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Virginija Tuomait6 Ingrida Zindziuvien6

Anglqkalba
a o

VlSlCInS

UDK

802.6 Tir71

Recenzavodr. doc. JONAS SKARULIS Pirmasis leidimas 2002

rsBN 5-430-03388-X

@ Virginija Tuomait6, 2002 @ Ingrida zindliuvierlC, 2002 @ Leidykla ,,Sviesa",2002

.............. 31 CoordinatingConjunctions .. 34 The Use of Tenses the Active Voice.................... 19 Adverbs.... 11 Demonstrative Pronouns .................. 26 Prepositions Time of ......... Zz Positionof Adverbs ... ....... Zz Numerals .............................................. Zl The Comparisonof Adverbs ......... 15 Classification Nouns............. 33 Special Verbs.............. 47 c r" m........ 47 Pronounsand Time Words in Reported Speech .14 . ... 13 Formationof plural (IrregularNouns)..... 24 The Use of Numerals ............................ 45 ReportedSpeech and the Sequence Tenses............. 27 Prepositions Method of . legrees of Comparison........... CONTENTS 3 ........... ..... 17 The Use of Degrees Comparison of . ...................... 72 Nouns................. ...................... 1g Order of Adjectives........... ....................................... of .. ................................ of ....................................... 33 Divisionof verbs ......... 13 Countable Nouns:Formationof plural (RegularNouns). 20 Typesof Adverbs ................................................................................................................ 46 Modal Verbs in ReportedSpeech . 11 Relative Pronouns. 26 Prepositions Place of ........................... 20 Formsof Adverbs .30 Conjunctions ........................... .. .................... 32 verbs ""'...................... 44 Passive Voice....... 24 Cardinal/Ordinal Numera1s... 17 ........ 33 Verb Tenses (Active and passiveVoice) ....... ............. in ...... 29 Other Meaningsof Some prepositions .........................na r....... 36 Supplements Active Voice .....................15 The Use of Nounswith Indefinitepronouns....... ................. !9"n1 Used Only in Singularlplural..... 31 Subordinating Conjunctions .......... ........... 25 Prepositions ............................................. 16 Adjectives .............................. to ....CONTENTS Autoriq Zodis tf 6 Articles The Use of Articles 6 Pronouns ............... 11 IndefinitePronouns ..

............... 64 The Use of TiansitionalExpressions ................................ ............. References ..... ........7l ConcludingParagraph ........... for ......... 4 CONTENTS .............. 1.............. .... ................ 62 Structureof a Topic Sentence . 104 Glossary of Terms .......... 73 Punctuation Marks and Usage..... ....... 62 Paragraph Example/Paragraph Structure........... ........ 1.............. .......... ... ... 92 Some Expressions Help You Make a Good Presentation...................... ......0.... . Abbreviations.. in .. 7l EssayTypes IntroductoryParagraph.. .............. ......... ........................ 69 Paragraph Development .............. ..........................0.. .........5 ...... . ............ 72 Essay Structure............................. .. 91 How to Preparefor and Presenta Successful Speech... 74 83 85 86 88 Hints for SpeechPreparation .... 89 Pre-presentational Checklist .... 63 CommonDevices Linking Ideas..........Paragraph Writing .... ... Comparisonof English and Lithuanian Punctuation............. 63 Tiansitions a Paragraph.. ........T02 to TiansitionsThat May Help You ..... .. ..... ....7 .. ......... .. ... ............ ........... 90 Evaluation Form. 69 EssayWriting ... Capitalization Comparisonof English and Lithuanian Capitalization ......................... .............62 Topic Sentence Openings/Helpful Phrases.......

