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Course Syllabus

Title: Common Core Statistics for Secondary Education Teachers Credits: 3 credits Instructor: Stacey Anthony Meeting dates and times: June 17 July 12, class meets face to face June 21st-June 28th Location: Classrooms at University of Vermont and Essex High School Course Description: This course is designed for secondary mathematics teachers who desire a thorough review of all High School Statistics and Probability topics included the Common Core State Standards as well as various resources and practices appropriate for teaching probability and statistics to high school students. Goal: The objective of this course is to enhance understanding and teaching of statistics within the mathematics curriculum through conceptual understanding, research on best practices, real-word data applications and technology. Learning Outcomes: The latest research on purposes for including probability and statistics in a mathematics curriculum and on best practices for probability and statistics instruction will be reviewed. Methods for employing best practices with respect to teaching probability and statistics will be discussed and presented throughout this course. Participants will explore problems that require them to formulate questions, gather, display, summarize, examine and interpret data. Students in this course will model data and use probability models and random processes to discover patterns and deviations from patterns. At the conclusion of the course, participants will be familiar with expectations of high school students and develop an appropriate investigation with a scoring guideline to use for assessment. Improved Student Learning: Teachers will leave this course with a better conceptual understanding of the Common Core statistics and probability standards. They will have knowledge of how their students learning of statistics and probability is different than mathematics. After taking this course, teachers will be equipped with resources for teaching including lesson plans and activities, technology, web applets, data sets and appropriate investigative assignments. Teachers will be able to bring their new understanding and knowledge of statistics to the classroom and apply it to their teaching practice to improve their students learning. When teachers introduce students to new statistical concepts, they will be able to support varied learning styles by using appropriate teaching tools from many different resources introduced in this class.

General Course Information


Class Expectations:

Students will be active participants in their understanding of the concepts introduced in this course through: in-class activities; discussions on assigned, professional readings; mutual sharing of professional teaching experiences; and a formal class presentation. Attendance Expectations: All participants are expected to be in class. If you must miss a class, please contact the instructor to discuss make-up options. Religious Observance: The official policy for excused absences for religious holidays: Students have the right to practice the religion of their choice. Each semester students should submit in writing to their instructors by the end of the second full week of classes their documented religious holiday schedule for the semester. Faculty must permit students who miss work for the purpose of religious observance to make up this work. Academic Honesty & Professionalism: All students are required to be familiar with and adhere to the Academic Honesty Policy Procedures delineated in the most recent edition of The Cats Tale. (http://www.uvm.edu/~dosa/handbook/). Accommodations: Accommodations will be provided to eligible students with disabilities. Please obtain an accommodation letter from the ACCESS office and see one of the instructors early in the course to discuss what accommodations will be necessary. If you are unfamiliar with ACCESS, visit their website at http://www.uvm.edu/access to learn more about the services they provide. ACESS: A-170 Living Learning Center, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. PH: 802-656-7753, TTY: call 711 (relay), Fax: 802-656-0739, Email: access@uvm.edu, Instant Messenger: UVMaccess. General office hours: 8:30am 4:30pm Monday through Friday. Call to make an appointment. Required and/or recommended readings: Cobb, G. W. & Moore, D. S. (1997). Mathematics, statistics, and teaching. The American Mathematical Monthly, 104(9), 801-823. Mathematical Association of America. [On-line] Available: http://www.macalester.edu/~kaplan/statchat/2009-2010-year/2010-01/January2010.pdf Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. [On-line] Available: http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_Math%20Standards.pdf Franklin, C. et al. (2007). Guidelines for assessment and instruction in statistics education (GAISE) report: A Pre-K-12 curriculum framework. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association. [On-line] Available: http://www.amstat.org/education/gaise/GAISEPreK-12_Full.pdf Moore, T.J. (2001). Teaching Statistics: Resources for undergraduate instructors. Mathematical Association of America. Slauson, L. (2012). The consortium for the advancement of undergraduate statistics education. The Statistics Teachers Network, 79, 8-10. [On-line] Available: http://www.amstat.org/education/stn/pdfs/STN79.pdf Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (1997). Missed opportunities in research on the teaching and learning of data and chance. In Fred Biddulph & Ken Carr (Eds.), People in mathematics education. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research

