific
weight of ocean water volume of the drum. Thus
5
,
B = 62.S
Ib
It
3
8 ft
3
= Suu lb
The resistive force is given to us to be proportional to the velocity of the drum with proportionality
constant 1:
R

= -1 :
The mass of a 64u lb uium is
640
32
= 2u slug. Therefore, by Newtons Second Law,
2u
J:
Jt
= 64u -Suu -:; :(u) = u
oi
J:
Jt
+
1
2u
: = 7; :(u) = u
This is a first order initial value problem with integrating factor p = exp[
1
20
t. Applying the
integrating factor,
J
Jt
_c
t
20
:] = 7c
t
20

Integrating,
c
t
20
: -:(u) = 7_ c
s
20
t
0
Js
or
c
t
20
: = 14u _c
t
20
-1]
Thus,
:(t) = 14u _1 -c
-
t
20
]
We wish to find the depth to which a tank must sink when its speed just hits the 7S ft/sec mark.
Therefore, we must first find the time it take to do that.
The equation
7S = 14u _1 -c
-
t
20
]
gives us t = 15. 35 se.
From the expression for :(t) we can find the depth function. Let y(t) be that depth. Then
Jy
Jt
= :(t)
Integrating,
y(t) -y(u) = _ :(s)
t
0
Js
Since we placed the origin at the surface of the ocean, y(u) = u.
y(t) = 14u _ [1 -c
-
s
20

t
0
Js
= 14u [s +2uc
-
s
20

0
t

y(t) = 14u _t +2uc
-
t
20
] -14u(u +2u)

5
We assume that the drums sink so quickly that we can ignore the variable buoyant force at the instant they hit the water. We also take
the specific weight of ocean water to be approximately 62.S
Ib
It
3

Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 18

Simplifying,
y(t) = 14u_t +2uc
-
t
20
] -28uu
When t = 1S.SS sec,
y(1S.SS) = 14u _1S.SS +2uc
-
15.35
20
] -28uu
= 48. 8 It
The tanks should be dropped in waters no deeper than 648 feet.
Inclines
Example 12 (The Incline Problem) a wood block of mass m is placed on an incline of length I which makes an
angle o with the horizontal (see figure below). The coefficient of kinetic friction between the object and the
surface is p so that the frictional force is given by F
]c
= pN where N is the normal force on the object.
Assume that the only retarding force is the frictional force. 1) Find the velocity :(t) and position x(t) relative
to the top of the incline. 2) Find the time it takes the object to reach the bottom of the incline.

Solution
The figure illustrates the forces acting on the object as well as the components of these forces which
are needed in the calculations. The only forces responsible for the motion along the incline are the
component of the gravitational force mgsino and the frictional force F
]c
whose magnitude is
pmgcos o [ For all intensive purposes this object lies on a horizontal plane and is pulled by two opposing forces
of magnitudes mgsino and pmgcos o].
Let us introduce a coordinate system with its origin at the top of the incline where the blockbegins its
motion and whose positive x-axis runs along the length of the incline:

Newton tells us that
m
J:
Jt
= mgsino -pmgcos o ; :(u) = u
or
J:
Jt
= gsino -pgcos o ; :(u) = u
o
F
]c
N
mg
mg cos o
mgsino
o
0
x(t)
o
F
]c
mg sino
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 19

Note that we assumed that there was an initial nudge to overcome friction because the coefficient of
static friction is larger than that of kinetic friction. We will assume that this is the case but that :(u) is
very small.
This differential equation could not be easier; all the quantities on the right-hand side are constant.
Thus,
_ J:

0
= _ |g sino -pgcos o]
t
0
Jt
or
:(t) = g|sino -p cos o]t
The position function is found by another integration:
x(t) -x(u) = _ :(s)
t
0
Js
Thus,
x(t) =
g
2
|sino -p cos o]t
2

Finally, the time the block takes to reach the bottom of the incline is calculated from the equation
g
2
|sino -p cos o]t
2
= I
which gives us
t = _
2I
g|sino -p cos o]