Kenirtopagrindiniai angl4 ir lietuvit4kalb4 sl<yrybos nami joje dalyje. PUNCTUATION. WRITING. jog Ji knyga padis ulpildyti angl4 kalbos Zini4 spragas. aukit4i4 molgtkl4 studentamsir visiems. kuiuos tui iinoti kiekvienas iisilavinqs Zmogus. GRAMMAR. Zindiiuvieni VytautoDidiiojo universitetas zOOrS 5 AUTORTU . bet ir tuo. kad knyga patil<s skaitytojams ne tik del aiikaus tem4 iiddstymo ir palyginimo su lietuvi4 kalba. skatins teoines iinias tailEti praktiikai. kad kiekvienq temq lydi trumpos imaikiiios istorijos. PUNCTUATION (SI{YRYBA) ir MAKING PRESENTATr ON S (r<ALBEJI MA S). WRITING @ASYMAS). Tieiioji dalis. skirtumai. nes medZiagapateikiama labai koncentruotai.nointiems iimokti ar pakartoti ne tik angl4 kalbos gramatikq. kurios angl4 kalbos besimokantiemslietuviams kelia sunkum4. Lentelise ir diagramose aiikinami anglq ir lietuvi4 kalbq skirtumai. atsiivelgiant i mokiniq ir student4 poreikius bei pastabas. skaitytojai ZaismingaisupaLindinami su svarbiausiais retorikos reikalavimais. supaZindina ir didii4i4 raiprimena skaitytojamspagrindines angl4 kalbos slcyrybos. akcentuojami reikalavimai pastraipos ir raiinio raiymui ypai svarbfis viduriniq molqkl4 mokiniams. Painkdamos tas sitis. MAKING PRESENTATIONS. Knyga suskirstyta i ketuis slcyrius: GRAMMAR (GRAMATIKA). Lentelise iiddstyta teoini mediiaga padis ugdyti besimokanti2i4 mqstymq ir atidumq. autoris viliasi.moknyga bus naudinga besirengiantiems gimnazij4.Autoriq Zodis St knygo skiiama viduini4 molqkl4 ir gimnazij4 mokiniams. kad ii lailqti ivairius egzaminus.remiantis ilgametepedagoginio darbo patirtimi. V Tilomait4 I. Lentelds sudarytos. Autords tikisi. TOEFL ir kitus. Autoris tikisi. akcentuojami angl4 kalbos ypatumai. bet ir angl4 kalbos molqtoiai bei distytojat. bet ir kitus svarbius dalykus. Antrojoje dalyje. aiikiai ir paprastai pateikiami pagrindiniai angl4 kalbos gramatikos ypatumai su paaiikinimais bei vertimais i lietuvi4 kalbq. remiantis ivaiiais ialtiniais ir lyginant su lietuviq kalba. Kiekvienoje dalyje remiamasi skaitytojo gimtosios kalbos filologine patinimi. Sia knyga gali nau' dotis ne tik besimokantieji. brandos. dii4 raiymo ir santrumpq taisykles. aiiki' pateikiama daug pavyzdZir4. pateikiami esminiai aiikaus kalbijimo pincipai. lcyklinius ar Pirmojoje dalyje.

The car is an egg.kai I have a car.kuris Ltk is wonderful. nekonkretitavardZiuir su neskaidiuovardZiais: nant: .r prie5 skaidiuotinius r su skaidiuotiniais daiktatos bei daugiskaitos daik.a: tiniais daiktavardZiais: .(Europe. apibldinamas Salutiniu o prie5 tikrinius daiktasakiniu: vardZius: . alan Indefinite Article NeZvmimasis artikelis o Ir cRRMMARvcnnMArtKA .daugiskaitos vienaskaitos daiktavardZius.Zemynqpavadinimus rprie5 kelintini skaitvardi rprie5 sakinyjepirm4 ir auk5diausiojolaipsnio . I have a car.GneuMAR GRAMATIKA ARTICLES ARTIKELIAI The Use of Articles Artikeliq vartojimas Tlpes of Articles Artikeliq ru5ys Indefinite Article NeZvmimasis artikelis Definite Article zvmlmasN artll(ells L CountableNouns Skaidiuotiniai daiktavardLiai UncountableNouns Neskaidiuotiniai Singular daiktavardZiai Vienaskaita the Zero Article Definite Article :Artikelis nevartojamas Zvmlmasrsartrkells r su skaidiuotiniu vienaskai. Great diuotini vienaskaitos Neil Amstrong was thefirst Britain) daiktavardi: man to walk on the Moon.an hour kalbama abstrakdiai: black.Asia) Saliqpavadinimus kart4 minim4 skaibldvardi: (Lithuania. .an: daiktavardi.prie5 daiktavardi. He is the best sportsman in the class.jei daiktavardistekste a boolE a university minimas ne pirm4 kart4: r prie5 neskaidiuotini .prie5 balsi .asmenvardZius I've lost the book vou (JaneBrown) .prie5 priebalsi .

