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Cornell University Library produced this replacement volume on paper that meets the ANSI Standard 239.48-1984 to replace the irreparably deteriorated original. 1992 .In compliance with current copyright law.

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CRYPTOGRAPHY OR THE HISTORY. AND PRACTICE OF CIPHER-WRITING . PRINCIPLES.

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and Practice OF CIPHER-WRITING BY F. new YORK AND MELBOURNE ." " NATURAL HISTORY LORE AND LEGEND.S. LONDON WARD.." "mVTHLAND.C WARWICK HOUSE. F.A AUTHOR OF "familiar WILD FLOWERS. SALISBURY SQUARE.'* " WAYSIDE SKETCHES.S." **THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORNAMENT. LOCK AND CO.L." ETC ** Here's noiu mystery and hierogIyJ>h Ben Jonson — The Alchemyst. EDWARD HULME. Principles. LIMITED E.CRYPTOGRAPHY OR The History. F.

led 33! so »/ .

—Often impossible to procure the materials its PAGE its :A. . etc. sulphate of copper. . Dee — Batista Porta's book on '"Natural Majick —Invisible writing— Chemical methods by alum. 11 s . etc. —Writing on glass or crystal—Papal Inquisition —Disappearing writing— Messages wrapped round rollers — Two methods — A slave's back the writing surface — Chemical methods of no great rakie ordinarily — Disadvantages of use — Action of light and heat — Chloride of cobalt.— " CONTENTS CHAPTER Meaning of cryptography I " — Objectious-_to study—Its legitimate use and value— Historic examples of employment —Delight in the mysterious — Many other ways of conveying secret inf ormation^Symbolism of action— The spoken word imprisoned and dispatched matter not necessarily secret because one cannot — Egyptian hieroglyphics — Chinese tiuderstand characters — Indian mutiny Greek— Ancient Biblical cryptogram — Sheshach of Jeremiah — Sir Henry Rawliuson thereon — Statements for and against — Julius Caesar's secret code — The waxed tablet of Demaratus — Difference between hidden and secret writing— The shaven head a writing tablet— Charlemagne and Alfred the Great as cryptographic experts —Medlasval authorities —Trithemius the Benedictine —" Steganographia " —Dabbling in the black art— Dr. it vitriol.

etc. Telegram-English— Mason-marks— Eise of cipher-writing in England Clarendon's " History of the Rebellion " Battle of Naseby Royal correspondence captured and deciphered Published by Parliament Weighted naval — — — — — — — signal-codes graphy cal ciphers —Use of uulles or non -significants —Numeri—Mediaeval inscription •without vowels — — — Charles I. 61 CHAPTER Is III an undecipherable cryptogram possible? deciphering • —Keys —The art of for the analysis of a cryptogram — Patient — Oft recui'ring letters perseverance Papers on the subject in Gentleman's Magazine of 1742 Value of general — Great — repetition of vowels knowledge Conrad's rules The letter E "Noughts and crosses " cryptogram Its construction — Ciphers from agony columns of Standard and Times Prying — — — — — busybodies — Alternate — letters significant — Ciphers .6 CONTENTS CHAPTER II PAGE Ancient use of arbitrary symbols Tyronian abbreviations Early Tvorks on shorthand— Excessive abbreviation of inscriptions on coins. . a great expert in crypto- Ciphers of Queen Henrietta and Sir Ralph Verney — Great use of cipher at troublous periods of history " Century of Inventions '' of the Marquis of Worcester Birth of the steam-engiue Dedication of his labours to the nation His numerous suggestions for cryptograms The "disk" cryptogram Principle modified to sliding strip Bead alphabet Heraldic representation of colours in black and white The " string " cipher Bacon a cryptographic enthusiast His essentials of a good cipher His highest perfection of a cipher ^His plan cumbrous Trithemiau and unsatisfactory example Elizabethan arbitrary mark ciphers No real mystery —The — — — — — — — — —A — in them .

— CONTENTS based on divers shiftings of the letters Cryptogram in Cocker's " Arithmetick " Inventor in 1761 of supposed absolutely secret system His topes and fears thereon Illegal to publish Parliamentary debates Evasion of the law Poe's use of cryptogram in story Secret marks made by tramps and vagrants— Shop ciphers for marking prices on goods Ci-yptogrammic trade advertisements Examples of cipher construction The "grill" cipher — The "revolving grill" ^The " slip-card " Forms of numeri7 — — PAGE — — — — — — — — cal cipher cipher " Newark — "Mirabeau" Communication by use — The — — Count "—The Grousfield's of a dictionary — Tlie 103 "—The " Clock-hands " two-word " cipher — Conclusion .

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4. .. 3. 1. 11. . . The "Bead" Cipher The "String" Cipher . 16. . . .88 . 7. 13. The " Revolving Disk Cipher . from Ancient Buildings " . 17. 51 . 8 for Straight Edge 91 98 10.46 48 48 2.. . 49 50 Better Method of Roller Foeji of Message Message of No. Divided to show TACiLiTr for Detection . The "Noughts and Crosses": Key Changed The " Grille " " Grille " : : Pierced Card . . Modification of Fig....100 .. 66 8. 15. 124 126 1-54 14. Ditto Illegible through Use of "Weokg Rulkr Message Unwrapped from Roller . PAGE Message wrapped eoond a Ruler . 5 Unrolled ]S£ason. 18.marks 6.. 5. The Message Read through Openings 156 as The "Grille": Message The " Revolving Grille " Sent off 158 160 Form of Cipher . . . 12.ILLUSTRATIONS Tia. 9. Elizabethan Arbitrart Symbols for Letters 105 The "Noughts and Crosses" Cipher .

22. of Openings by Revolotion of Grille 20. 161 163 165 The Message by "Revolving Gkille" The "Slip-card" Ciphee . Inscription 23.lO ILL US TRA TIONS Total made 19. 25. " Clock. 24. 21.hands " Cipher The "Two-word" Cipher. . from Church in Spain 174 175 177 181 183 Numerical Form of Cipher The "Newark" Cipher The . 26.

alum. procure the materials.— — CHAPTER Meaning I of cryptography Objections to its study Its legitimate use and value Historic examples of its employment Delight in the mysterious Many other ways of conveying secret information Symbolism of actioii The spoken word imprisoned and dispatched A matter not necessarily secret because one cannot understand it Egyptian hieroglyphics Chinese characters Indian mutiny Greek — Ancient Biblical cryptogram Sheshach of Jeremiah Sir Henry Rawlinson thereon Statements — — — — — — — — — — — — — and against Julius Coesar's secret code— The waxed tablet of Demaratus Difference between hidden and secret writing The shaven head a writing tablet Charlemagne and Alfred the Great as cryptographic for — — — —" Steganographia " — Dabbling in the black art —Dr. experts —Mediaeval authorities— Tritlieraius the Bene- — Writing on glass or crystal Papal Inquisition Disappearing writing Messages wrapped round rollers Two methods A slave's back the writing surface Chemical methods of no great value ordinarily Disadvantages of use— Action of light and heat Chloride Often impossible to of cobalt. sulphate of copper. Dee—Batista Porta's book on "Natural Majick" Invisible writing — Chemical methods by vitriol. etc. — — — — — — — — f~riHE word Cryptography is derived from -^ the the two Greek words Icn/ptos and gvapho. dictine etc. first signifying that which is concealed .

that applies equally to many studies that nevertheless are of great value. or equally readily. even we regard cryptography as affording means . and in it is in brief the conveying a secret manner of any intelligence we may It desire to communicate. or other beneficent discovery. may at once occur to our readers as an objection to the study of it is cryptography that an art that evil may palpably be very readily adapted to anything to a purpose. the healing it. This an argument.12 CRYPTOGRAPHY or hidden. may be perverted to supply subtle the arsenal of the dynamitard or the potion of the secret poisoner. however. Astronomy may in evil hands them- become astrology. medicine. and that in doing facilitate its study we are placing weapon is in the hands of the ill-disposed. if Moreover. and the glorious selves stars mere counters for the fortune-teller while from the researches of chemistry may be derived the valuable dye. and the second meaning to write or describe.

In the same way the labours' of the diplomatist could scarcely fructify to the national benefit or turn aside a national danger if every step had to be laid bare to the eye and the well-meant or acri- monious criticism of friend or foe. and become at once the property of every tattler who could . on a moment's re- flection. tlie and to unravel the tangled of traitor.OR CIPHER-WRIT] NO 13 for clandestine or treasonable communications.. It is sufficiently evident". most legitimate use There are times of stress and danger in the history of a nation when it is absolutely impossible that vital operations in the field could be conducted to a successful issue if all the world at their inception had to be taken into confidence. that this art of cryptography has a in the world. and- every step became at once a matter of common knowledge and discussion. and a knowledge of principles and practice may at least equally well be used to unmask skein deceit. it is clearly a its double-edged sword.

During the stormy closing years of the reign of Charles I.14 CRYPTOGRAPHY who could copy read a letter or any traitor a dispatch. this cipher-writing. That which secret and mysterious. as the multitudinous records j^reserved in the British Museum and our other national archives this. we find this art of secret writing assiduously cultivated both by Royalist and Parliamentarian. or when the love that was stronger than death sought to shield the victim from the«impending blow.. has always exercised a great fascination on . fluence when no man safe of any mark (5r in- was any hour from denunciation. we find an immense use of at when treachery was its deadly work. and during the troublous days of the Prencli Revolution. and give the warning that might yet secure safety by timely is flight. abundantly stirring testify. calling for acute intelligence to penetrate its meaning. Previously to in the times of of Queen Elizabeth much use had been made it.

stimulants to the ingenuity of the This love of the mysterious. influence This symbolism. as an example. as a gentle and arrow by the Scythians hint to them that unless they could escape as a bird by flight. or the talking on the fingers. frog. has always exercised a very marked amongst Eastern peoples. and such-like reader.5 OR CIPHER-WRITING the 1 human mind. or conceal themselves as mice. could swim as frogs.word competitions. . mouse. Our readers will recall.^ and at the other its the delight in puzzledom that finds in missing. pabulum conundrums. The scarcely perceptible movement finite ^ of the eye may convey a very de- warning. one great influence the more in the fascination that cipher-writing has undoubtedly at all times possessed. the sending of a bird. they were hastening to swift destruction. this delight in setting one's wits to work to excel is others or to save oneself from checkmate. to the Persians. Secrecy of take communication may of course many forms. we have Hence at one end of the scale the denunciations of the Hebrew prophets clothed in mystic language or figured in strange symbolic action.

sei-ve as may Tlie a means of conveying a message.all these are since mentioned present but dismiss to them. human was made the medium of transmis- The person desiring to send the meshis sage was gravely instructed to breathe . The. Romans had. or the gift initials a ring may.of CQmmunication based. waving have torches. flashing. our purpose deal only. whereby the voice sion. with such as methods of communication by means so of writing. mirrors. of.. -while the touching of the beard signified B. all been utilized. Watch-. are possible . fires. of the stones that enrich spelL out words of sympathy and tender feeling. Before. but to is . doing reference to we cannot forbear Ave a quaint in suggestion that encountered an old authority on the subject. on touching various parts the person j thus the finger to the forehead meant F. a code. flowers significance of may make of a . however. jangling bells.l6 CRYPTOGRAPHY learnedly called dactylology or cheirology. in the it.boiiquet eloquent. .

on presently re-opening this end. as of course it was of great import- ance that the words should come out distinctly and in the order spoken. ran a train into it. If we. plugged up the farther end of a railway tunnel. on obtaining possession it of the tube. the end into which he had spoken was the promptly fastened up. the If by inadvertence wrong end were opened. idea tions On thinking out this valuable we cannot help deciding that the direclead to just given would the result deprecated. the operator was in warned that the message would come out inverted order. all So soon as he had finished he had to say. and a very B little . was careful to open at the end last sealed. and then dispatched to message This was the receiver. find that the train would come out backw^irds. However. this is a mere detail. and then fastened up the near end. we should. latter. for instance.OR CIPHER-WRITING words slowly and that I7 distinctly into a long tube was carefully and securely closed at the other end.

or some other people fail understand This seems the barest of stated. forth. warmed room A matter is just to not necessarily secret. but it truisms when once needs enun- ciation nevertheless.18 CRYP TOGRA PH Y wliicli experience would soon decide end of the tube it was best to to open. con- stantly speak of the Egyptian hieroglyphics. and so of of the whole educated caste the nation. People. for instance. melodies that he in when the had apparently hopelessly hard frost endeavoured to get out of his it bugle flowed from of themselves quite easily when the instrument was brought into a wellat his journey's end. recording history. Baron Munchausen hit seems have quite accidentally upon another curious property of sound. of course. because we it. as Ben Jonson does on our title-page. as though they had some reserved and occult significance. whereas they were but the recognised symbols for conveying ideas. In the days not so very long ago Avhen three-fourths of the people of England .

desire to keep in if up our French. but the sole reason of their being put there was that they might or convey a meaning. tlie epistles 1 tHat passed between the " quality. barbarian whose Eugby. The queer characters on a Chinese of tea-chest are to most us "Western people merely meaningless lines and dabs of colour. painted The Cantonese Amoy man who them was adding information. and had no thought or intention of bewildering the outer . to do with but the intention it. and it ." and written in legible enough characters for those who were sufficiently " scoUerds " to read them. has almost everything to do with for instance.9 OR CIPHER-WRITING could neither read nor write. that is ifc it the family one thing but Ave drop into because. The outward form very little of the communication has it. the servant is in the room. could crypto- scarcely be considered examples of graphy. or board- school training had in this matter failed him. often circle. If we. Harrow. from a laudable talk .

but this cryptogamic use of the Greek letters rendered such communications entirely valueless to them. An intercepted message written in English could have been read easily enough in every camp of the mutineers. It has ties been freely stated by divers authorithe earliest that examples of cipher- writing may be seen in the use of the word Sheshach by Jeremiah. he would be considered eccentric or silly . but with Greek characters.20 is CRYPTOGRAPHY not quite convenient that the details of our dis- approaching bankruptcy should also be. but such communications passed in hundreds between British officers during the Indian Mutiny. and they would thus have become possessed of valuable military information. If an English little officer at Alder shot chose to write out any to message a brother officer in English words. He is the only writer who uses it. that is quite another. and while a Hebrew scholar . cussed ten minutes afterwards in the kitchen.

One we questioned said that there might been a good reason for disguising the . If a modern writer denouncing the it wickedness of London tbought refer to it prudent to as Nodnol.! OR CIPHER-WRITING assures us that itself. "How is Sheshach taken! and how the praise of the whole earth surprised is How among Babylon ! become " an astonishment little the nations There seems but first reason for any concealment in the of the verse half when Sir the second half effectually lays all open. feeling Yet one cannot help in a little hesitation accepting the Sheshach as an authority liave archaic cryptogram. we is find. Henry Rawlinson. it is tlie 21 term is meaningless in undoubtedly made up by reversing the letters that spell the Hebrew word for Babylon. those who detected the transposition of the letters would have no doubt of the meaning. name but on going to the fountain-head and itself reading the verse that the prophet Avrote over six hundred years before the Christian era. no mean .

modern and the prophet may thus be life taken as referring to the whole national from its birth in lowly Ur of the Chaldees to the day when he wrote his of the great city of Babylon words of warning and reproof but here again on going to the fountain head. the ancient and Babel or Babylon for the then one. " might have been read the ancient dialects of Babylon as Shisbaki. so Would any one writer be cautious and reticent moment. does not feel the accepted explanation so entirely satisfactory as to render any other superfluous. stands Ur.22 CRYPTOGRAPHY authority." and if this be so the transposition of letters coincidence. of He states that ITr. only of what "might have been." and we seem to cei-tainly need a firmer foundation than this possibility. becomes merely a remarkable for Sheshach then capital. too. . the city in one of Abraham. The two alternatives before us are equally perplexing. we find the whole reference to be in the tells present tense. Rawlinson.

the two names as. ? the other has them exactly reversed What proportion. since. This simple reversal of the alphabet. as we have stated. perforce.WRITING SO plainly outspoken tlie all 23 if next. for it I'efer to entirely different places — example. Winchester and London a — is not the most extraordinary coincidence that letters in the name of each city are precisely the same. we can but leave benefit it to the reader to deriye such as and comfort from the matter he may.OR CIPHER. and now. and that while the one has them in one order. this passage in the Bible Ipgists is claimed by some enthusiastic crypto- and commentators as the earliest example of a cipher. A . of millions to one would be necessary to express the likelihood of such a transposition occurring? It was absolutely necessary to refer to this Sheshach question. his object of through was ? prudent suppression if a name On two the other hand. according to the law of chances.

and was on . some of them having been use before his time. changed places. ring to it. wrote his communications on wooden tablets.24 CRYPTOGRAPHY representing Z. is B being the equivalent of Y. still most elementary work. D stand for A.. and then had them smoothly coated over . but the though a trifle better. as the changed value of the very quickly perceived. tells The his- torian in Suetonius us that Julius Osesar. Scaliger. etc. Herodotus a mentions of that . styles it a " pure absurdity" yet one repeatedly finds in the " agony column " communications based on this or some equally simple shifting on of the letters. the positions of the letters by four so making this. while others he devised himself. P for M. Polybius collected tells us that JEneas Tacitus had different together twenty kinds of in secret writing. in refer. we see.the one Demaratus. commander forces. far too evident to have any crypto- grammic letters is value. forwarding his dispatches.