Exercise When an object falls under the influence of gravity only from a height E its potential energy u = mgE is
converted into kinetic energy I =
1
2
m:
2
and conservation of energy requires that at all times the total mechanical energy
E = u +I be a constant. Calculate the time it takes the block in example 12 to reach the bottom of the incline if there is
no frictional losses.
Example 13 (an application to physics) the Work-Energy Theorem in physics states that if a force F acts on an
object, then the work done by that force as the object moves from point A to point B is equal to the objects
change in kinetic energy:
w
A-B
_ F
S
Js
x
B
x
A
=
1
2
m:
B
2
-
1
2
m:
A
2

where F
S
is the component of the force along the objects motion, m is the objects mass, and : its speed. Use
the method of separation of variables to establish this result.
Solution
Let us place the x-axis along the objects motion so that F
S
is a function of x, denote it by F(x)
[actually F
S
is the component of a vector field along the objects motion]. We wish to show that
_ F(x)Jx
x
B
x
A
=
1
2
m:
B
2
-
1
2
m:
A
2

According to Newtons second law of motion
6
,
F = ma
Since o = J:Jt,
F = m
J:
Jt

But F is a function of x. Therefore, by the Chain Rule,

6
Actually F = JPJt where P = mu is the correct statement in this law.
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 20

F(x) = m
J:
Jx

Jx
Jt

= m
J:
Jx
:
The condition that we are given is that the object starts at x
A
with speed :
A
: :(x
A
) = :
A

Separating variables:
F(x)Jx = m:(x)J:
_ F(x)Jx
x
B
x
A
= _ m

A
:J:
Thus,
_ F(x)Jx
x
B
x
A
=
1
2
m:
2
_

B

which gives us the important result
W
A-B
=
1
2
mu
B
2
-
1
2
mu
A
2

Tanks and Mixture Problems
Draining Tanks
We are now interested in deriving and solving the differential equation that governs the height b(t) of the water
column in a tank of cross-section area A which has a hole of area o through which water can escape.

In time t, the amount of fluid I that comes out of the tank forms a small cylinder of volume Height o or
I = o :t
where : is the speed of the fluid just as it leaves the tank. This is precisely the volume lost by the tank in this
time interval. Hence, the change in volume of fluid in the tank is
I = -o :t
or

I
t
= -o :
as t - u,

JI
Jt
= -o :
The formula for : is obtained from energy considerations: A particle of water that starts at the surface of the of
the column of fluid and drops to the point of exit will give up its potential energy mgb to kinetic energy
1
2
m:
2

at the point of exit:
mgb =
1
2
m:
2

Therefore,
: = 2gb
A
Area a

h
Cross-section o
Height = :t
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 21

Hence, the volume in the tank changes according to
JI
Jt
= -o 2gb
where b(t) is the height of the water column in the tank at time t. Finally, b and I are related by the equation
I = A b
from which we obtain
dv
dt
= A
dh
dt
Solving for JbJt,
Jb
Jt
= -
o
A
2gb
This formula represents the perfect fluid and it is an idealized situation. In reality there are energy loses due
to friction and other factors, so we make an adjustment by introducing a empirical constant y with u < y < 1:

Note that y = 1 corresponds to the perfect case and y = u could represent a situation of an extremely viscous
fluid for example.
Example 14 A water tower S meters height and rectangular cross-section 4 m
2
has a circular hole 12 cm in
diameter. Using the model above with y = u.7, a) how high is the water level two minutes after the water
starts to drain? b) How long will it take to empty the tank?
Solution
We have o = n [
6
100

2
= u.u11S1 m
2
, A = 4 m
2
and b(u) = S. Thus,
Jb
Jt
= -
u.u11S1
4
u.7 2gb
Jb
Jt
= -u.uu19792gb
Separating variables,
Jb
b
= -kJt
Where we let k = u.uu19792g = u.uu8762 to keep things simple. The integral solution is
2b
12
= -kt +c
Since b = S when t = u,
2 S
12
= -k u +c
so c = 4.4721. The solution is therefore
2b
12
= -u.uu8762 t +4.4721
From which it follows that
b(t) = _
-u.uu8762t +4.4721
2
]
2