Group of Australasia Incorporated, 1, 6-22. Waikato, New Zealand: Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. [on-line] Available: http://www.merga.net.au/documents/Keynote_Shaughnessy_1997.pdf References/Resources: Bock, D. E., Velleman, P. F., & DeVeaux, R. D. (2004). Stats: Modeling the World. Pearson/Addison-Wesley. Garfield, J. & Everson, M. (2009) Preparing teachers of Statistics: A graduate course for future teachers. Journal of Statistics Education, 17(2). [On-line] Available: http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v17n2/garfield.html Hulsizer, M.R. & Woolf, L. M. (2009). A guide to teaching statistics: Innovations and best practices. Wiley-Blackwell. Moore, D. S. & McCabe, G.P. (2003). Introduction to the Practice of Statistics (4th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman Co. Rossman, A. J. & Chance, B. L. (2008). Workshop Statistics: Discovery with Data (3rd Ed.). New York: Key Curriculum Press. Scheaffer, R. L., Watkins, A., Witmer, J., & Gnanadesikan, M.(2004). Activity-Based Statistics: Student Guide (2nd Ed.). New York: SpringerVerlag. CAUSEweb.org. List of Important Readings in Statistics Education Research. [On-line] Available:

http://www.causeweb.org/research/readings/readings.php
Center for Rural Studies. [On-line] Available: http://www.uvm.edu/crs/ Other resource materials: newspapers, select journals, and the World Wide Web.

Technology: Texas Instrument TI-83, TI-83 Plus or TI-84 graphing calculators. Minitab statistical software.

Evaluation/Assessment
Grading: The final grade in this class will be a weighted-average incorporating performance on a written-exam, contributions in class and a final project. Description of Class Assignments with Percentage Contribution of Each Assignment:

1. Professional readings in statistical education. (20%) Participants will be expected to read articles on the latest research and best practices for teaching statistics and probability in secondary schools. Contributions to in-class discussions and submission of written reflections will provide evidence of thorough reading of the assigned articles. 2. Contributions to class: Presentations and activities. (20%) It is expected that all teachers will be active participants in class activities that aim to deepen their understanding of the concepts covered in the course. Class activities include collecting data through simulations, experiments and observations and analysis using software and the graphing calculator. All participants will share their final project, an investigation they developed for high school students, through a brief presentation to the class. 3. Written assessment. (20%) Exam on statistical and probability standards covered in the course. 4. Final project. (40%) Teachers will develop an appropriate investigation for high school students. The investigation should assess the students knowledge of several of the probability and statistics standards in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics while incorporating Common Core Mathematical Practices. Instructional Sequence:

Course Outline
Unit Time Topics & Activities Resources

1A

AM Session

Univariate Distributions: Displaying and Describing Common Core State Distributions Standards: S-ID 1-4 Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable. Schaeffer p. 4-7, 14-22 1. Data sets, variables (categorical versus quantitative), and distributions. 2. Displaying distributions of quantitative variables with graphs (dot plots, histograms, and boxplots). 3. Interpreting graphical displays (shape, outliers, center, and spread). 4. Describing distributions with the appropriate numbers (median, mean, interquartile range, standard deviation). 5. Comparing distributions using side-by-side boxplots and back-to-back stemplots. 6. Introduction to the Normal distribution and using z-scores. 7. Assignment: Given a data set, compare 2 distributions with the appropriate graphical displays, descriptive statistics and interpretations. Rossman Topics 2, 710, & 12, web-applet on creating histograms Moore, D.S. Chapter 1, web-applet investigating the affect shape and outliers have on mean and median TI-83/TI-84 calculator display histograms, boxplots and for a numerical summary of univariate data, finding probability values of the Normal distribution using z-scores and vice versa.

1B

PM Session

Investigating Data Relationships: Bivariate Quantitative Data Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two quantitative variables 1. Scatterplots construction and interpretation. 2. Choose the best function to fit the shape of the data (linear, quantitative, quadratic and exponential)

Common Core State Standards: S-ID 6-9 Moore, D.S. Chapter 2 Rossman Topics 26-28 Schaeffer p. 39-42

3. Use the plot of the residuals to analyze the fit of the model to the data. 4. Correlation Compute (using technology) and interpret. 5. Least-squares regression Compute (using technology) and interpret. 6. Cautions linearity, residual plots, influential points, outliers, causation, confounding and lurking variables. 7. Assignment: Create a linear model on two variables with a linear association, assess the appropriateness with a residuals plot, interpret the correlation, interpret slope and y-intercept of regression line. 8. Assignment:
Reading: Cobb, G. W. & Moore, D. S. (1997). Mathematics, statistics, and teaching. Reading: Moore, T.J. (2001). pp.1-35.

