You are on page 1of 13


TYPES OF TERRORISM There are six different types of terrorism. They are anarchist terrorism, state-sponsored terrorism, right wing terrorism, left wing terrorism, religious terrorism, and nationalist terrorism. ANARCHIST TERRORISM Anarchist terrorism was a major global phenomenon from the 1870s to 1920. A young Hungarian refugee killed President William McKinley who was persuaded to by anarchist sentiment in 1901. STATE-SPONSORED TERRORISM Iran accused Cuba, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria of supporting terrorism. The Abu Nidal Organization is an example of state-sponsored terrorism. RIGHT WING TERRORISM Right wing terrorism is one of the least organized terrorists. They attack immigrants and refugees. LEFT WING TERRORISM Left wing terrorism limits the use of violence, but destroys the democracy and take over with socialist or communist regime. They also stay away from harming victims. Baader-Meinhof Group, the Japanese Red Army, Weathermen, and the Red Brigades are all examples of left wing terrorism. RELIGIOUS TERRORISM Religious terrorism attack large numbers of their enemy. They use violence as their strategy. Here are some examples of religious terrorism: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, Hezbollah, Aum Shinrikyo. NATIONALIST TERRORISM Nationalist terrorists use violence. These terrorists are usually successful at getting people’s sympathy because they try to fight for "national liberation”. Irish Republican Army, Basque Fatherland and Liberty, and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party are examples of nationalist terrorism. NARCOTERRORISM Narcoterrorism is another type of terrorism that has to do with drugs. Some terrorist groups such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, United Self-Defense Forces of Columbia, National Liberation Army, Shining Path, Kurdistan Workers’ Party, Hezbollah, Al-Queda (Taliban), Real IRA, and Basque Fatherland and Liberty, use narcoterrorism. Because nearly every terrorist group today uses narcoterrorism, experts think that the word is nonspecific.

CYBERTERRORISM Cyberterrorism is a type of terrorism that uses computers and network. Usually, small terrorist groups use cyberterrorism. Experts have only identified Aum Shinrikyo and the Tamil Tigers of using cyberterrorism so far. These two terrorist groups usually use cyberterrorism to fail the computer security, or to show off their technical abilities. Cyberterrorism can allow disruptions in military communications and even electrical power. Some ways that cyberterrorism is demonstrated can be by

logging companies and animal research laboratories. Thes have included fur companies. It has also been argued that states participate in international terrorism. often by proxy. been terrorists.The U. for example through its covert sponsorship of Nicaraguan Contras in the 1980s. This may mean that they use information technology. in the name of a political or other cause. such as Hizballah. as a tool to orchestrate a traditional attack. The United States has also been called terrorist. More often. They include: Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) The Plague (Yersinia pestis) Smallpox (Variola major) Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) Hemorrahagic fever. Bioterrorism Bioterrorism refers to the intentional release of toxic biological agents to harm and terrorize civilians. States can use force or the threat of force. In general. experts recommend individual computer users to use virus protection software and also to stay away from strange emails and computer programs. due to Ebola Virus or Marburg Virus Cyberterrorism Cyberterrorists use information technology to attack civilians and draw attention to their cause. and have. There is wide disagreement over the extent of the existing threat by cyberterrorists. Germany under Nazi rule has been described in this way. without declaring war. Types of terrorism State Terrorism Many definitions of terrorism restrict it to acts by non-state actors. Category A Biological Diseases are those most likely to do the most damage. bacteria and toxins that could be used in an attack. Another way cyberterrorism can be used is by destroying the actual machine that contains the electronic information. for example. such as computer systems or telecommunications. Center for Disease Control has classified the viruses.S. But it can also be argued that states can. that help carry out its foreign policy objectives. cyberterrorism refers to an attack on information technology itself in a way that would radically disrupt networked services. . environmental extremists sabotage property to inflict economic damage on industries or actors they see as harming animals or the natural enviroment.controlling from a distance electrical things such as dams or power plants. For example. cyberterrorists could disable networked emergency systems or hack into networks housing critical financial information. What can you do to lessen the vulnerability to cyberterrorism? Well. to terrorize citizens and achieve a political goal. Ecoterrorism Ecoterrorism is a recently coined term describing violence in the interests of environmentalism. The United States considers Iran the most prolific sponsor of terrorism because Iran arms groups.

