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slide rule. Electronic Data Processing: In Electronic Data Processing. 2. Product names. Input of Data. mechanical devices like calculators. Mechanical Data Processing: In Mechanical Data Processing. Manual Data Processing: Data is processed without the help of mechanical devices. relevant and adequate data must be used as input. The data may be numerical such as payroll. Data processing is the conversion of data into a more useful form. 3. Napier bones etc. Storage of Information 1. tabulators. are used for processing. etc. the processed data is known as information. 2. etc. etc. Identifying the data Accuracy of information depends on accurate data input. is to locate necessary facts and figures from source documents. STEPS IN DATA PROCESSING 1. 3. Data Processing : As data is in its raw form it cannot solve any problem. The data needs some processing to make it useful. Data can be considered as the raw material of information. Information : The result obtained by data processing is called information. transmission of data into meaningful information is called data processing. The first step in data processing therefore. That is. or non-numerical like Student names. employee Number. However. Identifying the data 2. 4. Here the data is processed using manual things such as abacus. That is. 5.DATA PROCESSING Data : Data means any collection of raw hand figures facts. Manipulation of Data. information produced in one data processing step may be used as data in the next data processing step. Accurate. Input of data: . Output of Information. DATA Vs INFORMATION Data Raw records Unordered Unrefined Data Information Completed One Ordered Refined Data KINDS OF DATA PROCESSING 1. the data is processed by either analog or digital computer.

they must be transposed in a suitable form acceptable to the computer. Data Generation : It involves the operation of collecting the original data. All the processed data will need some form of secondary storage. magnetic tapes. The data is stored in a location called memory referred by its address.. Before processing. The basic requirement for utilizing the computer in all business applications is the ability to store and access data. When storing the data. their accuracy has to be checked. Data Storage : The results of processing one set of data are retained in storage for future use of reference. sorting and rearranging the given input. The punched cards and paper tapes. floppy disks. It should be noted that at each and every step the storage might be done. the data is transcribed from the source documents on the cards or on some other specified forms and are made readable for the machines. Hence. DATA PROCESSING OPERATIONS 1. a magnetic disks. in data processing the person involved must be very careful about what information is needed and in what form he likes to have it. This operation is performed throughout the IPO cycle. etc. Manipulation of data: It involves the process of shifting. Storage of information: The data processed need to be kept for future use. charged coupled devices. it is always important to maintain a backup. Sorting : Sorting involves sequencing the data in a pre-determined order to facilitate processing. etc. 5.After extracting the necessary data from the source documents. The order may be either alphabetic or numeric. 8. Classification : Classification of information is the next important operation in which the data is separated into various categories. Great care should be taken to avoid wrong entries in the forms. are used as data recording media. 2. It implies that the raw data are collected and set out in the form of original document called a source document. Verification : After the data have been recorded. subtraction. Hence. 4. some auxiliary storage devices are also needed for the effective data processing. RAM cartridge. 3. . 7. 5. In large organizations. 3. 6. Calculating : Here calculation of greater magnitude can be processed. validation procedures may be built in to the code to so that input forms do not accept any incorrect data. tape cassettes. This can be done with the help of another machine called verifier or by re-reading. Output of information: The main purpose of data processing is to provide meaningful information to the decision-maker. Calculation involves solving equations and manipulation of the source data such as addition. magnetic drums. Recording : Here raw data is converted into an acceptable form. Merging : It is the operation of combining two or more ordered (sorted) sets of data to form another single ordered set. huge volume of data is to be stored and accessed. 4. tape cassettes. floppy disks. That is.

The results may be printed out in the form of pay slips. the processing operation comes to an end with the reporting of data. etc. . Data Retrieving : Data retrieving is the process of searching or locating a data item from the storage. bills. In this operation the results of the data processing are made available to others. PF Reports or Sales Reports. indexed sequential or random access mode. etc. or in the form of reports as ESI Reports. the data is retrieved from the storage device in sequential. In EDP system. The on-line data storage and retrieval is very useful for the proper functioning of a modern business establishment.. 10. Reporting : Generally in business data processing. The processed information may be reported in a number of ways depending on the use of results.9.

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place. thing. event about which information is maintained Attribute: Description of a particular entity Key field: Identifier field used to retrieve. update. sort a record Problems with the Traditional File Environment • • • • • Data redundancy Program-Data dependence Lack of flexibility Poor security Lack of data-sharing and availability Database Management System (DBMS) • • • • Creates and maintains databases Eliminates requirement for data definition statements Acts as interface between application programs and physical data files Separates logical and design views of data Hierarchical DBMS • • • Organizes data in a tree-like structure Supports one-to-many parent-child relationships Prevalent in large legacy systems Disadvantages • • • Outdated Less flexible compared to RDBMS Lack support for ad-hoc and English language-like queries .• • • • • • Record: Group of related fields File: Group of records of same type Database: Group of related files Entity: Person.

• Management Requirements for Database Systems Q Data warehouse • • • Supports reporting and query tools Stores current and historical data Consolidates data for management analysis and decision making Data mart • • Subset of data warehouse Contains summarized or highly focused portion of data for a specified function or group of users Datamining • • Tools for analyzing large pools of data Find hidden patterns and infer rules to predict trends .