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A SEMINAR REPORT On SUMMER TRAINING Undergone

“SHREE CEMENT LIMITED”
Submitted BY “NARENDRA SINGH”
Department of Electronic Instrumentation & Control Engineering

GLOBAL TECHNICAL CAMPUS
GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ITS-1,IT PARK, EPIP SITAPURA JAIPUR

Year 2012-13
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that a seminar report on summer training undergone at “SHREE CEMENT PVT. LTD.” is submitted by NARENDRA SINGH, student of B.tech IV year (VII semester) of Electronic Instrumentation and Control Engineering from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota during the academic year 2012-2013. The report has been found satisfactory and is approved for submission.

Mr. Sujeet Gupta Head Of Department Deptt. Of EI&C

Mr. Mayank Vyas Seminar Coordinator (AssistantProfessor) Deptt. Of EI&C

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We the student of B.Tech considers the training to be challenging job. We feel that excellence in any field cannot be achieved without the help of our learned instructors. At the completion of our training in SHREE CEMENT LTD. We will prefer to make some acknowledgements, which is indeed a difficult task. First of all I would like to pay my sincere regards to Mr. GOPAL TRIPATHI sir for being so kind, co-perative and helping during the entire training period. I also express my thanks and sincere regards to my Head of Department Mr. ANIL SHARMA for his immense support and help for this report and other faculty members for their valuable support.

( NARENDRA SINGH)

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PAGE INDEX Topic 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 LOCATION OF PLANTS 1.2 COMPANY POLICY 1.3 CEMENT&TYPES 1.4 OVER ALL CEMENT PROCESS Page No. 9 11 12 13 14

2. MINES AND CRUSHING SECTION: 2.1 MINES 2.2 CRUSHING 3. HANDLING AND MAINTAINING: 3.1 STACKER 3.2 RECLAIMER 4. RAW MILL: 4.1 VERTICAL ROLLER MILL 4.2 C.F.SILO 5. CYCLONE PRE-HEATER: 5.1 4 STAGE CYCLONE PREHEATER 6. CEMENT KILNS 7. COOLERS 8. CEMENT MILL 9. FINAL PRODUCT AND PACKING
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15 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 24 26 27 29

4 INSTRUMENT USED IN PACKING PLANT 10.5 SAFETY INSTRUMENTS 10.6 METAL DETECTOR 10.1 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 10.10. INSTRUMENTS USED: 10.6 WEIGH FEEDER 10.2 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 31 31 34 36 37 38 42 43 44 45 47 5 .3 LEVEL MEASUREMENT 10.7MAGNETIC SEPERATOR 10.8FILTERS 11.

11 6 .1 PLANTS LOCATION Page No.TABLE INDEX Table 1.

1 COOLERS 8.4 BOLLEN TUBES 10.5 BALL FLOAT METHOD 10.1 FOUR STAGE CYCLONE PREHEATER 6.1 RTD 10.1 VERTICAL RAW MILL 4.7 LOAD CELL 7 Page No.2 THERMOCOUPLE 10.1PACKING MACHINE 10. SILO 5.FIGURE INDEX Figure 1.2 RECLAIMER MACHINE 4.6 COUNTERS USED IN PACKING PLANT 10. 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 30 32 33 34 35 35 36 37 .1 CEMENT PROCESS 2.3 C.1 MINES SITE 2.2 ROTARY KILN TUBE 7.1 STACKER MACHINE 3.1 CEMENT KILL 6.F.3 RADIATION PYROMETER 10.2 RAW MILL 4.1 CEMENT MILL 9.2 ROTARY BREAKER 3.

12 WEIGH FEEDER 10.14 MAGNETIC SEPERATOR 10.13 METAL DETECTOR 10.11 PROXIMITY SWITCH 10.15 ESP 38 39 40 41 42 44 45 46 8 .10 ZERO SPEED SWITCH 10.10.8 PULL CHORD SWITCH 10.9 BELT SWAY SWITCH 10.