It sounds too simple. The IRA (Irish Republican Army) bombed English targets in the 1980s to make the point that they felt their land was colonized by British imperialists. Osama bin Laden's declaration of war on American interests in the 1990s stemmed from his belief that U. people choose terrorist tactics based on a cause whose righteousness they believe in to the exclusion of nearly all else. such as some suicide bombers today. . There is some question about who actually 'chooses' terrorism. Many terrorists in history said sincerely that they chose violence after long deliberation. People who choose terrorist tactics are also persuaded that violence.Nuclear terrorism "Nuclear terrorism" refers to a number of different ways nuclear materials might be exploited as a terrorist tactic. and it may be unfair to think of young recruits. In some cases. is effective. Narcoterrorism Narcoterrorism has had several meanings since its coining in 1983. These include attacking nuclear facilities. Abortion clinic bombers in the 1990s and groups such as the Animal Liberation Front believe zealously in their causes.S. Uighur separatists in China today feel that Chinese religious repression (the Uighur Chinese are Muslims) justifies their terrorist tactics. or denied these. There Are Two Causes of Terrorism All terrorist acts are motivated by two things:   Social and political injustice: People choose terrorism when they are trying to right what they perceive to be a social or political or historical wrong—when they have been stripped of their land or rights.       Zionists who bombed British targets in 1930s mandate Palestine felt they must do so in order to create a Jewish state. This explanation of the causes of terrorism may be difficult to swallow. The belief that violence or its threat will be effective. In the last several years. Another way of saying this is: the belief that violent means justify the ends. if you look at any group that is widely understood as a terrorist group. However. the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine felt that armed attacks in Israel were a justifiable response to the usurpation of their land. who are seduced by cult-like methods of indoctrination as completely culpable for their choices. or the threat of violence. because they felt they had no choice. you will find these two elements are basic to their story. or too theoretical. troops stationed in Saudi Arabia represented an abomination to the kind of Islamic state he believed should exist in the Arabian peninsula. In the 1960s and 1970s. purchasing nuclear weapons. and usher in change. It once denoted violence used by drug traffickers to influence governments or prevent government efforts to stop the drug trade. or building nuclear weapons or otherwise finding ways to disperse radioactive materials. narcoterrorism has been used to indicate situations in which terrorist groups use drug trafficking to fund their other operations.

A second reason that has been useful for me. there are certain conditions. What are the causes of terrorism? There are many reasons why people have chosen to resort to terrorist tactics over the years. because we will never be able to answer it. Despite this. as I ask questions about terrorism. It may be true that religious fanaticism creates conditions that are favorable for terrorism. So there must also be other conditions that in combination provoke some people to see terrorism as an effective way of creating change in their world.Asking a Better Question: What Conditions Are Favorable for Terrorism In fact. "What is terrorism?" you will find that they actually answer the question: "What are the conditions in which terrorism is most likely to take place?" Sometimes these conditions have to do with the people who become terrorists (they are described as having certain psychological traits. Instead. rather than non-violent methods. There are two more reasons why asking. b) feel that these tactics have the potential to force change. some of which make violence against civilians seem like a reasonable. it makes it easy to remember that there are always at least several conditions. and even necessary option. . If you listen closely to the explanations that are usually given as answers to the question. "what causes terrorism?" is not quite the right question to be asking. a formerly colonized society. c) view the use of terror as appropriate 'revenge' against a perceived enemy. In general terms the terrorist group will make use of these tactics. it is a specific kind of political violence committed by people who do not have legitimate army at their disposal. the question. as they may: a) feel that there is no alternative but to use force. is that thinking in terms of 'conditions' helps me remember that people have a choice about whether to use violence. "What conditions create a favorable climate for terrorism?" is better than asking about causes The first is. Terrorism is a complex phenomenon. like 'narcissistic rage') and some conditions have to do with the circumstances they live in (a poor society. people always have the free will to seek another course of action. But we know that religious zealotry does not 'cause' terrorism because there are many religious fanatics who do not choose terrorism or any form of violence. it isn't true. and some of the deeply unforgivable circumstances that foster terrorism. There is nothing inside any person nor in their circumstances that sends them—like a monopoly piece headed directly to "Go"—directly to terrorism. Although many people today believe that that religious fanaticism "causes" terrorism. We cannot say that the presence of one factor provokes terrorism in the same way that we can say with scientific certainty that certain toxins cause diseases. for example).