. hair When conceal was sufficiently grown to the matter. was a scarcely letter secret writing.OR CIPHER-WRITING 25 with wax. off and he in turn shaved the victim and read the message. will be noted. removed upper coating. any more than fastened down in an envelope to-day becomes is secret writing by the process. the man was it dispatched to the person to with whom was desired communicate. and this who were But in the secret. and when the tablet wax of of the or the covering surface the all envelope are removed the writing has lost its secrecy. It but hidden writing. as though they were merely blank surfaces for the stylus. to shave a it and then to write upon any the message one might wish to send. it revealed. Most of the ancient methods of secret communication were of this nature. Those who received them. In these days when fifty miles an hour is considered far too slow for business. One plan gravely commended was slave's head. and the message stood this.

or they would surely less have found a ing it.writing. dur- ing the fifth century. leisurely way of dispatch- Charlemagne kept. We also. is al- together feeling too and we cannot help —such the force of nineteenth-century times. such a method of communication would be voted dilatory. find Pharamond and other reigning princes utilising various more or less satisfactory systems of cryptography. but in those early days those who could either write or read with any ease were but few in . up a private correspondence in cipher. and the secret alphabet used by Alfred the Great may still be seen in the Bodleian Library. the message that could afford to wait while a new crop of hair was growing could not have been of any great urgency. habit — that even in those good old to be at all when nobody seemed in a hurry.26 CRYPTOGRAPHY at breakfast in tlie and wlieu we read paper the our newsthat details' of insurrection broke out yesterday in Central Africa.

Walchius. Comiers. is the very though we would fain hope that ere we. Kircher. and of Glanburg in 1560. they may next take a course of Porta. its polygraphia or steganographia. Conradus. De Vaines. 27 When we come to tlie Middle Ages Europe. reach the last of these and they. Those who care for the archaeological side of the subject may refer to the writings of Palatine. Niceron. Amman. Bibliander. Lucatello. Breitkampt. Dalgarno. "Wolfgang. and . writ- they so wish of Eidel. if Even then. of Bellaso in 1553. had en- thusiastic votaries in every land. Buxtorff. present . and a perfect epidemic cryptographia.OR CIPHER-WRITING number. are open to them the ings Soro. Herman Hugo. Schottus. Selenus. not a few others while for those who do not care to dig their knowledge out of such dusty worm-eaten tome^ William Blair thing.. or. Tridenci. and Falconer. Caspi. as ran round it was sometimes termed. Cardanus. it. Trithemius. dating 1540. La Fin. Should this not have damped their ardour.

with scant or no acknowledgment. of He was first Abbot really Spanheim.28 CRYPTOGRAPHY Avill pages they thence as feel that they have derived as they need. the labour of their others little into profit . Trithemius and Porta. Trithemius. and a copy of this is preserved in the Bodleian Library . a second edition was issued from the later. The first printed edition was published in Frankfort in the year 1606. own store. first in time of these two was an able Benedictine. for any comment. much enlightenment of these As many medieval authors had a great knack of conveying. the old writers. and treatise his was the elaborate on cryptogram- mic writing. is same press two years the Its title is of elaborate character that of characteristic : of books that period. " SteganograpMa hoc est ars per occvUam Scriptvram animi svi voluntatem absentibvs aperiendi certa : avthore . there would be to their in referring at any length works we will therefore select but two.

and was by him relentlessly attacked and hounded down. to these TJnfor- he added a number of extra- ordinary characters. and had a very narrow escape of being burnt. tuna. The result was a vast mass of misdirected energy. Dr.OR CIPHER-WRITING reverendissimo et 29 clarissimo vivo et Joanne Tri- themio." curious one. which he designated spiritus diurni and spiritus nocturni. the result being that he was accused of dabbling in the black arb and holding converse with demons. He had also the misfor- tune to incur the lavish abuse of Jerome Cardan. Abbate Spanheimensl alis Magioe Natur- Magistro perfedissimo.tely. who was himself under the ban as a follower of divers uncanny arts that were . Dee. himself the author of a system of cryptography. His method was as a somewhat he compiled many folios full of devout sentences through the use of which quite other and mundane matters could be conveyed. He was therefore brought to trial for these magical incantations.

He was of mainly desirous of doing so. . the following year but as his private affairs were scarcely a sufficiently good reason why he should be maintained there at the expense of the State. Cecil's iiiemoris extant stating that the applicant's time beyond the sea had been well spent.^ Amongst other reasons writes : for staying on. . he one " Allready for I have purchased boke. he adds that he is there able to gather much together that would be of gain to the nation. ' wch a Thowsand Crownes have anduiii lu reference to this appeal of Dr.30 CRYPTOGRAPHY bring liim tlian into. was a great admirer the work of Trithemius.. He was often sent abroad on more or less secret service by tbe Ministers of Queen Elizabeth.closer -supposed to witli relation all justi- demons was held to be at of ^fiable. the Monas issued in Hiero'ghjphica.1563. and we find him writing from Antwerp on -February 16.. as he was arranging for the publication at Antwerp a book of his own. to Sir William Cecil for permission to extend his stay in that city. Dee.

hoiJ 31 be A boke for wKicli many a lerned man hath seeke : long sowght and dayley yet doth use : Whose is is greater than the fame therof to you is therof spred The name The title is not unknowne: on this : Wise Steganographia Joannis Tritemij wherof in both the editions of his Polygraphia mention is made. Thys boke. and in -his : epistles. Avith contynuall Labor and watch the most part of X dayes have I copyed oute : And now man of T stand at the Courtesye of a noble- Hungarie for writing furth the rest leave therto after he who hath promised me shall percey ve that I the may remayne by him ' longer pleasure as at (with leave of my prmce) to him also with such points of Science my hands he requireth. so meet.— : OR CIPHER-WRITING been bj others offred and yet could obteyned. as in commo- humayne knowledge none can be more behopefull. so needfull and dious. . and in sundry other mens bokes A boke for your honor. Of this meeter or boke the one half. or a Prince.

evident that was a manuscript copy. is From the Dee puts on the book." is The account not quite a clear one. as he declares that he has bought the book. The book was long kept from the knowledge of the general public. of the noble- man possessing and who certainly does it not seem to have sold price it to it him.32 CRYPTOGRAPHY now liave yt. without as being wanting charity. the first printed copy not being issued after this letter until forty-three to Cecil. and yet he appears to have copied it by the courtesy it. years of Dee The direct gift to Cecil we in al- may lowed perhaps. though he does not say that he himself gave a thousand crowns for it. fully whole and pleas you to accept as the my present) I give unto your honor juell that I most precyous have yet of other mens travailes recovered. . or hereafter p'fit (yf it eyther as I shall have yt. regard to a gentle bribe to be stay on at Antwerp for the ad- vancement of his private business ends.

" and the His first result is a strange medley indeed. be at in • the St. and Pigeons. and so forth. or books as he are " set forth all them." the influ- ence of the stars.OR CIPHER-WRITING Batista piled five 33 Porta." a subject in itself extensive and including " the Nature of Magick." In volume. and the this Angel Churchyard. tions deal Other sec- with the transmutation of metals. the wonders of the beauti- c . and he also devotes one of the " Bookes " of his " Natural Majick " to the art of edition before us as invisible writing. a Neapolitan writer. the Riches and Delights of the Natural Sciences. " lies Notes in occultes des lettres. The we write that is dated 1658. the load-stone. book deals with " the Causes of sufiiciently Wonderful things. com* books on ciphers. divided into calls twenty sections." that were published Strasbourg in the year 1606. the title page stating the book was "printed by Thomas are at to Young and sold Samuel Three Paul's Speed.

and tlie sixteenth con- cerns last itself is "invisible writing. The sixteenth book. " wherein are handled secrets and undiscovered notes.. with etc. how distil from the the art of altering one's face so that one's friends are deceived.34 f-ying of CRYPTOGRAPHY women. stones how to to make grow of themselves." and here matter that we a promiscuous mass of fit either would not in happily in any of the other books." commences with the statement that " there are two sorts of secret marks. chaotic section to in- cludes such diverse matters as foul how to make it water drinkable. and air. or upon which he had gained than information original when This dealt with in its position. and much more or chaotic interest and value.'. we may to else hear sounds at frauds in less how detect of impostors. how make an instrument whereby a great distance. or which he happened to have overfuller looked.' His find book " of the Chaos. which they vulgarly call .

Even Natural Magick frank fails to show how the exposition and the careful concealment of secret matters can be simultaneously accomplished. and what are the con' sequents thereof. too. and on much the other hand in the act of doing so feeling its publication a contradiction vitiating all his labour. folios of Tri- was one potent reason why the . on the one hand thinking to impart curious and useful knowledge.OR CIPHER-WRITING syfers : 35 is one of visible marks. worthy of a treatise by another of secret marks. down some examples plainly: but of these things and the consequences them must be faithfully concealed. that take care for things absent. for the use of great Men and Princes." ordinary people they be disclearly felt Our old author here the difficulty of the position he had got himself into . and write to some I shall set man that knows the invention. and itself . whereof I have attempted to say something in this present Volume. This doubtless. lest by growing common amongst respected.

in : fact. as their significance unknown. He. unless you dip them into waters. or other external cause. some fifty Porta's division of liis subject into visible and secret marks looks puzzling. for at first siglit a little unless visible marks carry a secret significance they are in this connexion valueless. that is what he means by marks the use of letters. and he says. We soon find. that the Characters shall not be seen. begins his first chapter with the words infinite " There are many and almost ways to write things of necessity. on reading visible his book. or put them near the . the action of heat or of light. imtil some chemical application. however. figures.36 CRYPTOGRAPHY manuscript themius remained in years. almost entirely with communications that are secret through their invisibility. bring them to view. or other signs are that evident enough to is all beholders though these. are worthy of a treatise to In the present work he deals themselves.

37 or rub them with dust. The enemy or other un- authorized person into whose hands the paper fell would be put off the scent by reading a sig- communication that was of no value or nificance to them. The pro- cedure is as follows : " Let Vitriol soak in it is Boyling water: so long till when dissolved." His It is to first recipe is a double-barrelled one. straw with Vinegar : Moreover. strain it the water grow : clear : with that are dry liquor write upon paper when they they are not seen.OR CIPHER. teU out its story by the ap- plication of a second preparation. or such as are seen is may be hid. to make a second communication. if be employed " you desire that letters not seen may be read. or smear them over.WRITING fire. written between the lines of the first. grinde burnt and what you will write . it whUe the person to whom to was really sent would take steps and then first remove the visible writing." to This a very artful state of things bring about.

or something them through a that else. and soak them in water filtre : let them stay there twenty -four hours linen cloth. that was not I will seen. dein at. may in be made ap- parent. may make send the water clear.38 in tlie spaces scribe CRYPTOGRAPHY between the former lines." The materials. and make letters upon the paper that you : desire to have concealed it to your Friend absent appear. are fairly readily procurable an important point to consider. wet a spunge in the liquor and when you have gently. : may be noted. I said. dip when you would have them in the first liquor. Then boyl sowre Galls : white "Wine. wipe it upon the paper and wet the letters so long until the native black colour disappear. large. but the former colour. need. Porta also suggests that we may dissolve . them and the letters will presently it be seen. Dissolve Vitriol in water G-alls then powder finely. Now As show what liquors paper must be soaked to make letters to be seen.

OR CIPHER-WRITING
alum
and
is

39

in water

and write with
tliat

it

upon linen
this writing

tlie like,
it

declaring

when

dry

will

be

invisible.

"When you would
to soak

render

it

visible, it

will suffice

the

sheet or napkin in water.

The

fabric will

appear darker where

it

has not been touched

by the alum

solution, so that the

message

will

appear in letters of white.
prescriptions,

After divers other

in

which

litharge, citron- juice,

goat's fat, juniper,

and various other ingrefirst

dients

figure,

he winds up his

section,

On how a writing dip'd in divers Liquors may be read," by the assertion, "there are many such arts, too tedious to relate," and he
'

"

then proceeds to his next section,

how

letters

may

be

made

visible

by the action
tells us,

of heat.

" If you write," he
of
Citrons,

" with the juice

Oranges, Onyons, or almost any
if

sharp things,
their

you make
is

it

hot at the
discovered
:

fire,

acrimony

presently

for

they are undigested juices, whereas they are
detected by the heat of the
fire,

and then they

4o

CJi yp

TOGRAPH V

stow
if

fortli

those colours that they would show
ripe.

they were

If

you write with a sowre
^
:

Grape that would be black, or with Cervices

when you hold them
cocted,

to the fire they are con-

and

will

give the same

colour
tree,

they

Avould in due time give

upon the

when

they were ripe.

Juice of Cherries, added to
:

Calamus, will make a green
red
:

to

sowbread a

so divers juices of Fruits will

show

divers

colours

by the

fire.

By

these

means Maids

sending and receiving love-letters, escape from
those that have charge of them.

There
:

is

also

a kind of Salt called

Ammoniac

this

powdred
white

and mingled
letters,

with

water, will

write

and can hardly be distinguished from

the paper, but hold
will

them

to the

fire,

and they

shew black."
a
suggestion
for

Porta has also

making
until

communications
^

that

cannot

be

read

The

fruits of the Service-tree,

Pyrus tm-minalis, of a

greenish-brown colour, and of rough acid flavour until
they are mellowed by
frost.

1

OR CIPHER-WRITING
tlie

4

paper be burnt

upon whicli they

are

made.
fashion
:

He

arrives

at this in the following

" Take the sharpest Vinegar and the

white of an

Egg
:

:

in these steep Quick-silver

and

stir it

well

and with that mixture make
:

Letters
fire,

upon the paper
the
letters

burn the paper in the

and

wUl remain unburnt."

The

result of this will be that the paper will
letters
it

be black and the

white.

This sounds

better in theory than

would probably work

out in practice.
fact

We

are all familiar with the
letter written in or-

that even
is

when a

dinary ink
to read writing,

burnt,

we may

often

still

be able

on

its

charred surface portions of the

but

we know

also

that the act

of

burning twists and curls the paper up so that

much
break

of the writing
is

is

out of our sight, while

the whole thing
it

so brittle that a touch

may

up,

and any attempt

at straightening
futile.

out the sheet would be wholly

Porta has various ideas as to developing
visible writing

in-

by means of dust or soot; by

42

CRYPTOGRAPHY
wifcli

writing

vinegar,

gum

solution, tlie

milk of

the fig tree and various other ingredients, and

then rendering the message visible by rubbing
these substances upon
tree
it.

The milk

of the fig

was not readily
lines,

accessible as

we were

writ-

ing these

so

of its efficacy

we can

say
pro-

nothing, but a letter which

we forthwith

ceeded to write with vinegar at once became
clearly legible

when

soot

was rubbed gently
tells

over

its is

surface.
also an

Our author

us that

" there

Art that one would not imagine
;

to write

upon Chrystal

for being all transparof
it
it,

ent no

man

will

dream

and the

letters

may

lie

hid therein.

Do

thus.

Dissolve

Gum
it

Arabick in water, or

Gum

Tragacanth, that
well dissolved,

may
will

be cleer

;

and when

it is
if

it

not foul the Chrystal

you write upon

it

or upon a

Cup

or Glass, for

when

the letters are
it,

dry they are
if

invisible.

No man

will imagine

a cup be sent to one in prison, or a Glass full
:

of wine

when he would

see the letters, rub
it,

burnt straw or paper upon

and the

letters

On rubbing burnt paper over the writing we were unable to get any satisfactory result." . but on wiping this off and using soot instead we at once got the wording very sharply defined in black on the transparent glass.OR CIPHER-WRITING will presently 43 be seen. and no fraud is suspected to be in them. the experiment being entirely successful. At the same time . there seem to be practical difficulties one can hardly imagine a prisoner saying. writing bottle upon a glass with a solution of gum-arabic. A curious side-light and reference to " the " is good old days shown again in Porta's in- structions as to how of secret messages tells may be sent by means eggs. The writing when dry was absolutely invisible." This also we brought to the test of experiment. " kindly oblige Would you me with a pinch of soot or a handful of events straw and a match ? " At all we can hardly imagine his getting them. for he us that " Eggs are not stopt by the Papal Inquisition.

or tions of the lover lavishly poured out ere the breach of promise action had even been deemed a possibility. might presently disappear. It might at times be an the eve of an advantage promises made on election. One has ways so imagined the victims of the Inquisition going melancholy or mad in dripping dungeons. Porta is also great on the subject of devis- ing means whereby written characters. the former sentiments of recreant and the fervent protesta- turncoat politicians. al- at least a pleasant picture. but one can scarcely imagine such a thing as being of any great if value. and with them messages from the outside world. comes as quite a welcome surprise. that the idea of the man sitting down laid in peace to his lunch. could somehow be forgotten and . freely legible at first. it is However this may be.44 CRYPTOGRAPHY receive eggs Hence prisoners might perchance from their friends. shrieking at each turn of the rack and thumb-screw. . and having a new- %^^ with it.

In like spirit of adverse criticism we would deal with the reverse of this. and when production after as a blank sheet of paper might well be the differ- ence between a traitor's death and safe deliver- ance from the noose. will expeditiously enough fulfilled its reduce to ashes any paper that has purpose. there are expeditious many and more ways of disposing of than trust- ing to the corroding or paling action of any chemical to obliterate its secrets.OR CIPHER-WRITING there might of course be occasions 45 when some up in damning document might be archives of the laid the enemy its for use at some critical all moment. the firing party at ten paces. ever. Ordinarily. or in the bustle of the bivouac the roaring camp fire. In the seclusion of the diplomatist's study the glowing hearth. how- when one has mastered the meaning of a safer it communication. or the convict hulk. "that invisible letters after some time shall become visible if and one show themselves." We are told that " .

in water. know sees at once to any communication that any one to us. though . by dissolving Salt Ammoniac and writing with it upon Brass. 1. fit make if and should especially desire to do so we knew that the secrecy and to it mystery attaching grave importance. to. and leave days the plaoe . this on for twenty letters will appear green upon the the same may be done many other ways. was an indication of its The two or three examples that Porta gives " of letters on divers things which. a desideratum." suE&ciently evident that it is It rarely indeed that a delay of twenty or any other is number of days.46 CRYPTOGRAPHY of write with juice Citrons or Oranges on Copper or Brass. the place sooner appear of verdigreese colour. will is namely. One ordinarily desires Fig.

