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The structure of the atom


1. books Light electricity air water pens chair

a) Matter is anything that has volume and weight, from the words in the box above, choose the correct example of matter and write the answer in the space given. Example of matter : 1) Books 2) Pens 3) Chairs 4) Water 5) Air b) (i) Elementary particles that make up matter may be an atom, molecule or ion. Fill in the blanks with the correct answer. a) An atom is the smallest particles of an element that can participate in a chemical reaction. b) A molecule is a group of two or more atoms which are chemically bonded together. c) An ion is a positively charged or negatively charged particle. (ii) Underline the correct answer with the correct specification:a) NaCl ( atom , molecule , ion ) b) Cu ( atom , molecule , ion ) c) O2( atom , molecule , ion ) d) Evidence movement of particles is diffusion. Diffusion is a random movement of particles from a region of ( high, low ) concentration to a region ( high, low ) concentration. c) (i) 3 states of matter, there are :-

Solid

Liquid

Gas

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(ii)

Fill in the blanks with the word in the box below. Far apart Medium Easily difficult very strong strong very weak low high very closely disorderly

States Solid Arrangement of Particles are orderly and particles very closely packed together. Forces of attraction between particles Density Compressibility Very strong forces.

Liquid Particles are closely but disorderly packed together. Strong forces but weaker than in solid. Medium Difficult to compress. T

Gas Particles are far apart in a random arrangement.

Very weak forces.

High Not compressible

low Easily compressed.

(iii) SOLID

P LIQUID R Name the following process correctly : a) P : Melting process b) Q : Boiling process c) R : Freezing process d) S : Condensation process e) T : Sublimation process

Q GAS S

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(d)

Temperature(C ) K

boiling point freezing point

M N O P Time(min)

The cooling curve of naphthalene Based on the figure above, circle the correct answer. Section of the cooling curve 1) At point K 2) Between points K and L 3) At point L (Condensation starts) 4) Between points L and M 5) At point M (Condensation is completed) 6) From point M to N 7) At point N ( Freezing starts) 8) Between points N and O 9) At point O ( Freezing is complete ) 10) Between points Q and P physical state ( Gas ; Liquid ) ( Solid ; Gas ) ( Gas + liquid ; Liquid + solid ) ( Gas + liquid ; Liquid + solid ) ( Solid ; Liquid ) ( Solid ; Liquid ) ( Gas + liquid ; Liquid + solid ) ( Gas + liquid ; Liquid + solid ) ( Solid ; Liquid ) ( Solid ; Liquid )

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(e) Temperature (C ) F Boiling point B Melting point A The heating curve of naphthalene Based on the figure above, circle the correct answer. Section of the cooling curve 1) At point A 2) Between points A and B 3) At point B ( melting starts ) 4) Between points B and C 5) At point C ( melting is completed ) 6) From points C to D 7) At point D ( Boiling starts ) 8) Between points D and E 9) At point E ( boiling is completed ) 10) Between points E and F physical state ( Solid ; Liquid ) ( Solid ; Liquid ) (Solid + Liquid ; Solid + Gas ) (Solid + Liquid ; Solid + Gas ) ( Solid ; Liquid ) ( Solid ; Liquid ) (Solid + Liquid ; Liquid + Gas ) (Solid + Liquid ; Liquid + Gas ) ( Solid ; Gas ) ( Solid ; Gas ) Time (min) C D E

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2. Underline and match the word with the correct discovery of each scientist. J. J .Thomson Discover of neutron

Ernest Rutherford

Discover of electron

James Chadwick

Discover of proton

3. (i) An atom is made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Complete the following table Sub-atomic particles Proton Neutron Electron
A

Symbol p n e

Position Nucleus Nucleus shell

Charge positive None negative

X
z

Symbol of element

(ii) The symbol form above shows the standard representation for an atom. State what is represented by A and Z. A : Nucleon number B : Proton number (iii) What is the relationship between the nucleon number and proton number of an atom? Nucleon number = proton num + number of neutrons

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(iv) Proton number and electron number for each element is the same.Complete the following table Element Calcium Silver Potassium Magnesium Lead Symbol Ca Ag K Mg Pb Symbol form 40 Ca 20 108 Ag 47 39 K 19 24 Mg 12 207 Pb 82 Proton 20 47 19 12 82 Nucleon 40 108 39 24 207 Neutron 20 61 20 12 125

4. a)Underline the correct answer. (i) Isotopes are atoms of the same ( element ; electron ) with different numbers of ( neutrons , proton ). (ii) Isotopes for certain elements have ( similar ; different ) chemical properties but have ( different ; similar ) physical properties. (iii) The electrons in the outermost occupied shell are known as the valance electron. b) Table below shows the proton and nucleon numbers. Determine the isotopes pair from table. ELEMENT P Q R S PROTON NUM 6 7 6 8 NUCLEON NUM 12 14 13 16

Answer : The isotopes pair are P and R

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5. Fill in the blanks with the correct words. a) (i)The way electrons are arranged in an atom is called as electron arrangement (ii) The first shell is the one nearest to the nucleus. It can hold a maximum of 2 electrons. (iii) The second shell can hold a maximum of 8 electrons. b) Complete the table below. Element Carbon Proton num 6 Electron arrangement 2.4 Atomic structure

Chlorine 17 2.8.7

2.8.2 Magnesium 12

Beryllium

2.2

Calcium

20

2.8.8.2

c) From the table above, determine the valence electron of each element. i) Carbon : 4 ii) Chlorine : 7 iii) Magnesium : 2 iv) Beryllium : 2 v) Calcium : 2

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