the violin prie5 upiq.stodiq.kai jie atstum4. (There is only one She is . kanalq. Heathrow) .oro uostq pavadinimus (Victoia Station. pavadinimus.piliq. daikt4 ar daiktavardi: viet4: I have an interCome to the window! esting book. ligoniniq vie5budiq.play": to play the piano. Lloyds Bank . r[mq. hospital. the Sahara. vienaskaitos gyv[n4. Buckingham Palace girl.of' (arba jail. the Alps.pavieniq eLen4 pavadinimus (Lake Ontario) . (meldZiausi) the SouthlNorth Pole I wasin the church.parkq pavadinimus: Hyde Park . the Tbwerof rei5kia 3iq istaigq veikl4.vienas": She has q daughter and a son. (kalejau) an hour and a the SouthlWestlNorthl I was in the prison.court.miestq pavadinimus (Vilnius.. taip svori: pat prie5 ZodZius bed ir work: twice g daylweekt London. mentus.atskirq salq pavadinimus (Cyprus. college. the Great Lakes church.nurodantlaik4. kalnynq. jlrq.(Mount) McKinley) .ConeyIsland) .dirbau ir kt. r kalbant apie konkreapibldinanti tq.) Let's talk in the kitchen.o prie5 muzikos instru- sii4: I'm q doctor ana my wife is an artist. (The kitchen is in our flat.) t nurodant profe.prisonl jei jis su . school. vandenynq. muzika ir kt. London) . baZnydiq pavadinimus: Gediminas Castle.) valandos) pavadinimais: I was in pison.) doleriai ul kg) the North of Enpland lT"cnnvvAR/cMMATTKA 7 . viet4.menu. university. the Atlantic Ocean. (lanin an hour (po o su pasaulio/Saliq daliq kiausi. dykumq. numanomas): the USA. (gydZiausi) monthlyear the book I was in the hospital.kai kuriuos tiltq pavadinimus (TbwerBridge) .ypadposakiuosesu .alan the zero article I priei b[dvardi. restoranq.. bankq.(domejausi $3 q kilo (trys the Equator pastatu. the Baltic Sea. the Bahamas.kalnq (vir5ukalniq) pavadinimus ((Mount) Everest. salynq. parduotuviq.. o posakiuose: r prieSdaiktavardZius I prie5 daiktavardZius . window in the room. (lankiausi half (pusantros kitais tikslais) East valandos) I was in church. Hanods. l vietoj skaitvardZio . the cover of I was in hospital. kuriuose yra asmenvardis arba savybinis linksnis('s): Marks & Spencer's. elerq grupiq pavadinimus: the Thames. Zinom4 asmeni.uZeigq.