The harshit is ness of the fire-tried material upon which inscribed will resist any attempt at forcible flattening out. Two sticks of equal diameters must be sup- . let it is not get-at- But " if one lay it desires to read what is in it it him on moyst places or sprinkle it will gently with water." are of of no great value- One Ms hints is to write on parchment. of writing on a strip of paper wrapped round a stick." Porta also refers to the ancient expedient. and it will appear as letters did at it first. and be dilated again it and all the wrinkles will be gone.OR CIPHER-WRITING 47 they be visible yet the Reader will be deceived by their secret device. and to the fire or candle. then put it when it will crumple up and in the contorted state of the parchment the written matter about that it will be so twisted will be unreadable. that you may read the upon without any hindrance. so that even if we detect the presence of a communication able. ascribed to Archimedes and mentioned by Plutarch and other ancient authors.

. side. CRYPTOGRAPHY one being held by the one correspondent other. Fig.48 plied. on rolling the around this. the holder of the second strip and he. 2. and the second by the strip of A long thin paper must now be wrapped spirally Tig. k/ r cnnM 3. round one of these cylinders so that the edges its are just in contact throughout length. the required communicais The paper to then unrolled and forwarded stick. so that a portion of each letter rvorrT comes on each tion is written. and on these edges.

is The theory notice that no one would take any of these marks on the edges of the paper. they will readily find that if they place a piece of blank paper along any of the lines of X [XPCCTMCS WN-. Half of each letter sufficient to serve seen. in reading previously written. but on putting the matter to the test of experiment we found no we had is difficulty. "Expect me soon." Fig. without any wrapping round the message that stick or ruler.any of our readers like to test this statement for themselves. and that is quite as a clue.Ok CIPHER-VVklTiNG is 49 able to read the message with great facility. 1 shows the spirally wrapped D . suffices for its The message we wrote was. this printed page so that half of each letter is hidden the remaining half quite identification. If. 4. Fig.

but if any unauthorized person this into hands strip came would just take the trouble to divide it in half lengthwise. 4. while Fig. the is two lettered edges together.50 strip its CRYPTOGRAPHY of paper and the message written on Fig. wrapping it round a ruler. 3 has a Fig. at the message once as legible as any orthodox rewinding round a pencil could make it. 3 represents the strip edges. . 5. 2 shows the message would look if how the receiver. and place. Fig. decidedly tell-tale appearance. as in Fig. not to be knowing that a pencil had tried employed. anyway whose . when unrolled from the pencil and flattened out ready for dispatch.

OR CIPHER-WRITING A write veiy mucli better way of work- ing this spiral the paper method not is to message. while strip Fig. 3. : round our we wrote another as follows upon same it " Get r K roller the size. or you will not be able to read this communication. ITT the methods he "invisible since Ji'^<=^- adopts -i . 1 . right along the the ^V 7^ U\A v^jV -rvXN . of paper Haying wound our ruler. 5." The appearance staff of our message-bearing may be seen in Fig. is than the strip shown Some of the material we find in Porta' s chapters can scarcely be con- -At sidered to of -I come within the category writing" at all. 6 shows as it a portion of the looked when unwound and ready ofE to for sending our correspondent. edges. are akin to . 6. It will at once be seen how far more puzzling this in Fig. but across strips strip themselves.

Pliny. sent within a and in another case \ in the interior of a dead hare how others. Africanus. or in their scabbards or quivers how pigeons may be used as messengers. He with that does not forget to refer to the slave shaven it head. for in- stance. and others. beneath the soles of their . sort thing from ancient writers tus. Ca3sar. again.52 tlie CRYPTOGRAPHY ordiuaiy letter put in an envelope that vre have already cited. Ovid. letters concealed in their feet.^ or intelligence shot into camp or fortress by arrows or guns. . of this He of quotes numerous instances . and the pigeon-loft of to-daj is as much an item of War strength as a Maxim gun. have safely brought girdles. how a communication was once loaf. but he also recognises may oftentimes be desirable that an underling conveying a message should be in ignorance of the fact that he is being thus ^ A great use was made of pigeons as messengers during the Franco-German war. from Theophras- Herodotus. He tells.

but it This method is re- dates back far into ancient history. for instance. to pass on his way unchal- He was. or be spirit at the filled with such exaltation of import- ance of his mission as to betray himself and awaken of the suspicion. OR CIPHER-WRITING employed. by threats. — Ovid. to it. and he would much more probably lenged.. to reveal whereas. nothing was handed awaken him to excite his interest or his suspicions but his food was drugged. his own the re- broad back was the surface sheet whereon to inscribe utilised as the message quired to be transmitted. ferred to by Porta. he might be tempted by promises. if he were unconscious his whole manner would be so frankly guileless as to avert suspicion. therefore. alluding . possibly 53 Had he this knowledge. or affrighted his mission of it. If he fell into the hands fair enemy. given no letter to conceal. while he was under the influence of an opiate. he might to desert the enemy. . and.

are of no great practical while the materials. it is very difficult to see what one dries. though in most cases common enough. The commander hostile land. they flow from the 23en as clear and colourless as pure water. is writing. or the leader of a relief party. may not of always be forthcoming.54 CRYP TOGRAPH Y Speaking in a general way. or of heat. the for nearest place where pro- chloride curable. it and so soon as the writing as very . but at the same time periment. example. or the tion. was A of great practical disadvantage in the use as such materials is that. invisible and many other until developed by the action of of light. washing over another soluvalue . might be a thou- sand miles of from cobalt. an advanced post in a desirous of of who was communiwith cating with the base operations. as the outcome of considerable exinclined to say that we should be the various compounds suggested by Porta writers as inks.

careful to Any one use so doing should be as a clean quill pen. might be mislaid or torn up as a piece of valueless paper. and on its application the message would stand forth revealed to quite other eyes than those for whom may it was intended. when once put on the track. while. easily too. and one can only trust memory all. on its receipt. . of the materials are poisonous. would at once excite comment and Any person who entertained such suspicion would probably be well aware that heat was one of the most effectual means of rendering a secret message visible. and some. of these simple preparations Some few refer we to. as to what was really put down Such a message. its any special solicitude for preservation suspicion. as those who are curious in such mattex'S might. on the other hand. at least.OR CIPHER-WRITING 55 quickly does. any clxance of correction or reconsideration to at is gone. very naturally desire to test them for themselves.

The writing artificial light. some Any one. while attendance at the funeral would be another grievous break in the time devoted to this interesting study. On this posure. the writing would reveal itself in dark chocolate-brown. be done by and we have found that a proportion of one of nitrate to fifteen of distilled water makes about the most If. should. once made visible. As a affected silver. of course. colourless solution in a teacup or tumbler for an hour or two in kitchen or dining-room called may very possibly be upon by the coroner to explain. satis- factory mixture. familiar example of the chemicals nitrate of by light we may mention Any as communication made by a solu- tion of this would remain invisible until such ex- time exposed to daylight. for instance. instead of placing the it paper in vessel the daylight we hold over a containing sulphate of ammonia the . and. who leaves a clear.56 CRYPTOGRAPHY little discretion. re- mains so.

On warming fire the paper before a good strong the characters appear of a clear bluish-green. of course.OR CIPHER-WRITING 57 writing will appear with a metallic and silvery brilliancy. a beautiful all turquoise-blue strongly. be reproduced as often as we choose to apply the necessary heat. instead. cools. if applied at of a pale on the paper greenish colour. will be of a pale pink in is but tbe colour fluid it so slight that in writing with the appears colourless on the paper. and beautiful Equal parts of sulphate of copper and sal- ammoniac dissolved of in water give a solution tint. and absolutely no trace of anything to there is be seen. a matter of some five minutes or The effect can. dries This. the If we use acetate of cobalt warming of the paper brings out the communication in a clear blue colour. a tint too weak . tint. If it we make a solution of cUoride of cobalt. but they disappear again as the paper so.

but on the cooling of the paper it disappears.58 to CRYPTOGRAPHY be legible. If it being at legible invisible. and then allowed and then ready for use. Strong chemical action is set up. and great heat evolved. the characters written first by means of afterwards colour. not scrutiny. though. it is The solution to should be cool. Anything written by this agency is in theory supposed to be at the fire brings quite invisible until warming . The juice from an onion that has been macerated in a mortar will also pro- duce the same effect. well stirred. but clearly and of a yellow we wish to have a message that will remain indelible when once developed. we have oil the materials ready to hand by dissolving of vitriol in soft water in the proportion of a fluid ounce of the former to a pint of the latter. too weak to be the noticeable on a On warming paper on which any communication has been made by this agency the writing appears of a clear yellow.

OR CIPHER- WRITING
it

59

out a clear black, but in practice

we found,

with solutions of varying strengths, that the
writing, though at first invisible,

became on

drying quite perceptible, and looking as though
written with whitewash or Chinese white on
the paper.
it

On
it.

a very cursory examination
notice, but the slightest scru-

might escape

tiny reveals

The

difficulty is

that

if

we

use a strong solution the writing can be read
in

the

white
of

characters,
heat,

though

it,

on the
a
clear

application

develops into
;

and excellently

legible black

while

if

we

use

a solution so weak as to escape notice when
applied to the paper,
it

also develops a very-

weak

colour

on the application of

warmth.

The proportions we have given are perhaps
the best, but the result in any case
satisfactory
ject,
if

is

hardly

absolute invisibility is our obof
this
is

and

of course nothing short

worth anything.

Many

other

chemical methods

might
all

be

mentioned, but their value after

does not

6o

CR YP TOGRA PH Y

appear to be very great.
sonal investigation
finds over
is

Nothing but per-

of

any

real

use.

One

and over again things commended

by various writers that entirely break down

when brought
experiment.

to

the

vital

test

of

actual

CHAPTER —

II

Ancient use of arbitrary symbols Tyronian abbreviations Early works on shorthand Excessive abbreviation of inscriptions on coins, etc. Telegi-am-English Masonmarks Eise of cipher-writing in England Clarendon's "History of the Rebellion" Battle of Nasoby Royal correspondence captured and deciphered Published by Parliament Weighted naval signal-codes — Charles I. a great expert in cryptography Use of nulles or nonsignificants ^Numerical ciphers— Mediaeval inscription without vowels Ciphers of Queen Henrietta and Sir Ralph Verney Great use of cipher at troublous periods of history The " Century of Inventions " of the Marquis of Worcester— Birth of the steam-engine Dedication of his labours to the nation His numerous suggestions

— —

— —

— for cryptograms — The " disk " cryptogi'am — Principle modified to sliding strip — Bead alphabet — Heraldic representation of colours in black and white — The " string " cipher — Bacon a cryptographic enthusiast
— — —


A

His essentials of a good cipher His highest perfecHis plan cumbrous and unsatisfaotoiy A Trithemian example Elizabethan arbitrary mark ciphei's No real mystery in them.
tion of a cipher

METHOD

adopted by the ancient writers

of representing words

by arbitrary marks by the

was

said to have been first introduced
Cl

62

CRYPTOGRAPHY
Maecenas, Cicero, Seneca
tlie

old poet Ennius.
elder,

Philargirus,

Tyro,

and

many

other

writers comnaended and employed these marks.

By

the time of Seneca thirteen thousand

of
or-

these characters were in use.
dinarily

They are

termed Tyronian.

Thousands

of these

Tyronian abbreviations and symbols
seen
in

may be
Probus,

the

writings

Valerius

Paulus Diaconus, Goltzius, and other authors.

So completely during the Middle Ages did they
answer the purpose of secret writing that an
old copy of a psalter found inscribed in these

characters

was ignorantly
;

entitled, " Psalterium

in Lingua Armenica "

and Pope Julius the

Second employed several learned men without
success
to

decipher

it.

This was originally
it

but a system of shorthand, and
into a
it

only grew

mystery when the key that unlocked
lost.

was

The

" Ars

Scribendi
is

character is"

written

about the year 1412, shorthand
extant,

the oldest system of
the
first

while

English

Swift. to the risk of having one's . or who modern telegraph code-books that arbi- compress a long sentence into a single trary word. and Secret is Writing. an entirely different motive comes in. notion of cryptography If present in this a man employs it is a system of abbreviated short or swift. or tlie and entitled Art of Short." The title. like cryptography in his but Pepys famous adopts a secret code because on the affairs private. . like Not only is Pepys. Such codes one exposed. was written by one Timothy " Oharacterie.OR CIPHER-WRITING book on 1688. all have their dangers. therein diary. is if no disciple of he. whole he prefers to keep his his shorthand stands on quite a different footing to that of the first man. It tlie 63 subject did not appear until Bx'iglit. A man adopts who writes in Pitman or any other widelyof known system any of the shorthand. it is writing because to him but a matter of convenience and a gain of time. but if he adopts it because it is secret.

coins.64 CRYPTOGRAPHY is matters laid bare. Any one caring for examples of the find sort of thing will abundant illustrations in such old tomes as the "Lexicon Biploma- ticum" of Walther or the " Siglarium D. on our present money supplies us with a good example of the curtailment necessary where one desires to get a good deal of . but this was not for secrecy. they never little and there can be but lost it. In fact. the being that at his death his affairs got at once into a state of utter confusion that rallied from. Def. doubt that much property was all to the family from want of clue to of An ancient form writing employed amongst the Romans was the excessive abbreviation of words in inscriptions on statues. and so forth .Gr. where a man kept memoranda by a business and family shortresult hand system that he himself devised. but there bability of also the pro- such a fiasco as occurred /within his our own knowledge. the and Fid. Ro- inanum " of Gerrard.

better of 65 A still such example may be seen in the coinage III. as we shall ." We may say parenthetically that in all cryptogrammic communications the message or other matter should be abbreviated as far as is consistent with intelligibility.: OR CIPHER-WRITING material in a very circumscribed space. mince or hash of the alphabet. reader to lay hold This last. but with due amplification and clothing of these bare letters. One style should cultivate for this of purpose the telegram-English. George where we may as find concentrated information • • the following M S of • • B F BT H EBX -F-D-B-BT-L-DThis suggests a sort B.. Fidei Defensor. less It makes less labour and chance of error creeping in for the less sender. ceiver. we arrive at last at " Magnce et Britan- Francice et Hibernice Bex. I A T ET B • • • • • •. iiicB. Brunnovici Lunebergi Dux. time in unravelling for the reless and handle for any unauthorized of. et Sacri Bomani Imperii Aixhithesaurarius Elector.

7. a Fig. point of very considerable importance.66 see CR YPTOGRAPH V wlien we come presently to consider the is decipherment of a mysterious message. On stones. old buildings called we may -sometimes see what are It mason-marks cut upon the been a has suggested that these had originally symbolic meaning known .

We have reprinted in Fig. and that if such marking prethe work were badly it done or any error made was at once seen where blame should be imputed.OR CIPHER-WRITING 67 only to those initiated in the ancient craft of freemasonry. The enthusiasts cult claim who see in these marks some mystic . early times a meaning that now that they were long regarded with a certain reverence. and many ancient registers of these are extant. There is all of them contain prosaic ex- at least one The more is planation of these marks to denote the that they served work of each mason employed if on any important building. Some authorities tell us that race. they are almost as that old as the human they probably is had in lost. 7 divers examples of these marks from various ancient no doubt that angle ! buildings. and that an essential rule for their formation was that they should contain at least one angle. that the pay- ment was by piecework vented dispute. Each mason had his distinctive mark.

and that was as neces- sary in the time of Ohofo to detect careless workmanship as when Salisbury or Amiens cathedrals were being erected. we think.68 CRYPTOGRAPHY as one proof that ttey tlie may be found even on blocks of stone that complete the Pyra- mids. ''' illustration in the space at our dis- Cipher-writing scarcely makes any real ap- pearance in English archives until the reign of Queen Elizabeth. as far as Alfred the back until Great . for instance. we find it really Many examples of this period are preserved in the British Museum. and in the troublous days of the first Charles we find an immense use of it. but the more prosaic student might all it point out that this after only indicates very ancient usage. at all events justified in giving them a paragraph and an posal. as. we are. . There had been divers isolated examples. Whatever may be the exact truth. but it was scarcely the days of the Tudors that in vogue.

vol. and baggage. John Wallis. ii. most secret letters were.: OR CIPHER. an incident so untoward could well be prevented. is the correspondence of King Charles captured by the Roundheads at Naseby Avhich —a correspondence Dr. that it may not fall into the hands of the enemy. King was compelled and to leave Fairfax master of his foot. In Lord Clarendon's " History of the Rebellion " (Book IX. owing to the thing death of the responsible oflBcer. analysed and ally deciphered. in the tarmoil of battle and the sudden realization of defeat. p. however.WRITING Amidst the historical 69 documents preserved in the House of Lords. On board a man-of-war the code of signals is always kept in a leaden case. a distinguished mafin- thematician of those days. 508) we read to quit all " In the end the the field. and which ultimately cost the defeated monarch his head. Even this.^ and letters between the Queen One scarcely sees how. or other cause (for in the . perforated with holes. so that when surrender is imperative the whole '^ is dropped overboard. and brought to light by the Royal Commission on historical MSS. cannons.. amongst which where his was his own cabinet.

