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How to Build an Acid/Alkaline Water Charger.

Acid/Alkaline Water Charger Plans Copyright© 2000. By G.D.Mutch.

Contents
Introduction. What Is Acid/Alkaline Water ? Getting Started On The Designs. Cutting/Machining The Materials. Assembling The Unit. Using Your Charger Unit. Drinking Your Charge Water. Manufacture A Unit For Me.

Introduction
The latest white goods technology to hit the market place is an acid/alkaline water charger. With a price tag between $1000 to $1300 (Aud) for a single commercial unit, its not hard to see why some people may choose to build an experiment with their own home made designs. The following plans will describe in detail how to make an

acid/alkaline water charger to experiment with your own charge water at home. The following plans involve simple to understand step by step instructions. The price of the materials to make your own unit should set you back between $50 to $70 (Aud).

What is Acid/Alkaline Water ?
What is acid/alkaline water, also known as micro-cluster water? By placing a positive electrode in one partition of the charger container an a negative electrode in the other partition of the container, you can get ordinary tap water to separate into acid water at the positive side, an alkaline water on the negative side. The water actually undergoes a change of its electrical state. It does this by changing the pH level of the water. Negative electrons are attracted to the positive protons on the positive plate side. The negative plate partition of the water charger builds up what is termed as a charge cluster of negative Hydrogen ions in the water. Where as the positive plate partition builds up a charge of OH ions. Commercial units claim negative charge clusters of around -250 to 350 mV. Why is this charge cluster water beneficial to people ? It has been document by commercial manufacturing companies that acid/ alkaline water units can assist in helping many human ailments. Ailments like arthritis, fatty acids, metal build up in the body etc... There are many pages on the internet devoted to other peoples testimonials as to these health benefits. I don't think charge cluster water can do any immediate harm to people in the short term, as naturally falling rain water has a similar build up of negative charge. This type of unit allows people to have a type of rain water on demand, while at the same time allows them to use the acid water for rashes and skin aliments. Acid/Alkaline water can also be used in the garden.

What is pH?
The pH scale ranges from 0 on the acidic end to 14 on the alkaline end. A solution is considered neutral if its pH is 7. At a pH of 7 water contains equal concentrations of H+ and OH- ions. Substances with a pH less than 7 are acidic because they contain a higher concentration of H+ ions. Substances with a pH higher than 7 are alkaline because they contain a higher concentration of OH- than H+. The pH scale is a log scale so a change of one pH unit means a factor of ten in the concentration of hydrogen ions.

Getting Started On The Designs :
Parts List

The first thing you will need is the following parts :
1 @ Synthetic Car Chamois [Membrane Filter] 1 @ 5mm x 160mm x 460mm PVC Pipe [Cylinder ] 4 @ 10mm x 20mm x 420mm Nylon Strip [Baffle Guides ] 2 @ 5mm x 150 mm x 420mm Acrylic or Nylon Sheet [Baffle Plates] 2 @ 1.5mm x 50mm x 350 Stainless Steel Sheet (316) [Electrodes] 1 @ 20mm x 151mm dia Nylon Block [Bottom End Cap] 2 @ 10mm dia pipe fittings.(optional) [Outlets] 1 @ Small Tube of Silicon Sealant 2 @ 5 mm x 16 mm Stainless Nut/Bolt [Electrode Fixing] 26 @ 16mm x 2.5mm(4g) Screws [Fixing Screws ] 1 @ 1.5mm drill bit 1 @ 5mm drill bit 1 @ 6-10mm drill bit

Cutting/Machining The Materials :
1. [Baffle Plates]

Cut the baffle plate material to the correct size: 2 @ 5mm x 150 mm x 420mm . Once you
have both baffles cut neatly to the same size, you will then have to drill a multiple of 6-10mm holes in a matrix pattern down the two baffles plates.(see figure 3)This is important as this is where the 12v electric positive and negative charge travels through the chamois membrane filter to separate the water into acid/alkaline. Do not drill these holes too near the edge of the baffle guides or near the bottom end cap, as the water will escape around the edges an allow the water to mix in together again. We do not want the water to mix in together at any stage, as we wish for the water to stay separated in both sides of the charger container. It's a good idea to leave a safety margin of at least 30mm around the edge before any holes are drilled. The matrix can be drilled with 5 columns of 18 rows by 8mm holes, that's around 90 holes in all. Make sure you clamp both baffle plates together neatly before drilling, and that you drill both plates identically at the same time. Over lapping or out of alignment holes may not allow uniform charge to go through the water. Handy hint : on the back of most contact paper or wall paper there is a ruled 20mm x 20mm ink printed grid. Cut to size a piece of this paper to use as a grid. Tape this grid to the baffles before drilling, and then drill the intersections of these lines. You may need to lightly centre punch these intersection points first.

then place one of the baffle plates on top of the chamois. Place the chamois on a clean firm surface. To do this simply place the baffle guides along the edge of the baffle plate material and clamp in between two planks of wood in a vice or similar. Repeat the above with all four baffle guides. While placing your weight on the baffle plate and chamois. Using scrap piece of the 160mm PVC at approximately 10mm wide.2. Try not to loose count of each plane cut with each side. (see figure 6). Do not remove to much off the edges else your baffle guide will leak water around the edge. You will need you use a power or hand plane to shave one edge/corner off the entire length of these baffle guides so that the guides sit flush with the main cylinder/container wall. mark a pencil mark around the chamois .[Chamois/ Membrane Filter] Cut out the synthetic chamois to a slightly smaller size than that of your baffle plates. as it won't clamp the baffle plates tight inside the finished unit. Figure 2 Figure 3 3. You will be using this as a template as you plane down the curve along the full length of the baffle guide edges. Plane a little off the edge each time while placing the scrap template on the cut edge to see if you have the curve correct. [Baffle Plate Guides] If you have the plastic baffle guides material in one large piece then you will need to cut this block of material into 4 @10mm x 20mm x 420mm plastic strips (see figure 3. You will have to alternate from side to side for the correct plane angle.)Use a power or hand saw to get the straightest and cleanest cut you can. cut this scrap piece in half across the diameter. (see figure 2). while also sitting flush with the baffle plate.

4. An ordinary house hold 240volt down to 6-12 volt handy power pack will work just the same. These electrodes can be powered by a standard 12 volt car battery charger. The purpose of this is to remove any latent manufacturing chemical contaminates in the chamois.5mm x 50mm x 350 mm long. then replace the material as soon as possible. The baffle partition and membrane filter will prevent the water from mixing together. as this prevents the chamois from jamming in/around the baffle guides and causing leaks. If your membrane filter gets old or damaged. When the chamois is first new you should hand wash your chamois membrane filter in warm soapy water and then rinse it out in clean water and allow it to dry. This is the bolt hole that will fix the electrodes to the main cylinder/container. Drill a hole at one end in the centre of these stainless steel plates about 15mm down from the top width edge. We want the chamois (membrane filter) to be slightly smaller in size than the baffle plates. These are bolted inside near the top edge of the main cylinder/container on opposite sides to each other. Do not make any holes in this membrane filter as the water charger will not work properly. an about 25 mm in from the length edge. One electrode either side of the baffle partition will produce acid water at the positive. while alkaline water is produce at the negative. Using a pair of scissors cut the inside line of the pencil mark on the chamois. These are your positive and negative electrodes.while using the edge of the baffle plate as a ruler or guide. You could still come in 5mm from your original pencil mark and be quite safe with final cut. You do not need heavy current. This scissor cut is not critical as you should still have a safety margin of around 30mm that covers over the actual baffle plate matrix of holes. (See figure 4 & 5 ) .[Electrodes] Cut two stainless steel strips to the size 1.

You will need to use a saw or router to cut an 11mm x 10mm deep groove across the end cap diameter inside face. . Be sure to fix the drill machine firmly in a vice or similar before you start. and place a nut and bolt through the material. It is much easier to get this groove placed centre while it is still a square block of material. Be careful of the drill speed. as the rotational speed can get very large at the outer edge of the square block.(see figure 7) It is important to try an get this groove cut out section as straight an as dead centre as is possible. If you wish you may lathe a 5 mm x 2mm deep groove in the centre of the outer edge to contain a silicon bead of glue when fixing the cap into position... You may like to get this groove machined at the machine shop at the same time that you have the diameter lathed out. You may have to get this bottom end cap manufactured at a machine shop. In this groove is where the baffles will sit to seal the bottom section of the baffle plates to prevent them from leakage. It should cost you very little to have it done. [Bottom End Cap ] Here comes the tricky part.Figure 4 Figure 5 6. This end cap will fit entirely flush into the bottom of the cylinder/container. Place the bolt end in a drill machine an lathe the151mm dia block with a sharp chisel or screw driver. The end cap will be lathed to an accurate finish of 151mm inside diameter. Alternatively you may attempt to lathe the block yourself by drilling a 10mm hole in the dead centre of the square block. You will have to plug the10mm drill hole with a plastic plug and silicon once you have finished lathing. If you attempt to lathe this yourself then make sure you cut the corners off the block before you start. Have fun. The bottom end cap is lathed out of a 20mm thick x 160mm square block of nylon or acrylic material.