To answer a), t = 12u scc. Thus,
b(12u) = _
-u.uu8762 12u +4.4721
2
]
2
= 2. 93 m
To answer b), the tank will be empty when b(t) = u. This will happen when
-u.uu8762t +4.4721 = u = t = 51. 4 xec

dh
dt
= -
a
A
y2gh (8)
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 22

We should put this model to the test. Let us perform the experiment with at tin can whose inside dimensions are
Jiomctcr = 7.SS cm, bcigbt = 9.S cm (this is the mark at which the can is considered to be filled) and with a
hole 0.6 cmin uiametei at its bottom.Since all the dimensions are in centimeters we will convert the formula

Jb
Jt
= -
o
A
y 2gb
to these units by replacing 9.8 ms
2
with 98u cms
2
. Also, since the container is a cylinder and the hole was
carefully made to ensure that it is circular, we can rewrite the formula in terms of the measured variables, which
in this case are the diameters:
A
circlc
= nr
2
= n _
J
2
]
2
=
nJ
2
4

Thus,
Jb
Jt
= -_
J
bolc
J
con
]
2
y 2gb
whose solution is
b(t) = _b
0
12
-
1
2
_
J
hoIc
J
cun
]
2
y2g t_
2

The time to empty the can is
t =
2
y [
J
hoIc
J
cun

2
_
b
0
2g

[verify the algebra]. Using our data,
=
2
u.7 [
u.6
7.SS

2
_
9.S
196u
= 29. 37 se
Let us calculate the perfect time with y = 1:
t
pcrcct
=
2
[
J
bolc
J
con

2
_
b
u
2g
= 2. 5 se
Here are the actual data for the experiment:
Trial # Time (sec)
1 25.00
2 24.00
3 24.99
4 25.40
5 25.00
6 25.60
t
aug

24.99

What we learn from this experiment is the following: If we assume the model we derived is the correct one,
then our choice of y, which was completely arbitrary, is wrong. As we discussed in class, I chose it practically
at random so it is not surprising that our calculated value of 29.S7 sec is substantially off.
Using the average value found on the table we can re-calculate the empirical value of y for this particular can.
Once we have it, we can reformulate our model using it and test it again. Here is the empirical value of y:
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 23

y =
2
t
aug
_
d
hu|e
d
can
]
2
_
h

2g

=
2
24.99 [
u.6
7.SS

2
_
9.S
196u

= . 82278
Phase two of this experiment consists of verifying the formula we derived by using this new value of y but with
varying heights of the water column. The table below shows the results of trials performed with three different
water heights. Each trial was conducted three times in order to average out the time. The new formula used to
obtain the theoretical values of t is
t =
2
. 82278[
u.6
7.SS

_
b
0
196u

Water level
(cm)
Theoretical Time
(sec)
Measured Time (sec) %
Error
8.1 23.32 24 2.9
7.2 21.99 22 0.05
6.5 20.89 20 4.0

Considering the crudeness of the experiment these are very good values and so it looks like our model is
acceptable.
The Draining Tank - a General Case
Suppose now that the tank has a more general geometry with horizontal cross-sectional area A(y) as shown
below and that the hole is of area o (and of no particular shape). Notice also that we will be using the variable
y instead of b.

Now we need to connect the variables y and I. Previously, because of the geometry of the tank, we were able
to express I as a function of y (previously denote by h). The relation between I and y is not simple any more
because the shape. However, consider the following figure:

I
t
= -o:
JI
Jt
= -o 2gy
In time t, the amount of fluid leaving the tank is
given by I = o:t where : is the speed of the
fluid as it leaves that tank. Therefore, the rate of
change in volume of fluid in the tank is
Up to this point the derivation is as before. the
equation that ensues from this argument is the
same:
o
Cross-section area A(y)
y
y
y
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 24

The volume of the fluid obeys the equation
I = _ A(z)

0
Jz
By the chain rule and the FTC,
JI
Jt
=
JI
Jy

Jy
Jt
= A(y)
Jy
Jt

Thus,
A(y)
Jy
Jt
= -o 2gy
Solving for JyJt:
Jy
Jt
= -
o
A(y)
2gy ; y(u) = y
0

If we adjust for frictional losses,

Jy
Jt
= -y
o
A(y)
2gy ; y(u) = y
0
(9)
where u < y < 1.
Thus, if we know the geometry of the cross-sectional area, we can solve the problem.
Example 15 A gas tank has the shape shown in the figure below and the outlet valve is a circular hole 1u cm in
diameter. Using the model above with y = 1, how long will it take to drain the tank? (Assume the top lid is
rectangular). This problem will require technology for the integral.