On June 23rd the House of Commons resolved " that the several letters and papers taken at Naseby Field shovdd be referred \o the Committee. and concealed other parts that would vindicated them from have many particulars with which they had aspersed them." letters and It was also resolved that these and papers should be communicated Committee of both to the Kingdoms. . and improve the prejudice they had raised up against them. June 14th. in the Royal heat of action a United Service Museum." of The battle Naseby occurred on Saturday. made that barbarous use as natures. 1645. may be seen the weighted signal code of the United States ship Gliesapealie. captured on board that vessel by the British ship Shannon. to sort them.70 CRYPTOGRAPHY of wliicli tliey shortly after and him. was agreable in to their : and published them of print that so much them as they thought would asperse either of their Majesties. though to outward appearance without a scar). is. to translate the French letters. Within a mile of Charing Ci-oss. " to the man may lose his head. is not always an efficient safeguard. decipher those that are not deciphered.

was composed directions entirely of short strokes in different . during the course of ciphers. shall and that be put in the said letters and papers a safe and public hand and place. brated letter to the Earl of Glamorgan. and the appended to them for greater ease Charles I. Many on had been already deciphered translation of reading." Some receipt sixty letters were captured. the war some cele- composed a great many of and His them of very abstruse character. but his favourite idea was the use of nvimbers. in addition to those that stand for letters or words. and the Naseby letters were of this latter type. in which some very suspicious concessions Catholic party in Ireland were to the mooted. A good many " dummy " numbers are introduced. to the end that such as desire it may peruse the ori- ginals. Such dum- mies are of course intended to throw those .1 OR CIPHER-WRITING intent tliat tliej into Scotland 7 may take copies to transmit and to foreign parts. by the King or Queen.

more immaterial are and chathus. 52 62 • nous a fait • que cy • 27 50 • • • 20 28 31 • 45 9 8 • • 6G q%ie • • 4 • 48 31 10 • • 35 • 33 7 • • 47 • 50 33 ce • 34 8 • 27 28 23 1 10 3 p><i tout 8 60 . they often written in full find the for instance. They known as nulles or non-significants also. and the names of places that is are likely to frequently recur.72 CRYPTOGRAPHY are unauthorized to read the letters off is who the scent. of like. and is of course the same principle applied as to such conregiment. are stantly wanted words and the artillery. to the racter. and we shall come across numerous examples book is finished. we Queen writing Capell • King voir • as follows: "Mr. Where words non-betrayal . provisions. of This clearly a great saving time. and some such arrangement very common are as a cryptographic expedient. as instead of having to spell out Prince Eupert or Oxford in full a couple of numbers will at once express all we want. of their use ere our Various people are also numbered.

OR CIPHER-WRITING • 73 ' 5 • 62 2 • cest pour qumj si 66 • 4 46 189 18 • 69 • 70 intantion de donner 62 40 letter of the • 11 •. We give the commencement. and place over the symbols son • their significance : " Theer beeing hear a 47 35 • 39 . matters siiis have so harassed tourmantee " que de je extremcment fait du mal en syfre ^ teete qui que je viesteray par un autre qui jovois fait moy mesme." The trusted new hand then comes and finishes the letter in English." In one sorely troubled Queen she writes that her.

tion The translafitt of it is that " 260 thought at his to speake to him to for to solicit KD arriuall to dispatch of 6000 armes to be sent to N to arme the Scottch or shall imploy any other way 189 thinke good. ment to be veiled The publica- tion of these letters by the Parliamentarians caused great excitement. WM be- ing returned hath aduertised 260 that some Englishe Catholiques in F haue layed their purses together for supply of armes for 189. "WM 189 of the place where they are to be may write to WM in in the cipher 189 hath with 260. Ave are told ter to be scarcely — a matwe can 189 and care to wondered at. would take uncommonly good keep the Channel between themselves and the victorious Puritans. . 260. 260 doth therefore desire 189 to aduertise sent." This was clearly a docucipher.74 letter CRYPTOGRAPHY goes on in the same manner. but we need not repeat the figuring. — and well imagine that KD and WM.

being always —others T to vary. — ^H. frequently changing of the symbol in resorted patient cryptography. therefore. . meaning of this was not discovered for but if oar readers will add to these "E" letters a suflficient sprinkling of one more letter they will have no difficulty in converting it into " Perever teep these precepts ten. and R is is 50 or 51. so that is N is represented by 39 or 40. while some of the letters in the little extract we have given are each time they occur represented by the same number. unless the symbols are changed. the one 1 that occurs oftenest will mean E.WRITING It will — 75 notice of not have escaped the the careful reader that. more would E. 31.— OR CIPHER. This 45 or 46. and then more and follow. — . ye perfect men It is said that the two hundred yeai-s . presently throw light upon clue First a small would be gained.^ A curious old inscription over the decalogue in a : country church runs as follows PRSVRTPRFCTMNVRKPTHSPRCPTSTN." severe. for instance. for instance. is the letter that occurs most commonly in English. of or a little analysis a communication would it.

7^ CRYPTOGRAPHY Double L is a common final. An example of may be found in the " Notes of Proceedings of the Long Parliament. if another common for termination. but we as- sume then them the time being to be LL. so if we find two similar symbols recurring at ends of words we may course at least tbink tbem to be LL. at all That means events some- very but thing to build a theory on. but this in direction that he who would decipher a cryptogram must proceed. fell. we may little. and maybe add another of letter to our store. As another pher illustration of the number ci- we may instance that used it by Sir Kalph Verney. ing note : The editor makes the " The following numerals Avritten . look up it is ELL. Then we think well. All this course it is is very speculative and tentative." valuable that may be issued seen in the rejaroductions by the Camfollow- den Society. Of tbey may be double SS. of sell.

Cooper. with supercilious at best. we lament from our higher level the vainglorious conceit of some Chinaman who evidently thinks that characters his queer mean something." If attempt " to " take come across a slab in the British Museum covered scarcely in- with arrow-head regard or." As they evidently plussed him. tion. A to Mr. contemptuous tolera- as the quaint attempt of some poor j^ssyrian ignoramus to record something or nor should other . it we may legitimately difference. I in- add the hope that the genuity of some reader may discover their entirely non- meaning. in deciphering the and they proved be rough notes of matters referred to . succeeded figures.OR CIPHER-WRITING in pencil 77 by the hand of Sir Ralph Verney ci- look like an attempt to take notes in a pher. The numbers range from them here in 1 to 28. one hardly sees why he we should somewhat slightingly have called them "an notes. in the year 1853. forms.

" For the fourth word here we read sense either should probably in now or not. the difference being considerable. . writing probably time and in the midst of many in distractions. The following used are examples of the cipher his by Sir : Ealph Verney in • making 3 • memoranda • " 28 17 • —15 • 22 • • 5 • 8—17 2—20 3 8—5 17—6 15—14 20 13—16 28—5 7 16 8—7 14 • 10 • 5 • • 15 • 5 ' 5 • 15 15 • • • • 17 17 18 • • • • • • • 18 8 • 15. entirely at home the cipher he at wrong characters being times introduced. was not employed. Thougli there can be no doubt of the correctness of the key that has unlocked their significance." : An• other one reads " 5 • • 7 • • 15—12 • 3 • • 16 27 28 15 • 10 5 • • 15—16 8—28 • 17 • 7—10 • • 17 16 • - • 17—11 • 3 • 15 15 28 7 • 10 • 7." letters This deciphers into to : " No extracts of be aloued in this House." signifying " The prince is noli come to Grreenhich.78 in CRYPTOGRAPHY Parliament. the fact that Sir is patent against Ralph.

the letters follows : On are found represented by numerals as 2=F . and that always a very helpful state of things for the decipherer. and B 2. as that would be a great deal too easy an arrangement. so that find it remains to has that out what arbitrary analysis arrangement it is been made. The ingenious and painstaking Mr.— OR CIPHER-WRITING the direct contrast 79 aflSrmative is between " an and a negative. and C 3. forth regular sequence. Of course and so A is not in 1. Come to " in the cipher run together into "cometOj" but this was probably carelessness rather than craft. Cooper presently determined that the same numeral always stands for the same is letter.

For facility of reading anything already given. and then if the most useful but we desired to write anything ourselves. we turn to the Russian-English half of our dictionif ary .So CRYPTOGRAPHY In the memoranda that have come to hght we find no use of 26. 19." . crypto- In the same way the sender of gram uses " ordinary letter-cryptogrammic. a table having first letters is and then numbers of more a good service. stiff If we want to trans- late piece of Russian. we may of therefore assume four the missing numbers would be the equivalents of the four missing letters. but we desire to translate our own tongue into Russian. written. but 1. less-commonly emor that Q. 23. Z . 24 or on the other hand we find that by use in chance Verney had no necessity to anything he Avanted the ployed letters fairly J. the table letters. V. we have is numbers . then we seek help from the English-Russian portion of our a book. 21.

For the purpose of the sender the Verney : table should be as follows A = 14 B=6 C = 10 H=7 D = 13 E = 15 F=2 G = ll .— OR CIPHER-WRITING while the receiver 8x translate it employs to the " cryptogrammio-ordinary letter " table.

of The adherents the of Mary Queen of Scots and followers also the Pre- tender were in their use.. greatly at the addicted to scientific and a same time was in combody of mand Charles to of I.82 CRYPTOGRAPHY • 25 17 8 • • 18 3—17 note • 9 • 28—6 • 18 8 • 16 • 28 • 15 • 8. We also find a great revival of cryptoits logy during the stormy period that has central point in the flight of James II. Marquis published called of Worcester. counter-plot when in plot sought safety the use cryptograms." nobleman was pursuits. little in the year of 1633 a book This the " Century Inventions. large troops under He of afterwards Charles attached himself II. also in shows the we had succeeded mastering cipher he was employing." a remark that shows that while he that felt our an intrusion. naturally very proficient Edward Somerset. the suite in exile in . and and of the landing of William III.

at is while so position a man of affairs it stormy a period ex- plains how that amongst his hundred inventions not a few deal with the various methods of secret communication. He was His set at the enforced in the for Tower gave his him abundant as study.OR CIPHER-WRITING France. to say that the majority of his inven- tions are of an entirely practical character. 83 and to being sent over by liim to London procure intelligence and supplies. It is to it of course beside our present mark Suffice deal with the book as a whole. Restoration. put under lock at was speedily detected and and key liberty leisure leisure in tlie Tower. and the day in germ all its of the steam engine of to- mighty force and in his pervading utility is to be found observations. and he drew . The closely fitting cover of a vessel in which he was preparing food in his apartment of the Tower was suddenly forced off by the pressure of the confined steam.

in the value of his -work is quaintly evident. one Invention begetting another. Peace. sensible Lords and Commons. but further inforc'd. and ability. he writes Treasures buried under these heads. both for War. for in the dedi- cation of cellent his book to the King's most explus Majesty. more and more improving as to my And my heartiness therein there needs no addition. That he himself believed. more then that you vise shall be pleased to make of my Inventions the more Inventive shall still you find me.84 CRYPTOGRAPHY tliis from the suggestion tliat sucli a force miglit be turned to useful account. if being- I beseech you pardon I say it seems a Vanity : but comprehends a Truth since no good Spring but becomes it the more plentiful by how much more to is drawn is : and the Spinner weave his web The never stinted. nor to my readi- . inexhaustible so : and Pleasure. of on the principle to his having more than " The one string bow.

and in English itself to clean contrary to different sense. others some shewing by scrues. till and desist not from commanding. all by gages. fastening or unfastening the mai'ks at once. Upon any Accompts of these Seals a man may keep of Receipts and Disbursements from hundred Millions. though written but in English may be and read and understood in eight several languages. Therefore be pleased to begin. nor hopes of Reward. one Farthing to an By these Seals likewise any Letter. 1 on his " Several Sorts of Seals.OR CIPHER-WRITING jaess 85 and spur. or my legs do tire. can make him reveal the secret. opened before arrive unto him. so that neither Threats." list is No. Before For certainly you'l find me breathless first t'expire my hands grow weary. and not if read or understood either. the letter having been intercepted by the Enemy." . me I flag in my obedience and endeavours to Serve my King and Country. unknown to be it any but the Correspondent.

declared would." to be made the for one letter as while inventive it faculty in him. bub as that no time the be lost. one finger riseth other may make the following letter. as he use. never several figures for of confusion letter for clogging the memory with words : which with ease and void speedily are thus letter. down by naked and not nothing can multiplied points.86 CRYPTOGRAPHY No. and as ready the other. 4 is *' this Invention so abbreviated that a point onely showeth distinctly and significantly any of the 24 letters : and these very points to so be made with will two pens." One almost wonders that he did not . set and punctually. "a Cypher or Character so con- that one line. And be less than a point. growing. and yet keep their secrets No. refined by and No. stands and every of the 24 letters. 3 trived. 2 is a further developmentj sliowing how ten thousand people ful seals is may use these AYonderintact. without returns or cirfor each cumflexes.

all but pre- where at practicable.OR CIPHER-WRITING hit 87 upon the idea of dipping his fingers in the ink and so making four or five points at once instead of being content with two. we turned up in the magnificent Library dise —the students' Paranote gives — at the British Museum. so that placed. to vary the self-same the any Alphabet. educational work. the We with great regret that author no further clue to his inventions than such . for all the letter 24 and not for the same : twice in ten sheets writing yet as easily and certainly read and known as if it stood but for one and the self same letter constantly signified. it go to the original. Point ad- individually ditional without least mark or variation of place. fifth His invention is "a way by a Circular motion either along a Rule or Ring wise. shall stand letters." We labours were of first made acquainted with the Marquis by a reference to the them ferring to in an always.

of two methods. of significance of letters rule or ring-wise. 8. that was largely in use in the middle ages. Fig. however. them. .88 sliorfc CRYPtOGRAPHV skebch case as of Ave have already quoted This in the fifth one or two of his. or rather perhaps one method in two forms. is very descriptive. invention of the constant shifting Fig.

to A. and in these we place the alphabet letters in any haphazard fashion we choose. ABC sequence of "We then cut out a somewhat smaller circle from one card and divide the edge of this also into twenty-six equal parts. and we arrange together that. with The person whom we Fig. are corresponding has a similar arrangement. cut this out and place first it We next in the centre of the and drive a good strong pin through the centre. We draw a on a its fairly stout piece of cardboard and divide circumference into twenty-six equal parts.OR CIPHER-WRITING 8 is 89 circle an illustration. true We then spell the words the letters being those of the outer circle. and in these divisions we place the letters of the alphabet in the regular ordinary usage. as in J shall be adjusted out. 8. . but If representing them by those of the inner. the result being that the upper card revolves freely on the under one. enabling us to bring any letter of the one in a line with any letter of the other.

it would come out DZOXEJXT. be that two similar letters followed different one should convey the hint. all that is same give etc.90 CR yPTOGRAPH Y then we desire by means of this diagram to write the as word February. necessary is to the upper card a gentle push and A. that Z is E. characters from inner circles to a glance at the two showing him that on. KKQ would mean that at this point Ave . as set. Our this correspondent must of course know turn. are now represented on the inner circle by en- tirely different letters. and so . stance. This may be used. for a time but we want to circumvent the ingenious med- dler who begins to think that he has got a clue through our continuous use of the equivalents. while the receiver outer. and the too ingenious off onlooker is at once thi-own the scent. of and give his card a similar It but this for in- may by a thus. easily be arranged. if D is really F. reads the The sender reads from the outer circle to the inner one. 0.. B. might.

as while only one ab- solutely straight up the others begin to lean away at gradually increasing angles. This combination of the fixed and revolving excellent one.WRITING sliift 91 our inner alphabet till the letter within like A to should be Q . 9 . last till we get at to one that is absolutely all. circles its is a most only drawback little being that difficult it is perhaps a the to read radiating is letters. upside-down. After howshould a little practice of make the reading them a very easy matter. ever. BBX spin would convey the hint the circle round until the X became new equivalent of A. but to those who feel a difficulty Fig.OR CIPHER. and if we in the course of a page or two then to change again.

8 more than compensates to our mind for any topsy-turvydom.92 shoiild CRYPTOGRAPHY come the for as a boon and a blessing is where changed " Ring-wise " that " along that arrangement a Rule. in of at of regular the al- sequence. phabet." the "We must ness confess of ourselves compact- No. the openings the on the of broader are placed letters . strip make this key a somewhat broad card has twenty-six openings cut or punch- ed in it. placed the letters slit is A and then cut strip top and is bottom. distances All along this. of being torn and possessing great possibilities when turned over amongst other less papers. Fig. at the same as apart strip. AZ. up and down. proportion in fact that bears to than half the part —the AK. not too easily. a narrower it card inserted so that will slip. We have only drawn a portion. and opposite are to these. 9 being a long rambling sort of thing to keep in one's desk. To of we have shown.

on inspection of our figure. bring other combinations Of course the reader. of the sliding piece must be guarded The merest glance is still that the proper key letter opposite to . sees that in principle it is identical with the circular card method already shown. Our correspondent must clearly be informed of any such shifting. and that we could at once vary the equivalents by sliding the narrow strip it upwards or downwards. until If we to slipped down D came opposite no longer be A. BKDN. but also some surplus. 0. down to little the end. 93 "When a the whole twenty-six letters have resting place. as letter to what we want is not only a appear opposite the A.OR CIPHER-WRITING tte alphabet in any irregular order. then but ''head" would XVRT. found the strip should still be so first long as to admit of the repetition of the six or eight. and of course any accidental shifting against. that "head" would be XVRT. B. so that the slip to can be moved up and down so as in.