All the devices whether mechanical. SCADA is used to show the current condition of the process and also to keep the record of all the past data. Preheater. cooler. 9 . This information will provide personnel with an understanding of the basic operation of various sections of the cement plant. Although this report only identifies the main components and techniques of a typical instrumentation system. Each of the above subsystems is explained in detail as to its function and utility. cement mill. kiln. The report also includes information on temperature.ABSTRACT This report is intended to give necessary background to understand the process by which cement is manufactured at SHREE CEMENT LTD . packing plant and the various instruments being used and also PLC. the role of instrumentation and control systems. It focuses on the role of instrumentation in the cement industry and the operation of an instrumentation system. electrical or instrument all are connected and controlled by the programmable logic controllers (PLC) and for the visual experience of this SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition system) is used. pressure. Subsystems and topics include mines. raw mill. and level detection systems which are used in the cement plant. it is not intended to give an all-inclusive operations of every possible instrumentation system present in the cement plant. flow.

Bangur& Managing Director Shri H. Some of another plant located in RAS. Bangur. Ajmer inCentral Rajasthan. under the flagship of Executive Chairman Shri B.G. The Company is aiming for 20 Million Ton Annual production by the year 2015 1. Having ten Directors on its board under the chairmanship of Shri B.m.K. Dist. is looking after all day to day affairs. situated on National Highway No. Executive Director of the company.M.G. Bangur. However the Beawar subdivision is will connected through Rail and Road both.1 PLANT LOCATION: The plant is located near the city of Beawar.M. Bangur. Singhi.CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION & COMPANY POLICY SHREE CEMENT LIMITED is an energy conscious & environment friendly business organization. sate ling the Beawar city at radius of 10 Kms. The RAS plants are far from Beawar at least 35 k. 8. the policy decisions are taken under the guidance of Shri H. The largest cement manufacturing plant at a single location in Northern India. All the same activities are doing in this plant & this plant is used High grade material our compression in BEAWAR plant and this 10 . The company is managed by qualified professionals with broad vision who are committed to maintain high standards of quality & leadership to serve the customers to their fullest satisfaction. Managing Director. Shri M.

00 million tones each (also having a world record of 367 days) Khuskheda Grinding unit (Distt.1 PLANTS LOCATION One of newly grinding unit started in KHUSHKHERA–Distt-Bhiwadi.10 million tones UNIT -4 at Ras Distt: Pali Cement Production .material send in BEAWAR plant & mix both the Material & get the superior quality product.0 million tones UNIT -5. Established in 1985 Cement Production (Expected)-1. the plant is far from the BEAWAR plant almost 500 KM.20 million tones UNIT -3 at Ras Distt: Pali Incorporated in 2005 Cement Production .1.5 & 1.1.0 MTPA under commissioning TAB. Put up in 1997 Cement Production -2. UNIT -1 at Beawar Distt: Ajmer Incorporated in 1979.6 &7 at Ras Distt: Pali Production – 1. Alwar) Suratgarh & Roorkee Grinding unit of 1.0 million tones UNIT -2 at Beawar Distt: Ajmer 11 .

energy. green and healthy environment Efficient use of natural resources. plant and equipment Reduction in emissions.1. WOH PAAVE” ENVIRONMENT POLICY To ensure:     Clean. noise. waste and green house gases Continual improvement in environment management HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY To ensure Good Health and Safe Environment for all concerned by:   Promoting awareness on sound health and safe working practices Identifying and minimising injury and health hazards by effective risk control measures  Complying with all applicable legislations and regulations “PROSPERITY THROUGH HEALTH & SAFETY” 1.2 COMPANY POLICY: QUALITY POLICY To provide products conforming to National standards and meeting customers requirements to their total satisfaction.3 CEMENT& TYPES: 12 . To continually improve performance and effectiveness of quality management system by setting and reviewing quality objectives for:  Customer satisfaction  Cost effectiveness “JO SOCHE.