work. the Odeon.prie5 daiktavardipo LodLir4what. advice) padarytusi5 bldvara glasslbottle of (water) dZiq. the flour) English a bottle of (vinegar) a tube of (toothpaste) a bar of chocolatelsoap q bitlpiece of (chalk) s lump of (sugar) a droplcan of (oil) o prie5 transporto r prie5 vienaskaitos a can of (Coke) skaidiuotinidaiktavar. the a packet of (tea) disabled (neigalieji) a slicelloaf of (bread) q pot of (yoghurt) r su tautybiq pavadinia potlcup of (tea) mais: q kilolpound of (meat. talp4: teatrq. teatrq. I l7 cRAMMAFycRAMATTKA . Guardian. the Titanic. kino take a seat . rei5kianti vis4 r[Si: a block of (wood) kiuose su . (su skaidiuotiniais (dirba) the BBC daiktavardZiais) I visited him at the a piece of (cake. the Lithuanian(s).nurodant kieki. q lot of (daug) jq. muzie. taxi a pair of (trousers) a game of (soccer) q(n) itemlpieceof (news) . quite. daiktavardZiais) (sedeti ant lovos) British Museum. bag of (flou6 rice) by busItrainIcarIplaneI ite flower.resto5 litas a metre (mokiausi) (sdstis) ranq.I was in school..by": The rose is my favous. r prie5 vie5budiq.posakiuose: The penguin cannot fly.ivairiq (lankiausikitais (keletas) institucijq pavadinitikslais) o few q little (truputis) mus: He went to bed early. fue a box of (chocolates) blind (aklieji). .I was in the school. (miegoti) neskaidiuotiniais the Thte Gallery. the Don't sit on the bed. the great number (daug) a He is still at work. a greatdeal (daug) (su the Hilton. laikra5diq.priemoniq a carton of (milk) pavadinimusposadi. (darbo vietoje) r prie5 daiktavardZius. galerijq. rei5kiandiqgrupg q jar of (jam) Zmoniq: a rasherof (bacon) ghedeaf (kurtieji).

. green. kalbama apie Seimos narius: Mother is at home. . kai father. house. inventedby A. gerimq. metq laikq.. o posakiuose: in the mominglafternoonlevening in the daytime (duing the day) in the country in the sun on the rishtlleft . r prie5 daiktavardZius. Bell. dinastijos. religines vienaskaitos daiktavargrupespavadinim4: dZiais) the Browns the Liberals kituose posakiuose: a temperature a cold g headachel toothache g sore throat g rest q smokeldrink a good time g nice day (palinkejimas!) g swimltalklshowerl bath su sporto Sakq.Svendiq. iSradimqpavadinimus.coffee. Sunday. cinema. fire supper.. It was rather an old giminds. Lg greatinterest s4vok4: chitis the Sun. press r su ZodZiaisradio. English q I taxilbusltrain etc. home. a showerlbath rei5kiandius vienintele malaria.o prie5 irengimq ar rather ir such: . o prie5 ligq pavadinrmus: takel. m6nesiq. basketball.bronin.politines (tik su skaidiuotiniais partijos. as a matter of fact the Earth. government.l] cnnuuAR/cMMATtKA 9 I su daiktavardZiais o su kuopiniais breakfast. tea brigade. daiktavardZiais: police. army. lunch. cancer. theatre: She went to the theatre r prie5 ZodZius mothe6 yesterday. kalbq pavadinimais: tennis. You have such a nice The dollar is the dress! currencyof the USA. as a rule the world It's a pity . o prieSSeimos. Whata beautiful day! valiut4: Wehad quite a nice The telephonewas meal. spalvq. sping. Mother's Day. savaitdsdienq. G..Zaidimq.Coca-Cola.fanuary. dinner. the Moon. the slE.

tomorrow from moming till night from day to day at noonlmidnight at night at present in fact on foot on purpose lmagine Columbus'expeditionsailing in the open sea for many days without seeing anything but water and water. yesterday. Suddenly one sailor (an Englishman) "land"? notices somethingon the horizon.Will he put an article before the word "A land". "the land" or just "land"?What do you think? Which article? 10 F CNNTTIUAFYGRAMATIKA .a/an the on the phone on the floorlceiling on the whole what's the time? to tell the truth the same the rightlwrong size the onlyllastlfirst zero article I posakiuose: by heart (mintinai) | by phone I by chance (atsitiktinai) by landlsea watch TV next weeklmonthlyear Iast weeklmonthlyear today.