Of course none of the groups mentioned here simply decided one day that they were going to take up arms and terrorise people. Religious Reasons: When Religious Freedoms are violated groups often resort to the use of terror tactics to try and address the issue. One example of this being the case is the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka who fought to have an independent nation for the Tamils. had failed and was unlikely to result in any positive outcome. c) The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine used violence against the isreali's as they felt this was legitimate given that the Isreali's occupied what they considered to be their land. in their opinion. the Black Hand organisation assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914 due for this reason. proved this and as the Government response to calls for improvements etc hardened. The actions of the British Government and Armed Forces. The movement towards the use of terror often has deep rooted causes and in many cases follows a long period of grievance. whom the Romans viewed as a terrorist. in their view. b) Zionist groups bombed British targets in Palestine in the 1930's as they felt this would prompt the British and the International community into creating an independent Jewish State. Examples include Boudicca. One example is the Ugyhur Separatist Movement who responded to the suppression of their religion by the Chinese authorities by launching a bombing campaign. Some of the more common grievances that lead to extremism and terrorism are outlined below. Below is a selection of terrorist groups and a brief explanation as to their grievance / aims: .Examples: a) The IRA used force partly because the democratic process. so to did their 'need' to use terror tactics. Social Reasons: In areas where there are minority groups there have been incidences of terrorism emerging as a result of these groups not being granted adequate rights or as a result of seeing their culture destroyed. Nationalism: Throughout History there have been examples of terrorism being used by Nationalist groups who were trying to gain indepedence and the right to self determination.

February 1998 For more than seven years. for example. Ulster Volunteer  Destruction of Irish Nationalist paramilitary groups. Believe it is right to fight a Holy War to remove foreign states from Holy Islamic Lands. even though all its rulers are against their territories being used to that end. And ulema [Muslim scholars] have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad [Holy War] is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries. plundering its riches. we issue the following fatwa to all Muslims: . Hezbollah is considered to be a terrorist group by the United States but not by the United Kingdom. Want the end of "any imperial presence in Lebanon. his messenger and Muslims. dictating to its rulers. humiliating its people. In the list above. Opposed to US and Western support for Isreal. . terrorizing its neighbors and turning its bases in the peninsula into a spearhead through which to fight the neighboring Muslim peoples.NYT journalist Thomas Friedman Source: Osama Bin Laden. Want an end to British rule in Northern Ireland. The best proof of this is the Americans' continuing aggression against the Iraqi people. Force Note: Many 'terrorist' groups are not universally condemned as being a terrorist organisation. and in compliance with God's order. this statement is from their original stated aims which have changed considerably since. A united Irish Republic. the Arabian Peninsula." The destruction of Isreal. On that basis.. but they are helpless. Other organisations have also changed their methods and become more widely accepted as a pressure group or representative organisation with which meaningful dialogue and negotiations can take place. using the peninsula as a staging post. the United States has been occupying the lands of Islam in the holiest of places. The causes of 9/11 terrorism .These crimes and sins committed by the Americans are a clear declaration of war on God.. "Liberation of the Palestine State through armed struggle" Continuity Irish Republican Army Hezbollah      Palestine Liberation Front Note: the PLO no longer advocate the use of terror.Terrorist Organisation Al-Qaeda Grievances / Aims    Blame Western influences for the decline of Islamic states. The Palestine Liberation Front is an example of one organisation that has changed from terrorist methods to more conventinal diplomatic methods.