In the most general sense of the word. whereby a molecule of carbon dioxide is liberated from the calcium carbonate to form calcium oxide.solid mass called concrete. and can bind other material together. The resulting hard substance.powdery type substance.sand and gravel forms concrete. since fly ash is a pozzolan. the most commonly used type of cement (often referred to as OPC. 1. is then ground with a small amount of gypsum into a powder to make 'Ordinary Portland Cement'.  Cement mixed with water. TYPES 1. In countries where 13 . but also includes cements madefrom other natural or artificial pozzolans.1.3.soft. Ordinary Portland cement 1. It is made from a mixture of elements that are found in natural materials such as limestone. or quicklime.lime and sand forms mortar.  Cement mixed with water.sand and slash or shale. which is then blended with the other materials that have been included in the mix.clay. Ordinary Portland cement: Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to 1450 °C in a kiln. Cement is a fine.1.2 Portland pozzolana cement 1.3.white cement can also be found but is usually more expensive than gray cement. called 'clinker'. cement is a binder. in a process known as calcination.3. a substance that sits and hardens independently.when cement is mixed with water it can bind sand and gravel into a hard.cement is usually gray.2 Portland pozzolana cement : It includes fly ash cement.  Cement mixed with water and sand forms cement plaster.3.

1 OVERALL PROCESS 14 . F. 1.4Overall Process of Cement Manufacture: MINES CRUSHER CONVEYING SYS. SILO PRE-BIN CYCLONE: (6 STAGES) heat transfer KILN BURNER COOLER (11 Fans) Weighment Solid flow meter with air BALL MILL (Add Gypsum) CEMENT SILOS (5nos. 1. STACKER RECLAIMER HOPPERS HI GRADE AVERAGE GRADE LATRITE (IRON) VRM (350TPH) C.volcanic ashes are available. these cements are often the most common form in use.) PACKING FIG.

of Clinker. 15 . cranes. of clinker almost 1.5 MT lime stone is required and lime stone is sent by conveyer belt mines to plant.T. In this way they may not face problem of shortfall of material during production schedule.1 MINES SITE They have sufficient dumpers. duration of two shifts blasting is done. There are two plants having production capacity of almost 8000 M.1 MINES: Limestone is the main raw material of cement. Shree cement has two mines first at Shree & another at RAS. For making 1 M. In the mean time i.e. excavator machines that are carrying the work smoothly and at high pace.CHAPTER-2 MINES& CRUSHING 2. We are also researching a lot in mines where to extract material and how much. Which is almost 35 KM far from Beawar. Before blasting alarming by sound through specific equipment so that avoid the misshapen.T. FIG 2.

If any rock is left outside the hopper then it is fed by dozer. FIG.  Water spraying is also done in the hopper of crusher.  It goes slowly to the hopper of crusher by Apron feeder. It is the most important ingredient. Limestone is taken by open cast Mines. The following activity is watched by me:  Approximately 100-150 cm rock is fed to hopper of crusher by dumper. For production of Cement 75% calcium carbonate (limestone) is required.  This crushed product is directly come from mines to raw mill  Hopper through belt conveyor.2 CRUSHING: At site itself I got acquainted that crushing is done by Impact crusher.2. For any cement plant essential thing is the availability of Limestone. 16 . 2. I had seen that very small rock is dropped from Apron to the chute & directly goes to the belt with crushing product.2 ROTARY BREAKER.

FIG.CHAPTER-3 HANDLING & MAINTAINING 3. but the main operation is performed on a fixed place. It is important to maintain the homogenous and uniformity before discharging to further process A stacker usually operates on a rail-like structure with movable wheels. 3.1 STACKER MACHINE.1 STACKER: A stacker is the large machine which is used in bulk material handling applications. 17 .It is mainly used to arrange the incoming feed in piles.

A bucket wheel reclaimer can typically move in three directions: horizontally along the rail. 3. FIG. vertically by "luffing" its boom and rotationally by slewing its boom. 18 .2 RECLAIMER MACHINE. At this stage the material is collected in hoppers via conveyer belts. Reclaimers normally travel on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard.2RECLAIMER: Its main function is to recover the material and at the same time maintaining uniformity.3. Reclaimers are generally electrically powered by means of a trailing cable. which is often converted to t/h (tones per hour) based on the average bulk density of the material being reclaimed.Reclaimers are volumetric machines and are rated in m3/h (cubic meters per hour) for capacity.