Figure 6 & Figure 7.Do NOT fix the end cap permanently into the cylinder/container at this stage. Assembling The Unit : With all the materials cut. Slide the baffle plates with the chamois down into the container while positioning the baffle plates firmly into the router groove in the bottom of the end cap. We need to be able to work from both the top and bottom end of the cylinder while we place the baffle guides into position. Do not fix the bottom end cap at this time. Put two of the 10mm x 20mm x 420mm long baffle guides into the container: one either side of the baffle plates. drilled and machined to the above specifications. 3. Assert that the end cap is flush with the bottom of the cylinder/container. You may now cut two or four planks of thin wood 71mm wide by 200-400 mm long. Jam these pieces of wood either side of the baffle plates to hold the entire plates straight and centre most in the cylinder/container as we fix the baffle guides. put the bottom end cap into position do not fix it. Assembly: 1. Tap the baffle plates with your hand to make sure that they are firmly into the groove of the end cap. Using your hand as a clamp hold them firmly . Firstly. then file the outer bottom edge of the baffle plates to a taper so they slide in easier. you should be ready to assemble all the parts into their correct position. Sit the cylinder/container in the normal up right position on the bench top. If the plates appear tight. Place the now cut to size chamois between the two baffle plates. 2.(see figure 8) We will be putting the end cap into position and removing it numerous times as we finish the final assembly.

an are in position. and the middle of the bottom and current centre. Being careful. rule two parallel lines from top to bottom along the outer side of the cylinder in the dead centre of the 4 screw heads.5mm (4g) screws around the bottom of cylinder and through into the end cap. We do not wish to screw into the baffle plates when we fix the bottom end cap. you may remove the bottom end cap and place a bead of silicon around the outer parameter of the end cap. Measure an divide either side of these centre screws to find the middle of the top an current centre. 5. drill and place 6 x 2. firmly fixing the end cap into position. (see figure 8) 4. scribe a pencil mark either side on the outer cylinder at the very bottom of the cylinder where the end cap groove is. Now undo all the screws and remove the baffle guides (one at a time only) away from the cylinder/container. So you will need to drill down about 25-30mm so you don't miss the top of the baffle guide. (see figure 8) Repeat step 4 above until all baffle guides are fixed into position. so take note of the pencil mark you have just made. Using a 1. Screw a 2. Note the number for the correct way around when refitting the guides. Once again holding the bottom end of baffle guides against the baffles and hard against the outer cylinder. Now using a long stick of wood remove the bottom end cap away from the cylinder. You should have 2 lines of 5 screws holding each of the two baffle guides into position. Be sure that the planed curve on the guide is the correct way out. Estimate the drill hole at the centre position at around the general top of these two guides: about 30mm down. Leave the baffles in position. Drill pilot holes and screw these last four screws into position. Using a pencil and a ruler. Be sure that the end cap is home flush and that the baffle plates once again align with the groove in the end cap. remove the baffle plates from their position. If all is home and flush. drill a pilot hole in the outer cylinder through to the centre of baffle guides. We are now going to place a thin layer of silicon sealant on the fixing side of all four guides and refit them back into their original position inside the cylinder/container. Allow your unit to dry for 24 hours before you use your completed unit.5mm(4g) x 16mm screw into the hole fixing the top end of these first two baffle guides. 6. Once all the baffle guides are sealed with silicon and fixed into position. These two holes should be up 25-30 mm from the bottom of the cylinder/container so you don't miss the end of the baffle guides.an assert that the guides are to the outer most diameter hard against the inside of the cylinder curve. drill two pilot holes at the dead centre of the cylinder right on the two pencil lines. Starting about 45mm away from the pencil marks and 10mm up from the bottom edge of the cylinder/container. Insert two more screws into these holes. Wipe any excess silicon away from the end cap. fix a screw to hold them into position. Place the bottom end cap back into position. Fill the . 7. and that the end cap is flush with the cylinder/container bottom. Once you have all baffle guides fixed into position use a marker pen or texture to number the baffle guides with a corresponding number on the cylinder wall. Again check that the baffle plates are hard down into the end cap groove. Hit the baffle plates down firmly to check they are firmly into the groove of the end cap. plates and the baffle guides. Before any silicon is allowed to dry firm. The top of baffle guides should rest natural about 20mm down from the top of the cylinder/container. fit the end cap back into the cylinder container. Asserting that the baffle guides are straight. looking inside from the top down toward the bottom.5mm drill bit as a pilot hole drill outside the cylinder an in to the baffle guide.

Place the chamois between the baffles plates and slide the plates firmly into the baffle guides while also checking that the baffles have gone down firmly into the groove in the end cap. (see figure 4&5) 9. . then you are ready to fit the baffles. I leave that up to you. 8. You may also use some sort of tap arrangement. Fit the electrode plates with 2 @ 5mm x 16mm stainless steel nuts and bolts.cylinder/container with water and check that there is no leaks and that every thing looks clean an is in the correct position. if your charger container is sealed and there are no apparent leaks. Optionally you may drill two10mm holes at the bottom (just above the end cap) either side of the container and place two hose fittings to allow you to drain the charge water from the container. Your assembled unit should look something like the grey colour picture design of figure 9. If you desire you may also bend a 90 deg x 90 deg bend near the top of electrode plates to move the electrodes closer into the centre of the container. Drill and fit both the electrode stainless steel plates into position. You may have to hammer the top of both electrode plates to fit the inside curved of the cylinder. Figure 8 Figure 9 Using your Charger Unit. You should not need to curve any more than 50mm. refill it with clean water and connect the power. Hammer the first 50mm of the top section of each electrode plate so that it shapes into a curve. The top of the plates should be flush with the top of the cylinder/container. Ok.

depending the water in your area. while the water in the negative side will remain clean and clear. Use a texture or marker pen to identify the acid an alkaline water in both of the 4 litre storage containers. You may like to keep a log book of your experiments. Place the black lead onto the (-) negative electrode. The first time you use your water charger you will need to leave it connected to the power supply for about 1-3 hours. Place the red lead of your battery charger onto the (+) electrode.Filling the Charger Unit Fill your charger unit full with clean drinking water while alternating to both sides of the container at the same time.You will notice as you fill one side that you have slight leaking into the adjacent partition. as it's not desirable when you decide to empty the container of the charged water. this is quite normal. This will prevent the water pressure difference and prevent water flowing from one partition of the container into the other. this is quite okay. If your charger is working correctly you should see the above results start to happen with in about 1 hour. clear and taste something like rain water. or that the power supply is working as it should. This is in case you decide to do some periodic testing during the charging process. provided that you keep the water height at roughly the same water level on both sides. You will determine through trial an error how long you should leave your water charger unit connect to the power supply. The unit when full should hold around 6. You . Drinking Your Charge Water: As stated previously: when removing the charged water from your charger unit.9 litres when filled to the top water mark.When you empty the charger you must syphon off both sides of the container at exactly the same time. When first filling the container the pressure difference of the water is causing water to push through the chamois membrane. The acid water will be coloured a dark greenie brown and taste brackish or stark like metal in the water. You will need to identify the polarity of the water by determining which side of the container is which. I have left my own water charger unit on for up to 10-12 hours at a time. You will need two clean 4 litre containers to contain the water when emptying the unit. The alkaline water should be clean. an a (-) negative symbol on the other electrode. Fill the container till the water level is about 5mm below the top of the baffle plates. If you don't see something happen with in the hour then check that the battery charger leads are making contact with the stainless steel plates in the container. therefore you will need to identify which end to reconnect the battery charger leads. you must drain both sides of the unit at the same time. This water pressure difference should be avoid where possible. It is advisable that you empty the unit as soon as you disconnect the power supply. The first thing you may notice might be the water in the positive side of the container starting to turn a dark greenie brown colour. Connecting the Power: Using a texture or marker pen scribe a (+) symbol on one of the electrodes. The water will not leak through under normal use. This ensures the charged water cannot redistribute its charge back into either partition.

.. then please feel free to make suggestions. Should you feel obligated an in someway feel the need to contribute something to help in this cause. so that your body can slowly adjust to the cleansing an detoxifying effects.. for in the hope of a cleaner better world. The plans listed herein are for experimental purposes only.net. G.Mutch email : pagemaster@rocknet. As you grow accustom to the alkaline water you can leave the power connected to the water charger for longer periods for stronger effects. The user/constructor assumes all responsibility for the use or inability to use the above information or machinery listed.. donations or contributions of any sort you wish. Enjoy your water. The above unit is assembled an used at the user/constructors own discretion. an use the acid water externally on your skin and hair for outer health.. The information here in does not guarantee the water is always fit for human or live stock consumption. The above information is offered freely to all. Companies with commercial units recommend for the first time user to only charge the water for a short period. Please share all your findings with others. so that I may continue to provide further information for the betterment of all..... By personal preference I like to store the alkaline charge water in a glass bottle...au Disclaimer: Caution.may drink the alkaline water internally for inner health.D.. Manufactured Units : . don't let ego and greed cloud your better judgement.

Mutch Rockhampton. Model No.Manufactured Units If you are able to make one of these unit for yourself then I can possibly make a unit for you. I therefore cannot guarantee the fitness of the water when used in these experimental water charging units.au . Owing to different water in all parts of the world. Qld. The user must accept all responsibility when using these unit. All units will be worked out on a per quoted price basis. 2. Australia. Although every effort will be made to ensure food grade quality materials will be used in all manufacturing stages. For further charge water inquires please send an email to : G. email : pagemaster@rocknet.net.D.

transformer secondary or a ford coil secondary. On weak signals this must be done with a hand switch but on powerful signals it may be accomplished with a mercury or metal segmented commutator." The major parts necessary for its construction are: a crystal receiver. current induced in the antenna into D. a short piece of iron rod and some small enamelled wire from an A. Hall from Radio Craft page 464 Feb 1936 An electric motor can be built using materials usually found in the radio facts junk box which will run on radio power received from stations some miles away. essentially. such a motor cannot be used to drive any mechanism as all of the power developed is used In overcoming friction in the motor itself.F. A signal loud enough to be easily heard will be sufficient to operate the motor. As this motor operates oil D. It is necessary that the current through the armature winding be reversed at the end of each half revolution of the motor. a horseshoe magnet. only. The construction of the motor is not at all difficult and the average radio fan will find it both an interesting and instructive diversion from his usual radio activities. is a galvanometer provided with bearings and a commutator that allows continuous rotation in one direction.Make This Radio Motor This novel radio operated device shown for the first time at the New York Radio Show is easily constructed.C. . Nathan I.C. the purpose of the crystal receiver is to tune in the desired station and to change R. Editor ) As might be expected. (This "motor".F. The motor built by the writer will run on all input of one ten millionth of a watt armature current 7 microamperes and armature resistance of 2000 ohms and call be truthfully called a "flea-power motor.

this core does not rotate but is fixed and the winding rotates around it. (A good length for it is half the length of the magnet). The diameter of this iron cylinder should be from ½ to 5/8 inches. light cardboard or fibre and care must be taken to see that it is symmetrical. The coil form should clear the iron care by about 1/16 in. Contrary to the usual motor. 1A that the core is held in place by a pivot which must pass through the bottom of the form. It will be seen in Fig. 1C. on all sides. The hole through which this pivot passes should be . The iron core for the rotor consists of a Piece of iron rod mounted between the magnet Poles.Figure 1A shows the top and side views of the motor. 1B) The only part of the motor where special care must be taken is in the construction of the rotor coil form. It is made of stiff. (See Fig. A good design for this form is shown in Fig. less than the distance between the magnet poles. The dimensions of the various parts are not at all critical and will be determined by the size of the permanent magnet available.