37. salt. Fig. though some of them are of a very forced character and having no- thing to do with writing at instance. is to be all. imagined that even amongst the blind such a sensitiveness to smell or taste could be developed as . and distinguished by touching them It is scarcely to be with the tongue. worked by the sense pegs of sandal-wood..94 CRYPTOGRAPHY to A will suffice lias show wliether any movement taken place. 40. and 42. he remembers that after are other matters that there may be dealt with too but cryptography crops up again at No. and 43 are all devoted to suggestions for secret communication. while another method trusts to the taste. 34. 40. rosewood. 35. 41. 36. pegs being aloes. this and Nos. After devoting the first five of liis "Century" all to cryptography. cedar. dipped in alum. 33. 38. revert To now to our ingenious Marquis. 39. for of smell. and so forth being so arranged and grouped that even in the dark a message could be composed or discriminated . etc.

lavender water. workable We should imagine that some sixty or eighty applications of the tongue would end in a com- plete dulling of the perception. and as many as more strongly flavoured ingredients build is would up an alphabet. 43 he devises a new tinder box. saccharine. and so on. string. while one could scarcely imagine anything much more nauseous than a course of peg-tasting for half an hour of alum. codsalt. turpentine. castor liver oil.OR CIPHER.WRITING would make tliese fancies 95 realities. One of his methods calls by a knotted and another he a bracelet alphabet. devising an alphabet by " the " jangling the Bells of any parish church can be so termed. but at No. oil. an artificial bird. 75 we are structed " in- how a tape or ribbon weaver may set down a whole letter. or discourse without knowing a interweaving anything suspicious of other secret than a new-fashioned ribbon. 52 we find him harping on if the old string again. After No. and at No." It is certainly very remarkable that when .

black. blue. and these variations could be made . for If we take.96 CRYPTOGRAPHY the Marquis had the whole field of possible inventions open to him. and white beads. he should have devoted so large a proportion of his book to the thinkin this one ing out of so many schemes narrow field of investigation. each pair representing one letter of the alphabet. and if at any time of this Avere discovered a re-arrangement the colours would alone be necessary for a fresh departure. some red. yellow. and cryptographic messages may readily be conveyed by means of any coloured objects such as beads or precious stones. green. The bracelet alphabet idea has been utilised. as to be able to spell out any of communication. example. or sent amongst other trinkets without exciting any special observation. we can so arrange them in pairs. Such a bracelet or string beads could be worn on the person. lieceiver and sender would mutually arrange a scheme of lettering by this aid of colours.

we can- not actually express bead.ce . as takes two of'these to signify the real letters of G . suflS. or tliey may be If inserted anywbere as themselves of non-significants.OR CIlPHER-WRtTIKG in 97 an immense number of ways. black. the blue must be T for it Ignoring T wherever comes. As B is already re- quired for turquoise. tlie beads initials are not available. the if the colours will thus. A by a red and a green we can by EG. By way of a start we would green suggest tlie following key:-= A=red and N= white and red = green and white P = black and green Q = white and green R = white and black S=yelIow and white T== white and yellow B= yellow and green C = red and yellow D=yellow and black E=red and black r=black and yellow G-= green and black H= yellow and red J = green and yellow K= green and red L= black and red M=red and white 1 U V= green and green W= black and white X=redandred Y= yellow and yellovv 2 = black and bladk colour can be Beads to of turquoise blue used divide words. it the letters must always be read in pairs.

^ Their message the begin- ning of " Mind see Cecil. for example. marking their colours by the signs is used in heraldic work. book plates. In Fig. "Mind see Cecil" would therefore read EWaYWEYBYWRBTRBRYTRTBRYGYBRT or RWTGY WRYBT YWRB TRBRBT RTBRYa YBRTT. as misleaders. may be in- troduced. any number of accidental breaks. they would them. 10 we have strung the actual beads." Should any of our readers not know these. as they come in very serviceably not only in finding from these signs the actual colours of arms engraved in illustrations.98 CRYPTOGRAPHY the message. or any other arbitrary breaking-up of these particular let- ters into sham words to mislead investigators that we chose to make. and the like. . knowing this. but they are also very useful as a shorthand 1 find it useful to learn way of expressing colours for any purpose. as. and.

On this string the person our beads. Green is indicated by inclined lines froin right to left. dots. through a hole made at the its top of the strip. the string was held in place. silver or series of Gold or yellow are indicated by left quite plain. A knot was then tied at the end of a piece of string. and the string was woxmd round tightly and ATas held in these teeth or notches and secured at the bottom by being inserted in a cut. -while white are Red is shown by a black is known by being marked downwards upright lines and blue by horizontal ones. of Eacli desirous communicating "witli eacTi was provided with a or stout card.OR CIPHER-WRITING 99 A seen curious in foi'm 11. of early cipher of tlie may be persons other Fig. according to the common order of the letters or in any irregall ular fashion. similar strip of board this Along the top either of was placed the alphabet. so long only as they their appearance made somewhere in the series. . The sides of the strip of wood or card- board were notched. while in plaid by lines both horizontally and vertically disposed. and by it.

loo CRYPTOGRAPHY sending the message made a mark with ink or colour in a line with any desired letter. "We have commenced upon "First chance not till the mes- sage May. The was message being thus spelt out. readily enough. on receipt. Fig. to read off the com- munication. He." but our space enables us to show but a very limited portion of this. enabled. the string unfastened and then wrapped round a package or in some such inconspicuous way got into the its hands of it the receiver. The first line gives us FIRST. wound round his counterpart board and was Fio. 11 is only a small portion of sufficient to indicate its it such a board. . though use. 11.

his meaning the decipherment of those for from whom the com- . this this no use to of us. He laid down the law in quite Johnsonian style in this and many other of matters. to the this great bewilderment of enigmatical message. This latter item is is perhaps not safety very clearly put. he very justly declared. The three essentials a good cipher.OR CIPHER-WRITING but the second line only gives OH. the marks will not in the second winding come in quite the right places. clearness from suspicion. were facility in execution. and that. as the loi A we want next comes before C and H in the alpha- bet and must therefore come on the next row. we should get is AOH. If we marked it on the same row. difficulty in solution. The only is drawback to unless method communication each party stretches the string all with equal tension through. A slip along of only one letter into space would turn FIRST GrJSTU. the receiver of Lord Chancellor Bacon was an enthusiast in ciyptology.

and arranges these in groups of five for the differenb letters. anything by This sounds It is everything. it would involve . would be necessary to It is if two hundred and fifty. sins grievously against his own first rule." is would be " very As a and it cipher it not of any great merit. he with calm assurance introduced as "a cypher of own which has the highest perfection of a cypher." most convincing and awe-inspiring. and asks what it means. He employs only the A and B. people will accept a valuation he sets ordinarily said that man pretty much at the on himself. since it is by no means letters facile in use. If then we it desire to send a message of use fifty letters. . that of signifying omnia par omnia. perhaps the truest answer little. therefore far too slow in operation even one had the various formula at one's finger's ends. . A method our that he himself devised. but when one presently re-reads this Baconian dictum.102 CRYPTO GRAPH V munication "was not intended.

as a simpler arrangement. discovery.• — 103 OR CIPHER-WRITING five times the labour of ordinary writing. would have been immensely more it is and only just to his method to frankly and fully say so. if Bacon had not published this clue. When we once know that each group of five it . B=AAAAB C =AAABA D=AAABB E=AABAA F =AABAB G=AABBA H = AABBB =ABAAA K=ABAAB L =ABABA M=ABABB N=ABBAA =ABBAB P=ABBBA I =BAAAA =BAAAB T =BAABA U =BAABB E. Such a word. apply it. The cipher was composed as follows: A=AAAAA. on the is as liaWe of same principles of decipher- ment. Of course. the task difficult. stands for a single letter. for as cryptogram would become by this code — AAABABAAAABABBAABBBABAABAABBAB AABBABAAAAAAAAAABABB . S W=BABAA X =BABAB T =BABBA Z =BABBB cumbrous nature to Q = ABBBB see the We shall the better of this cipher if we endeavour instance.

" we should have to set forth the following unwieldy arrangement : 1112112222122121121133321122122221222212221 833122211222212121 Another adopted plan that has been sometimes may be illustrated by the following cumbersome example from Trithemius. where . is the old which : Ave extract from an encjclopsedia A=lllll J =12112 S =21122 B =11112 C =11121 1)^11122 K= 12122 li T =21211 =12211 U =21212 M = 12212 1^ V =21221 E ==11211 = 12221 W = 12121 T- F =11212 0=12222 G =11221 11 = 11222 J P =21111 Q =21112 11=21121 Y =22212 =22221 Z -22122 =12111 intervals The between the words were to If be marked by 333.104 CRYPTOGRAPHY In the same cumbrous fashion. lines as that of Bacon. we wished to ask our correspondent to " come soon now. and based on the same following.

and all the rest is mere padding " Baldach abasar : lemai clamech abrach This. merely arbitrary forms. disaria athanas. riTio! 12. such as represented in Fig." only signifies " Abel and has taken fifty-six letters to give nine rj^bqA>c4)ni-oc A Mi ^ O ± -Hf 8 4> 2-cjA:\ + 'M-1jJ+/X\ /Z. has no more real element of difficulty in it than the use of the letters of the alphabet.! OR CIPHER^WRITJNG 105 only the second letter in each word counts." bibit. looks at first we have it But mys- though sight very terious. In some of the Elizabethan ciphers neither letters nor figures are used. after it misach abrai all. 12. but in place of "we find them those this. .

and two sloping lines coming to a point and a horizontal line across their centre (that we have made up got used to as A). like a figure 8 turned sideways. still would have been our alphabet. If the letters of our present alphabet had not been the shapes we know it them. and it is as easy to write dog in Greek or German letters. 12. but something entirely different. . or whether we decide C instead shall be made of two lines crossing at their centres. while A shall be a thing made up of two If circles. or in these grotesque forms of Fig.1 06 CR YPTOGRAPHY It is really immaterial Tvhetlier witli we spell cat a curved line. tain we recognise that a cer- form is the symbol of a certain letter. and a third symbol of an upright its line and then a hori- zontal line across top (a form that we are accustomed to that call T). we see soon learn to recognise this form when it. (that we have learnt to call 0). we and its shape is a matter that is absolutely indifferent to us. as in the letters in which this page before us is printed.

.OR CIPHER-WRITING 1 07 Why should not the ten upper forms in Fig.. That is really the only difference. 12 spell cryptogram just as well as ORYPTOwe GrRAM does ? In the one case we are used to the forms employed. and in the other case are not.

word " ciphers-Conclusion. — — —The letter E —" Noughts and crosses " cryptogram — — — — — — Great repetition of Towels —Patient — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — r I iHE question as to whether a cipher has all ever been devised that could for successfully time will defy patient investigation naturally occur to our readers.CHAPTER Is III an undecipherable cryptogram possible ? The art of deciphering Keys for the analysis of a cryptoga-am Oft — — recurring letters Magazine rules perseverance Papers on the subject in Gentleman's Conrad's of 1742 Value of general knowledge —Its construction-^Ciphers from agony columns of Standard and Times Prying busybodies ^Alternate letters significant Ciphers based on divers shiftings of the letters Cryptogram in Cocker's " Arithmetick " Inventor in 1761 of supposed absolutely secret system His hopes and fears thereon— Illegal to publish Pai-liamentary debates Evasion of the law Poe's use of cryptogram in story Secret marks made by tramps and vagrants Shop ciphers for marking prices ou goods Cryptogrammic trade advertisements Examples of cipher construction— The "grill " cipher— The "revolving grill" The "slip-card" Eorms of numerical cipher The " Mirabeau " Count Grousfield's cipher — Communication by use of a dictionary The "Newark" The " Clock-hands " Tlic " two. Some would have it that as all the advantages are in favour .

that prt)ve of immense assistance in the analvsis of a . too. can never be settled. and certainly itself to this is an opinion that commends Others us as a very reasonable one. In the art of deciphering it is emjihatically the case that " practice makes perfect. A cryptogram in Paris that was deciphered some few years ago for the French Grovernment took accomphshed experts bare. would tell us that nothing that the wit of is safe man could devise from the wit of some other man to search out. and the point." There are certain very definite rules. — ^we must bear in mind that what to the ordinary man is hopeless may not prove so to the deftly-trained ingenuity of the expert.— CIPHER-WRITING of tte ingenious cryptograpliist. However this may be. of course. it 109 should not of be impossible to build up a monument ingenuity that should be safe from all assault. just six months to lay and the ordinary amateur would scarcely attack any problem with such dogged deter- mination as that.

or X. or are arbitra- broken up. if written as J. Non-significants also add to it is the difficulties of analysis. is In the English language "E" is the letter that occurs with the greatest frequency. or at once We the add gl'eatly. and broken ujd into words. A diffi- cipher at once becomes immensely more cult if the letters change their significance. AVhere too the symbols. for instance. puzzling though they be. as in the revolving card illustrated. however. being a much more Italia n freely used letter in Spanish or than in English. The easiest cipher to translate in it that where each letter always stands for some other individual letter. for each language. always means F. are always arranged as in an ordinary com- munication. where K. "0. at others as S. we have already may be sometimes M. so that. be. CR YPTOGRAPHY There are special conditions. to the puzzle words are rily all joined into one. E. recognised as or ' P may L all through." for example. for instance. and a good plan . too.no cryptogram.

then a very constantly recurring word of three letters ends with this same symbol. or we. H EE. E is not only the commonest letter in use in English. or 0. we may and begin to hope that we have found out T. LL. A single letter will be A. The English tongue abounds Of course the in monosyllables. therefore.OR CIPHER-WRITING to out out every " like III sucli and " and " the " and tliat common words can at all be spared. Of all English words « the occurs. are been. cloud. SS. one of them necessarily a vowel. " the one that most it commonly If. and or our. examples. speed. of. and OU are the double vowels that most comas in pear. are the doubled letters . but it also very frequently occurs in couples feet. and in words of two is letters. or is I. . EA ease. 00. and " and " runs very closely. sweet. seen. we have determined that the commonest symbol of all if in our mysterious cryptogram is E. such as am. in. early. letters that necessarily occur most commonly are the vowels. agreed. or rough. monly go together.

and at so we have once gainpd a knowledge of other charac- . Q always has after I. they should at once be written down. • Very often this proceeding at once if suggests the whole word. feet. well. . shall. and substitute them for the symbols standing for them. miss. vague as some of them may is seem. and ends do. of. No on English word terminates with It is such bases as these. or. When may now or certain equivalents are determined. In by far the great first majority of words the is or second letter IT a vowel. There disa- no royal road nothing but delicate patience will crimination and unlimited chieve success. it. A as.112 of CR YPTOGRAPHY most usual occurrence . an. so. see. no. We take any word in which any one more of them occur. and at. begins three very common begins two-letters. go. just put dots for the others until and then more light dawns. to. and on. and loss are illustrations. tool. that the decipherer works.

into we S • try how looks we turn JQXTT ALL. B must be 0. while of three letIf B. We If at all events accept liave this tentatively. X. and we come across words FXLTNXO JPXPLBR. This suggests to us small. and shall. N must be Y. S. so II Q is . stall. us believe J is really if and T is L. we remember to that know station X be really A. I. J N. and P are tlie and T. we now that F must "W. for instance. and it presently begins to dawn upon us tbat fit tlie words "railway station" would just in. as follows : • we set • tliem down AI • • A • • TATI •. really be E. we are riglit for we added largely to see our store. represents Our knowledge ters has thus given us seven others. will be T must is be L. build- ing up our key. we we presently find in the cryptogram the group of letters JQXTT. L.OR CIPHER-WRITING ters 1 13 and soon get a long way towards If. has led and to our railway that it guess S. tliat we have discovered by analysis really A.

So by patient sometimes by sometimes by success. the every brick removed first making of work easier. sometimes by guessing what it it might be. sometimes by seeing what could not be. H. we as M Z. by step press on. failure. —for is is no word TMB. The man who would it down a wall finds difficult to make a but when he has first once got his pick fairly into a joint the brick is presently got out. we know because T we One will tliat tlie Avord is is already know shown by P.—but H. and all. . we step pull start. swiftly upon and each tells. T E there is evidently THE. we have often decided at once to be PQZ so recurs. blow after fall blow of then the swinging hammers it. The insertion the quarryman's wedge wants considerable skill.114 CR YPTOGRAPHY either M or not stall. JQXTT analysis. Q is not M. containing shall read or two endeavours at words Q it determine for us whether or H. and then all the others follow. therefore SHALL. the commonest symbol of E.

of language. and so forth. Italian. by in which that one may attack a cryptogram language. and I doubt not by this Undertaking both of gratifying the Curiosity of the Inquisitive. terminations of words. an exposition of Grerman language. : and He writes " The Art Deciphering being an abstruse Subject I purpose in this Attempt to explain it with Accuracy and Perspicuity. entitled " GryptograpTiia denudata" the author being David Arnold introduction Conradus. in an the English magazine.OR CIPHER-WRITING until presently tlie great block of II5 many tons in weight is riven in twain. In the Gentleman's Magazine for the yeai 1742 will be found an interesting series of the art of papers on deciphering. He to then proceeds with the equal thoroughness analyse Dutch French. a general curiously to he first enough. Latin. and of convinc- . English. pointrecurrences of ing out the characteristic letters. After proceeds. then the Grreek.

tlie Art wlio have hitherto questioned found ready There are to be ai'e Men to of uncommon Capacity who assert is with great Confidence that be expected from Enquiries uncertain in their Nature. no Success so to doubtful and There are these whose Credulity and Superstition set them almost below Mention. who less pronounce no positively that the Inter- pretation of private Characters. is under- which depends upon many certain and a few probable Propositions. if it ever can be attained. however diflBicult may appear. it This Art. is The Art of Deciphering the Practice of interpreting of "Writings composed Secret Characters. of The Usefulness Arts by which suspected and dangerous Correspondences may be detected cannot be . will be admired for it its Simplicity and the Ease with which it may be attained. is the effect of Magic.1 1 CR YPTOGRAPHY tlie ing those of Certainty of it. when the Theory of stood. so that the true sense and' words of the Writer shall be exactly known.

whether Latin. determine what the Language secret Writing is in which the composed. which is most quently made use of in secret Writings. or any other and by this Art are to be discovered the peculiar Characteristics of each Language.OR CIPHER-WRITING denied. that . nor is it 1 17 a small Incitement to the Study of it that those who profess it are em- ployed by Princes. "It is likewise necessary to understand at least the Elements of various Sciences. that we may know what Letters are required for each Word. and rewarded with the utmost " to Liberality. . and he will be a greater Master of this Art in prohis portion as Knowledge for of Languages is more extensive. in time of War particularly. French. and particularly Latin. He fre- should be acquainted with several Languages. the Decipherer has to is. He must be in the first Place Master of Orthography. is He that engages in this Study supposed be previously furnished with various kinds of Knowledge.

and so many Expedients Upon Learning produced as requires the utmost Acuteness to detect and explain. the whole as a Man advances in he becomes better qualified for a Decipherer.Il8 tlie CRYPTOGRAPHY Sense of any Passage may be more easily discovered. "By Accuracy of Method and a just is Deour cer- duction of Particulars from Generals. are to be used as Clues in the Labyrinth of Cryptography. or the Art of writing in Ciphers. by which so are practiced. Cryptography. consisting of tain and indubitable Propositions." Truly our author magnifies it his subject! He who would who Primate of all shine in would be a man or might have been Solicitor-General not England had he chosen the path of the cryptographic expert . and one word contribute of to tlie another. Explication. must likewise be understood. Art exalted into a Science. from whence Avliich the Rules are drawn. so many Artifices many intricate Alphabets for Secrecy formed.

