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THE PLURAL OF NOUNS

THE PLURAL OF NOUNS
Most nouns form the plural by adding -s or -es.

Examples
Singular boat hat house river Plural boats hats houses rivers

A noun ending in -y preceded by a consonant makes the plural with -ies.

Examples
Singular a cry a fly a nappy a poppy a city a lady a baby Plural cries flies nappies poppies cities ladies babies

There are some irregular formations for noun plurals. Some of the most common ones are listed below.

Examples of irregular plurals
Singular woman man child tooth foot person leaf Plural women men children teeth feet people leaves

Linguistics is the study of language.m. Billiards is played all over the world. Some nouns have a plural form and take a plural verb. Examples      news athletics linguistics darts billiards The news is on at 6. Athletics is good for young people. Examples Singular sheep fish species aircraft Plural sheep fish species aircraft Some nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb. Examples . Darts is a popular game in England.half knife wife life loaf potato cactus focus fungus nucleus syllabus analysis diagnosis oasis thesis crisis phenomenon criterion datum halves knives wives lives loaves potatoes cacti foci fungi nuclei syllabi/syllabuses analyses diagnoses oases theses crises phenomena criteria data Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural.30 p.

sugar. thanks. idea. ten horses. Examples two dogs. customs. Examples knowledge. congratulations. stair. tropics. Her jeans are black. They are often the names for abstract ideas or qualities. steps. They usually have a singular and plural form. fear. Those glasses are his. goods. knowledges. air. They are used with a singular verb. water. man. They usually do not have a plural form. wits COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Countable nouns are for things we can count Examples dog. a few ideas. the shops. love. a man. six men. Examples of common uncountable nouns: . outskirts. beauty. wages. anger. We cannot say sugars. rice. horse. shop. angers. Uncountable nouns are for the things that we cannot count Examples tea.spectacles.   trousers jeans glasses My trousers are too tight. others include:  savings.

or what its purpose is (police. research. These are very common. use a word or expression like: some. evidence. Some of the most common of these are: accommodation advice baggage behaviour bread furniture information luggage news progress traffic travel trouble weather work BE CAREFUL with the noun 'hair' which is normally uncountable in English:  She has long blonde hair It can also be countable when referring to individual hairs:  My father's getting a few grey hairs now COMPOUND NOUNS COMPOUND NOUNS Formation Words can be combined to form compound nouns. table. Examples     There has been a lot of research into the causes of this disease. They've got a lot of furniture. happiness. friend. a great deal of.. money. safety. water. tank.. a bit of. beauty. To express a quantity of one of these nouns. sadness. a lot of. room). bed): . and new combinations are invented almost daily. furniture. boy. The first parttells us what kind of object or person it is. He gave me a great deal of advice before my interview. The second partidentifies the object or person in question (man. dining. They normally have two parts. We cannot use a/an with these nouns. a piece of. Can you give me some information about uncountable nouns? Some nouns are countable in other languages but uncountable in English. knowledge.

as one word.What type / what purpose police boy water dining bed What or who man friend tank table room The two parts may be written in a number of ways : 1. and the others as two words.so write the common compounds that you know well as one word. as two words joined with a hyphen. boyfriend 2. Example: dining-table 3. The two parts may be: Examples: bedroom water tank noun + noun motorcycle printer cartridge rainfall noun + verb haircut train-spotting noun + adverb hanger-on passer-by washing machine verb + noun driving licence swimming pool lookout verb + adverb* take-off drawback greenhouse adjective + noun software redhead adjective + verb adverb + noun dry-cleaning public speaking onlooker bystander output overthrow adverb + verb* upturn input . Example: fish tank. Example: policeman. as two separate words. There are no clear rules about this .

outlet. green house). hold-up. stand-in. outcome. set-back. output.greenhouse) and an adjective with a noun (e. cutback. Examples breakdown. hangover. walkover. . makeup. outbreak.g. drop-out. In compound nouns. as it distinguishes between a compound noun (e. drive-in. takeaway. the stress usually falls on the first syllable: a a a a 'greenhouse = place where we grow plants (compound noun) green 'house = house painted green (adjective and noun) 'bluebird = type of bird (compound noun) blue 'bird = any bird with blue feathers (adjective and noun) * Many common compound nouns are formed from phrasal verbs (verb + adverb or adverb + verb).Compound nouns often have a meaning that is different from the two separate words. flyover. outlay. Stress is important in pronunciation. feedback.g. inlet.