1A and D.P.approximately twice the diameter of the rod. A thin (for lightness) coat of glue on the finished winding will stiffen the whole rotor and make the coil less susceptible to damage. One of the motor input wires connects to the pivot and the other lightly touches the commutator. This rod supports a phonograph needle which serves as the motor shaft.T. transformer wire. switch for making and breaking the current. The more wire used. To the top of the coil form is glued a short length of hard-rubber rod. or it is pivoted at the top with a second phonograph needle as shown in the details of Fig. half of it being wound on each side of the hard-rubber rod. 2A.T. the switch may be eliminated and a commutator built on the hard-rubber rod so that a wire brush makes and breaks contact at the desired time as shown in Figs.S.F. the better will be the results.D. The two sections of the coil must be separated on the bottom of the coil form so as not to obstruct the core sup-porting screw hole. Figure 2B shows the method of connecting a D. The motor built by the writer has been operated on stations many miles away using the hand commutation method. switch which reverses the current at every half-revolution of the rotor and giving twice the power of the method shown in Fig. . The last step in the construction is the winding of the rotor. If a powerful station is close by. Figure 2A shows the circuit diagram using a S. One end of the coil is soldered to the phonograph needle and the other end makes contact with the commutator. With a little ingenuity the builder can design a switch which can be thrown with a very small movement of the hand. 1. The needle protrudes through the coil form and its point rests in a centre punch mark in the top of the iron cylinder.P. The writer used 2000 turns of A. The top of the hard-rubber rod is hollowed out slightly so that it will hold a few drops of mercury.

We also know enough about electricity and magnetism to have a lot of fun. their word for amber. W.(Mr. we make use of them in an endless variety of ways to produce heat. there is a great deal about electromagnetic forces that we still cannot explain. light and other forms of energy. "elektron. The vertical arm inside should not touch the glass. Yet surprisingly. . Hang a strip of metal foil over the horizontal wire arm. indeed. Hall is connected with the Physics Departrnent of West Virginia University. as you will see in this web page site AN ELECTROSCOPE Bend a piece of wire into a double right-angled shape with upturned ends as illustrated. the link between magnetism and electricity was not discovered until early in the last century. The Ancient Greeks were familiar with the fact that rubbed amber attracted dust and chaff. a kind of iron ore. Va." is the origin of the word electricity. Even today. Early man was well acquainted with the awesome power of lightning and knew that iron and certain other metals were attracted to magnetite.-Editor) ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM occur everywhere in nature. Put one end on the rim of a glass and keep it in position with a metal plate or tray. Nevertheless. Morgan-town.

. a delicate instrument for detecting electric charges. The opposite charge in the paper will now flow to the foil. This grounds the foil charge. then hold it near the tray rim. a Danish scientist. You have made an electroscope. Now prove him right. The leaves will spring apart again as they now have an opposite charge to the paper. All clear? Try it yourself. giving it an opposite charge to the paper. Float a magnetised needle in a glass of water to make a compass . discovered that an electric current produces a magnetic field at right angles to its flow. Then take away your finger. HANS OERSTED (1777-1851). The foil ends will spring apart. Touch the plate with your finger.Charge a comb or piece of paper with static by rubbing. The leaves collapse.

Lowering the needle by two looped threads is one way but you would have to remove the thread without disturbing either the water or the needle . but you need a very steady hand because a crooked drop won't work. for when you drop. The bottom two methods illustrated here are best. Miraculous? Not really.no easy job. two rather difficult and two fairly easy. pins and needles into water they float. either lower the needle (or pin) gently on a fork. There are four ways of doing this. say. dropping it horizontally from just above the surface.When those who aren't in the scientific "know" drop metal objects into water they sink like stones to the bottom. The secret is to keep the surface of the pin or needle that isn't touching the water quite dry. The second method. You are different. . is better.

.or float it on a piece of paper. leaving the needle afloat. The last is probably the most effective but you will leave a tell-tale piece of paper on the bottom because it is going to absorb the water and sink.

it will always point north and south. fork and salt solution. What you have made. "Magic water. putting them off the scent." you say. In both these demonstrations. but it is a compass nevertheless. Chemical reaction in the solution produces a flow of electricity through the circuit of zinc. Place a teaspoon parallel to the needle across the rim of the glass. Notice how the needle is now deflected at right angles. "How's it done?" they ask. The things will sink miserably and swiftly. If you magnetise a needle by stroking it one way only with a bar magnet . Of course. It won't be much use as a means of finding your way in the country. is a rudimentary compass. . Then you unveil your collection of floating pins and needles which you have previously prepared. in the simplest possible way.and float it in the way we have described. Having mastered the art of making needles float. Balance a strip of zinc between the other end and the salt solution taking care not to touch the coke bundle. the important point to remember is that the objects must be dry or they will sink.Puzzle your friends by first giving them some pins and needles and inviting them to make these metal objects float. you know why. Immerse the bundle in a strong salt solution then rest the fork prongs on one end of the spoon. Unless they know the secret they will fail. The battery to supply the current is made as follows. spoon. you can become a compass manufacturer. Wrap some small pieces of coke in a cloth and insert the handle of a fork.

concave-centred button glued to the cork base.A MAGNETIC MOTOR A fairly elaborate motor that is powerful enough to spin a wire wheel can be made from just a simple magnet and a spirit lamp. Slot the rim into each spoke and twist both ends together so that it forms a circle. As the rim heats up. use a thick slice of cork as the hub and insert four equal lengths of stiff copper wire as spokes. If necessary. The axle is kept upright by the loop and the hole in the bead. Now only the colder part of the iron rim is attracted . In the "cup" of this button place a glass bead with a hole bored through it. When the iron becomes red hot. the wheel starts to revolve. it becomes immune to magnetic attraction. To make the wheel. Now bend a hairpin or paper clip to form a small loop in the middle. Place a horseshoe magnet on a stand at the same level as the wheel. The axle for the wheel will be a steel knitting needle mounted on a base of cork that is glued to a thick cardboard circle. building the wheel turns out to be far more complicated than assembling the motor itself. at a temperature of around 1 1100 degree F. In this instance. oil this hinge from time to time. Make grooves in the end of each to take a rim of thin iron wire. Insert the two ends in the cork base so that it arches over the button. Together they form a ball-and-socket arrangement. Heat the rim of the wheel with a spirit lamp placed just in front of one of the two poles of the magnet. The entire axle rotates on a bearing made from a small.

preferably one from an old oil lamp. Next wrap a long soft brush in a silk handkerchief or silk cloth. The paper strips will soon bristle and lift up as the charge from the foil flows along the thread and into the paper. This time. light bulbs and fuses. Since like charges repel each other. rub the inside of the glass cylinder from the opposite direction you used before. Rub the inside of the glass briskly making sure not to touch the foil with your fingers. With this simple electricity generator you will be able to perform an endless variety of tricks and experiments. if you the ring of tin foil and hang a few strips of thin paper at the end you will have built an electroscope quite similar to the one made earlier in the book. You will need a glass cylinder. You have also demonstrated in this experiment that objects that are poor conductors. For example. the bits of paper will be pushed apart.HOMEMADE LIGHT BULB Electricity does not only flow out of wall sockets. Good conductors. This is why it is possible to make a light without even using anything as elaborate as wires. Wrap a ring of tin foil around its middle. It occurs everywhere in nature often appearing in the most unsuspected places. readily take an electric charge when rubbed. . on the other hand. readily transmit electricity between charged and neutral bodies. If you stand in a darkened corner you will soon see a large spark jump across the gap between the foil every time you pull the brush out of the cylinder. Attach another thin strip of foil from the end of the glass to roughly half an inch away from the foil ring. such as glass.

THE KNOWING ARROW Fold a small piece of paper in such a way that it divides into quarters with creases to show where you have folded it. Using the intersection of these creases as the centre point, cut out a cross like the one illustrated. Trim the longer arms to make the point a little further from the centre intersection than the other squared end. Balance the paper cross on the point of a needle at the centre but take care not to pierce the paper. Insert the head of the needle in a cork and cover the whole structure with a glass tumbler. Tell your friends you can make the arrow inside the glass point at anyone you name without removing the glass. All you need to do is rub it with a silk handkerchief on the side facing the person you choose. The arrow will be attracted by the static on that side of the glass and will turn to point in his direction. Follow up this trick by making the arrow rotate at quite a speed by rubbing the tumbler top well, it isn't the top because the bottom is uppermost here - in a circular motion but always in the same direction. If you have the patience to do some rather fiddly paperwork you could make a paper cross with equal arms and from them suspend tiny cut-out horses by fine threads. This electric merry-go round will delight and amuse young children. Glass, porcelain, wood, textiles, waxes and resins are easily charged with static electricity but they are, like all such materials, bad conductors of an electric current. They are therefore obvious choices for use as insulators to separate conducting materials.

The Power Cord Antenna

Above is a typical circuit that as a young adult I constructed to listen to a couple of local radio stations and I think it cost me about four dollars then ,maybe it would now cost ten or eleven dollars now. All parts can be readily obtained from your local electronics or hobby shop. (Dick Smith and Tandy in Australia) This circuit would have been know to Nicola Tesla as he design a similar circuit . Normally you would only use a small ferrite bar for the coil or indeed only an air coil inductor winding. Many would have only built them to receive the local radio stations twenty miles distance or less but more than this can be accomplished with just experimenting with the coil winding sizes and longer distances covered.. By winding just one loop to many loops around the suggested ferrite rod size many shortwave stations could be heard and in some instances the tuning capacitor could be done away with.

The constructor normally be told that a high and long antenna and earth are required but below I described a aerial that requires no more than six feet of zip cord or twin lighting flex.

Please note I take no responsibility if you construct the above and you construct or put it together incorrectly and you should do so under adult supervision ( by the way the idea does work) Putting it together. DO THE FOLLOWING ONLY UNDER ADULT SUPERVISION Obtain for yourself a NEW six foot length of twin flex from each end and at opposite side remove six inches of the flex cord as in illustration. from the length remaining cut away an inch of insulation to leave the wire.
At this stage and this is important

Test to see that you have no conduction between the two bare wires at each end of the zip cord. This can be done with a multi meter tester or a torch globe and battery.