Solution
We need to obtain a formula for the cross-sectional area:

The figure on the right allows us to write x
2
+(y -1)
2
= 1 since we have a circular cross-section. Thus, the
area of the slab is
A(y) = 2x 8 = 161 -(y -1)
2

Substituting in equation (9),
1u cm
Semicircle of radius r = 1m
l = 8m
1 m
y
y
1m
x
x
Lower portion of the circle
x
2
+ (y -1)
2
= 1
l = 8m
y
y
o
y
y
z
y
z
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 25

Jy
Jt
= -
n(u.uS)
2
161 -(y -1)
2
2gy ; y(u) = 1

Jy
Jt
= -u.uu22
y
1 -(y -1)
2
; y(u) = 1
Thus,
_
1 -(s -1)
2
s

1
Js = -u.uu22 _ J
t
0

MATHEMATICA tells us that
_
1 -(s -1)
2
s

1
=
2
S
-
2
S
(2 -y)
3 2

We have
2
S
-
2
S
(2 -y)
3 2
= -u.uu22t
The tank is empty when y = u. Then
t = -
1
u.uu22
_
2
S
-
2
S
(2 -u)
3 2
]
= 554. 7se

Problems Involving First Order Linear Models
Mixture Problems
Mixture problems involve the influx of a chemical into a mixture tank accompanied by an outflow of mixture
from of the tank. The physical units in problems involving mixtures are:
MKS British Variations
Volume Liter (L) Gallon (gal) Milliliter, cubic ft., etc
mass Kilogram (Kg) Pound (lb)
7
Grams, milligrams, etc.
Time Second (sec) Second (sec) Minute, hour, day.

Suppose we have a tank containing a chemical mixture initially containing :
0
gallons of solution in which A
0

lbs of some chemical have been dissolved. Suppose also that additional solution containing the chemical with
concentration c
|n
flows into the tank at a rate r
|n
, and the well-stirred mixture is drained from the tank at a rate
r
uut
. What is the amount A(t) of chemical present in the tank at a later time t?
The analysis of this problem can be summarized in the following diagram which will be used thought the
mixture examples:

7
This is not a measure of mass, it is a measure of weight. Nevertheless, it is used as such in most textbooks.
Solution of concentration
c
|n
lb/gal goes in at a rate
of r
|n
gal/min
Mixture comes out at a
rate of r
uut
gal/min
Initially: :
0
gal,
A
0
lb. of
chemical
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 26

Here is the model for this situation:
The rate at which the amount A(t) of chemical changes must equal the rate at which chemical is added minus the
rate at which chemical is removed. In the language of mathematics:
dA
dt
= rate u chem|ca| |n -rate u chem|ca| uut
How do we obtain these rates? The in rate is easy: if solution flows in at a rate of r
n
gal/min (the units are
not important as long as we are consistent) and each gallon contains c
n
lb/gal, then the rate at which chemical
is added is given by
rate u chem|ca| |n = r
|n
c
|n

Similarly, the rate at which the chemical is removed is given by
rate u chem|ca| |n = r
uut
c
uut

The problem is: we dont know what c
uut
is because it is changing all the time. However, concentration is
given by
omount ocbcmicol
:olumc o solution

In general these two quantities are changing in time, but we know how much solution there was initially in the
tank, the rate at which it is being added, and the rate at which it is being removed. Therefore, we can determine
the volume :(t) of solution in the tank at any time t. We also denoted the amount of chemical by A(t).
Therefore,
c
uut
=
A(t)
u(t)

where :(t) = :
0
+(r
n
-r
out
)t. Thus, we can write our differential equation in A(t):