anas. kam. tos. He loves me. 5i. anie. Sita) that (tas. ! It's = it' is.PRONOUNS IVARDZIAI Personal Asmeniniai ivardZiai Subject Object Veiksnio Papildinio funkcija funkcija (ko. kuo) (kas) I me you you he him she her it we it US vou they you them Possessive SavybiniaiivardZiai Reflexive Attribute Absolute SangrqZiniai Pazyminio possessives ivardZiai funkcija SavarankiSkieji (kieno) my mlne myself your yours yourself his his himself her hers herself its its itself our ours ourselves yours your yourselves their theirs themselves It's my book! -) I love him. it's hers! Do it yourself ! Meaning ReikSme Plural Daugiskaita arti toli this (Sis.Sitos) those (tie. kq. ana) these(Sie. 5itie.* its: DemonstrativePronouns Parodomieji ivardZiai Singular Vienaskaita No. anos) AfTirmative statements Teigiamieji sakiniai some somethins somebody someone Indefinite Pronouns NeZymimieji ivardZiai Negative sentences and questions Negatives Neigiamieji sakiniai Neiginiai ir klausimai anv no : not anv anything nothing:not*anYthing anybody nobodY: not * anybody anyone no one : not + anyone lJ" cnnvvAR/cMMATtKA1'l . 5itas. ta.Sios.

RelativePronouns jvard2iai Jungia.TUAR/GRAMATIKA .mieji Subject Object Possessives Examples Veiksnys Papildinys Sawbiniai PawzdLiai people who/that who/whom/that whose I know the girl who lives next doon things which/that which/that/what I've read the book that you told me about.F CNNTT. Teacher: Nametwo pronouns! Student: Who?Me? Teacher: That'sright! 12 .

N OU N S DAIKTAVARDZAI CountableNouns: Formationof Plural (RegularNouns) Daugiskaitos (taisyklingieji sudarymas daiktavardZiai) Singular booh a car -+ bookg carg Spelling Rules Daugiskaitosra5yba jei daiktavardis baigiasis. a wolf.kurie q baigiasi daugiskaita turi gallng -es -+ busgg wish6 bus. wiyes. pridedama -es ! I5imtis: ZodZiq. sg x. tomatog& heroes babyapartyalady jei daiktavardisbaigiasi priebalse * y. a hero-+ potatogs.aleaf. jei daiktavardisbaigiasi / kniyes. sh. arbafe. box watchgg boxq potato. a watch. kntfe. a wtfe. tch. wolyes. a wish. a tomato.acalf. ! virsta i pridedama-es jei daiktavardisbaigiasi balse*y pridedama-s a shelf. / virsta v ir halyes pridedama-es S ennuuARycRAMATrKA 13 . half -->shelyes. ch. leayes.

-es): o By adding suflix -gn (su priesaga-en): a child an ox -+ children + oxen o The same form in singular and in plural (Vienaskaitos daugiskaitos ir formos sutampa): a a a a a sheep deer salmon trout means -) | sheep -) | deer salmon ' -+ manv ) trout I -+ | means a fish ir graikq kalbq): a datum a cisis a citerion a species a thesis a phenomenon -) | fith a Scientific terms from Latin and Greek (Mokslo terminai i5 lotynq -+ data -> cises -+ criteria --> species -+ theses -+ phenomena t Compound nouns (Sudurtiniai daiktavardZiai) The last part is plural: a a a a bookcase writing table toothbrush drawback -) -) --) -) bookcases witing tables toothbrushes drawbacks The first componentis plural: -) fathers-in-law a father-in-law a commander-in-chief -) commanders-in-chief -) passers-by a passer-by 14 F cnnnanrnRycRAMATtKA . testh mice lice geese I By changing the root vowel(s) (Keidiant Sakniesbalsg. a woman foot. a tooth mouse louse Soose Plural + -+ -+ -> -) mgn womgn fget.Formation of Plural (lrregular Nouns) Daugiskaitos sudarymas(netaisyklingieji daiktavardZiai) Singular a a a a a man.