. If your house has installed wiring by a licensed contractor he is likely to have done this correctly. assuming the bulb is working then do not use this cord and try and make a new one again. I have received short wave signals on a simple crystal set up as of the first above diagram from 1000 kilometres away .. HOW IT WORKS Around us at all times there are radio signals these interact with any long leads and overhead power lines are no different. Don't use the earth connection on the plug just in case your home has been incorrectly wired and your earth has power running through it. Connect one of your bare on inch wire lengths to the active side of the electrical plug and place into electrical power point and the other end to your receiver . Please note TV reception has a limited range. The radio signal travel along these lines and into your home why not make use of these. or the globe lights up . This can also be connected to an electrical light fitting and get the same result. DO THE FOLLOWING UNDER ADULT SUPERVISION The plug diagram is an Australian wiring standard and may be different in other countries so check to see and be sure what you are about to do. The zip cord acts as a signal transformer and places the signals from one side of the cord to other cord on the opposite side and these are fed to your receiver.be it a crystal radio or a normal radio or even a TV and then listen to your receiver you will be to hear a strong clear signal if within range of transmitter. Be sure to wrap insulation tape where wire has been removed at the six inches cut mark for extra safety Remember one of the wire Leads will be live with electricity ..If the meter zeros out.so keep it away from water and skin contact.

so that the sun's rays are collected over an eight square foot area. and turned every once in a while to prevent them from burning. Remember Safety first at all times. The Solar Hotdog Cooker is made out of a thin (1/8 inch thick) plastic mirror that can be found at plastic shops and glass stores (although it may have to be special ordered at some stores). and focused in a thin line. The hotdogs are roasted on a spit placed at the focus. Geoff Cook hotdogs with the Sun in minutes. The plastic is bent into the shape of a parabola. . In this section we will show you how to make a powerful solar concentrator that can cook four or five hotdogs in minutes.The information is supplied as an Educational reference only and no responsibly is taken for anyone actually using this information to make this antenna.

Using a tape measure and a carpenter's square. 2 feet wide. 2 inches long. 7. 6 feet long (although 5 1/2 feet long might work better). A drill and a bit that matches the diameter of the 92 small nails or pegs. 6.Materials For the solar cooker you will need: 1. about an inch long. One plastic mirror. 2. One stiff steel wire. one on top of the other. 1/2 inch thick. 2 feet wide and 4 feet long. mark off where the holes will be drilled for the mirror supports (the 92 small nails or pegs). and 8 feet long. Two pieces of plywood. Two pieces of lumber. 92 small nails or wooden pegs. 1/8 inch thick. 5. All holes are drilled completely through both sheets of plywood. (2x4) 1 1/2 inch thick. Assembly Place the two sheets of plywood together. 3 1/2 inch wide. A larger bit (over 1 inch wide) is needed for the food hole. 3. 4. 3 feet long. The holes are to be drilled according to the following table: . 16 wood screws.

Inche Inche s s from from botto left m 0 22.34 44 16.96 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 28 30 32 34 36 38 8.94 48 22.34 8 10.16 2 18. separated by the thickness of the mirror.26 4.86 Spacing for drilled holes A second row of holes is drilled above these.24 3.56 3.26 2.00 6 13.96 42 13.94 4 16.00 46 18. 40 10.50 4.24 5.04 5.04 8.16 .00 2.86 7.56 2.50 7.

a pair are drilled 15 inches from the bottom and 13 inches from the bottom. The second row will also have 23 small nails pushed in. Using the 2 inch long screws. The first set of holes will eventually have 23 of the small nails placed in each side. about a third of an inch above the first set of holes. and the last pair is 36 and 38 inches from the left. Each piece should be exactly 2 feet long. and the spit will then drop into the much smaller hole at the focus. Attach the second plywood sheet to the other end of the 2x4 pieces. This hole should go through both sheets of plywood. to hold the mirror up. Drill a hole that is the same diameter as the spit wire.Next drill a set of holes above the first set. Just above one of the focus holes. or the top nails will hit the mirror instead of resting on top of the mirror. to keep the spit in exactly the right place. The focus of the parabola is 9.14 inches from the bottom. centering each pair of screws in the end of each piece of 2x4. drill a large hole in one plywood sheet. but three or four inches would be better. and 24 inches from the left. just touching the hole for the spit. The spit with the food on it will be inserted into this hole. but you don't want them too close together. The exact spacing is not critical. . so it should be at least an inch in diameter. The result should look something like the legs of a small table. screw the 2x4 pieces to one of the plywood sheets. At the bottom. a pair are drilled 10 and 12 inches from the left. Cut four pieces from the 2x4 lumber. or a little bit larger. this time to hold the mirror in place from above. Next drill eight holes for the screws that will hold the 2x4 lumber in place. On the left and right. The holes are 3/4 inch from the edges of the plywood. This large hole will accomodate the food (hotdogs or kebabs).

Cooking with the sun Carefully poke the 3 foot wire spit through the hotdogs or kebabs. instead of slipping to keep the heavy part down. . The spit is formed from the 3 foot piece of wire. stiffer wire is better. leaving the head of the screws sticking an inch or two out of the wood. but wires that thin tend to sag in the middle when burdened by a few hotdogs. (I used cotton tipped wooden swabs in the picture because they photograph better than nails. Next push 46 of the small nails into the bottom row of holes. A thicker. where the 2x4 spreaders can be seen. and gently push it down to rest on the nails. To make it easier to turn the food. A coat hanger can be used. so the food will rotate when you rotate the spit. Try to center the food on the spit. Now set the mirror onto the top of the cooker.The photo above shows the back side of the cooker. Put a pair of nails in the center pair of holes on top of the mirror. placing pairs of nails to hold the mirror down. These will act as supports to hold the cooker so it is tilted toward the sun.) The last step is to place a few screws in the remaining long piece of 2x4. then work your way outwards. a crank is formed by bending the wire at one end as shown in the labeled photo. Note also the remaining length of 2x4 is used as a support (more about that later).

and the cooker can be adjusted to the exact angle by tilting the support backwards. making bright lines across it (sunglasses are recommended at this phase). If you like. where the hotdogs are. and insert the far end of the wire into the small focus hole in the far plywood sheet. Rest the near end of the spit in the small focus hole at the bottom of the food hole. Hold the remaining scrap of 2x4 up against the back side of the cooker. You can see the shadows of the nails on the walls of the cooker. When the cooker is adjusted properly. leaving an inch or two sticking out to hold the top 2x4 spreader. The sun will just barely graze both of the plywood sheets when the cooker is aligned properly (this can be seen in most of the photos on this page). the screw can be placed a little higher up. . These shadows should all cross at the focus. Start with the cooker flat on the ground. and mark where a screw should be placed to hold the cooker at the right elevation. the sun will be focused on the food. then turn it until it is parallel with your shadow.Insert the spit through the food hole. Align the solar cooker with the sun. Screw the screw into the 2x4. This can be clearly seen in the labeled photo. Next tip one end of the cooker up until the shadow of the spit falls directly on the center nail at the bottom of the parabola.

The hotdogs will be quite hot in about 10 minutes. the shadows of the nails can be clearly seen. The hotdogs will start steaming in less than a minute. The shadow of the hotdogs can be seen being cast by the mirror onto the back side of the hotdogs in the photo above. The spit should be turned every couple minutes to prevent black lines from being burned into the food (unless you like your hotdogs with black stripes). In the photo below. highly magnified.The hotdogs can be seen in the mirror. . or burned black all over in about 20 minutes. crossing at the focus of the parabola.

How does it do that? A parabola is a shape with some interesting properties that make it perfect for cooking hotdogs.). 4. connected by hinges in a line. The sun is bigger than the earth. The poor hotdogs have been burned to a crisp (oops. Mathematically. This means that the sunlight that hits the earth appears to be in parallel rays. the mirrors would line up in a parabola. The shadows of the mirror supports seem to meet at the focus. 3. 2. and we tilted each mirror so it would reflect these parallel rays onto one spot. because the mirror is only curved in one dimension.Things to notice in the above photo: 1. . not their length... If we had thousands of tiny mirrors. The enlargement of the hotdogs only occurs in their width. The shadow of the hotdogs is projected onto the enlarged reflection of the hotdogs. and very far away. a parabola is defined as a set of points that are the same distance from both a point (called the focus) and a straight line (called the directrix).

035x2+2 I chose this formula so the parabola would be deeply curved. the focus does not move very much. The distance from the vertex to the focus is . The +2 part of the equation says that the bottom of the parabola will be 2 inches from the bottom of the plywood. We want the focus to be close to the mirror. and room to drill the bottom hole for the support nails. and would fit into the 2 foot by 4 foot plywood sheets. Having the focus close to the mirror is like having the fulcrum of a lever close to one end.The formula for the parabola used in the solar cooker is y = 0. This gives us room for the 2x4 spreaders. This means that we don't have to raise or lower the cooker very often as the sun moves. The sun end of our lever can move a lot. The vertex is always halfway between the focus and the directrix. The bottom of the parabola is called the vertex. so that as the sun moves. while the hotdog end of our lever hardly moves at all.

In his book. Amazing Little Epsilon! . Leonardo da Vinci named it the Golden Section. (pi = 3. (golden section. This means that our cooker is the rough equivalent of a 750 watt electric stove. by William Kapsaris What were the wondrous thoughts that inspired the architects of the Great Pyramid of Cheops at El Giza. and tourists have tried to solve the mystery. a scale-model pyramid that really works.035 4 or about 7. to two ratios. including the peak. Our mirror intercepts about 8 square feet of sunlight. was a ratio found in nature and praised by artists.1 0.14 inches. It was a difficult task because most of the pyramid's outer masonry. a ratio . was its construction the work of visitors from outer space? Many curious explorers. scientists. One was pi. . which narrowed down the field. They've been braving the desert for centuries to examine the ancient pyramid and search for clues. phi. Heated debates resulted. A square meter of the earth's surface gets about 1000 watts of power from sunlight.1416: the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter -Webster) The other one. or about three quarters of a square meter. One thing they had hoped to find was the mathematical ratio used in its design. Egypt? Did clever earthlings build the giant pyramid to win the favor of the Pharaoh? Or . 1971). . Secrets of the Great Pyramid (Harper & Row. for the most part. Peter Tompkins points out that a number of surveyors measured the pyramid and tried to pinpoint the ratio. . . was missing.

