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DATA ACQUISITION

Survey Design
Sheriff & Geldart, Chapter 8 reflection method gather: a set of seismic traces with a common acquisition geometry common source gather common receiver gather

Ikelle & Amundsen 2005

reciprocity: reversal of sources and receivers produces identical signal [for amplitudes, direction of motion (e.g., vertical geophone) must be considered] common midpoint (CMP) gather common offset gather

Ikelle & Amundsen 2005

Hole: GEOS 4174

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Data Acquisition: Survey Design

common-offset method produces a low-S/N map of the reflector optimum offset is chosen for a particular target reflector CMP method use CMP gather and normal-movout (NMO) correction to improve signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) stack: sum of NMO-corrected seismic traces for a CMP  simulates a zero-offset trace fold: number of traces in a CMP stack for traces with random noise of similar S/N. a stack with fold N improves the S/N by about N (usual profiling method with GPR) € Reynolds 1997 Yilmaz 2001 Hole: GEOS 4174 2.2-2 Data Acquisition: Survey Design .

midpoint is smeared dipping structure does not align properly with NMO correction Sharma 1997 CMP is also known as “common depth point (CDP)”… but only true for horizontal layers Hole: GEOS 4174 2.CMP method Yilmaz 2001 dipping structure: CMP collects data from different reflection points.2-3 Data Acquisition: Survey Design .

roll-off: when the spread hits the ends of the survey line.2D (linear) source and receiver layouts live recording spread geometry: source is a dot. the shots will move through a fixed spread to the last possible position Hole: GEOS 4174 2. receivers are x’s Sheriff & Geldart 1995 split spread: gives higher fold at near offset end-on spread: gives longer offsets (for a fixed station spacing) gap: near-source gap eliminates near-source stations (that may be dominated by ground roll) and provides longer offsets roll-along: the live recording spread moves with the shot along the line many shots and receivers at overlapping positions gives fold roll-on.2-4 Data Acquisition: Survey Design .

the missed sources & receivers are replaced by placing them either side of the € survey notes are requiredon connect recorded gap to source and receiver stations.2-5 Data Acquisition: Survey Design . road. physical obstacles (e. creek.stacking chart plot traces at shot & receiver positions Yilmaz 2001 x midpoint = ( x source + x receiver ) /2 x offset = x receiver − x source in real life.g. and then detailed to data to ground positions Hole: GEOS 4174 2.. building) require gaps in shots and/or receivers undershooting: to maintain fold on a subsurface reflector.

survey design considerations Sheriff & Geldart 1995 Hole: GEOS 4174 2.2-6 Data Acquisition: Survey Design .

2D crooked line obstacles or access sometimes limit the line to be crooked a smooth line (or series of straight lines) is drawn through the mapped midpoints midpoint bins are chosen with shapes perpendicular to the line (or along strike) Sheriff & Geldart 1995 y midpoint = ( y source + y receiver ) /2 roffset = ( x r − x s ) + ( y r − y s ) 2 2 the across-line information can be used to infer across-line dip € Hole: GEOS 4174 2.2-7 Data Acquisition: Survey Design .

few obstacles. which is roughly proportional to number of sources fired next factor: crew/ship size.marine surveying cost of seismic surveying: most important factor: time. continuous shooting  order of magnitude more cost-effective per km (for similar acquisition specs) marine surveying always uses end-on recording recording streamers extend km’s behind the ship and are pushed by ocean currents: feathering Sheriff & Geldart 1995 requires a lot of position survey data (compasses and GPS on the cables) CMPs get smeared in cross-line direction Hole: GEOS 4174 2.2-8 Data Acquisition: Survey Design . which roughly depends upon number of recording channels marine operations are very time-efficient: real-time surveying.

g.2-9 Data Acquisition: Survey Design . multiple geophone lines record each shot very flexible 3-dimensional survey design possible marine land Yilmaz 2001 Reynolds 1997 Yilmaz 2001 4D seismic = time-lapse seismic repeat a survey to monitor changes: e..3D seismic marine: grid of ship lines. deformation Hole: GEOS 4174 2. multiple streamers receivers are always close to in-line. so line direction matters for a dipping geologic target land: grid of shots. due to fluid flow.

or continuous increase in velocity with depth. gives turning rays to resolve 2D structure.refraction to resolve dipping structure.2-10 Data Acquisition: Survey Design . need many shots recorded on same receivers => fixed spread Lester MS thesis 2006 refraction shot-receiver offset is usually 5-20 times the depth of imaging longer rays means lower frequency (for a given depth of imaging) => larger shots S/N usually good because there is no reflection coefficient to partition energy Hole: GEOS 4174 2. need a reversed refraction line: shots at both ends many refractors.

close to well Hole: GEOS 4174 2.Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) 1D is most common “VSP walkaway” for 2D image 3D VSP is rare Reynolds 1997 Ikelle & Amundsen 2005 Paullson et al. 3D gives high-resolution velocity and reflection section higher resolution (higher frequency) than surface data receivers closer to target travels through weathering layer only once VSP image volume is relatively small.2-11 Data Acquisition: Survey Design . tie to surface reflection section 2D. 2004 First Break 1D gives very good velocity as a function of depth 1D gives absolute depth of reflectors.

cross-borehole imaging distance <200 m high resolution due to proximity to target and high frequency travel times give seismic velocity between wells Reynolds 1997 Sheriff & Geldart 1995 reflection imaging can be performed both above and below the source Reynolds 1997 Hole: GEOS 4174 2.2-12 Data Acquisition: Survey Design .