Raw mill is grinding equipment which is used to grind the incoming feed fed through hoppers. The second one contains the average grade limestone from Shree mines nearby and lastly the hopper containing Laterite(zinc slag i. Laterite has a high percentage of iron. molten residue at the bottom of zinc smelter). There are three hoppers in each unit.1 VERTICAL RAW MILL.e.CHAPTER-4 VERTICAL ROLLER MILL (RAW MILL) FIG. 4. The first one carrying high grade calcite from RAS mines. 19 .

According to desired quality of cement. The grinded material is sucked from top by raw mill fan and coarse material is recycled back to main feed to VRM..2 RAW MILL.. raw material (either of high grade. The material coming from hopper building is grind between horizontal circular disc & hydraulic rollers.FIG. 4. The material is blended with the help of compressed air and the material is discharged to kiln feed bin for onward transportation to Kiln for clinker production with the help of bucket elevator. Fine material as sucked by raw mill fan goes to cyclones where the material is separated from air through these four cyclones and one bag house. There are two methods through which the material is lifted to pre heater either with the help of bucket elevator or through airlift. low grade) is taken with the help of apron feeder. In case if bucket elevator fails because of any reason the material is lifted through airlift. weigh feeder. 20 . Vertical Raw Mill has got four hydraulic rollers and one horizontal circular disc. The material is accumulated and with the help of screw conveyors feed back to CF silo. and belt conveyors taken to vertical raw mill.

4. 21 .F. 4. The CF (Controlled Flow) silo is a continuously operating system for homogenizationand storage of cement raw meal.2 C.SILO FIG.The efficient performance of the CFhomogenizing silo results in stable kilnoperation so that changes in kiln speedor firing rate are rarely needed andstable coating in the kiln is maintained.The CF system. including suitable kilnfeed equipment.F. Are basically storage units the advantage of using them is that they not let the material stick together. SILO. That is why they are called CFS or Continuous Flow Silos.where the material is extracted simultaneouslyat different flow rates froma number of outlets in the silo bottom.3 C. ensures stable kilnfeed composition at minimum powerconsumption and investment cost.

The gas leaves the vessel through a co-axial "vortex-finder". instead.CHAPTER-5 CYCLONE PRE-HEATERS 4 stage Cyclone PreHeater: The key component of the gas-suspension preheater is the cyclone. it is found that a very efficient heat exchange takes place: the gas is efficiently cooled. If. the entire feed of rawmix is encouraged to pass through the cyclone. A cyclone is a conical vessel into which a dust-bearing gas-stream is passed tangentially. and leave through a valve in the vertex of the cone. This produces a vortex within the vessel. FIG. 5. This efficiency is further increased if a number of cyclones are connected in series. 22 .1 FOUR STAGE CYCLONE PREHEATER. The solids are thrown to the outside edge of the vessel by centrifugal action. Cyclones were originally used to clean up the dust-laden gases leaving simple dry process kilns. hence producing less waste of heat to the atmosphere. and the rawmix is efficiently heated.

Energy. This can choke the preheater to the point that air-flow can no longer be maintained in the kiln. They are carried back in vapor form. in the form of fan-power. Because these salts re-circulate back into the rawmix and re-enter the burning zone. Condensation usually occurs in the preheater. such as the sulfate and chloride of sodium and potassium. so the kiln has less subsequent processing to do. hot gas from a less efficient preheater is desirable. An alternative approach is to "bleed off" some of the kiln exhaust at the kiln inlet where the salts are still in the vapor phase and discard the solids. Modern installations often have automatic devices installed at vulnerable points to knock out build-up regularly. and a sticky deposit of liquid salts glues dusty rawmix into a hard deposit. making 2500 tonnes per day. and if the raw materials are wet. For this reason. the cost of the added fan-power needed for an extra cyclone exceeds the efficiency advantage gained. A kiln with 0. using about 0. The hot feed that leaves the base of the preheater string is typically 20% calcined. is required to draw the gases through the string of cyclones. a recirculation cycle establishes itself.1% chloride in the rawmix and clinker may have 5% chloride in the mid-kiln material. and at a string of 6 cyclones. Salts. It is normal to use the warm exhaust gas to dry the raw materials in the raw mill. Typical large systems installed in the early 1970s had cyclones 6 m in diameter. tend to evaporate in the burning zone of the kiln.11-0. the most commonly encountered suspension preheaters have 4 cyclones. 23 . and re-condense when a sufficiently low temperature is encountered. A penalty paid for the efficiency of suspension preheaters is their tendency to block up.12 tonnes of coal fuel for every tonne of clinker produced.The number of cyclones stages used in practice varies from 1 to 6. a rotary kiln of 5 x 75 m. typically on surfaces against which the gas-flow is impacting. and can therefore achieve a higher specific output. It then becomes necessary to manually break the build-up away.