) After I had realigned the model with magnetic North. experiments with scalemodels I've made of the Great Pyramid have led me to consider one. I'll never forget the first time it did. when the model is standing with its base line on magnetic North. in which the lessor of the two is to the greater as the greater is to the sum of both: a ratio of approximately 0.30 percent or less. So I hesitate saying that its architects may have used another ratio. In the mean time. One whiff of its interior told me that it was doing an excellent job of collecting the tape's scent. I left for work. about ten hours later. and upholstered furniture. What is the mathematical ratio of Epsilon's design? Computing it is easy -. Models built on the pi and phi ratios do not collect the scent. and the two bedrooms and the bathroom on the second.just divide the height of one side by half its base length. because the humidity inside the house was low. Not knowing what to expect next. and kitchen on the first floor. the scent of the tape had filled every room in the house: the dining room. It puts on quite a show when the humidity is low -. front room. a few hours after I had placed a leaf from a tree next to the watch inside Epsilon. The scent clung to the drapes. . That day.between two portions . not even a trace. The little model was on the dining room table where I had been experimenting with it. and I wouldn't have known how to measure it if I had. (The watch was a gift I hadn't worn in years. Epsilon can also amplify the scent of the tape and send it into the air. For instance. . It's a ratio close to phi that produced a very special little pyramid I've named Epsilon. the scent of the transparent tape that holds it together accumulates inside it. When I returned. but the primary factor was amazing little Epsilon. However. the watch played an important part in the experiments. I had taken a few minutes to check on Epsilon before dashing off to work.6180 to 1. I moved Epsilon into the two-car garage thirty feet behind the house and set up the experiment. Epsilon had filled the garage with the scent! Equally baffling. . because the luminous paint on its hands and face was emitting a low level of radioactivity.000 -Random House) That's a tough act to follow! I've never visited the Great Pyramid. the air in the garage picked up the strong aroma of foliage! True. See Figure 1. carpeting. I put an old wristwatch inside it on a stand one third the model's height. Epsilon would be right at home in the desert. For lack of a better idea. It took days to air out the house.

To build a scale-model like Epsilon: Scribe outlines of its four sides on illustration board with the point of a knife. its full length. Check the measurements for accuracy with a ruler graduated in hundredths of an inch. Use a straightedge as a guide. View the graduations with a 10X power magnifying glass. Start assembly by taping the inside edge of each ascending corner of the model. refer to Figures 2 and 3.To compare Epsilon with models that have designs based on the pi and phi ratios. and cut out the sides with a knife. with 3/4-inch .

He. and then check the air inside them. Note the illustration in Figure 4. and tape the exterior edge of each corner. wishes the reader every success. its full length. . Be on the lookout for a model that collects the scent of the tape holding it together. wait about an hour. Then place the model on a flat surface. When the humidity is low. . A plan offered for the stand is in Figure 5. solve the mystery of the Great Pyramid of Cheops! Please note: The author is not liable for anything that may happen because of the experiments and ideas presented in this article. Speed up the process of building a model that "hits the mark" by assembling several at a time. The most exciting and convincing pyramid experiments of all are the ones performed firsthand. Use it to duplicate the experiments described in this article or to venture into unknown territory. test them: align them with magnetic North. but it'll be worth it. It may take several attempts to build a model that has little Epsilon's dimensions.transparent tape. Perhaps . . however. .

Illinois (a suburb of Chicago. Where can I find a ruler that measures 100ths of an inch? Shops that sell equipment to tool-and-die-makers most likely have them. I've been getting good results just by taking the care a patient hobbyist would use when building a scalemodel plane or train. But a phi-designed model. Fold and stack the clothing in a pile with a top large enough to hold a model and about 10 inches deep (Best use disposable garments to build the test pad. CB12-16R. with a 10.2' W. a few years ago I found a 12 inch ruler made by Starrett. place an empty model on the test pad and align the bottom edge of a side of the model with magnetic north. Lat: 42 deg's 01. Isn't the Great Pyramid aligned with true north? Yes. A model pyramid built on Epsilon's design ratio. Wait about 12 hours. The Great Pyramid is aligned with true north to within 3' of a degree. it is. If the model collects the scent of the tape holding it together. And a similar size model built on the pi ratio will have a focal point about 6 to 8 inches below its base.6171.5 inch base. Nevertheless. With a keen eye and steady hand. 1.Frequently Asked Questions How precise do the measurements have to be? The measurements are critical. its design is based on the pi ratio. To find a model's focal point." have the right focal point. Where do you live? What is your latitude and longitude? I live in Niles.5' N. What part of the model do you align with magnetic north? I visually align the bottom edge of a side of the model with magnetic north. And if the tape scent penetrates 6 to 8 inches into the test pad.5' west of true north. Magnetic north at my location is approximately 2 deg's 10. Illinois) in the USA. Long: 87 deg's 48. will have an internal focal point. build a test pad made of layers of cotton or flannel clothing. at a hardware store. If the tape scent collects an inch or two into the test pad. . the model's design is based on the phi ratio. However. Then check the air in the model. one model out of three will "hit the mark. and magnetic north at the Pyramid's location is approximately 2 deg's 38' east of true north. will have a focal point about 1 to 2 inches below its base. When the humidity is relatively low. its design is based on Epsilon's design ratio. Model No. for they may start to decay after a month or so of prolonged testing).

Old watches suitable for this purpose can be found at resale shops." put it there. Walter Hedzik. The Free energy Flasher . sent the following message: I put an Epsilon together from the web site plans. All I know is that somethin' was goin' on. The low level of radioactivity produced by the luminous paint on the watch's hands and face seems to act as a catalyst to amplify and send into the air the scent of items placed inside Epsilon. but even though it was off there was for two days a tape smell in my garage. It's in the public domain. "Amazing Little Epsilon. Publishing the essay. After two days nothing. couldn't or didn't have access to a 100th increment ruler.Is the watch necessary? It is. Did you patent Epsilon? No. the measurements were off a little. I shall try again after I locate a ruler. Has anyone been able to build an Epsilon that works? Yes. For example. a gentleman on the Epsilon e-mail List.

It will take about a day for it to charge up and maybe the second day you will get a couple of flashes from it.. connect them together so that they are constantly 'on' (** the one I tried a Kodak Fun Flash came apart quite easily it does not need a lot of force ** ) Then take out the batteries..use maybe plastic or rubber spacers to attach the foil to mast ** ) Put the camera's strobe unit into something that will water proof it out side {** maybe silicon or a clear plastic jar or box. it may be also wise to use something other than wood as your support as this will become conductive to the ground when the wood becomes wet.**) ( webmasters note ** It occurs to me that if you that if you don't solder the flash shutter but only solder the trigger contacts it may be possible to fire your ..sooner or later you will see it flash.then attach (+) lead that went to the batteries to it.I haven't yet finished building this device but my contact in Houston Texas assures me it will work The details sent me are thus: Try this.. ( **...**. 3 feet long at least..then connect that copper rod to the (-) negative side of where the batteries hooked up to the camera's strobe.}..get one of those cheap one shot use disposable cameras.find the wires that go to the shutter switch and short then out.. large and as long as you can.getting power from the air and earth charging the capacitor and then firing the camera flash strobe Water the copper ground rod after you put it into the ground.00 the rest can be anything you have lying around.dont just sit around and wait for it to flash.. just don't let it get grounded okay. Just do what ever you normally do... This demonstration unit should cost you next to nothing to build.. Make a piece of metal..... alumimun foil..... attach it to a wooden pole. it will flash more often.8 or 9 feet long.put a long rod into the ground... tear it apart. carefully.. (webmaster note ** A high single length of wire aerial may also serve the same purpose as the al foil .... The Kodak disposable camera in Australia cost $27.during a storm.

One type .unit to flash at your time of choosing .from my contact By the way the capacitor when charged has a nasty shock in store for anybody not handling it carefully **) Noel's Treasures from Trash To build this Solar water heater you will need: This vintage 'Noel's Treasure' shows you how to make a simple solar water heater. after the large capacitor has received enough charge ** ) ** Please note anything between the asterisks are my comments and are not part of the construction details received by me. and is perfect for summer (an aluminium can (aluminium foil (a manila folder or other thin cardboard (a pin (some black paint (a set square and a ruler or tape measure With the sun high in the sky. it's a good time of year to make a simple solar water heater.

Put a pin in the middle of the circle. draw a series of lines starting at the corner of the square where it touches the baseline out toward the edge of the paper.is an aluminium can painted black. with its 90 corner touching the baseline. This is the focal point. Draw two lines right angles through the centre of this circle. Holding one end of the set square against the pin. vertical and one horizontal. where the first two lines cross. There is no need to draw lines from the pin to the baseline. an draw at one Measure 15cm from the centre of the circle along the vertical line and draw a line at 90 across the end of your vertical line. put aluminium drink can on a big sheet of paper and around the tin to make a circle. This parabolic dish uses the same principle as the sophisticated solar trough on the front cover of this issue of ReNew To draw your parabola for the water heater. The lines you have drawn form a parabola that focuses at the pin. which can heat water to around 20 C above air temperature. You can see . This is the baseline. The parabola This is a special curve that makes light coming straight into the reflector focus at a single point in front of it. We can improve on this by collecting heat using a reflector shaped like a parabola.

and when the paint is dry. This is called tracking.Figure 1 How to draw a parabola using a few basic drawing tools Making the reflector Our reflector will be made of cardboard covered in aluminium foil and will be about 30cm wide. fill the can with water and stand it at the focal point of the parabolic reflector. It should look something like the photo above. The water tank Paint your aluminium can a dull black. You have now made a parabolic reflector. using paste or tape. make 2cm deep cuts into the cardboard about 1cm apart. Apiece of manila folder board or one side of a breakfast cereal box is ideal. Stick the parabola you drew earlier onto a piece of thick cardboard and pin or tape the reflector along the line of the parabola. These will be the 'feet' of the reflector. To make the reflector. shiny side out. Along the long side. You will have to move your reflector to keep it facing the sun. The heater will work a little better if you fix the can to the parabola and tilt it back towards the sky. Bend the cardboard segments at right angles. Face the reflector towards the sun and in about half an hour you will have hot water. get a piece of cardboard about 20 x 30cm. which moves at about 15 degrees per hour. alternately one out. one in. Good luck and have fun! . Cover the cardboard with aluminium foil.

