WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY – BLUETOOTH
Every new invention in the past ha to contend with various cynics who content that the existing technology is better than the new one or do you recall anyone saying “That won’t work man it’s too Hi-Fi”, Well Blue tooth is also passing through the same phase. For every new technology to get integrated into the society we have to pass certain phases that are predefined.
1. Scientific discussion: This is the place where the new technology is introduced and born out. Here the papers are presented at scientific seminars. Various problems are ironed out here.
In this blue tooth technique wireless communication for transmitting and receiving of data is performed. The Blue tooth radio chip functions at 2. where the technology is still studied. scientific discussion). and the pc to the net. which is in the unlicensed ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) band..
In most of the communication systems wires are involved in transmission and receiving of data. It provides security for both stationery and mobile devices. Security & Applications of Bluetooth. The new technology is taken to the targeted segment of the user. Industry standard: Industry standard are developed for the future implementation of the protocol.com
2. In this paper what we planned to do is to take part in this crucial segment of scientific discussion. which functions as a low cost and a short-range radio link.101seminartopics. the wires are used to connect computer peripherals to pc.
Our blue tooth technology is still in the first phase (i. For example. It can be transmitted over a range of 10m to 100m.
. What is blue tooth? How does the technology works? Network Arrangements & Connection Protocols. In this paper we are going to discuss the following regarding blue tooth technology.4 GHZ. These have to be cost efficient and readily integrable into the society
3. Billion dollar investment: This is the stage where all the industries make their investment into new technology. The technology of Bluetooth centers a round a 9mmx9mm microchip.e. Bluetooth-“Simply the Best!” Industries interested in this new technology.
Wireless connectivity over Bluetooth:
The basic function is to provide a standard wireless technology to replace the multitude of propriety cables currently linking computer devices.for. Then picture meeting a client and transferring files without cabling or worrying about protocols. The Bluetooth technology allows interfacing the two. example imagine being on a business trip with a laptop and a phone.
Bluetooth network arrangements can be either point-to-point or point-tomultipoint. Better than the image of the spaghetti-free computer system is the ability of the radio technology to the network when away from traditional networking structures such as business intranet. The various network arrangements regarding Bluetooth are: a) Single-slave b) Multi-slave(up to 7 ‘Slaves’ on one master) c) Scatternet
.101seminartopics. That is what the Bluetooth will do.
Frequency Hopping in Bluetooth:
Bluetooth has been designed to operate in a noisy radio frequency environments.It will then relay communications between the piconets. This could lead to a switch of roles between Master and Slave in this new connection. A piconet starts with two connected devices. when establishing a piconet one unit will act as a master for synchronization purposes and the other units will be slaves for the duration of piconet connection. and uses a fast acknowledgement and frequency hopping scheme to make link robust. A Master or Slave can become Slave in another piconet by being paged by the Master in this other Piconet. This automatically means that any unit can create a new Piconet by paging a unit that is already a member of a piconet. 4
. A maximum of eight units can be connected in a Piconet.
A Scatternet is two or more independent and non-synchronized piconets that communicate with each other.com
Piconet is a collection of devices connected via Bluetooth technology in an ad-hoc fashion. All Bluetooth devices are ‘peer units’ and have identical implementations. if the need arises. such as a portable PC and a mobile phone. Any unit participating in one Piconet can page the Master or Slave in another piconet. A slave as well as a master unit in one piconet can establish this connection by becoming a slave in the other piconet.101seminartopics.
4 GHz band at a rate of 1. and both supports 16 types of packets. Bluetooth radio typically hops faster and uses shorter packets. Bluetooth transceivers switch or “hop” among 79 hop frequencies in the 2. Bluetooth modules use Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) techniques for voice and data transmission. The Asynchronous connectionless (ACL) is primarily for data and the Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO) method is used primarily for voice. FHSS breaks the data down into small packets and transfers it on a wide range of frequencies across the available frequency band. four of which are control packets that are the same in each type.
FHSS uses packet-switching to send data from the transmitter of one Bluetooth module to the receiver of another. SCO 5
.101seminartopics. Compared with other systems operating in the same frequency band.Bluetooth radio modules avoid interference from other signals by hopping to a frequency after transmitting or receiving a packet.To assure that packets do not arrive out of order. Thus. Unlike circuit-switching which establishes a communication link on a certain frequency (channel).
Transmission types and rates
The base band (single channel per line) protocol combines circuit and packet switching .600 frequency hops per second. Circuit switching can be either synchronous or asynchronous. slots (up to five) can be reserved for synchronous packets. Because of the need for smoothness in data transmission. A different hop signal is used for each packet. Time Division Duplex (TDD) is used by both SCO and ACL.com
It is also possible for an asynchronous connection to support 432.6 Kb/s in both directions if the link is symmetric. Hold: A hold mode can be established. Here the slave doesn’t take an active role in the piconet. if it is unknown. they listen for messages every 1. The master unit sends out 16 identical page messages on 16 hop frequencies to the slave unit. The inquiry method requires an extra response from the slave unit. The main purpose of this is to conserve power. if the address is known. which determines how much of the total each slave unit can use. it sends out a page message. since the MAC address is unknown to the master unit.28 seconds over 32 hop frequencies 2. An asynchronous channel can transmit as much as 721 Kb/s in one direction and 57. ACL links support both symmetric and asymmetric transmissions. is for power conservation. Slaves cannot transmit data until the master has polled them. though not at as reduced a level as hold. or an inquiry followed by a page message. Bandwidth is collected by the master unit. A typical reason for going into hold mode is the connection of several Pico nets. If there is no response. Page/Inquiry: If a device wishes to make a connection with another device. 6
. 4. which is fully adequate for voice transmissions.