Cement kilns are used for the pyroprocessing stage of manufacture of Portland and other types of hydraulic cement.In the second stage. Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) decomposes to calcium carbonate. the rawmix is fed into the kiln and gradually heated by contact with the hot gases from combustion of the kiln fuel. 6.clay-like minerals are decomposed into their constituent oxides. MgO and CO2. in which calcium carbonate reacts with silica-bearing minerals to form a mixture of calcium silicates.CHAPTER-6 CEMENT KILN FIG.Free water is evaporated. 400 to 600 °C . principally SiO2 and Al2O3. 24 . Successive chemical reactions take place as the temperature of the rawmix rises:   70 to 110 °C .1 CEMENT KILL.

As material moves under the flame. or pulverized solid fuel. oil. FIG. and lined with firebrick.   1300 to 1450 °C . In the cooler the air is heated by the cooling clinker. 900 to 1050 °C . in the form of gas.2 ROTARY KILN TUBE.calcium carbonate reacts with SiO2 to form belite(Ca2SiO4). it reaches its peak temperature. At the other end fuel. so that it may be 400 to 800 °C before it enters the kiln. Rawmix is fed in at the upper end. 25 . producing a large concentric flame in the lower part of the kiln tube. is blown in through the "burner pipe".partial (20–30%) melting takes place. 650 to 900 °C . thus causing intense and rapid combustion of the fuel. The rotary kiln consists of a tube made from steel plate. 6. The tube slopes slightly (1–4°) and slowly rotates on its axis at between 30 and 250 revolutions per hour. and belite reacts with calcium oxide to form alite (Ca3O·SiO4). Air is drawn first through the cooler and then through the kiln for combustion of the fuel.the remaining calcium carbonate decomposes to calcium oxide and CO2. before dropping out of the kiln tube into the cooler. and the rotation of the kiln causes it gradually to move downhill to the other end of the kiln.

As the steam in the internal circuit condenses back to water. 26 . This is a major consideration in sitting power plants. Coolers in power plantused water as coolant.CHAPTER-7 COOLERS Coolers are used to cool the recently obtained clinkers from the kiln. The energy obtained from the clinkers through heat transfer is recirculated in the kiln.1 COOLERS. the surplus (waste) heat which is removed from it needs to be discharged by transfer to the air or to a body of water. FIG. The second function for water in such a power plant is to cool the system so as to condense the lowpressure steam and recycle it. 7.

Its main function is to convert CLINKER into finished product say to cement. 8. Speed of motor is controlled by thyristor.CHAPTER-8 CEMENT MILL FIG. Weight feeders are run with D. 27 .1 CEMENT MILL It is the heart of whole plant. Main Raw materials of CEMENT MILL are: 1-CLINKER 2-POZZOLONA 3-GYPSUM 4-FLY ASH For making the cement in this mill Gypsum & the pozzolona mixed with CLINKER in fixed ratio.C. Grinding media is different compartment & these grinding media are helped in ground to the feed material. Motor.

29/√d. cement is transferred by the air slide & pipes by the help of pump to the cement Silo for storage & packing purpose. There exists a speed of rotation (the "critical speed") at which the contents of the mill would simply ride over the roof of the mill due to centrifugal action. The grinding media are usually made of high-chromium steel. The cement is transferred by the help of a BUCKET ELEVATOR. The critical speed (rpm) is given by: nC = 42. 28 . Capacity of each Elevator is 100 tonnes from the BUCKET ELEVATOR.Now in the CEMENT MILL the O/P is in the form of cement. Ball mills are normally operated at around 75% of critical speed. There are two BUCKET ELEVATORS. so a mill with diameter 5 metres will turn at around 14 rpm. The smaller grades are occasionally cylindrical ("pebs") rather than spherical. where d is the internal diameter in metres. Material fed through the mill is crushed by impact and ground by attrition between the balls. A ball mill is a horizontal cylinder partly filled with steel balls (or occasionally other shapes) that rotates on its axis. imparting a tumbling and cascading action to the balls.