S"rSkin iai.i ll. 1."J:i'kaitos NoTE:a s i s It'f.baldai tarim4).g1o*r. kalbojevisi SiedaiktavardZiai rurr tr vrenaskait4. tltezbs Tikriniai daiktavardZiai Countable Nouns a book.a rii4 oniffi Srrsan. t:"Jt ?i.diencb )." "' ts^::.r..1.'ice (noigiia): 9! a kij K siikiai).' ". baldas.Uncountable Nouns Iove. a cat.|: ^1.poutiry 9. r"am 1k@ Kuopiniai daiktavardZiai Proper Nouni ai).Vienaskaitiniai daiktavardZiai money advice furniture news information mathematics mechanics ! Lietuviq.ii Neskaiiiuotiniai daiktavardZia Individual Njunra hottse. wnte.' ftkusyro1 . ruff.'JIJff:ff:5m Ins are cheap' ili.nu. (yi ma. vartojamtik daugiskaita)' i Common Nouns Bendriniai daiktavardZiai Classification of Nouns DaiktavardZiumSvs a boy.?.). a strutent Vienetiniai a .l' f I I ji!!.j. (Nor:.plaukai naujiena.!a. ( n e k u o p iin i ) oarktavard2iai Collective Nouns t: *. i-ice Skaidiuotiniai daiktavardliai __-__. tos aska --' This football team is wonderful This football team qre wearing red Tshins.ftjka )."i.htrt _> hins(li... scissors (Zirklds) glasses (akiniar) shorts(Sortai) pyjamas (piZama) Y't' "1 u*ik'*izodziu' .i.f? t Si" ouittu Nouns Used Only in plural Uaugiskaitinioi daiklav arrtli a. . 511"-.. daugiskaita: ir ptaukas.". a tree..s fttv sinin a yu ic (pu. Europe. u.i.*".7.people. crew(iguta urmy ry il:.. 17 cncr\4N4ARycMMATtKA 15 .a l ! lporitimil Kuopiniai ouiktuuu@ daugiskai ir vien itosveilsmaiodi:iu.naujienos .r !!#y..

somepens. not in offers and requestsuse NOTE:Would you like somecoffee?] 'any' (pasitlymuose.o ne . iiek tiek) Iittle sugar (malai) much (daug) in negativesentences and questions (neigiamuosiuose sakiniuoseir klausimuose) much sugar (daug) 'some'. a bottle of (Cola). some. beveik nera) a few bool<s(kelios) few bool<s(mahai) many (daug) in negative and sentences questions (neigiamuosiuose sakiniuoseir klausimuose) many books (daug) UncountableNouns Both Skaidiuotiniaiir neskaidiuotiniai Neskaidiuotiniai daiktavardZiai daiktavardZiai some (keletas. beveik nera) a little sugar (truputis..pageidavimuose Can I have some tea? J vartokite . a packet of (flour) etc.nevartojami su neZymimuoju vartojami su neZymimuoju artikeliu (a/an).few mistakes. iiek tiek) and any in negativesentences questions(neigiamuosiuose sakiniuoseir klausimuose) a lot of (daug) lots of (daug) only in the affirmative sentences (tik teigiamuosiuose sakiniuose) (daug) a lot of bool<s a lot of sugar (daug) a little (maLai. a piece of (cake). The Use of Nouns with Indefinite Pronouns DaiktavardZiqvartojimas su neZymimaisiais ivardZiais CountableNouns Skaidiuotiniai daiktavafiLiai CountableNouns Skaidiuotiniai daiktavardZiai a few (maZai..five bottles.tadiau keli yra) few (malai.a few a bar of (chocolate).truputis) in affirmative sentences sakiniuose) (teigiamuosiuose (keletas) some boolcs some water (truputis.some".Kiekiui ir nurodyti vartojami Sie ZodZiaibei derinami su skaitvardZiais posakiai: ivardZiais: a house. turi daugiskait4. a bowl of (water).a can of (oil).Uncountable Nouns daiktavardZiai Neskaidiuotiniai Neskaidiuotiniai daikt avardLiaineturi Skaidiuotiniai daiktavar dLiai daugiskaitos. 16 tr7 cnnuuARvcRAMATlKA o . truputis) little (malai. artikeliu (a/an) ir skaitvardZiais. a glassof (wine). many trees. davs a cup of (tea).any") at noun which is singular the top and pluralat the Irousersis a peculiar bottom.