" Some of his suggestions are very good. Thus the proposition says. " Another are proposition The Vowels four times outnumbered by the Consonants. the Letters. remarking of the Combination." Then the rule says "Writings of Length are most easy to decipher. the Vowels must quently. if the writ- ing be in Dutch any three-letter Avord must . without is need of : practically a repetition of it merely matter under says a that new name. more Opportunities Frequency. because there are of etc." as follows : therefore recur is most freis The " rule that based on this The Letters that recur most fre- quently are Vowels.." One would have ^thought the proposition sufficiently clear to a man what old of ordinary intelligence.OR CIPHER-WRITING I19 His rules spring rather quaintly from his propositions. Thus Ave are gravely told. "In a Writing of any Length the same Letters recur several times. while others do not seem so very helpful after all.

bok. dun. dit. be one out of the eight that he list. amt. mew. aan. die. bes. plus one hundred throiigh^ and eighty-two till more right away the alphabet we of pull all up finally at zyn. dog. bil. bly. are mad. bas. gal. one quickly notes many omis- sions. dat. bad. gek. bel. ast. een. dan. eva. Whether be at all this list three-letter words exhaustive. at once and men but to these we may add mar. ban. end. eet. bul. The words. mob. dam. eer. dur. bos. gat. mat. for instance. bed. bus. baf. dek. doe. fyn. des. dis. bal. erf. git. elf. man. ben. at of events. bon. arm. dag. als. mid. dor. den. bik. bry. djk. aen. das. bef. elk. bid. but in the English section he roundly declares that any three-letter all word in that language list must. may. maw. dop. . our ignorance of Dutch forbids us to say.120 CRYPTOGRAPHY either be aal or aap. one hundred and looking over this gives. arg. dol. der. met. bak. bot. On however. dik. bol. beginning with M that he gives . belc. map. bit.

OR CIPHER-WRITING mop. the hst is utterly useless. it may be one out of the many scores of other three-letter words that to include in our list. but when one can go no further than to say that it is either one of of those three. perchance. in Be- any case. more probably." the hint would be a most valuable one ." or " but." or " the. all. or. word three letters be found to be one of the following one hundred and unless. the help given is. one out a list of four or five hundred other words. and mug. If it were possible to say that any three- letter word must necessarily decipher into " and." we have omitted sides. mow. As we have thus readily amplified his four words under only one initial letter into sixteen. one hundred and His formula to be of practical use therefore of should be extended will into — "Any eight. after not of great . it will all readily be seen that the same treatment throiigh the alphabet would prodigiously increase his grand total of eight. 121 mud.

not only in English but in all of the European languages. check from page before it them. Statistical enthusi- asts assert that out of every thousand letters in any ordinary page of prose. or else one of the hun- dreds of other words that letter. and not sink beneath even ordinary prose.122 CRYPTOGRAPHY Setting up as value. can at if. who once statistic and the enthusiastic. one Aviil hundred and thirty-seven of them this letter. and eighty-four a . we may assume to fulfil the conditions named. we may add these rules of to Conrad's one which he seems : have overlooked that all words be- ginning with H will be found to be either horse or hallelujah. indeed. some little authority to on the matter ourselves. in English be This are is a matter that our readers. that commence with The letter E is the commonest in use of all the letters. letter In a Erench book the about per E should occur times one hundred thousand.

the hundred and ten in N at about one at German. occur are the I.lre French very eight are lish. per Spanish and Italian about the same in this respect as Eng- one hundred and thirty-one per thoubeing the sand assigned letter to Italian. and who prided himself on being rather clever at this art or science of decipherment. the former coming out in Italian about one hundred and three per thousand.OR CIPHER-WRITING mucTi larger proportion tlian 1 23 in English. joined in . being one hundred and seventythousand. told us tliat he had. An old fellow we once met. and the about one hundred and seven in each thou- sand letters used in Italian and Spanish writing and printing. The only letters of which more than ten per N. Of course. cent. for the fun of the thing. these numbers are necessarily only approximate. "while the German language runs i. while in Spanish E occurs one hundred all and forty-five times. and at . close.

to the great perplexity original the correspondents. and he CL .124 CRYPTOGRAPHY of the some in of " agony-column " advertisements tlie newspapers.

and tlie 1 25 final out- come might be considered a he was beaten confession that —at is it least. two horilines. zontal and two vertical as shown in the upper part of Fig. will up eighteen lines them. spaces 13. down Set out." OR CIPHER-WRITING endeavour to get hold of. etc. two other the right X-wise. spaces the that and in the these four place. These may arranged in . intervening also make eight in pairs. letters remaining be letters. Then place see. as previous we may to of the arrangement. go. and place in the made by them the so various letters of far it the alphabet in pairs. as they use Avill As a matter of of fact. he never replied to of our communication. then. Pro- bably most of our readers in their school- days have played to " noughts and crosses when they ought have been devoting their time instead to one of the subjects set in the curriculum. The form cryptogram we employed rather a good one. and we have often used on postcards.

that trated at any lime appear person has pene- some the unauthorized mystery. This shifting would be ar- PW .126 CRYPTOGRAPHY Should it any order. to shift it would letters merely be necessary the and start happily again.

merely in run our pens through. putting in FO in the twelfth space. and others beyond the thirteen. To we should not place our figures in the ordinary numerical order.OR CIPHER-WRITING is 127 evident that the if we merely formula. of Fig. 12r037CJ5LS910EA91M4UH. we should use These would be letters and any that fol- lowed them we should. we have no To use thirty-seventh space to put this cryptogram. we must note the shapes the lines make. and We shoiald. sent our correas spondent new IP into W2 FGr whose avoid 3KY. it fell might reconstruct it. taking no notice of the CJ. 13 . draw out the the skeleton lines and lightly number construct spaces. the upper left-hand The central space in is diagram in Fig. as it in. any unauthorized person hands this. on getting this. LS the fifth. We for it have the upper part bination. and then proceed to our key. non-significants. on receipt. 14 given the new com- and the formula might run as follows: so forth.

the a square. below. thus letter H is a and the second in we represent by a dot cross the space. as any one receiving and reading off the message would readily detect their non-essential of Fig. In the lower half sage point 13 is we send by our it —" On sat the at mesthis arriving Frank down. a reversed at base. incomplete want of the right-hand line to and the same to applies the all space round." Below the . character. Below the X-like forms that are we have placed four merely dummies for use where we please J. merely draw square. the square being . Z may be also thus employed. the left and so on The X-like figure gives us a V-like form at top. and such or little-used forms as those for X. first letter each space we. tliat space.128 CRYPTOGRAPHY space above would be it it clearly a square. except the that has no top is line space to right of also a threefor line figure. V and two other For the Vs that are turned in sideways.

ptlisd rtqd. this I29 second other combination.It the poetic effusion " Blarney (AKZQMDX). find no. two ." OR. of and one so ." letters I In the following from the Times. what is is is B is really Y is really "W. each letter being merely one forward in reality from the one here given. vhkk mns rzjc vgzs li sgntfgs. I4th. CIPHER-WRITING Fig. the Standard of April.. Or what sweet things may rise unsought. . 14. I- think I'd drop upon the flure. of very easy construction.on. should for deciphering themselves. SN gzud — . is The following from an advertisement in one of the London daily papers. with the difficulty key before in them. so we leave it to them. we place an- communication. but our readers.. 1892:— H- NA-DX. Izx qhrd ttnrntfgs. It read as follows :— "I will not" say wtat I have thought. If I could only be quite sure. so that what A. —He — Nq vgzs rvdds sghtnfr h'c cqno —H sghmj h bntkc nnikx ad tonm sgd ektqd It is !—AKZQMDX..

the perhaps allowed to of say here Ave illustrations decipherment have here given are published examples." evidently the work some thii'd person. We may that .I30 CRYPTOGRAPHY : ahead of the real one are used —" Ngv og mpqy aqw and ease cfcg uchg cpf gcug oa vqtvwtgf okpf. " I of know you.^ that 1 From au American book of the " Cariosities of Literature " type. and much sickness of heart was evident in its appeal. The story involved must have been a very sad one. my tortured mind. ." meaning. etc. F was substituted G for B. That this penetra- tion into matters deemed secret must often is take place evident from intimations that one not unfrequently sees that a certain advertisement referred to was not inserted the person whose by name be or other sign it bore. and the correspondence to at once came an end." In another Times notice for A. Three days later appeared in the same cipher the intimation. " Let me know you are safe.

neglect it to attend A term a little rally to define those to that of others. as much business or sentiment has to be got into so narrow a space. other such meanness. and that our strong feeling is that while those it who make use of cryj)to- graphy do measure at their own risk.^ that nevertheless to pry into matters that do not concern one is a base and ungenerous thing to do . and in some may be thought to be issuing a chal- lenge to busybodies." wanting in accuracy. so thnkf an mre hpfl yr ftre. or who. " so hpy in fr nw hme. that they verge on the cryptographic without any such intention — 1 as. Some advertisements so are so abbreviated. listening to a conor any versation not intended for us. for instance. CIPHER-WRITING 131 in the case of the third we have foreborne to give the details.OR. as used genewho have no proper work to busy themselves with. that to for decipher a communication not intended ourselves that is on a par with reading a letter may be lying about. having ifc. .

if we desire send the following communication. a dot under each letter that of is to count. say the second. into others." it woxild read as " Lgpestra rwnapyi astro eniciel. but them as they are. fourth. a message of thirty another thirty to conceal it. as done here. a being b remaining and simply are mixing them up with other merely blinds.132 CRYPTOGRAPHY Several forms of cryptograpliic Avriting readily be devised. and so on. Rgoentlavwxalyvaft Polnjcien. shall be the significants. It just doubles the length the communication. the carriers of the message. sixth. " Get at away once. put. it might read. not letters may by changing the various retaining b. letters requiring . all In either case it we should need to do to decipher all would be to run our pen through bers the odd numor and then read off what was left. a." We thus could break letters it up run into it any arbitrary groups of all or into one . letters that Thus we may determine that alternate letters. to For instance.

. and felt to would in an especial degree be if be so all the message to be conveyed were at devices. "go pey rst of Iwn afa yon ta sft pn loc ei. however. beginning again at the first of the next. Such have the advantage that the letters employed to spell out the communication are the real letters. This is certainly a drawback.e.OR. may spring from the use In the far-famed Cocker's 1 ^ " Decimal. " Get away at once " would al then read. " According to Cocker. Loga- i. a lengthy one. CIPHER-WRITING "we 1 33 In substitution for this first may make tlie tlie letter of tlie first word. substi- There is no need to learn a code of is tuted characters." By this means we have to non-signifiit employ a considerable number of cants. au accuracy of statement beyond question. the significant letters. and the third of the third. and hit the popular fancy. The phrase occurs in a farce entirely called The Apprentice. then the second of the following one. and one also spared the chance of error that of such a code. and so on." . second of the second.

L.P.F.D.R. A is if A.T.S.G. gentleman.W.W.H. following the preface. He declares to " when a the present war was ready not versed to break secret out.X. but chancing subject.T.M.134 ritlimical.B.M.S. neither more nor less . in alphabets.X.N.Z. properties which to appeared very extraordinary.a.H.C. think upon the of happened the to hit of upon a kind cipher.D. By this code Constan- tinople would be XOLGFALFILOKNE.R.— mere reversal of the ordinary arrangement of the consonants.F. and E B. not only him but also to some of his friends not apt to make . — we shall find no dijBficulty in reading the letter. from a In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1761 we find a rather interesting letter flatters himself that man who that he has devised an abso- lutely safe cryptogram. by Z. lished in the we find.K. CRYPTOGRAPHY and Algebraical Arithmetick.P. in is All the vowels this remain unchanged.N." pubyear 1684. and we replace B.C.L.K. a letter in cipher.

and likewise a second. they actually possessed the properties to ascribed them there could be no doubt . it procured that different specimens of together with a brief detail of its should. " In the meantime some of his friends. requesting that he would be pleased to let them know those whether he could or could not read specimens. CIPHER-WRITING 1 35 rash lay conclusions. be laid before his Majesty's chief decipherer (esteemed the best in the world). made and answer that if that he could not read them. properties. vention to his late Majesty judging it might prove advantageous to the Royal critical Measures be waged of during a great and at once in so war to many and so removed parts the world. But this attempt. tous to solici- know the real merits of this cipher. having taken time to those writings. and begging his opinion upon the whole due affair. had no effect. He tlierefore without dein- endeavoured to convey notice of his .OR. The candid peruse artist.

136 CRYP TOGRA PH Y art. about the importance of such an it it. to which many thought entitled. method to publish later. consider what to do with at length he thinks of. he set it. and hath best now hit upon the and this means is. probably. inferior to a large for a sum not Parliamentary reit Ward. making it it useful. when he had failed of makinof this art advantaofeous to the British dominions. by lying by." A century we may parenthetically presume that had the matter got so far as . and reflecting that to this secret may happen. But upon consulting no crowned head to purchase his principles be of found that Europe was rich enough from him an advantage over the monarch of his own country. " Thus disappointed both at home and abroad. and. himself to be buried with him. But was not Ms business to meddle further in " It occurred to the author. to all the world. it that he could easily sell upon the Continent.

He saw goes on to say that " at first he several objections to this step. secrets.OR. the inventor imagiues. while every man's busi- ness and private concerns shall be no further exposed in what he writes than he chuses. will prove . Limited. but they disappeared as soon as the following : rea- sons presented themselves. viz. that after the pub- lication of this art Grovernments it wUl still have as much in their power as ever to suppress all suspected writings. CIPHER-WRITING 137 he would have pocketed a handsome sum in promotion money. good and bad. that human wisdom hath inflicting imitated the Supreme. that the Supreme Wisdom hath locked up every in his man's breast. First. own Secondly. And this. this. while the rest of us would haye been inundated with prospectuses of the Universal Cryptogram Company. by punish- iment on those secrets or letters. and been entitled to a seat on the directorate. who unlawfully break open Thirdly.

138 CRYP TOGRA PH Y singular of convenience and advantage to mankind. hand with so And he would much rather clmse thus to devote this art to the particular service of his country ' Surely in the breast of a patriot these two should be transposed. but even the most important dispatches of nations. : made the two in following case First. then will the author cheerfully obey.^ " These are the principal reasons that deter- mined the author still to publish this art . diffident of his own judgment. that a true representation of this cipher should speedily be laid before the king. but. viz. and that his Majesty should thereupon be pleased to command the author to appear and demonstrate the properties he attributes to it. and rejoice in the honour of arming his Majesty's advantageous a weapon. who daily suffer from the insidious practice of intercepting and counteracting not only private instructions upon lawful busi- ness. he hath observations. and the national interest placed first. .

then will the author resolve that it shall be buried with him. OR. if no sufficient reasons contrary shall appear. For he detests the thought of extending the catalogue of to human the it ills. Secondly. till Again. But. Firstly. can be read at sight. he citizen is his fellow-creatures in general not (as some style themselves) a world. nor of the ever will be. And. if during those six months will gentlemen of sense and knowledge be so good evil as to publish reasons proving that more than good will result from the publica- tion of this secret. duty to publish it without further evil Query then. he will his then think delay. he will he hath given never publish this secret six months' notice previously of his intention to do so. CIPHER-WRITING 139 than to that of For. be wrote offhand it in the common characters. whether more will or more good tion ? result from such a publica- " it The can properties of the said Cipher.. . till the world becomes one city.

"with- out further help or any previous practice. though their letters were to pass open through the hands of Fifthly. small "variation (to be made at correspond with impenetrable secrecy. by agreement u23on a will). is strictly impossible for all the art of man to read it except the reader be in confidence with the writer.140 CRYPTOGRAPHY Thirdly. in . Fourthly. be so perfectly communicated that the person instructed shall be able. though the uien in the world were perfect masters of the art of reading and "writing this cipher. " An invaluable advantage of this cipher. and that is impossible to invent.B. it all the rest. to "write offhand and read at sight as all above set forth. yet could any two of them. in five minutes' time. the author thinks it N. the secrets both of writing and read- ing it are so simple that they can. — That that it may be demonstrated there never hath been invented. another inferior to this cipher that shall not be by many de- grees.

whom he Another advantage it. at the same time. master of can himself change his cipher every day at will. that it may be communi- cated to as few as possible. should be : communicated the sole. if judged useful to the crown first realms. absolutely im- penetrable even to those this art. every variation a new cipher. the king only it. who are masters of and to all human sagacity.OR. own in with no necessity of exposing their con- tents to ciphering and deciphering to clerks. or any person whatever. and next abroad. is. that he so may be it possessor of to disperse it and have in his power to such of his ministers abroad only as his Majesty shall have occasion to intrust with his tions. and so be kept . that a prince. that he can with letters ease and expedition -write his it. most important communicait And the use of ought to be reserved for such occasions. and make. " This these to art. except the individual to writes. of. first at home. CIPHER-WRITING is 141 the hands of a prince.

see. princes would not. otherwise. in every variation im- j)ervious to all human penetration.142 CRYPTOGRAPHY an ai'camim imperii. upon the subject. This cipher is. legible by an able And this must be true : For. " The toil and delays attending the best ciphers hitherto invented are an intolerable clog upon the dispatches of Courts. of it. The author hath never yet communicated the art of this . it should he betray it he hath given up to his Majesty. all exempt from such toil and The best ciphers fit hitherto invented and found best for business are held. that hath been resolved rather to pen them than to subject them to such This cipher delay. by tlie authorities artist. is in plain writing ruinous delays. And we by most it of the letters taken this war. and to the author after also. at a great expense. It sbould for be made death and total confiscation for anj man to betray this secret communicated to them by the king . keep able decipherers.

may have shrunk into insignificance. as he himself suggested. being told it. to oblige in order him to to reveal them to a select prevent them being lost for ever. or in all view of objects. or a sudden accident may all have befallen him and his at once made notification of secret a thing impossible. nor was the Limited Company ever started where- by the secret should be kept inviolate.WRITING oiphei' 1 43 to any mortal. or to mankind in sickness should unless a dangerous happen friend.OR. Parliament did not give the large reward hinted at. except to general . by the whole world dangerous sickto Perhaps the its ness was too rapid in the progress allow summons to the select friend. king only. . nor indeed ever tlie will. as the king evidently did not respond to the advances made. CIPHER. the realities of Eternity mundane even the great cipher itself." Whether ment this were so all potent an instru- as the inventor thought must for ever remain a moot point.

of and . The names of the speakers are veiled. Readers of the weird tales of Edgar Allen . One can only wonder that such a very palpable evasion of the law should have been thus winked at. Names of the Hurgoes. Gentleman's Magazine in we find " Proceedings the Senate of great Lilliput" running at all considerable length through the volumes. but at the end of the volume of the we have an " Analysis of.144 CRYPTOGRAPHY this However sufficient may have that all been. we have the fact is clue to the wondrous cryptogram It for ever lost. really Adonbring. In the various series of the. illegal to publish the debates was long of Parliament.. etc. Toblat. Lilliput. names Climab are is Hurgo of the is a Lord." in which both the assumed and real given. Cholmondeley. a member House Commons a debate therefore in which Hurgoes Castroflet. Talbot.. and Gruadrert carried spoke was on by Lords Chesterfield. Climabs. Shoralug. Abingdon. and Cartaret.

and great variety. ment with some mysterious writing Should any of our readers up to applied the this this point have cm bono argument to our book. a piece 1 " We estimated the entire contents of the chest at a it million and a half of dollars. three hundred and ten emeralds. CIPHER-WRITING 1 45 Pbe mil recall the great use of cryptography in the story of " The G-old Bug." K . besides sapphires. Legrand of art of South Carolina becomes possessed treasiire ^ enormous of gold coins of antique date. and upon the subsequent dis- posal of the trinkets and jewels was found that we had greatly undervalued the treasure. opals uncountable. one hundred and ten exceedingly fine diamonds^ eighteen rubies of remarkable brilliancy.! OR. and all by means of an old parchthereon. Legrand should be a convincing proof of the value of a knowledge of cryptography The treasure to in question was supposed be a part of the plunderings of the notorpirate Kidd." where a Mr. in close proximity to a wreck.' ious Half buried in the sea sand. good fortune of Mr.