This is a first order linear initial value problem which we can write in standard form as
JA
Jt
+
r
0ut
:(t)
A(t) = r
n
c
n
; A(u) = A
0

where
r
n
= rotc ot wbicb "chemical" gocs in.
r
0ut
= rotc ot wbicb "chemical" gocs out.
:(t) = :olumc o solution in tbc tonk ot timc t.
= :
0
+(r
n
-r
out
)t
Example 16 A tank contains a 10-gallon mixture in which 4 lbs of salt are dissolved. A solution containing salt
(called brine) of concentration u.S lb/gal enters the tank at a rate of 1 gal/min and is quickly mixed. The
mixture leaves the tank at rate of 2 gal/min. (a) How long does it take for the tank to be completely empty?
(b) Find the salinity (measured by the amount of salt per gallon of mixture) of the tank at t = S.
Solution

dA
dt
= r
|n
c
|n
-r
uut

A(t)
u(t)
; A() = A

()
Solution of concentration
u.S lb/gal goes in at a rate
of 1 gal/min
Mixture comes out at a
rate of 2 gal/min
Initially: 1u gal,
4 lb of salt
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 27

The equation is
dA
dt
= rate u xa|t |n -rate u xa|t uut
rotc solt in = 1
gol
min
u.S
lb
gol
= . 5
|h
m|n

Observe that we obtain the rate at which salt goes in by multiplying the rate at which solution goes in
times the concentration of that solution. Similarly,
rate of salt out = rate of mixture coming out times the concentration of the mixture
The concentration of the solution coming out of the tank is changing in time and is given by
c(t) =
A(t)
u(t)

Thus, if we know the volume :(t) of solution in the tank present at any time t, we can obtain an
expression for the concentration of the mixture coming out. We can write a formula for the volume as
a function of time t:
u(t) = u

+(r
|n
-r
uut
) t
Where u

## is the initial volume of the mixture in the tank, r

|n
and r
uut
are the rates at which mixture
enters and exist the tank, respectively. In this example, a fluid (which could be pure water) goes in at
a rate of r
n
= 1 gal/min and the mixture goes out at a rate of r
out
= 2 gal/min. Therefore the
mixtures volume is changing at a rate of -1 golmin, that is, it is decreasing by one gallon every
minute. Thus,
u(t) = 1 -t
The concentration in the tank, and also that of the out-flowing solution, is given by
c(t) =
A(t)
1u -t

(a) from the volume equation, the tank will be empty when :(t) = u, that is, when t = 1 m|n.
(b) To answer the second question, we solve the equation that governs this problem:
JA
Jt
= rotc o solt in -rotc o solt out
= u.S
lb
min
-2
A(t)
1u -t

lb
min

Since we originally had 4 lb of salt in the tank, A(u) = 4 lb. Therefore, the initial value problem is:
JA
Jt
= u.S -2
A(t)
1u -t
; A(u) = 4
Observe that this equation is not separable. However it is a linear first order equation and therefore we
can find an integrating factor:
Writing it in standard form:

JA
Jt
+
2
1u -t
A(t) = u.S ; A(u) = 4 (o)
an integrating factor for this equation is
p = c
]
2
10-t
dt
= c
-2]
-1
10-t
dt

= c
-2In(10-t)

= (1u -t)
-2

Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 28

Multiplying (a) by the I.F.
(1u -t)
-2

JA
Jt
+
2
1u -t
(1u -t)
-2
A(t) = u.S(1u -t)
-2

Thus,
J
Jt
((1u -t)
-2
A(t)) = u.S(1u -t)
-2

Integrating,
_
J
Jr
((1u -r)
-2
A(r))
t
0
Jr = _ u.S(1u -s)
-2
t
0
Js

(1u -t)
-2
A(t) -(1u)
-2
A(u) = _ u.S(1u -s)
-2
t
0
Js
(1u -t)
-2
A(t) -
4
1uu
= -
1
2
_ (1u -s)
-2
t
0
(-1)Js
(1u -t)
-2
A(t) =
1
2S
+
1
2
_
1
1u -t
-
1
1u
_
(1u -t)
-2
A(t) =
1
2(1u -t)
+
1
2S
-
1
2u

(1u -t)
-2
A(t) =
1
2(1u -t)
-
1
1uu

Solving A(t),
A(t) =
1
2
(1 -t) -
1
1
(1 -t)
2

Graphically,

We can find the salinity at t = S from the graph: A(S) = S lb. Also, :(S) = 7. Therefore, the salinity at
t = S,
S =
A(S)
:(S)
=
S
7
= u.429
lb
gol