We can improve on this by collecting heat using a reflector shaped like a parabola.Noel's Treasures from Trash To build this Solar water heater you will need: This vintage 'Noel's Treasure' shows you how to make a simple solar water heater. This parabolic dish uses the same . it's a good time of year to make a simple solar water heater. One type is an aluminium can painted black. which can heat water to around 20 C above air temperature. and is perfect for summer (an aluminium can (aluminium foil (a manila folder or other thin cardboard (a pin (some black paint (a set square and a ruler or tape measure With the sun high in the sky. The parabola This is a special curve that makes light coming straight into the reflector focus at a single point in front of it.

Holding one end of the set square against the pin. draw a series of lines starting at the corner of the square where it touches the baseline out toward the edge of the paper. There is no need to draw lines from the pin to the baseline. put aluminium drink can on a big sheet of paper and around the tin to make a circle. Put a pin in the middle of the circle. This is the baseline. with its 90 corner touching the baseline. an draw at one Measure 15cm from the centre of the circle along the vertical line and draw a line at 90 across the end of your vertical line. This is the focal point. Draw two lines right angles through the centre of this circle.principle as the sophisticated solar trough on the front cover of this issue of ReNew To draw your parabola for the water heater. vertical and one horizontal. The lines you have drawn form a parabola that focuses at the pin. You can see Figure 1 How to draw a parabola using a few basic drawing tools Making the reflector . where the first two lines cross.

The water tank Paint your aluminium can a dull black. Along the long side. and when the paint is dry.Our reflector will be made of cardboard covered in aluminium foil and will be about 30cm wide. It should look something like the photo above. alternately one out. The heater will work a little better if you fix the can to the parabola and tilt it back towards the sky. which moves at about 15 degrees per hour. You have now made a parabolic reflector. Apiece of manila folder board or one side of a breakfast cereal box is ideal. To make the reflector. Cover the cardboard with aluminium foil. You will have to move your reflector to keep it facing the sun. Stick the parabola you drew earlier onto a piece of thick cardboard and pin or tape the reflector along the line of the parabola. using paste or tape. fill the can with water and stand it at the focal point of the parabolic reflector. Bend the cardboard segments at right angles. These will be the 'feet' of the reflector. Good luck and have fun! . This is called tracking. make 2cm deep cuts into the cardboard about 1cm apart. shiny side out. one in. get a piece of cardboard about 20 x 30cm. Face the reflector towards the sun and in about half an hour you will have hot water.

SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT Build yourself these simple fuel cells you will need: three small jars. Most electronic equipment has these. You can use old stainless steel knives from op-shops one teaspoon of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) plastic orange bag mesh a small DC power supply about six to nine volts some hook-up wire or other thin insulated wire waterproof glue a LED (light emitting diode). about 150ml six pieces of stainless steel about 45 x 90mm that will fit inside the jars. use a small electronic buzzer a multimeter if you have one . Alternatively. any colour.

The principle of the fuel cell has been known for a long time. power plants. They work by allowing two high energy substances. Nickel and cobalt also work. but it is rare and very expensive. Start by cutting the stainless steel to hook up wire to one. they will show the principles behind the larger commercially made units. submarines.tinsnips. In the process. Our fuel cell will work by breaking up some water into hydrogen and oxygen using our DC power supply We will then remove the power source. pliers and some rubber bands. but it is now used in spacecraft. to combine to form a lower energy substance such as water. To combine properly some form of catalyst is needed. even to power video cameras. Platinum is a good catalyst. and nickel is a component of stainless steel. While our fuel cells will not be very efficient. with one end plate in each string having a 200mm or so piece of wire attached for hooking up to the power supply . When you have finished. like the gases Hydrogen and Oxygen. This can be done by soldering with a silver based solder. and the hydrogen and oxygen should recombine and produce a small amount of electricity. Bare the other end of the wire and attach it to the next piece of stainless steel. heat and electricity are formed. or just by bending over a small part of the stainless steel. trapping the bared end of the wire in the fold. you should have two strings of three plates.

You can use the waterproof glue to insulate the plates where the wires are connected. you may have them connected the wrong way around. Swap the wires to see what happens. This allows the water to conduct electricity. After a while you should see tiny bubbles appearing on the surface of the plates. Now disconnect the power supply and quickly connect the wires to the LED or buzzer to see what happens. as well as to help hold the bubbles of gas on the plates. The jars are then filled with water into which has been dissolved a teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate. If not. which is secured with a rubber band. Each pair of plates is placed inside a jar. The LED should light briefly or the buzzer should buzz. The first step is to make a cuprous oxide plate like we did in the first solar cell. A flat panel solar cell I made a more portable version of the solar cell in a flat panel form. Now connect the power supply to the cells. This time I sanded one corner clean all the way down to the . one wire to each end of the string of cells. and lots of silicone rubber glue to both attach the pieces together and to insulate them from each other. This acts as a separator to prevent the plates shorting together.Each plate should now be wrapped in a small piece of the plastic mesh. You can see what it looks like in Figure 1. I used the clear plastic top from a plastic CD jewel case as the window.

a little bit larger than the cuprous oxide plate. and soldered an insulated copper wire to it for the negative lead. as shown in the photo (completely covered in glue is best). . or is outside of the glue U. Make sure that the solder connection is either completely covered with glue. The first step in construction is to glue the U shaped copper plate to the plastic window.shiny copper. Another insulated copper wire is soldered to one corner of the U. The positive plate is a U shaped piece cut from the copper sheeting. The photo below shows the back side of the solar cell (the side not facing the sun) at this point in the construction. so the saltwater won't leak out. Use plenty of silicone glue. with the cutout portion of the U a little bit smaller than the cuprous oxide plate.

The next step is to lay a good size bead of glue onto the U shaped clean copper plate. Again. not all of the copper is covered.The photo below shows the front side of the solar cell (the side that will face the sun) at this point in the construction. You should press hard enough to make sure the glue seals off any gaps. Notice that the silicone glue does not completely cover the copper. Gently press the cuprous oxide plate onto this layer of glue. This layer will act as an insulator between the clean copper plate and the cuprous oxide plate. and must be thick enough to leave some room for the saltwater. since some of the copper must eventually be in contact with the saltwater. but not so hard that the two plates touch. . so there will be plenty of copper in contact with the saltwater.

The photo below shows the back side of the solar cell (the side not facing the sun) at this point in the construction. Next. Fill the cell up almost to the top of the copper plate. Allow the glue to cure before going on to the next step. use a large eyedropper to add the saltwater. The photo below shows the front side of the solar cell (the side that will face the sun) at this point in the construction. Not shown in the photo is a generous extra bead of glue all around the outside of the plates. Note that I added extra glue to form a funnel at the top to allow the saltwater to be added. Then seal the funnel . so it almost spills out. to ensure that no saltwater will leak out. You can click on the photo above to get a bigger picture.

It is delivering about 36 microamperes of current. and filling the top of the funnel. More making a solarcell . You can also see the extra bead of glue around the edges of the plates. another shot of the author's shadow.with another generous bead of glue. since no sunlight is falling on it. and allow the glue to cure at least a half hour. In the photo above you can see the flat panel solar cell in action in the bright sun. Finally. Note that the meter now reads about 4 microamperes.

n. cover that with a piece of screening for the front collector. you typically get several hundred series p. junctions or about 120 volts dc under normal sunlight. cover it uniformly with a 1 centimeter thick layer of beach sand.com For those interested in making a more practical solar cell the following information may prove helpful Home Made Solar Cells THE 100 WATT SOLAR CELL: It is actually called the Situ Solar Cell.and my source has supplied details as follows: New SOLAR CELLS What is the [in situ] solar cell process? That is the big breakthrough in solar cell design that drops the cost of solar power to $90 per kilowatt. add a protective glass cover.Send mail to Simon Quellen Field via leven@scitoys. leaving an almost pure polycrystalline silicon. The process generates a cell from ordinary beach sand (silicon dioxide). For each centimeter of cell thickness. The reaction drives off the oxygen. After cell fabrication. Most conveniently. Typical current densities are four amperes per square meter of panel! You can easily build a 100 watt cell. Actually. bungee cords. and clamp everything together with large rubber bands. or something similar. any remaining impurities rearrange themselves to form uniformly doped series connected p. the sand is chemically treated. you build the cells first and then refine the silicon. . The thickness of the panel determines the voltage and the area the current.n. Instead of refining the silicon and then building cells. the [in situ] (Latin for in place) technique is stunningly simple. junctions through a process celled Barefoot Layering. Simply take an ordinary metal cookie sheet.

carefully remove the glass cover and spray the sand with two liters of 3. such as that from a Portal Industries JJ-668 source. A group of panels can.] An ordinary window cleaner bottle makes a handy spray source. The front terminal is positive and the greatest output will be obtained when the panel is pointed due south at an elevation of your latitude plus ten degrees. be wired in parallel for independent. on-site power. [If any body finds a source for this let me know. about 150ml six pieces of stainless steel about 45 x 90mm that will fit inside the jars.7 Dimethylpentadecon-2-ol Propionate (available from larger organic chemical supply houses).To do your final chemical refinement. of course. You can use old stainless steel knives from op-shops . Since the reaction is photoisentropic It should be done under magenta safe light. Reaction time is four hours. If anyone builds one of these situ solar cells let me know how you get on Geoff SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT Build yourself these simple fuel cells you will need: three small jars.