146

CRYPTOGRAPHY
was found, and on
tliis

of parcliment

some few

mysterious

markings

were Boted.

On

the

application of lieat

this

parchment revealed
cryptogram, and

some three or four

lines of

the hero of the story sets himself to the task
of its decipherment. It proves to

be the clue

to the burial place of a treasure.
tions,

The

direc-

duly followed, bring Legrand and two

helpers to a particular tree in the tropic forest,

and then
from

at a certain distance

and direction

this conspicuous tree

a vigorous digging
the massive chest

presently brings to light

which

holds

this

ill-gotten
lost

wealth.

The

piratical vessel

was

and the scoundrels that

manned

it

drowned, and the

memorandum found
desolate shore
of

by a mere chance on the
Sullivan's Island

was the means

of bringing to

knowledge the hidden booty.
with
its
its

The

story

itself,

weird accompaniments of skeletons,

midnight delvings, and so forth, can be read

at length

by those who care

to
;

hunt
all

it

up

in

any

collection of

Poe's works

that

now


OR,

CIPHER-WRITING

1

47

concerns ns

is

the cryptograpli round which

the story turns.

This also we need not set
given in
it

out in detail, as
story.

it is

full
is

length in the
it is

The weak

point in

that

not

at all the sort of cipher that a pirate captain

would
literary

concoct,

while

it

is

exactly what

a

man, with an eye

to the possibilities

of

the

printing press, would
find the

put

together.

Thus we

dagger

(t) representing

D,

the asterisk (*) standing for N, the double

dagger
is

(J)

being 0.

The
(;)

parenthesis mark,
is

(,

R, and the semicolon

representative of

T.

The

interrogation

mark

(?),

the ^, and the

colon also appear.
in this fashion

The message commences

53Ut305))6*;4826)4+

The

decipherment of
is

this

abstruse

memor-

andum

very well worked out in the story.
still

That some people

believe in a present
is

and future for cryptography

seen in the fact

that so lately as the year 1860 was patented a

machiae for carrying on secret correspondence.

148

CRYPTOGRAPHY
all

Probably
on
tlieir

our readers must have noticed
or
door-steps
certain

gate-posts"

mysterious

clialk-marks,

tbe

cryptographic

symbols of the great begging fraternity, telling
their

successors

what

fate

their

appeal

for
soft-

alms

may

be likely to meet with.

The

hearted,

and

perhaps

a

little

soft-headed,

householder

who

dispenses liberally and with-

out enquiry to the bearers of every harrowing
tale

need never fear any
apjjlicants,

falling

off
little

in

the

stream of

since

the

white
to

mark on
brinig

his premises will

always

suffice

on a fresh iaundatiou, while the
finds (or puts) a square

man

who

mark on

his door
is

will be free, for it is

an intimation that he

regarded as an unfavourable subject.

A

circle

with a dot in the centre guarantees complete

immunity from these uninvited

visitors, the

immunity that naturally attaches

to

a

man

who

is

prepared to hand any sturdy vagrant

over to the police and follow this up Avith a
prosecution.

OR,

CIPHER-WRITING

1 49

Business

people often employ a kind

of

cipher for marking prices on their goods and

samples when for some occult and mysterious
reason
it

is

desirable that the customer should

be kept in the dark on the matter.

We

should

have thought that when a
to sell a
fit,

man was
fair price

prepared

proper

article at

a

and pronot

five shillings, for instance,

—he would

feel
it

any

difficulty

whatever in legibly marking
five that

with a good wholesome

need not

be ashamed to look the whole world in the
face.

If for
is

some reason more or

less legiti-

mate, he
ful for

unable to do
is

this, all that is

need-

him

to

hunt up some ten-letter word

or combination, such as smoking-cap, in which
all

the

letters

are

different,

and then the
numerals

letters

seriatim will
0.

stand for the

123456789
we
us 27/6.

With

this

key before us
will cost

see that an article

marked MG/JST

We
man

occasionally find the

pushing business

breaking out as a follower of the crypto-

I50

CRYPTOGRAPHY

graphic art witli the idea of more effectually
calling attention to his goods.

An

energetic

dealer in potatoes largely circulated the foUoAV-

ing offer of a bag of the very best tubers to
all

who

could successfully read
sell

its

terms.

As

he was prepared to

the potatoes at the

same price
his

to all comers,

whether they read

cryptogram or

not, the generosity of the

offer is not quite so clear as

any one labouring

through his circular might have anticipated.

The

result

would probably amuse some and
;

irritate others

but any way

it

would

call at-

tention to the goods, and the dealer evidently

concluded that the balance of feeling would be
in his favour
:

" Eht otatop
iioy

nam

skniht retfa gnidaer

siht,

Uiw
si

leef taht sih

Hams

elzzup dna ytis-

oreneg

levon

fi

ton gnitseretni.

Ti sekat

emit dna ecneitap ot daer, yltneuqesnoc eht
stcaf

dluohs eb erom ylmrif detoor no ruoy
siht
si

yromem;
wef
senil.

eht tcejbo ni gnitirw eseht

Ew

hsiw uoy ot evah a gab fo ruo

1

OR,

CIPHER-WRITING
uoy yam wonk
elit

15

seotatop, OS taht
fo mehtj

eurt eulav
i

dna retfa ecno gniyrt

melit,

leef erus

Tioy lliw taeper

ruoy redro morf emit ot emit.
ei'a

Sa

i

wonk

eht seotatop

doog

i

evali

on

noitatiset ni gnittup erofeb
reffo
:

uoy

ym

suoreneg

yldnik drawrof xis
i

sgnillilis

dna ecnep"
! ! !

xis

dna

lliw ta ecno dnes fo

uoy eno derdnuh

dna evlewt sdnuop
It will
is

ym

tseb seotatop

be seen at a glance that this cipher

merely the ordinary words reversed in their

spelling,

and with a very

little

practice
it

of

reading the reverse
readily
this,
:

way one makes

out very

"

The potato man thinks

after reading

you

will feel that his small puzzle
is

and

generosity

novel

if

not interesting.

It takes

time and patience to read, consequently the
facts should

be more firmly rooted on your
object in writing these

memory
few

:

this is the

lines.

We

wish you to have a bag of our

potatoes, so that

you may know the true value

of

them, and after once trying them I feel

siire

you

will repeat

your order from time to

r

52

CR YPTOGRAPHY

time.

As

I

know

the potatoes are good, I

have no hesitation in putting before you
generous offer
:

my

kindly forward six shillings
will at

and sixpence, and I

once send you

one hundred and twelve pounds of
potatoes
"
!
!
!

my

best

We may

add parenthetically that the pota-

toes supplied are excellent in quality, that

we

had pleasant experience of them long before and
after the issue of this cryptogram,^

and that

they are well able to stand on their merits even

without any adventitious aid

;

and the same

remark may be made
fast paste,"

of the excellent " stickis

which nevertheless
as follows
:

advertised,

amongst other ways,

"

STI

CKPH
illus-

AST PAS T EST lOKS."
we may quote
"

As one more

tration of this commercial use of cryptography,

the following

advertisement

My

darling, K,of tobacco

og ot Nospmoht,

ytrof evifj Kcirederf Teerts,
^

Daetspmah Daor."

And
!

that

we

did not write or suggest this crypto-

gram

on,

CIPHER-WRITING
is

153

The process again
it

simple reversal, and from
if

the reader will readily learn where,

he be

a smoker, he
his

may

find

due replenishment of
of

pouch.

Such trade uses

the crypto-

gram

are naturally of the simplest nature, and
difficulty, as
it

present no

the great object

is

that

the person whose eye

catches should be able
to puzzle
in-

to readily read the advertisement;

and baulk him would frustrate the whole
tention of the thing.

We
turies

have now travelled throughout the cen-

from Julius Csesar and Herodotus

to the

vendors of potatoes and the makers of paste
in this present year of grace
;

from the victors

of Naseby, the fugitives of CuUoden, to the

shopkeeper of

the

Hampstead Road.

Our

rapid review of these hundreds of years has

not been,

we

trust,

without interest, and

it

will

at least have

shown that the subject has been
it

held of great importance, that

has taken

its

part in making history, and in the rise and
of great causes,

fall

and that

it is

something more

15.154 CRYPTOGRAPHY shield to the and better than a mei^e knave or the veiled appeal of the love-struck SAvain in the columns of the newspaper. turn now to the practical consideration of divers systems of cryptographic communi- and the first of these is that known as . We cation. A F) A ^ Vy Fig.

Le chassis or la grille Germany. all and reads superfluous material being to is him no distraction. and this cardboard is pierced with openings at irregular intervals.OR. . Any in indication la France. into an is entirely but this very ' difficult to do properly. The sender then writes his message through these openings on to a piece of plain paper that is placed fills beneath. He then removes the grille/ and up the rest of the paper with any other letters or words that occur to him as being calculated to throw any unauthorized third person off the scent. since it hidden by the unpierced portion of his card. The receiver merely places on the grille." It a very good method for short communications. communication his duplicate the message. CIPHER-WRITING is 155 the "grille. The sender and re- ceiver are each in possession of a similar piece of cardboard. . Neiz or Gitten. essential it Sometimes the to message is veiled by the addition it of other words that transform innocent-looking affair.

..156 CRYPTOGRAPHY of halting composition or the introduction of any conspicuous word . at once attracts attention fJ. ... 1 — -^ L COi.. .EEl.

better to face the fact boldly that the message is undoubtedly of a secret nature. lines The dotted on Figs. 17 is hovF looks when dispatched. duplicate." grille is it as appears to the receiver when the it. 16 represents the message. 15 and 16 are of course only put that the reader may trace more readily the : connection between the different squares are of they no use in the actual transmission." would require an enormous amount uity to so of ingen- wrap round " rifles " and " ammunito tion" with innocent padding as make the message read as though invitation it were merely an tennis. " Come it as soon as you possibly can to Louth. 15 uses. placed upon while Fig. it. and how it reads to any un- authorized and grille-less person. CIPHER-WRITING 1 57 it distribution. with necessary ammunition. shows the pierced card that the sender of and which the receiver holds an exact Fig.01^. . therefore. for lunch and lawn It is. and then leare the objectionable third person to get such comfort as he can out of Fig.

In the top row of the pre- . CRYPTOGRAPHY however. 17. we did not care to risk sending the grille by post or messengei'. the second per- son in the transaction could readily make one VIGOR IVIEF^I C/\STO soREoHic pasyLyo UpTI|slNOSP SiHeBL rLyc f^A^L ToLoic LofTU for EST rVh Fia. IE himself or herself. as it would only be in necessary to know which squares each row were pierced.158 If.

3. the old bottom edge the top one. 18. as the following of 1. new In Figs. 2. fourth. and 20 we have a somewhat . CIPHER-WRITING 159 sent arrangement we see that these are the seventh. being now This at once throws sequence. We have not taken the rows in regular sequence. 4 and 6 in order after the noughts might suggest an idea to this is troublesome third person. is known.OR. to turn that would be necessary would be upside down. and then we of take the first figure to indicate the number the row. the same. and the others to be the openings. 19. but this immaterial. If entirely all the different rows are there we have a all it suspicion that our grille. and gives us the squares into a a fresh start. a nought indicating the end of each row. five hundred miles away a duplicate made. it would be easy to send a formula by which grille. If second. It could be would in the present case run as foUows: 124703146802136804246061357.

similar the still " revolving grille. The in it time has certain openings made ^O .l6o CRYPTOGRAPHY contrivance." tliougli it is grille this perhaps more puzzling.

at once suffice for the whole message. We then. as in the i^revions example. place the card so that the edge AB is upper- most. and in these openings letters as we place as still many keep- they will take. but these openings do not. To use this grille. CIPHER.WRITING l6l round one) .OR. 19. ing our under paper in the same position L . we first Pig.

letters. is the effect we get in Fig." and . 20 the communication as the as all sender dispatches it. see in The result is a very hopeless-looking mixture of 20. and proceed as before." final shift of the card to CA as its upper edge reveals now " ek at most JP. the receiver gets it. finally we give one more turn and bring the edge top.l62 CRYPTOGRAPHY grille so that turn the BD is the upper edge. To reduce this chaos to takes his duplicate full legibihty. as Fig. DO. 18 thus give us in rotation forty openings. on the message. and through ten openings he reads "urgent need. and the openings now read " only hold ou." He then turns the grill until BD is the top edge. the receiver it. 19. and as it appears to who may see it. tells him " t another we. grille and places AB its uppermost. OA we to the The ten openings of Fig." The next and the turn. and in these new blanks go on our message until these in turn are then turn the card until We it DC and is the iipper edge. -writing filled. This Fig.

only hold out another week at most. 19 is merely added to show the revolution how the forty openings made by U .: OR. —J." Fig. CIPHER-WRITING 163 the whole warning stands clearly before him " Urgent need.P.

" slip of we take a long thin cut two long cardboard. so as to about divide the card into three equal portions. the " slip-card. and place any one of these columns alongside . and other columns. We then card is get a broader piece of card and slip this in the slits on the first strip. We now the paper along. 21 another arrangement it based on much the same principle. This second in divided into squares. the letters On of the the centre portion Ave place alphabet in their regular everyday sequence. and we now have in Fig. though works out somewhat differently. a form made by slipping a card along.1 64 CR YPTOGRAPH Y have already in Fig. being only careful that every letter shall appear somewhere in the length of ditto in the case of all column one. and then slits we longitudinal in it. 9 We is sliown what technically called the " ladder " cipher. Avill the About four slip of these columns suffice. To make this form. and these squares we place the letters in any irregular way we choose.

but at the shift will next be D. so our mes- that E is no longer always C. and so on but can as shift the card as often we like during of the making up sage. might gradually become to r evident any outsider stood for . and then it is presently on. tlie CIPHER-WRITING tlie 165 If alphabet on tliis thin strip. for ex- ample. or the message will all at once go chaotic at to him. so that the changing point we must indicate by its proper number what column we .OR. we con- tinned to use it column. T. what letter A we or E. and so The shifting must be intimated to the receiver.

It would. but difficulty. 14 22. " If at once it will you do not return might read. 9 22 24 7 12 9. at two changes to the second column. 6.— 15 22 7. and B 2. The message here begins with column one. 4 18 7 19. or words. 8. have clianged 2. 12 21. 1866 " 1.i66 CRYPTOGRAPHY to. so forth. but we may make matters a little more complicated by letting the figures run in the reverse direction. and so' on. Figures are at times employed in lieu of letters. 7. 2. 24 12 9 9 22 8 ] 1 12 13 23 22 13 24 22. 24 . and this too presents very little The following message appeared : in the Times of September 7th. being used to separate as blinds and non.significants. be too late. still A being 26. 3j These numbers would be 5. and at three to the third. the others. 9. B being 25. 1 and 4. of course. 9." it ZU6SPR9TP6HPM2EDUIEW8a U6VWPD3GQ8KGXX6HT5QZZXFQT. 8 22 13 23. be a great deal too obvious that A should be 1. If then we desired to send the warning.

