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Present Perfect Verb Tense

PRESENT PERFECT 1. Present Perfect - Form
The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregular verbs in the section called 'Verbs'. Affirmative Subject She Negative Subject She Interrogative to have Has Interrogative negative to have + not Hasn't Example: to walk, present perfect Affirmative I have walked You have walked He, she, it has walked We have walked You have walked They have walked Negative I haven't walked You haven't walked He, she, it hasn't walked We haven't walked You haven't walked They haven't walked Interrogative Have I walked? Have you walked? Has he,she,it walked Have we walked? Have you walked? Have they walked? subject she past participle visited...? subject she past participle visited..? to have + not hasn't past participle visited to have has past participle visited

2. Present perfect, function
The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the resultthan in the action itself. BE CAREFUL! There may be a verb tense in your language with a similar form, but the meaning is probably NOT the same.

Has he just left? 5.) 3. Example: We have visited Portugal several times.     They have seen that film six times. She has worked in the bank for five years. Example: He has read 'War and Peace'. who. where. Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now. (the result of his reading is important) Note: When we want to give or ask details about when.     They haven't lived here for years. We have just seen her. An action performed during a period that has not yet finished.  Someone has eaten my soup! . (expressed by 'just'). Example: He read 'War and Peace' last week. 3. We have eaten at that restaurant many times.    I have worked hard this week. Example: I have just finished my work. When the time period referred to has not finished.The Present Perfect is used to describe: 1. we use the simple past. When the precise time of the action is not important or not known. It has rained a lot this year.     Have you just finished work? I have just eaten. An action when the time is not important. An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. We have had the same car for ten years. Actions started in the past and continuing in the present.) 2. Example: She has been to the cinema twice this week (= and the week isn't over yet. Examples: 1. 4. Example: I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and I still do. 4. Have you played the piano since you were a child? 2. She has visited them frequently. Actions completed in the very recent past (+just). It has happened several times already. We haven't seen her today. 5. A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. An action that was completed in the very recent past.

  Have you seen 'Gone with the Wind'? She's studied Japanese. . Russian and English.