..The ruling is to kill the Americans and their allies is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it. Can these bombs distinguish between infants and military? America does not have a religion that will prevent it from destroying all people. Source: Osama Bin Laden. We call on every Muslim who believes in God and wished to be rewarded to comply with God's order to kill the Americans and plunder their money wherever and whenever they find it." Most Relevant Root and Trigger Causes .. American history does not distinguish between civilians and military. and not even women and children. May 2001 "Allah ordered us in this religion to purify Muslim land of all non-believers… After World War II. the Americans became more aggressive and oppressive. They are the ones who used the bombs against Nagasaki.. in order to liberate the Al Aqsa mosque [Jerusalem] and the Holy Mosque [Mecca]. especially in the Muslim world. This is in accordance with the words of Almighty God.

Factors of decline for terrorist organizations Possible government measures to influence decline of terrorism .

Strategy Primary System-Contextual Factors Undergirding Terrorism Evolution .

The attacks were carried out by Pakistan backed terror group Lashkar-e-Taiba.S. Armed terrorists opened fire at eight different sites in a coordinated attack. September 5: A terrorist organisation.Examples: History of terrorist attacks 1948 – Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi assassinated by a Hindu extremist. September 11: Attacks kill 2. Pakistan's agency ISI has been found involved in it.000 security officers having been assigned to protect her. and a hospital. originally intended to hit the United States Capitol Building. A fourth plane. West Germany.997 immediately. Pakistan has been in a state of denial regarding this and has failed to cooperate with the investigation and arrest key jihadi terrorist leaders supported by its army even after being handed over substantial evidence by India. 2008Mumbai. hotels. by coalition of five groups: Jamaat Al-Fuqra'/Gamaat Islamiya/Hamas/Islamic Jihad/National Islamic Front. crashes in Somerset County. February 26: World Trade Center bombing kills six and injures over 1000 people. 1993United States. and The Pentagon in Arlington. New York. . The militants were trained by Pakistani intelligence agency Inter Services Intelligence (ISI). They wielded automatic weapons and attacked locations including a train station. restaurants. Some terrorists took hostages and high military grade explosives (RDX) were found nearby. The Taliban or Al Qaeda is suspected. 1972Israel. 2001United States. Bhutto escapes unharmed. after an apparent revolt against the hijackers by the plane's passengers. 2007Twin suicide bombings occur in Karachi near a truck carrying former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto through a crowded street of supporters eight hours after her return from exile. Pennsylvania. Virginia. and many more died later from exposure to toxic dust in a series of hijacked airliner crashes into two U. landmarks: the World Trade Center in New York City. Black September kidnaps and kills eleven Israeli Olympic athletes and one German policeman in the Munich Massacre. at least eight explosions were reported. a police station. despite 20. At least 136 are killed and 387 are wounded.


locations. Assess Vulnerabilities . Connect Networks . materials and supplies for carrying out terrorist missions. Track Technologies .track and analyze group behaviors for early detection of potential threats. Expose Group Operations .evaluate funding resources. recruiting methods.track different types of technologies used as components for manufacturing terrorist weapons. other organizations. storage facilities and other resources to uncover potential vulnerabilities.expose connections between group members. Understand Behaviors . Link Group Members .show shared assets.Solutions Identify Relationships .understand formal and informal organizational structures. outside individuals. communication networks. . facilities and communication networks.uncover interactions and relationships between terrorist groups and their members.

Counter-measures apply to these countries: high-risk and non-cooperative 1.The latest FATF blacklist report February 2012 A total of 17 countries were presented as high-risk and non-cooperative jurisdictions by FATF. Turkey 8. All countries are defined as high-risk and non-cooperative jurisdictions. São Tomé and Príncipe 3. Kenya 14. Cuba 10. Thailand 7. Pakistan 2. Sri Lanka 4. Bolivia 9. Syria 5. Nigeria . Myanmar 15. Indonesia 13. Tanzania 6. Ghana 12. Ethiopia 11. 2. however counter-measures apply only for Iran and Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Iran Democratic People's Republic of Korea Countries not committed to an action plan: high-risk and non-cooperative 1.