Minitab Activity scatterplots , reading Minitab output on regression, residual plot TI-83/TI-84 display scatterplots, finding correlation, linear regression, display residual plots

2A

AM Session 1 hour

Review Assignments and Discussion Review Assignments Distribute scoring guidelines for 2 statistical tasks and ask teachers to review and grade their own papers. - Reflections on univariate and bivariate data. - What should teachers emphasize and how do we reinforce the topics? Discussion on reading - Statistics versus Mathematics - Reflections? - Why is it often difficult incorporating Statistics & Probability into the mathematics curriculum? Where does it fit? What is the best order of topics? Break it up and cover topics over time (3 years) or

Web-Applets

all at once? 2B AM Session (3 hours) Collecting Data: Experimental Design, Sampling Common Core State Design and Observational Studies Standards: S-IC 1, 3, 6 Students will learn various systematic arrangements for producing data including designs of experiments, Moore, D.S. Chapter 3 sampling designs Rossman Topics 3-5 1. Introduction: observational study versus experiment, sample versus census. Schaeffer p.82-88, 2. Design of Experiments (control, p.194-198 randomization, replication). 3. Sampling Design sampling frame, simple Newspaper Article random sample, sources of sampling bias Analysis 4. Generalizing results in observations and experiments: statistical significance, TI-83/TI-84 random causation integer generator

2C

PM Session

Toward Statistical Inference: Understanding random processes and using simulation to model random phenomena 1. Toward Statistical Inference sampling variability, sampling distribution of a statistic 2. Simulation and introduction to statistical inference 3. What is statistical significance? 4. Sampling distribution of a proportion 5. Sampling distribution of a mean 6. Use simulations to model chance behavior and compare sample results to the model to determine statistical significance. 7. Assignment: Perform a simulation and draw conclusions from a sampling distribution of a statistic 8. Assignment:
Reading: Moore, T.J. (2001). pp.41-90. Reading: Franklin, C. et al. (2007) GAISE report. pp.1-35

Common Core State Standards: S-IC 1, 2, 4, 5 Moore, D.S. Chapter 3 Rossman Topics 11, 13, 14 Scheaffer pp. 129-139 Minitab Activity investigating the behavior of the means and standard deviations of repeated samples of size n Web applet sampling distribution of a statistic

3A

AM Session 1 hour

Review Assignments and Discussion Review Assignments Distribute scoring guidelines for simulation investigation and ask teachers to review and grade their own papers. - Reflections on collecting data, simulations, sampling distributions, and statistical significance. - What should teachers emphasize and how do we reinforce the topics? Discussion on reading - Responses to: Students should learn the material through practice, and actually experience the

collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. - Thoughts and Reflections? - How do we, as teachers, design units that incorporate the idea of learning through practice and experience? Why is this experience so important to learning Statistics? 3B AM session (3 hours) More with Sampling Distribution Models Common Core State Standards: S-IC 4

1. Activity Sampling pennies: What effect does tipping, spinning and Schaeffer p.147-161 flipping have on the distribution? How does sample size effect the distribution? 2. Activity Sampling error and estimation How does an estimate, based on a sample, differ from the population value? How do we determine margin of error?

3C

PM session

Randomness in Data: Probability Common Core State Use the rules of probability to compute and interpret Standards: S-ID 5, S-CP probabilities. Understand independence and 1-4 conditional probability. Moore D.S. Chapter 4 1. Introduction to probability long-run relative frequency, random phenomenon, Rossman Topic 11 independence, Law of Large Numbers versus Law of Averages 2. Describing events as subsets of a sample space unions, intersections, complements 3. Probability Rules addition rule, multiplication Rule, independence, disjoint, conditional probability 4. Using 2-way tables to summarize categorical data - marginal distributions, conditional distributions 5. Determine whether two events are independent, using 2-way tables and/or comparing the conditional probability of Event A given Event B to the probability of Event A 6. Assignment:
Reading: Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (1997). Missed opportunities in research on the teaching and learning of data and chance. Reading: Moore, T.J. (2001). pp.125-132, 191, 198, 201, 208

4A

AM Session 1 hour

Review Assignments and Discussion Discussion on reading - What are some of the common misconceptions of variability? How can we improve students thinking of variability? - Any new insights on resources available to teachers? - Other thoughts and Reflections?

Schaeffer p.116-124

4B

AM Session (3 hours)

Activity: What is Random Behavior? The Law of Averages Rules of Probability Use rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model. Interpret the probabilities. 1. Use 2-way tables as a tool to recognize and explain concepts of conditional probability and independence 2. Apply general Addition Rule and Multiplication Rule using Venn and tree diagrams, respectively

Common Core State Standards: S-CP 5-9 Moore D.S. Chapter 4 Schaeffer p. 63-72

4C

PM Session

Using Probabilities 1. Use permutations and combinations to solve problems. 2. Use probabilities to make decisions 3. Analyze decisions using probability concepts 5. Assignment:
Reading: Slauson, L. (2012). The consortium for the advancement of undergraduate statistics education. Reading: Franklin, C. et al. (2007) GAISE report. pp.36-59

Common Core State Standards: S-CP 9, SMD 6, 7

5A

AM Session (1 hour)

Review Assignments and Discussion Discussion on reading - Any new insights on resources available to teachers? - What are the differences in the expectations for students between a Level A and Level B task (in the GAISE report)?

- Other thoughts and Reflections?