C.  P. (Ordinary Portland Cement): no constituent other than clinkers and gypsum is introduced in the manufacture process. Cement is carried forward to an elevator and is collected in cement bin . (Portland Pozzolana Cement): this product contains a certain quantity of flyash as an additive along with gypsum.Bin is connected to vibrating screen through which cement is passed down to cement tank. The capacity of tank is 45 tons.C. it is available in 43 grade and 53 grade in accordance with respective compressive strength. There is also a direct pathway (optional) from vibrating screen bin to loader if there is no requirement for packing the cement. The gate valve is connected tosolenoid valve. There are five silos in our company.P.1 FINAL PRODUCT: These are the various products manufactured by the plant. To measure the temperature of cement. level sensor senses the level of hopper attached to cement tank.CHAPTER -9 FINAL PRODUCT & PACKING UNIT 9. aRTD is connected to cement tank.2 PACKING UNIT: Being final product.  O.P. three for Unit-I and two for Unit-II. 29 . There is a valve attached between vibrating screen and cement tank which regulates the flow of cement. the cement is stored in cement silos. 9.

FIG. 9.3PACKING MACHINE 30 .

basically works on the principle. copper. Two of its terminals are connected to the two ends of the platinum bulb.CHAPTER. 31 . The resistance thermometers can be made up of mainly three materials namely. that the value of resistance changes with the change in temperature.1.1 Resistance Temperature Detector: RTD. resistance temperature detector Rt= R0 (1+ αT) for positive temperature coefficient of platinum. It is a three terminal device. & the third terminal to one of its endof the bulb to nullify the effects due to the resistance of the transmission wires.1 FOR TEMPERATURE: 10. where each one is used according to its application. The temperature dependency of the resister can be shown as.10 INSTRUMENTS USED 10. nickel. platinum.

2 THERMOCOUPLES: Thermocouples will cause an electric current to flow in the attached circuit when subjected to changes in temperature.1. For ease of operator use.10. the characteristics of the two metals used. Heating the measuring junction of the thermocouple produces a voltage which is greater than the voltage across the reference junction. some voltmeters are set up to read out directly in temperature through use of electronic circuitry. The difference between the two voltages is proportional to the difference in temperature and can be measured on the voltmeter (in mill volts).1 RTD 10. 32 .The amount of current that will be produced is dependent on the temperature difference between the measurement and reference junction.FIG. and the characteristics of the attached circuit.

It is used for the measurement of high temperature range which is about 600-3000`C. PYROMETERS which is used in plants is basically of two types: i. ii.The intense heat needed to convert the raw meal into clinker in the preheater and kiln must be carefully controlled. optical pyrometers radiation pyrometers 33 . 10.FIG. Measurements is done by measuring energy radiated by a hot body.1.3 PYROMETERS: PYROMETERS are used where hot bodies are moving.2THERMOCOUPLE 10. where thermometers are cannot brought in contact.

The metallic bellows is most accurate when measuring pressures from 0.2 FOR PRESSURE: 10. 10.2.1 PRESSURE TRANSDUCER: Bellows-Type Detectors The need for a pressure sensing element that was extremely sensitive to low pressures and provided power for activating recording and indicating mechanisms resulted in the development of the metallic bellows pressure sensing element.FIG. when used in conjunction with a 34 . However.3 RADIATION PYROMETER 10.5 to 75 psig.

3 FOR LEVEL MEASUREMENT: BALL FLOAT: The operation of the ball float is simple. The ball floats on top of the liquid in the tank. 35 . the float will follow and change the position of the pointer attached to the rotating shaft. If the liquid level changes. FIG. 10.heavy range spring. some bellows can be used to measure pressures of over 1000 psig.4 BOLLEN TUBES 10.