Nickel and cobalt also work. In the process. . They work by allowing two high energy substances. To combine properly some form of catalyst is needed. even to power video cameras. to combine to form a lower energy substance such as water. but it is rare and very expensive. like the gases Hydrogen and Oxygen. Alternatively. but it is now used in spacecraft. Platinum is a good catalyst. and nickel is a component of stainless steel. Most electronic equipment has these. heat and electricity are formed.one teaspoon of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) plastic orange bag mesh a small DC power supply about six to nine volts some hook-up wire or other thin insulated wire waterproof glue a LED (light emitting diode). use a small electronic buzzer a multimeter if you have one tinsnips. power plants. The principle of the fuel cell has been known for a long time. any colour. pliers and some rubber bands. submarines.

or just by bending over a small part of the stainless steel. Each pair of plates is placed inside a jar. You can see what it looks like in Figure 1. as well as to help hold the bubbles of gas on the plates. Now disconnect the power supply and quickly connect the wires to the LED or buzzer to see what happens. they will show the principles behind the larger commercially made units. You can use the waterproof glue to insulate the plates where the wires are connected. The jars are then filled with water into which has been dissolved a teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate. When you have finished. The LED . This allows the water to conduct electricity. After a while you should see tiny bubbles appearing on the surface of the plates. This acts as a separator to prevent the plates shorting together. you should have two strings of three plates.Our fuel cell will work by breaking up some water into hydrogen and oxygen using our DC power supply We will then remove the power source. with one end plate in each string having a 200mm or so piece of wire attached for hooking up to the power supply Each plate should now be wrapped in a small piece of the plastic mesh. Now connect the power supply to the cells. While our fuel cells will not be very efficient. Bare the other end of the wire and attach it to the next piece of stainless steel. and the hydrogen and oxygen should recombine and produce a small amount of electricity. trapping the bared end of the wire in the fold. one wire to each end of the string of cells. which is secured with a rubber band. This can be done by soldering with a silver based solder. Start by cutting the stainless steel to hook up wire to one.

Bill Richardson and currently developed by Technology Licensing (TTL)> of Largo. This technology has already been patented (US#5. COH2 produces carbondioxide and water vapor.274). Oxygen. When burned. salt or other types of water. if any. you may have them connected the wrong way around.JLN Labs. and it can be used as fuel for an internalcombustion engine. I have built and reproduced successfully a very simple AquaFuel™ generator: "The AquaFuelTM is anonfossil combustible gas discovered by Mr.last update on 12-08-98 Today ( on 12-06-98 ). The AquaFuel(tm)generator How to generate gasfrom water for use as Fuel created on 12-06-98 . Swap the wires to see what happens. . fresh.900and US#5. If not.should light briefly or the buzzer should buzz.435.pollution to the environnement.159. This generator produces a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen(COH 2) and this is a gas wich burns very cleanly inoxygen or air.417. thus beingessentially composed of Hydrogen. which is produced by an electric discharge of carbon arcs within distilled. Florida. so it generates very little.817and US#5. Carbon and their compounds".

I take no responsibility of anything that might happen.. plugs and silicon cement.. You need to get very few materials and it is verysimple to build and test it. This experiment is not intended for the inexperienced.. . This small generator can't be used for a long working period and it must beused only for demonstration.some wires.one 1 ohm 50Watts resistor .. this device generates an explosive gas. BeCarefull. let it be of a wrong information or anything else. User of this document should be verycarefull to try anything out ! If you do it the risk of anyresults is just yours.A little plastic soda bottle..This simple experiment is only fortesting purposes and only for a proof of the concept.two carbon rods ( 70mm length. 6mm diam ) . Very few material is needed. so neverbreath this gas beforeburningit.a DC Power supply which is able to deliver 35v / 10A .. you must conduct this test in awell ventiled room or better in open air. Don't forget that the carbonmonoxide ( CO ) is a very toxic gas.. . You need only to get : ..you must not smoke during the test.

the other pole of .1) Drill two opposite holes (10mm diam)at 60mm from the bottom of the bottle and insert the carbon rodswith a rubber washer and glue the washer with silicon cement. 2) Connect the 1 ohm 50W resistor inseries with one of carbon rod and one pole of your DC power supply( set for 34V/15A DC). Isuggest you to make one of the carbon rod into round shape. Thetwo carbon rods must be just slightly incontact before you switch on (see below).

your are ready to produceAquaFuel(tm).your power supply isconnected to the other carbone rod... 4) Now.. Fillup your generator with only distilled or fresh water. . You may add some additionalmultimeters for measuring the Current and the Voltage input...

you mayvisite the main TTL web site at http://www.com/aquafuel/index.toupstech.For more technical informations.html AquaFuel™ is a registered trademark of Toups TechnologyLicensing .

sino también los políticos.Infinite Energy Vol. . los economistas. 1996 . 1997 . No10. A 1 $ por 400 millas) sin ningún tipo de contaminación alguna. los científicos (electrónica.Infinite Energy Vol. esperamos también que el texto es comprensible para todos. No19. si lo desean. No9.com Le reflejar si desea hacerlo.2. Una patente olvidado! Usted encontrará aquí la transcripción exacta del 30 de junio 1982 Publicación de Patente Europea N ° 0055134A1 permitiendo un coche efectivamente se ejecuta en agua y poco aluminio (I Gk. . técnico).2.Si tiene alguna pregunta o si tiene grandes soluciones o bien sólo a ti mismo.2. 1996 . sentir más que bienvenido a E-mail a layo@compuserve. No11..Infinite Energy Vol. Específicamente es ción para los profesionales. Le enviaremos más imágenes en contacto con nosotros. etc. . Por lo tanto.Infinite Energy Vol. Nuestro objetivo aquí para generar lluvia de ideas e influir en la opinión pública.(TTL) Some reference documents : .4. 1998 Su casa puede ser calentado de esta manera. que nos puede hacer beneficio.

com. sólo algunas pequeñas dificultades existentes (véase la carta de BMW). ¿Por qué no vemos estos coches todavía? En esa época ('81). Reino Unido. por favor póngase en contacto con nosotros o pedirle que nos contacte. piense a lo siguiente: Para desarrollar una manera suave para deshacerse del polvo de óxido de aluminio de la parte inferior del depósito de agua. refinación de bauxita. Visto por última vez en Canadá (verano 1988).Y se refieren a: www. Todas las fotografías son nuestra propia creación cuando se visita el Sr. Especificaciones: El agua se divide en hidrógeno y oxígeno El oxígeno es hábilmente combinados con aluminio El hidrógeno se recogió y se pulverizó en un carburador estándar como con metano-gas. Si usted (el lector) a saber de él o conocer su lugar. Por favor. Webmasters enlace por favor esta información salvar el planeta pero sí también reflejan en su sitio lo más pronto posible . una vez puesto en aluminio de 1 Kg $ /. Cornish en Londres en 1983 y con derechos de autor. recuerde combinar O ² y ² H es muy peligroso --usan sensores de . No experimentar si usted es incompetente . Un coche de 900 Kilo corre 600 kilómetros en el agua de 20 litros y un kilo de aluminio. Cornualles. .Inventor: Sr. .layo. o o o Energía limpia. Somos incapaces de localizarlo desde hace ya varios años que es bastante molestando. . . Encuentra un control absolutamente seguro de señalización si el oxígeno se mantiene aunque el BMW-carta no está hablando acerca de ese punto. se lanza aquí en primer lugar hacer inofensivo el oxígeno. velocidad Visto en desarrollos electrónicos el próximo podría ser fácil hoy en día. Francois P.

apoyo.. nuestros resultados hasta la fecha son los siguientes: . Cornish. All of You imprimir. En respuesta a su télex de 17 de octubre. Reporteros Usted sabe cómo este tema es controversial. . . Permitir a los ingenieros de atacar este tema antes de que este planeta se está quedando sin tiempo!.oxígeno. y votar a la derecha! Webmasters: LINK! Una carta de BMW sobre el tema BMW AG Postfach 40 40040 Muenchen Referencias: 3895-5538 05 de noviembre 1981 PROPUESTA DE MEJORA Estimado Sr. Sólo la opinión pública lo hará. compartir.

hemos sido capaces de trabajar en nuestro entorno 14v. Krause Aquí sigue un texto completo de este descuidado junio. el metal que se escogen de los metales que son más altos en la serie electromotriz de hidrógeno y que tiene características de manejo estables y . El consumo de aluminio promediados en 180 cm por minuto a través de una prueba de 70 minutos ejecutar. La temperatura del agua se mantuvo baja. Según la invención. Cualquiera sea el sistema que se desarrolló implicaría tanques bastante masivas de algún tipo u otro y las precauciones para evitar explosiones. Con el condensador (según su especificación) conectados.) Esta invención se refiere a la generación de hidrógeno. Le saluda atentamente. No se encontró ácido en análisis después de la prueba. un método de generación de hidrógeno comprende las etapas de exposición de una superficie metálica fresca al agua y al calentamiento de la interfase entre la superficie metálica y el agua por lo menos a la temperatura más baja a la que el metal reacciona con agua para formar un óxido metálico y hidrógeno. La presente invención se basa en el deseo del inventor a ser capaz de proporcionar hidrógeno en la demanda de materiales que son en sí mismos seguro de manejar. Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Servicio División IV Henseler V. 1982 Publicación de Patente Europea N ° 0055134A1 Antecedentes de la invención (texto 8/8/96 OCR-escaneada y corregida en parte .. ¿Podría usted por favor. e incluso sin el sistema de radiación resultó ser así entre sus límites. Resumen de la invención . Ningún sistema de almacenamiento económicamente viable para el gas de hidrógeno altamente explosivo ha sido aún desarrollado. Ya se ha propuesto para sustituir a los combustibles convencionales con hidrógeno en el funcionamiento de motores de combustión interna.La unidad como presente montado en un coche 2000cc produce gas suficiente para alimentar el motor de forma continua. Propuestas convencionales son para producir hidrógeno por electrólisis del agua y luego para almacenar el hidrógeno en una forma u otra. 30. háganos saber lo que sus resultados han sido en este lado. sin embargo siento que un área posible problema puede ser la eliminación de los depósitos de óxido. Nosotros.