12 26 23. the result stands forth as " XY E. CIPHER-WRITING 4 18 15 15. ? 22. Figure alphabets were very commonly used. too." As the matter is now over thirty years old there can be no objection to pointing out that if we practise this simple reversal. in the is Stuart times. plain will ex- how things stand. 12 16 15 22 20 19 12 4. as we have seen. I go abroad next . 18. never running beyond twenty- naturally suggest that they are the letters of the alphabet. 8.. 11 7. These are points that greatly aid decipherment. month. and up by commas into words. 13 22 3 8 7 26 13 23. 20 12. . It is better. The is best arrangement where each consonant represented by two combinations of figures.OR. The numbers six. too. this cipher faulty in having always the same equivalent for each in being cut letter. and the vowels by still more. 19 18 18 20 7. Let me send correit spondence with rector of College. 26 25 9 14 12 13 7 19." Apart from the simplicity of is its construction. 22 3 11 15 26 18 167 13.

an almost impossible thing. X. 64.i68 CRYPTOGRAPHY not to employ single figures. 33. H. Y. O. D. 51. 65. as The following may be taken tion : an illustra- A. 90. 24. S. sucli as 3 or 5 or 8. 27. 52. R. 95. 56. 41. 61. 71. 80. 34. 93. V. 43. 32. 58. 62. L. 28. 57. P. 33. J. 22. 35. it Should is at any time be suspected that the clue found. 25. 91. 13.97. 29. 69. Q. 39. as follows : first. 46. and every pair of figures stands for one letter. F. K. 72. like 22 or 57. 83. M. Z. 23. 49. T. 70. 48. This is the sender's list.. 31. G. 50. C. 98. 36. 68. I. E. 21. 77. K W. 81. 40. 37. 30. 67. and then the This latter would be . The message no need to tlien runs continuously off tlie : tliere is comma words. 47. 66. the receiver's key would have the figures figures they represent. 86. 82. 63. a re-shifting of the numbers is readily effected. U. 92. 26. but to always take doubles. 45. 76. 89. 42. 96.

21. CIPHER-WRITING 1 69 .OR.

too. or 80. The prying would-be decipherer off thus at in- once thrown stance. glancing down his key-list. each. while the receiver. for that double . would read 48223236 or 35303632. . L is a rather common termination but when the same letter is repre- sented sometimes by one pair of figures and this sometimes by another. He knows. sees that either 32 or 36 are equally is L. tliat B it is the commonest of all the letters but when may be As our 41. double L. By " the old method called the " Mirabeau is the alphabet letters divided into five rows of five to five.170 letter CRYPTOGRAPHY he wants . He knows. for instance. or 25. or 84. to : we for hand over them the following message decipherment 224247412680627769239834823 043393565218933344190. the scent. he cannot find " Shall. readers have the key before them. his chance of it is detecting but small. L." for example. being either 32 or 36. letter marked from one of and thus each these rows is also .

: 3 BIMSY. while I would be the group of five. C. It will be seen gives good scope for varying the symindividual letters. of thus the thrice . this code 5 '5 2 DHNRX. the second -^ and would therefore be In practice. however. PKFUZ. this regular alphabetical arrangement tell-tale. "Constantinople" by would read as follows 75^23^512 58 3 2 5 4 1 5 2 3 49 3 3 83 390 1 38 2 10 4 17' This that bols is it a very good system. for instance. A good workable code would. third letter in the first five. and the receiver of the message would merely run his pen through them. 7. 9. 1 CIPHER-WRITING would be tlie 17 marked.— OR. would be discarded as being too 6. 8. be 1 as follows v — 4 QaALV. The number of the row is written as the numerator of these fraction-like symbols. 5 EOTWC. The figures are all non-significants. while the lower number is the posi- tion of the particular letter in the row. and would therefore fourth letter be of g.

but instead of using fourth letter from it . is that of For this any three figures are taken. is The message then written out roughly by the sender. 431. while for E we recommence there- by taking in its stead the fourth letter in the it. instead of it. alphabet from fore read Our message would GRNI DU SQDI WP YV. as. and these figures placed over each letter in the following way : Come 43 14 311314 at once to us C we 31 43 We now proceed to write out our message for use the dispatch. we employ of the third letter from first letter and instead M the from it. for example.172 CRYPTOGRAPHY occurring N of this word is each time repre- sented by a quite different symbol. Here is again it will be seen that the same symbol . exercise iu the As an same key we hand over the following to the consideration of our students of Glyptography : 4 29 4 38 27 47 18 3 17 1 i9 4' Yet another numerical method Count G-rousfield.

rse. CIPHER-WRITING 1 73 not always associated with the same letter. FPMI CW PNGG WP UW. in different parts of the message. In some ciphers the real letters are em- . following statement. is. Oome 3104 23 at once The 1042 t o u s the cryptogram based on this key being. and there scarcely say. or S. we pass on and good to our readers: KM-HSV-PQCQSHis CJFO-LWJ. Thus we 3 1 might. cou. Thus the twice recurring is in one part of Gr. in regular sequence the fifth. the letters we introduced into our crypto- gram would be first. based on the key of 2130. The system a very simple one. while the threefold and in is R. if Of we took 513 as the recurring num- ber. the key being of so easy a nature to remember or to transmit. and third from the true ones. for example.OR. 4 . no special virtue in we need grouping the figures in threes. or P. and our message would then read. use 31042. the key might as readily be composed of four or five. our communication represented by another by D.

to and then the next right up- wards. or diagonally. however. not difficult of detecT . but tliey only reveal their meaning when read right.174 CRYPTOGRAPHY ployed. They are ordinarily. in some special way to : left left. or downwards.

ABC 4 . CIPHER-MERITING 175 way is to wrap tlie letters up amongst divers non-significantSj and resting on suoli some simple key as that the letters of the shall message be those that follow anything All suspicious- that begins or ends with S.OR.

we ABO. of by no means so good as some on. divided into From these lines are so is drawn that the big square nine small ones. At the same time. any one number from one tirely to nine. also in We in then each square. and each face of three equal parts. until all our place. and as is one fairly our store. an enIn our irregular and it casual will present example be seen that these . 23 has someit times been employed. it is the is others we have dwelt A square drawn. in second DE in the GrHI. of course. place third subdivided into of In the the first these F. squares are lettered. and so on in regular sequence. practice.176 CRYPTOGRAPHY type tlie a different in —thougli very fet last that is. n see tomo ss ped ow The arrangement seen in Fig. thing we 'be should it do — si * tels wi so U sigh lo o sigh ri s far sign p has in ro' smu sip peps ndo ex. it good system the more to add to we is give details of it. disposing them way.

5.9. In this key a plain 4 stands for A.6. a oncedotted 4 for B. Soutli Kensington m\.OR. and a twice-dotted 4 for C.8.2. id ml . CIPHER-WRITING 177 numbers run as follows: 47.3.1. and so on all tlirougli.

desiring to send off the warn- " Get of away soon these as you can. those that we find our dictionary three places behind them. but we our- thinking them over devised . only is is available of for common and no use for proper names. is though fairly the method words. ing. 23 in Fig. to write doAvn but Avhatever word one of places number back or for- ward. one would merely sub- 965213874." we use. ingenious. instead in words. that shown 13. If two persons provide themselves with a the copy each of dictionary. not the word finds a certain The method itself. Thus. that So our message reads. they same edition of a good may in be able to communicate with each other cryptogrammic fashion. any treachery or underhand work were stitute suspected.178 CRYPTOGRAPHY If number. " Glesticulator awakening sonneteer artless yolk camphor. or any other fresh com- bination." is The system shown and have so in is in Fig.

various arrangements of right angles. two. 23 that the second letter has third two. 13. as in Fig. 13. and within it three lines. an improvement on Figs. 13 For the dots of substituted lines. as in to odd space over being given a second E. 24. to which we the name of is the Newark crypto- gram. variations of the letter L. CIPHER-WRITING tlie 179 selves a combination of will give two. disposed in them any direction we The six characall. the Newark.OR. with a little ingenuity. and have grouped our Fig. the one. though they all agree in the essentials in having the right angle. we need scarcely repeat any form. Having got. and 2(3 we have as being It somewhat clearer and more is definite. one dot and the In Fig. that we think both. ters in the vertical column are for in- stance. 23. By this method. we have got rid of the X-like cross of Fig. and we may . the letters into threes. or three lines in may be please. therefore. seems to us in that it rather a weak point Fig.

by three lines. since all its values are con- —the same forms always representing the case of the it the same letters. over two hundred letter. all represented within a right angle of the same direction. being letter. It is less effective as a cryptogram than some of the methods that have preceded stant it. and so therefore. in direction. great advantage of it One is that the forms are distinctive: it 60 simple in character is.r8o CRYPTOGRAPHY twenty-six letters get the of our alphabet different is represented by symbols. and therefore two-lined . 25 we have a representation of the "clock-hands" cipher. and there- fore one-lined. and L. a right angle of the reverse In Fig. F is the first letter. and therefore three-lined. except in threefold E — and therefore rendering more easy of analysis and ultimate detection. W being the line. a very easy cipher to write or . R the third letter. N the second. first repre- sented by one the third T by two lines.

25. one along the series upper edge of a of ruled squares and the other down . To work out. The " two word one." \\jyvLi\:\'\vs'rA ABCDEEE. " cipher is a very good the same letter being represented by this different characters. The dots absolutely meaningless. CIPHER-WRITING are l8l read.OR. 25 is as follows is " Clock-hand cipher simple in character. at and are merely put random as blinds. we take any two words of reasonable length and place them.FCHiJKL z A>v<r^m-/\^\i MM 0PQR5TUVWXY Fig. The intimation given beneath : the alphabet in Fig.

OF. selected are " ordinarilywill thoughtful " squares . or DU. by referring to E. therefore. that it may be either NT. RH.words — still more combinations could be made. and that would have meant that over. key. one hundred squares altogether bet so that we get the alpha- repeated in full three times. while double at pleasure. present number is There is no necessity that the be of equal two key-words should of letters. The words (see Fig. 26) that we have this. still S would be Of course. OU. but the really ample. come twice It is and a few letters by no means necessary that the key . number " Ordinary thought " would have fifty-six given us squares. is LH. or RL by taking more squares longer —that to say. mean ten wide and : ten deep. and only see four letters short of a fourth. NG-. We now. the alphabet would have thrice. one In tliese squares we place the let- ters of tte alphabet in regular sequence until all the squares are filled.l82 CRYPTOGRAPHY side.

1 83 should one might simply adopt any chance arrangement of letters in their place. letters CIPHER-WRITING be words at all.OR. The words are only useful as .

1 84 to CR YP TOGRA PH V our we send correspondent tlie words " ordinarily thoughtful " suspicion to is on a post-card. no lie aroiised. and then them in with the letters of the alphabet. on getting the message. " Plope to be with you by Tues- "—ITNHRGDU YHOa ETOQ LGNUAGIT RFRTDFOT IHRF YHRGRHLHITRORF. by the aid of his key. might The same message might be given "hope" in quite different characters. translate it ordinary wording. takes a pencil and pro- ceeds to cut up the communication at each pair of letters with a little upright line. The specimen message we append day is. of the in the Bach real letter message is represented by two letters ci'yptogram. and at once proceeds make his key. so that the receiver. but this "two word" combination must come . thus the equally well have been lUOGILNT. Whether there be such a thing as an abso- lutely indecipherable cipher one cannot say. so many squares wide and fills so many deep. and into then.

itself. enough has been brought forward. The subject is by no means exhausted. or avert catastrophe from the nation .. while the examples we have given are a testimony to the abundant ingenuity that of the art has called forth. but trust. OR. to ing may it be turned to basest many should be a source of innocent re- creation and an ingenious form of puzzledom such that while its value in time of peril of it is a knowledge may save hundreds of lives. sufficiently CIPHER-WRITING foi' 1 85 near that ideal all practical purposes. we to justify in the first place our plea for the historic interest of cryptography. While the art the secret writuses.

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. . 131. Business ciphers for marking goods. 105. 12. 26. Alfred Great. of inscrip- B." A. 53. of slaves a writing surface. 103. 24. writing round stick.— INDEX " So essential did I consider an Index to be to every book. 61.^neas Tacitas as a cryptographer. Abbreviation tions. 101. characters as Bracelet alphabet. 46. " Backs Bacon. 62.". alphabet of. 96. aim. that I proposed to bring a Bill into Parliament to deprive any author who published a book 'without an Index of the privilege of copyright. Archimedes." 133.GampheU's ^' Lives of the Chief Justices of England. 68. perverted in advertise- its Abbreviated ments. a writing material. 129. "According to Cocker. 64. Arbitrary writing upon ciphers. visibly. and. secret Beads and precious stones ciphers. Brass. Alum as 39. Astronomy. Bacon. " " Ars Scrihendi Gharacler- A and B " cipher of Lord is" the. moreover. 149. 65. to subject him to a pecuniary penalty. 47. 96. Agony columns " newspapers. how in- made. the of the a cryptographic enthusiast.

133. 12. cipher in. 94. messageDrugging the bearer. denudata." Charles I. in writ- D. Cherry juice as a writing material. a good or evil as used. Chloride of cobalt as a writing material. in cipher. 77. Chemistry. 82. Disappearing writing. Count Grousfield's 172. INDEX Cooper. 98. " Clock-hands " cipher. 26. 40. " cipher. 29. 46. or finger-talk. art of writing on. Dummy characters inserted. 120. Copper. Dictionary cryptogram . the art 76. 63. as a decipher- Camden Society.178. on shorthand. 76. 46. 42. Dust or soot as a medium. use ing. 39. Clarendon's " History of the Bebellion. Double letters in constant use. cipherment. 19. 115. 44. Correspondence captured at " Characterie. Chemicals. ihe labours of. . Decipherment. abbreviations on. 68. Mr. Charlemagne as a cryptographer. Conrad us on art of de- Dutch three-letter words. Delight in the mysterious. reproduc- tions by. writing invisibly " Century of the. form of Cocker's Arithmetic." 69. 11. ing exj)evt. Coinage. Colours expressed by lines. of.. Crystal. 111. OryptograpMa the. 14. Daotylogy 16. Dr. 109. Derivation of cryptography. 79. 57. 55. 119." early book upon. Inventions. 71. Dee. a great believer of. 65. 103. 170. 41. 69." Naseby.i88 C. 53. Chinese characters. 180. 77. 71. Citron juice for secret writing.

French in the family 19. Climabs in Galls. Hieroglyphics not ciphers. secret writing npon 42. Jangling of bells as a signal. "History of the Rebellion. " Gentleman's reference to. G-. 42 24.INDEX E. Hidden. 25. 18. 39.'' I. gram 145. E. H. "Grille" fot-m of cryptogram. crypto- " Gold Bug " of in. Inks. Herodotus as an authority. chemical. not necessarily Plashing mirrors as signals 16. the commonest English ' letter. Head of slave as writing for surface. 39. 115. 189 arabic and Gum gum tra- Eggs. gacanth. Goats' fat as writing terial. English three-letter words. Grape juice as an ink. 14 Human Toice shut up in tube." Clarendon. 155. 55. 42. Egyptian hieroglyphics. conveying messages by. Greek letters during Indian Mutiny. 38. 75. Poe. ma Inscription in country church. 52. Parliament. 75. the. 69. 110. Magazine. 20. 18. 134. 144. 43. Juniper juice as writing material.. circle. 95. Flight of James 82. 98. for writing. nse of. 122. 16. 40. Fig-tree juice as an ink. E. 16. French Revolution. secret. . Glass. Hurgoes and in writing. 25. Heraldic use of lines colours. 120. II.

INDEX ' Newark 179. Mason-marks. 97." 33. in ciphers. 145. " 110. Kidd's treasure chest discovered. 64. 123. Objections to study of cryp- " Lexicon the. 52. 72. string " 56. "Noughts and crosses " form of cipher. 166. 104. Pharamond. " Nitrate of silver. their Message wrapjDed ruler. alplia- use of. battle " Natural 145. 39. L. 26. the Diary of. a cryptograph" of ist. 58. 66. Monas Hieroglyphica Dee. M. 43. 78. victims of the. 164. Marquis of Worcester's of Scots' use book. One and two " form of cryptogram.X90 K. 39. graphy. 39. Orange juice as writing material. O. or non-significants. use. 94. 46. " form of cipher. " lues 0. or Stegano- Porta. 110. P. Onion juice as an invisible medium. Numbers. "Mirabeau" form 170. Knotted bet. 82. 95. 13. Pigeons as message-bearers. 133. 63. 38. 47. 104. " of cipher. N. Pepys. writing. 70. NuUes. 172. round Papal Inquisition. Siplomaticum . . " Ladder " form of cipher. of Magick " Polygraphia graphia. use of. 69. largely used in Italian Litharge. of. use in secret and Spanish. Naseby. Poe's use of cipher in story. occultes Notes des Lettres. 27. Mary Queen of cipher. Legitimate use of crypto- 72." its tography. 82. 12. 30. 125.

Stick-fast paste in cipher. togram. Steganographia. to Scythian message sians. " Revolving disk " 89. 87. Royalist and Parliamentarian. 150. ist. Per- Taste. cipher. by means use of 99. 110. Symbolism of action. Trithemius. Sulphate of copper as an ink. cipher. 111. 63. The. String." advertisement Parlia' Pahlication from. 181. R. early cipher. 148. S. sense of. 160. 129. germ of the. Romanum. " Rule " form of cipher. message of. Sheshach as a cryptogram." Tramps and advertisement their signs. " Slip-cord " form of cryp- cipher." the. 95. 94. " Ribbon messages. nature of. as j Smell. 24. T. 28. 14.word " cipher. Suetonius. Shop prices in cipher. mentary debates. Ring " cipher. 166. 41. 164. Rawlinson 21. " Revolving grille " cipher. 130. the commonest Bnglish word. from. Soot subject of or dust revealing Potatoes for ' messages. 57. 15. Shorthand. 87. 33. on cipher writing. 62. 20. 47. I Telegram-English. Stick. 94.INDEX Porta 191 of. used. 'Times. on Sheshach. engine. message wrapped round. 129. 68. 65. 104. " Siglarium 64. ships signal cryptograph- 28. Steam 83. great use of code. 152. 15. 69. . ] " Standard. 149. " Two. early books on. 27. sense used. 92. Sinking of Tudor period. 144.

76. 25. 12. 16. 43. cipher of. Victims of the Inquisition. .192 Tyronian symbols. 41. Watch-fire signals. Cutbr S: Tanner. Sir Halpli. 62. Froaie. Weapon of the ill-disposed. inks. Waxed tablets. The Selvvood riinting >Vorks. INDEX Vowels. Vinegar and Titriol as Writers on 27. use of. W. 37. cryptography. Verney. and Loudon. 24. V.58. 111. the commonest letters.

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