10.6 COUNTERS USED IN PACKING PLANT COUNTER is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred.1 COUNTERS: FIG. We offer a wide range cement bag counter which are specially developed for Indian bags and packing systems.4.4 INSTRUMENT USED IN PACKING UNIT: 10. These are accurate and take care of all 36 .FIG. 10.5 BALL FLOAT METHOD 10.

nuisance factors. The metal structure is compressed when subjected to load. Calibration load cells have a metal structure to which strain sensors or strain gages are attached. Accurate high capacity load cells are needed for press tonnage monitor calibration.500 tons or more.2 LOAD CELL: FIG. Strain gage based load cells are available in capacities ranging from a few grams through 1. Further these are available from 1 inch to 8 inches display size. Cement Bag counter for Truck Loader & Cement bag counter for wagon loader is most popular requirement now-a-days. This conversion is indirect. They are also useful for some types of press testing. It is a transducer that is used to convert a force into electrical signal. The attached gages provide an electrical output that is a linear function of applied load if the proportional limit of the metal structure is not exceeded. 10. These are having option of interfacing with all required devices & dispatch monitoring system.7 LOAD CELL LOAD CELL is the second most important device which is used in the packing unit as well as in weight-belt feeders. 10. 37 .4.

When the rope is pulled from any side.5. Cement production weigh feeders are expected to perform very accurately and repeatably.5 FOR SAFETY PURPOSE: 10. The switch get operated .8 PULLCHORD SWITCH OPERARTION: Pull cord switch is mounted on the walkway side of the conveyor belt. 10. while constantly enduring the harsh plant environment.Weigh-belt feeders are key components in the production of portland cement as they are relied on to accurately proportion materials for both kiln feed preparation and finishing operations. Unless and until the handle is reset to normal position manually. the switch remains in operated condition. FIG.Pull Rope switch All the Pull Cord Switches installed along an individual belt are electrically wired in series and connected to the control station by a two core cable.1 PULLCHORD SWITCH: Pull cord switch also known as Rope Operated Emergency switch is used as a safety switch to stop the conveyor belt in case of an emergency. preferably at about every 20-25 meters.It is also known as pull switch cord. 38 . 10.

worn out idler roller bearings etc. 39 . The switch reset automatically when the belt resumes normal running. When swaying exceeds normal limit. A small clearance is allowed between contact roller and the belt edge to allow the normal running of the belt with acceptable swaying. which drives the switch and operates the contacts.5. A is generally mounted on the both sides and near the edge of the conveyor belt. 10.9 BELT SWAY SWITCH OPERATION: For normal running of the belt with acceptable swaying.Therefore actuation of any one of these Pull Cord Switches will stop the concerned conveyor until the particular switch is manually reset. the belt-sway switch is generally mounted on both sides and near the edge of the conveyor belt. Belt sway switch is also known as Run Off Switch.2 BELT SWAY SWITCH: The switch allows smooth running of the conveyor and protects it from damages by over swaying which can occur due to uneven loading of material. FIG. the belt edge pushes the contact roller.10.

4 PROXIMITY SWITCH: When the object enters in the sensing zone of the switch. which get disturbed by the flags. rolling mills. crushers. screw conveyors. stirrers. agitators. giving rise to corresponding pulses. These pulses are fed to the control unit where they are compared with standard pulses to sense the speed. 10. flags are to be fixed. The unit consists of two parts: CONTROL UNIT and “SENSOR PROBE”.10.10 ZSS Operation: The basic principle of speed monitor is comparison of pulses received from sensor with standard pulses.5. and other industrial machinery. Using these contacts desired control action such as zero speed protection/ under speed protection/ over speed protection can be achieved. mixers. FIG. capacitance between two plates of capacitor (one plate is represented by electrode at sensing face of the switch and another by all surrounding material which is connected to the 40 .10. On this object. The sensor products strong electromagnetic waves. This device actuates relay contacts at preset speed. The sensor is to be installed with its sensing face in close proximity of rotating object.5.3 ZERO SPEED SWITCH: Electronic Speed Monitor is used to monitor speed of conveyors.