Blue tooth connections are established via the following techniques: 1. 5. the packets are sent in groups without allowing other transmissions to interrupt. Sniff: The sniff mode is applicable only to slave units. Standby: Devices not connected in a piconet are in standby mode. In this mode. 3. SCO packets can be transmitted without polling by the sending unit. and the master can broadcast messages to the slave units via ACL link.6 Kb/s transfer rate in the opposite direction.101seminartopics. Active: The transmission of data occurs.com
packets are generally delivered via reserved intervals. that is. during which no data is transmitted. the master retransmits on the other 16 hop frequencies. when either the master or slave wishes. Each synchronous channel can support a 64 Kb/s transfer rate. This is usually a programmable setting.
This is far quicker than any other competing system. they are supposed to be quite reliable. Bluetooth has built in sufficient encryption and authentication and is thus very secure in any environment. In addition to this. 40. a frequency-hopping scheme with 1600 hops/sec. Encryption & emdash. and 64 bits. is employed.
The quality of security is excellent for most applications. This. allows a user to control connectivity to only devices specified. the suggestion is to investigate separate network transfer protocol and security software. makes the system extremely difficult to eavesdrop.
The security is provided in three ways Pseudo-random frequency band hops Authentication & emdash. it is not the highest level available and for those users who require it. uses secret key lengths of 1.101seminartopics. Safer transmission of data: Are transmissions secure in a business and home environment? Yes. together with an automatic output power adaption to reduce the range exactly to requirement.
Bluetooth in Future:
A Bluetooth-mouse could be used at a further distance from a monitor. WLAN’s are essentially ordinary LANprotocols modulated on carrier waves. The hardware underlying the LM is the Link controller (LC). which does not allow for long data blocks. This would reduce eye-strain for persons who are long-sighted. IrDA is not omni directional and it is a line-of-sight technology. WLAN and Home RF. A Bluetooth-keyboard could be used further away from the monitor. and while moving about in the room. The following tasks are performed by those mentioned above: Sending and receiving data Setting up connections Paging and inquiries Determination the frame type of the packet
Bluetooth – “Simply the Best!”:
Bluetooth competes with existing technologies like IrDA.com
Control of the link connections:
The Bluetooth system consists of the radio chip and controller. HomeRF is a voice and data home networking which operates at a low speed. These problems are overcome in Bluetooth and that’s why Bluetooth is considered “Simply the Best”.101seminartopics. while Bluetooth is more complex. link configuration and other protocols. Bluetooth hops very fast (1600 hops/second) between frequencies. The link manager (LM) is software that controls link setup.
101seminartopics. the founding members announced that 3COM. Cordless connection from cell phone to hands free headset. in a dynamic.
Finally. Cable-less connection to printers and faxes. Microsoft. Cahners Instat sees a global market for Bluetooth chips of $400m in 2001. On December 1. IBM. you'll get an alert on your mobile phone. and replied in a positive manner. To date more than 2000 Adopter/Associate member companies have signed on. and send a printout to that printer when it has been found. A traveling businessman could ask his laptop computer to locate a suitable printer as soon as he enters a hotel lobby. switch less manner. This can also be implemented in embedded Internet. Nokia and Toshiba. 1999. The embedded Internet based on Bluetooth seems all set to revolutionalize our living and work environments today.
Vendors of this technology:
The five founding members of the Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) are Ericsson. Use e-mail while your portable PC is still in the briefcase! When your portable PC receives an e-mail.com
A Bluetooth-keyboard could also be used to address more than one computer.
. They also predict that 1. Intel. Cable-less connection to digital cameras and video projectors. and Motorola have joined the founders to form the Promoter Group with the founding companies. implying that at least 20m Bluetooth enabled devices will find buyers.4 billon Bluetooth-enabled devices will be shipping annually by 2005. we conclude that this Bluetooth technology will make a great evolution in the communication field.Those numbers are comparable to the predictions of the International Data Corporation. Lucent. Use cell phone as office cordless phone.
3.”IEEE 802. D.ARBAUGH.WIJNEN “USER-BASED SECURITY MODEL FOR SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL”. U.
. AND D. ACM TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER SYSTEMS.A.CLARK..MILLER.com
1.” END-TO-END ARGUMENTS IN SYSTEM DESIGN”. 4. REED. SALTZER J. B. 2.BLUMENTHAL AND B. 1984. “WIRELESS RESEARCH” BY W.101seminartopics.11 AND BLUETOOTH WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY”.