5B

AM Session (3 hours)

Random variables Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems. 1. Random variables discrete versus continuous, finding and graphing probability distributions 2. Mean of a discrete random variable interpret as an expected value 3. Developing theoretical probability distributions, finding the expected value

Common Core State Standards: S-MD 1-4 Moore D.S. Chapter 4

5C

PM Session

Using Probability Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions

Common Core State Standards: S-MD 5

1. Interpret the meaning of the expected value of TI-83/TI-84 calculating a random variable in the proper context. expected value discrete 2. Make decisions by finding expected payoff probability distribution values from a probability distribution. Activity: Develop a discrete probability distribution based on theoretical probabilities. Find the expected value and base decisions on the expected value. (State lotteries, multiple choice assessments) Assignment:
Reading: Franklin, C. et al. (2007) GAISE report. pp.60-88 Finish Project and prepare presentations

6A

AM Session

Discussion on reading - Any new insights on resources available to teachers?

- Other thoughts and Reflections? Presentations: Sharing of final projects.

Investigative Task, Presentation and Reflection Rubric


Teachers will develop an appropriate investigation for high school students. The investigation should assess the students knowledge of several of the high school probability and statistics standards in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, while incorporating Common Core Mathematical Practices. Criteria Approaches Expectations PURPOSE Purpose of the The purpose of the investigation is unclear investigation is stated The purpose of the and not well stated. but is unclear and/or not investigation Questions are likely to presented in context. should be clearly exist. stated, and in context, for students to understand. Below Expectations Meets Expectations The purpose of the investigation is stated clearly, thoroughly, in context, is easy to understand and comprehend. Exceeds expectations Meets expectations plus The presentation of the investigation is creative and the topic is meaningful to many adolescents.

DATA SET/STATISTICS/ SIMULATION Data or summary statistics are provided. Or A problem is given where simulation can be used for data collection. A complete citation is included.

Does not provide a data set/summary statistics/simulation in context. Lacks citation.

Provides data set/summary statistics/simulation in context. A complete citation is not included.

Provides data set/summary statistics/simulation in context. A complete citation is included.

INVESTIGTION QUESTIONS

The questions included in the investigation are not clear and/or not Questions are connected to the relevant, in context purpose of the and are related to investigation. the purpose(s) of the investigation.

The questions are clear but not tied directly to the purpose(s) of the investigation.

The questions provided are clear, relevant, in context and are connected to the purpose(s) of the investigation.

Meets expectations plus Questions motivate students to go beyond the data by asking students to make generalizations/inferences, or by asking students apply statistical/probability concepts to other contexts.

SCORING GUIDELINES SOLUTION

Rubric is not provided or Rubric does not & is incomplete. includes a component to measure individual progress on every Rubric Standard being accompanies the assessed or does not investigation. measure a students Rubric should ability to provide an include answer in the context of components that the investigation. assess student Possible solution is not progress on given or is incomplete. Common Core High School Statistics and Probability Standards addressed in the investigation and students ability to present the solution in context. A possible solution to the investigation in provided.

Rubric includes a component Meets expectations plus to measure individual progress on each Standard Multiple solutions are being assessed and a provided. component that measures a students ability to provide an answer in the context of the investigation. A possible solution is provided.

STANDARDS The purpose(s) of the investigation are clearly connected to the Common Core High School Standards for Statistics and Probability.

The author fails to connect the purpose and goals of the investigation to Common Core High School Standards for Statistics and Probability.

Common Core High School Standards for Statistics and Probability Standards are mentioned but not explained or described thoroughly. Author does not demonstrate the connection between purpose of the investigation and Common Core High School Standards.

Author thoroughly describes how the investigation meets specific Common Core High School Standards for Statistics and Probability Standards.

Meets expectations plus Author describes how the investigation connects to the Common Core Mathematical Practice Standards.

PRESENTATION Share your investigation with other teachers, providing a complete list of citations of resources utilized for the project. REFLECTION I: LEARNING

Presentation is lacking or The presentation is is incomplete. complete but does not include enough information to allow other teachers to utilize your work in their classroom.

The presentation is clear and provides teachers with enough information to utilize your investigation in their classroom.

Meets expectations plus The presentation is accompanied with additional resources for teachers.

Author does not address how their project will address student Analysis of the learning. elements of their work and how it will improve students understanding.

Author does not fully Details how their project will Details how their project will detail how their project improve student learning. improve student learning. will improve students understanding.

Project lacks a reflection REFECTION II: CONNECTION TO of (or connection to) the related literature. LITERATURE Evidence of understanding and reflection related to the literature.

Author attempts to deliver an understanding of the literature but major points are missed or do not connect to the assignment.

Major points are logically presented that connect the research to the purpose of the investigative task.

Reveals sophisticated knowledge of the literature reviewed in class by reflecting on the articles reviewed in the course and/or reflects on additional research articles (with citation) that are related to the project.