Example 17 A tank containing a 4u liters mixture in which 6 Kg of salt are dissolved. Pure water enters the
tank at a rate of S L/min and is quickly mixed. The mixture leaves the tank at the same rate of S L/min. Find
the amount of salt o(t) in the tank two minutes after pure water starts flowing into the tank.
Solution

2 4 6 8 10
1
2
3
4
t
A(t)
Pure water goes in at a rate
of S L/min
Mixture comes out at a
rate of S L/min
Initially: 40 L,
6 Kg of salt.
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 29

Notice that in this example there is no net gain or loss of solution in the tank since the rate at which it
is filled equal the rate at which it is evacuated: r
|n
= r
uut
. Therefore, u(t) = u

at all times.
We can organize the given information in a table:

IN OUT
RATE OF SOLUTION S L/min S L/min
CONCENTRATION u a(t)u(t)
RATE OF SALT S u = 3 a(t)u(t)

The equation
da
dt
= rate u xa|t |n -rate u xa|t uut
becomes,
Jo
Jt
= u -S
o(t)
:(t)

All we need is :(t). Since as much stuff goes in as it comes out, :(t) is constant and equal to 4uL at
all times, because this is what we had in the tank to begin with. Also, o(u) = 6. Therefore, this
initial value problem is
Jo
Jt
= -
S
4u
o(t); o(u) = 6
Written in standard form as a first order linear equation,
Jo
Jt
+
S
4u
o(t) = u; o(u) = 6
However, the problem is so straightforward for separation of variables that we will solve it using that
method instead:

Thus, the amount of salt 2 minutes later is

o(2) = 6c
-
3
20

= 5. 1 L
It does not look like a whole lot of salt was removed. How can we be one hundred percent sure that
our answer is the correct one? first, the function we found certainly obeys the initial condition [verify].
Next, it satisfies the differential equation:
Jo
Jt
= -
18
4u
c
-
3
40
t

= -
S
4u
_6c
-
3
40
t
]
Jo
o
= -
S
4u
Jt
_
Js
s
A
6
= -
S
4u
_ Jr
t
0

lno -ln6 = -
S
4u
(t -u)
ln[
o
6
= -
S
4u
t
a(t) = e
-
3
4
t

Using the definite integral:
Integrating,

Jo
o
= -
S
4u
Jt
_
Jo
o
= -
S
4u
_Jt
lno = -
S
4u
t +c
lna -ln = -
3
4
t
Using the indefinite integral:
Integrating,
Applying the initial condition o(u) = 6 gives us
ln6 = c. Thus,
and the same answer follows.
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 30

= -
3
40
o(t)
By the Existence and Uniqueness Theorem, we found the only solution. If our answer of S.16 gol is
incorrect, it is only because we might have made operational mistakes along the way.
Example 18 A reservoir with a volume of 8 billion cubic feet contains a pollutant whose initial concentration is
u.2S%. The reservoir receives a daily inflow of Suu million cubic feet of water which contains a concentration
of u.uS% of the same pollutant, and leaves the reservoir at the same rate. Assuming that we can neglect the time
it takes for the pollutant to diffuse throughout the reservoir, in how many days will the pollutant concentration
in the reservoir be reduced to u.1u%?
Solution
When dealing with different orders of magnitude it is useful to convert them to the same denomination.
Since we are dealing with millions and billions, 8 billion ft
3
is the same as 8uuu million ft
3
so we will
operate in millions only [we are using billion as it is used in the United States].
The situation is shown in the following figure [note: all numbers are in millions]:

Let o(t) be the amount of pollutant in the tank (in million ft
3
). Since the volume of the reservoir
remains a constant 8000 (million cubic feet), we want to know the value oft for which
o(t) = u.uu1 8uuu = 8 ft
3

The equation governing the amount of pollutant in the reservoir is
Jo
Jt
= rotc o pollutont in -rotc o pollutont out
= Suu u.uuuS -Suu
o(t)
8uuu
; o(u) = 2uft
3

