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# MATHEMATICS 2905—Midterm 2 Show all your work. Use back of page if necessary.

You can use your own BLANK scratch paper. Name: ID: All undeﬁned notations follow from the lectures unless speciﬁed otherwise. 1. [10 marks] State PASTA principle and explain why it holds. Solution: Please refer to your notes or textbook.

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2. and suppose that it takes an exponential amount of time having mean 1/µ to repair the machine.11. [30 marks] Consider a machine that works for an exponential amount of time having mean 1/λ before breaking down. 2 . that what is the probability that it will be working at time t? Solution: Please refer to the solution to Example 6. If the machine is in working condition at time 0.

LQ . Solution: Please refer to your notes or textbook. [30 marks] For an M/G/1 queueing system with Poisson arrival rate λ and general service distribution G. Compute L. let S denote his service time. For an arbitrarily chosen customer.3. 3 . W. WQ .

b) LQ = n≥1 nPn . And we suppose that customers arrive at an exponential rate λ. Whenever the server completes a service. [30 marks] Consider a single-server exponential queueing system in which the server is able to serve k customers at the same time. n ≥ 1. W. L = λW. WQ = LQ /λ. the proportion of the customers who are served with i (here 1 ≤ i ≤ k − 2) other customers is (i + 1)Pi+1 µ/λ.4. L. and let n (here n ≥ 0) denote the state when there are n people waiting in the queue. she then serves the next k customers at the same time. b) In terms of the solutions to a). (λ + µ)Pn = µPn+k + λPn−1 . We shall assume that her service time is exponential at rate µ regardless of the number of customers she is serving. if there are fewer than k customers in line. However. c) In terms of the solutions to a). n=k 4 . µ W = WQ + c) The proportion of the customers who are served with 0 other customers is (P0 λ + P1 µ)/λ. 1 . the proportion of the customers who are served with k − 1 other customers is k ∞ Pn µ/λ. then she serves those customers by herself. Solution: a) Let 0 denote the state when the system does not have any customers. (λ + µ)P0 = λP0 + µ(P1 + P2 + · · · + Pk ). determine the proportion of the customers who are served with i (here 0 ≤ i ≤ k − 1) other customers. a) Deﬁne appropriate states for the system and set up the rate balance equations for the system. determine LQ . Don’t try to solve them. Then we have the rate balance equations: λP0 = µP0 . WQ .