la superficie del metal está expuesta y se calentó la interfaz pulsando un electrodo del metal correspondiente en contra de un segundo electrodo bajo el agua y la aplicación de un alto voltaje entre los electrodos mientras que preferiblemente mover las superficies de los electrodos relativamente entre sí. En este caso se alimenta hidrógeno a un almacén intermedio y pequeño ya que la presión en el almacén excede un nivel predeterminado. En otras palabras. mientras que al mismo tiempo la descarga calienta la interfaz entre los electrodos y el agua a la temperatura deseada a la que el metal reacciona con el agua para formar su óxido y para liberar hidrógeno. Preferiblemente. y la figura 2 muestra una parte de un circuito eléctrico apropiado. Breve descripción de los dibujos La invención se describirá adicionalmente. a modo de ejemplo. los electrodos están separados de manera que la generación de hidrógeno se interrumpe. que tiene la ventaja de que es relativamente abundante en el suministro relativamente barato está formada con una capa protectora de óxido en sus superficies expuestas y reacciona con el agua a una temperatura relativamente baja. en la forma preferida de la invención de hidrógeno se forma creando una descarga sumergida eléctrica entre dos electrodos al menos uno de los cuales está hecho de un metal como se define anteriormente. También en la forma preferida de la invención rile metal es aluminio. A medida que la presión descienda a un cierto nivel de los electrodos se alimenta de nuevo uno hacia el otro. Dos bobinas en paralelo alimentadas desde un distribuidor común se ha encontrado que da excelentes resultados. El método de la invención se presta de una manera excelente para suministrar hidrógeno en la demanda.comtery o el eje de accionamiento de un motor de combustión interna también puede ser utilizado. DESCRIPCIÓN DE UNA REALIZACIÓN PREFERIDA En la realización ilustrada hay un tanque de generación de 10 alimentado con agua de un tanque de almacenamiento 11 a través de una válvula de flotador 12 para mantener el 1o nivel de agua en el tanque 10 sustancialmente constante. Alambre de aluminio alimentado contra un tambor giratorio de aluminio se ha encontrado que da excelentes resultados para proporcionar hidrógeno para la alimentación de pequeños motores de combustión interna. y sirve para alimentar un vehículo de motor. Cuando el aparato se utiliza en un vehículo de motor. el depósito 11 puede tomar el lugar del depósito de combustible convencional del vehículo con una bomba 14 en la línea 15 para bombear más agua en el tanque 10 cuando la posición del flotador 12 indica que esto se . con referencia a los dibujos adjuntos. Una manera conveniente de asegurar la alta tensión necesaria es emplear el distribuidor convencional y disposición de bobina que proporciona la chispa para un motor de combustión interna. La descarga eléctrica y el movimiento relativo entre las superficies de los electrodos asegurar que las superficies frescas de metal están expuestas al agua.seguros. en los que: la Figura 1 es una representación esquemática de un aparato para la generación de hidrógeno. Otros métodos de generar altos voltajes de the.

Cuando el sensor de presión detecta una presión por encima de un valor predeterminado. El hidrógeno pasa a través del recipiente 17 y el orificio 18 al carburador de un motor de combustión interna. un sello limpiador adecuado. las señales de la unidad de control 27 que a su vez detiene la unidad 23 de alambre de manera que ya no es alimentada hacia el tambor 19. Estos transformadores tienen arrollamientos primarios 31 y 34 y secundarias.comtery convencional. Una pestaña 20 proporciona una función de sello de agua a la esquina superior izquierda del depósito 10. mientras que el óxido de aluminio se acumula como un polvo blanco en la base del depósito 10. se reanuda la alimentación. En uso. 2AL 3 h2o ---. y después mantiene el polvo sustancialmente libre de corrientes en el tanque 10. Los terminales 28 y 29 están conectados a un vehicle. el cable pasa a lo largo de un manguito aislante 25 que entra en el tanque 10 a través de. En el punto de contacto entre el extremo del alambre 22 y el tambor 19 una descarga eléctrica tiene lugar. que puede adoptar la misma forma como un radiador de motor de coche convencional.requiere. Una bobina 21 de alambre de aluminio 22 se alimenta a través de una unidad de PushPull 23.A12 + 3H2 Como resultado. Dentro del depósito 10 hay un tambor 19 accionado por cualquier medio adecuado para girar a una velocidad constante. las burbujas de hidrógeno desde el punto de contacto. del tipo utilizado para alimentar alambre de soldadura a los dispositivos de soldadura por arco de argón. El tambor 19 está hecho de aluminio. El tanque de generar 10 está coronada por un recipiente de recogida 17 de la que el hidrógeno es extraído a través de un orificio restringido 18 de un motor de combustión interna. y las superficies de aluminio expuestas reaccionan con el agua. El agua se consume como se genera hidrógeno. La unidad 23 está dispuesto para alimentar el alambre contra la superficie del tambor 19 y para atravesar el alambre a lo largo de la longitud del tambor en una barra 24. A 36 condensador está conectado a las conexiones de alta tensión. de modo que esa esquina no está en comunicación de gas con el recipiente 17. En el recipiente 17 hay un sensor de presión 26 conectado a una unidad de control 27. Nigh devanados de tensión 32 y 35. Cuando la presión cae de nuevo. Como resultado las superficies metálicas adyacentes se calientan a alta temperatura de la película protectora de óxido que se forma naturalmente en superficies de aluminio expuestas se interrumpe. y así el depósito 11 tiene que ser recargado periódicamente. la situación electroquímica en la interfaz es tal que el alambre 22 se consume con la siguiente reacción tiene lugar. El tanque de generar 10 está en comunicación con un intercambiador de calor refrigerado por aire 16. la bobina 21 está conectada al lado de alta tensión de las bobinas de encendido de dos o transformadores 30 y 33. De hecho. . Una rejilla 37 en la parte inferior del tanque permite que el polvo pase a través.

liberando de este modo este bolsillo de hidrógeno con el fin de facilitar el arranque de un motor alimentado por el hidrógeno. y puede ser posible pivotar la cuchilla 40. medios para calentar la superficie por lo menos a la temperatura más baja a la que el metal reacciona con el agua para formar un óxido de metal y de hidrógeno . pero la rotación puede ser tan lento como 50 rpm. una escobilla de limpiaparabrisas 40 puede estar dispuesta en el lado opuesto del tambor. Durante las operaciones de la temperatura del agua en el depósito 10 puede elevarse tan alto como 95 ° C. en lugar de agua fresca. con una tasa de consumo de alambre de aluminio de 140 a 180 cm por minuto. 3 . en el que la superficie metálica (22) es de aluminio. así como los motores de vehículos de motor.Aparato según la reivindicación 1 o la reivindicación 2. El cable 22 lleva una tensión de alrededor de 18000 voltios con una corriente de aproximadamente 1 amperio.6 mm y era de pureza comercial (98 ° '~ A1). a fin de separar las burbujas adheridas de la superficie del tambor. será capaz de mantener el agua a una temperatura más baja. La invención puede ser igualmente usado para suministrar energía a los motores fijos industriales. una superficie de metal (22) dispuesto en el depósito. en el que el medio para calentar la superficie en una descarga eléctrica entre la superficie (22) y otro electrodo (14) . aunque es probable que una unidad montada en un vehículo en movimiento. Modificaciones convencionales se hicieron para el carburador para permitir que el motor funcione en una mezcla de hidrógeno y aire.Aparato para la generación de hidrógeno que comprende un depósito 10 para contener agua. por ejemplo. Una unidad sustancialmente como se muestra en los dibujos se ha utilizado para accionar un motor de 500 cc motor de ciclo. La tasa de deposición de óxido de aluminio fue de aproximadamente 4 kilogramos por cada 500 kilómetros recorridos. Alternativamente. 2 . La unidad producido más de 1000 cc de hidrógeno de un minuto.Aparato como el reivindicado en la reivindicación 1. RECLAMACIONES 1 .Puede haber una tendencia a que las burbujas de hidrógeno a adherirse a la superficie del tambor 19 que gira en la dirección indicada por la flecha 38. para evitar que esto Para evitar que esto suceda una hoja Wipper 39 puede estar situado en la posición mostrada en la Figura 1. y una cámara (17) para recoger el hidrógeno generado. Puede ser posible usar el agua salada en el tanque 10. En este caso un pequeño volumen de gas hidrógeno puede recoger 5 debajo de esta hoja. El alambre 22 tenía un diámetro de 1. El tambor 19 preferiblemente gira a una velocidad entre 400 y 700 rpm.

el metal que se está seleccionado a partir de metales que son más altos en la serie electromotriz de hidrógeno y que tienen características de manejo estables y seguros.4Aparato como el reivindicado 4. en el que el alambre (22) está soportada por un dispositivo (23) que alimenta continuamente el alambre. en el que la primera superficie de metal (22) es un alambre y la superficie del metal segundo (19) es un tambor. y se proporcionan medios para mover una superficie (19) respecto a la otra. Aparato como el reivindicado en cualquier reivindicación precedente. Aparato como el reivindicado en la reivindicación 4 o la reivindicación 5. como se consume. y de vuelta al depósito. Un método como se reivindica en la reivindicación 10. 6. en el que el depósito (10) está conectado a un intercambiador de calor (16). en el que la superficie del metal es aluminio segundo (19). en el que los medios (26. Aparato como el reivindicado en la reivindicación 7. 11. a través del intercambiador de calor. y una superficie metálica fresca se expone y se calentó la interfaz pulsando un electrodo de aluminio (22) contra un segundo electrodo (19) bajo el agua y la aplicación de un alto voltaje entre los electrodos. 10. 7. Un método de generación de hidrógeno que comprende las etapas de exposición de una superficie metálica fresca (22) a agua y calentamiento de la interfase entre la superficie metálica y el agua por lo menos a la temperatura más baja a la que el metal reacciona con el agua para formar un óxido de metal y de hidrógeno . en el que el metal (22) es de aluminio. de modo que el agua pueda circular desde el depósito. hacia la superficie del tambor (19). 5 .Aparato como el reivindicado en la reivindicación 4.27) se proporcionan para detectar la presión de gas hidrógeno en la cámara (17) y para la regulación de la velocidad de alimentación del dispositivo de alimentación de alambre (23) de acuerdo con la presión detectada. 9. . Aparato como el reivindicado en la reivindicación 6. en el que una superficie de metal segundo (19) i dispuesto en el tanque. para controlar la salida de hidrógeno. las dos superficies están conectadas en un circuito eléctrico (Figura 2) de manera que forman electrodos entre los cuales una descarga eléctrica puede tener lugar. 8. el tambor está montado para rotación y el alambre que se está soportado de manera que se aproxima a la cilíndrica superficie del tambor en un ángulo a una tangente a la superficie del tambor.