This change is detected and resulted in an output signal.1 WEIGH FEEDER: It is used to measure & control conveying material’s quantity. The weigh feeder works only in conjunction with the respective group control 41 .10.6 OTHER INSTRUMENTS: 10. The purpose of the system is to produce a flow of respective material. Each weigh feeder is mounted at the bottom of a bin & the material is extracted out of the bin of the weigh feeder. The flowcontrolled by varying the speed of the weigh feeder. oscillator starts. 10. FIG.11 CAPACITIVE PROXIMITY SWITCH OPERATION: It has 3 cables which is apply to the contractors .When metal is placed in front of it then it is NO(normally open) .6.It is generally NC(normally closed). As soon as capacitance value crosses preset level.earth) changes. proportional to a demand flow rate signal over a wide range.

weigh feeder employ a Closed loop feedback control system.6 Belt Load is measured by the Load Cell & beltspeed is measured by Tacho.12 WEIGH FEEDER OPERATION: Weigh feeder is machine through which.10. The material passing over a belt conveyor exerts a down wards force proportional to its weight. the unit being Kg/min. flow rate (TPH) of material is measured. The product of this force and the speed of the belt gives the rate of flow. it consists of load cells for weight measurement and tacho for belt speed. or ton/hour.6 = KG / MTR X MTR/ SEC X 3. Measuring Unit : TPH (TON PER HOUR) TPH = BELT LOAD X BELT SPEED X 3. Weigh feeder maintain the output per time or the feed rate.electronics. FIG. FLOW RATE= BELT LOAD  BELT SPEED 42 .

The quantity viz.When any ferrous metal passes through this field it gets detected by the receiver coil. wherever metal pieces in the conveyed material may damage sensitive machinery.2.etc. 10. Metal Detectors are used to detect metal pieces in the material to prevent damage to the processing machineries like crushers.6. load & speed available as electrical signals are then multiplied to set the rate of flow of material. The rate of material flow integrated in the time gives the total quantity of the material passed over the conveyor belt. It is obvious that the rate can be kept constant at any desired value either by varying load or speed. OR TPH The load is measured by a strain gauge load cell which does not have practically any deflection. 43 . metal detecting devices will prevent expensive repairs & production breakdowns.It is made of search&receivercoil. =KG/ SEC. and speed of the belt is measured by a Tacho. grinders. METAL DETECTOR: The METAL DETECTING DEVICES are designed to be used on conveyor systems as they are employed in various industries.=KG/MT  MT/SEC. A high frequency electromagnetic field is set up in the search coil.

If a metal piece comes into this field.13 METAL DETECTOR OPERATION: A high frequency alternating voltage is fed from the amplifier to a coil in the probe.FIG. 10.3 MAGNETIC SEPRATOR: Magnetic separation is a process in which magnetically susceptible material is extracted from a mixture using a magnetic force.5 seconds. These contacts can be used to stop the conveyor belt. Magnetic seprator consist of an electromaget which pulls any magnetic material placed on the surface of the material being conveyed by the conveyor 44 . induction current will generated that will drain power from the oscillators. This generates an electromagnetic field.6. If depending on the selected sensitivity an unwanted metal piece in the conveyed material is identified by the electronics in the amplifier.10. The output relay has two potential free NC/NO contacts that are wired to the terminal strip. the output relay will switch to its other state for about 0.

4 FILTERS 10.6.1. The dirty gases are passed through an intense electrical field set up between electrodes of opposite polarity. screw etc are then collected in a reject chute. FIG.10.14 MAGNETIC SEPARATOR 10.bolts.6. Electrostatic precipitator Electrostatic precipitator is an apparatus which cleans process gases by using electrical forces to remove solid particles carried in the gas stream.The undesired material such as nuts. The discharge electrodes -so called because of the corona discharge which results from the application of high voltage-impart a negative charge to the particles.4.1 Electrostatic precipitator 10.4.2 Bag filters 10.6.belt. These particles are then attracted to the collector 45 .4.6.

10.electrodes which are positive with respect to the discharge electrodes and in practice are connected to ground through the structure or through ground cables FIG.15 ESP 46 .

wikipedia.BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] VEHICULAR INSTRUMENTATION/TRANSDUCER COMMITTEE TELEMETRY GROUP RANGE COMMANDERS COUNCl.org/wiki/Cement_mill [3] Shree cement mannuals 47 . “INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERS HANDBOOK published in December 2005 [2] http://en.