The corresponding first order initial value problem is:
Jo
Jt
= Suu u.uuuS -Suu
o(t)
8uuu
; o(u) = 2uft
3

or
da
dt
+
1
1
a(t) = . 25 ; a() = 2It
3

Using p = c
t16
:
J
Jt
(c
t16
o) = u.2Sc
t16

Integrating from t = u to arbitrary t > u:
c
t
16
o(t) -2u = u.2S_ c
s16
t
0
Js
Therefore,
c
t
16
o(t) -2u = 4_c
t
16
-1]
u.2S% of 8uuu
Polluted water goes in at a rate
r = 500 ft
3
/day and with
pollutant concentration of 0.05%
Mixture comes out at a
rate of r = 500 ft
3
/day
Initially: 8000 ft
3
polluted
water with pollutant
concentration of 0.25%
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 31

Solving for o(t):
o(t) = 2uc
-
t
16
+4_1 -c
-
t
16
]
Simplifying,
a(t) = 1e
-
t
1
+4
Finally we solve o(t) = 8 for t:
16c
-
t
16
+4 = 8
c
-
t
16
= u.2S
Solving fort: t = 22. 18 days
Example 19 A tank containing a 1uu liters mixture of 1u% sulfuric acid by volume is flushed by adding pure
water at a rate of S Lmin and simultaneously evacuating it at the same rate. The flushed solution enters
another 1uuL tank which initially is full of pure water and which is allowed to overflow into a containment
tank. Determine the time at which the acid concentration is the greatest in the second tank.
Solution
Let I
1
(t) be the volume of acid in the mixture of tank I and I
2
(t) that of tank II. As usual we will use
lower case :(t) to denote the volume of solution in the tanks.

TANK I TANK II
IN OUT IN OUT
RATE OF SOLUTION S L/min S L/min S L/min S L/min
CONCENTRATION u I
1
(t):
1
(t) I
1
(t):
1
(t) I
2
(t):
2
(t)
RATE OF ACID S u = 5 F
1
(t)u
1
(t) 5 F
1
(t)u
1
(t) 5 F
2
(t)u
2
(t)

Notice that there is no net gain or loss of solution in either tank. Therefore, u
1
(t) = 1 L and
u
2
(t) = 1 L.
The differential equations are:
JI
1
Jt
= u -S
I
1
(t)
1uu
; I
1
(u) = 1u (Tanh I)

JI
2
Jt
= S
I
1
(t)
1uu
-S
I
2
(t)
1uu
; I
2
(u) = u (Tanh II)
This is an example of a linear system. We are interested in finding the maximum value of
v
2
(t)
100
which
represents the concentration in tank II. We know from calculus that the critical points to consider are
ones at which
I
II
Pure water goes in at a
rate of S L/min
Mixture comes out of tank
I at a rate of S L/min.
Initially: 100 L,
1u L of sulfuric
acid
Overflow S L/min
1uu L of water receives
the solution from tank I.
Acid enters this tank.
Copyright Ren Barrientos Page 32

J [
I
2
1uu

Jt
= u =
JI
2
Jt
= u
But the problem is that JI
2
Jt depends of both I
1
and I
2
. Therefore, we must solve this system which
is fairly straight forward in this case because the first equation does not involve I
2
(t).
The equation for tank I is separable:
JI
1
I
1
=
-S
1uu
Jt; I
1
(u) = 1u
Integrating,
_
JI
1
I
1
v
1
10
= -_
1
2u
t
0
Jt
Thus,
ln_
I
1
1u
_ = -
1
2u
t
Since I
1
> u,
I
1
(t) = 1uc
-t20

We may substitute this in the equation for tank II to obtain:
JI
2
Jt
= S
1uc
-t20
1uu
-S
I
2
(t)
1uu
; I
2
(u) = u
or
JI
2
Jt
=
1
2
c
-t20
-
1
2u
I
2
(t); I
2
(u) = u
This is also linear equation with integrating factor c
t20
. Thus,
J
Jt
_c
t
20
I
2
] =
1
2
; I
2
(u) = u
Integrating,
_c
t
20
I
2
]
0
t
=
1
2
t
c
t
20
I
2
-u =
1
2
t
Thus
I
2
(t)
1uu
=
1
2uu
tc
-
t
20

Differentiating and setting the derivative to u:
J
Jt
I
2
(t)
1uu
=
1
2uu
_c
-
t
20
-
t
2u
c
-
t
20
] = u
gives us the critical point t = 2. The figure below corresponds to
1
200
tc
-
t
20
and shows that here is
where
v
2
(t)
100
attains a max.

5 10 15 20 25 30
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035