Dviskiemeniq. -€t.ta priebalse sudvigubeja. -ow.ADJECTIVES BUDVARDZIAI Degreesof Gomparison Comparative perlative Nelyginamasis laipsnis AukStesnysislaipsnis Auk5diausiasis laipsnis I. pridedant laipsniq galflnesji iilieka. vienskiemeniai ir dviskiemeniai bfrdvardiiai su gatfrndmis -!. -+ -+ wide * r the widg * $lL -+ -+ simplq * y the simple * sJ Jeigub[dvardis baigiasipriebalse. more f the most --) --) modem modem | Iess J the least l ttful -> more f | less J the most beauttful -+ the least l beautifut 2. -le Auk5tesnysis laipsnispadaromas pridedantSa . auk5diausiasis laipsni .pridedant galfing -est.578 fTcnnuuARycRAMATtKAi7 . tai pridedant laipsnig galunes-y virsta -i.pridedant the most/the least. pries kuri4 eina trumpa balsd. --) -+ theheav*i*est heav*i+er II. -+ hgt -+ thehot+t+est hot*t *er Jeigu budvardisbaigiasi -y.triskiemeniq ir ilgesniq bfldvardiiq laipsniavimas Auk5tesnysis laipsnissudaromas pridedant more/less. -+ -+ -> clean * er clever * er narrow * er -+ -> -+ the clean * est the clever * est the nanow * est o Jeigu budvardisbaigiasinetariama-e.

III. jq nelyginamasis Kai kurie bfidvardZiai laipsnio savybg: iSrei5kia auk5diausiojo universal square unique perfect emPtY fatal supreme single dead alone full vertical deadlY round mortal final wrong everlasting blind straight eg If a circle is absolutelyround. better worse less I further L farther nearer old late 1 older (senesnis) \ elder (vyresnisieimoje) (velesnis) I later I latter (pastarasis) the best the worst the least the furthest I I the farthest 7 the nearest \ the next kitas) y the oldest (seniausias) Jeimoje) \ the eldest(vyriausias latest (viliausias) 1 the I the last (paskutinis) IV... -er * than Ann is olderJhsn her brother John is more handsome than his more .. The Use of Degrees of Comparison posakiai Lyginamieji Positive She is as tall as her sisten as*positive*as not as * positive * as She is not as tall as her sister not so t positive * as half as * positive * as twice as * positive * as Comparative . another bottle could not be more empty. If a bottle is empty. the most . + of/in . -est * of/in .. It was the most exciting holiday oflin my hk. Netaisyklingailaipsniuojami bfldvardZiai good bad little fo... Nelaipsniuojami budvardZiai laipsnis nes yra nelaipsniuojami. He is the best dentist oflin our town. Superlative 18 ll cnnuunRvcMMATtKA .... another circle could not be more round. the . * than father the t h e * c o m p a r a t i v e * t h e The warmerthe weather. betterthe holidays..

bad'?" "lt's worse than bad. 'dead'. what is the comparativedegree of .Order of Adjectives B0dvardZiqeil6s tvarka sakinyje Opinion Size fue Shape Nuomond Dydis AmZius Forma lovely small old round beautiful big new square Colour Spalva white brown Origin Material Kilme MedZiaga Chineseporcelain French wooden * Noun + Daiktavardis * plate * stool It was a lovely small old round while Chineseporcelain plate. of course. ft \\l "Mike." "Can you compare the word 'bad'?" "Yes. It was a beautiful big new square brown French woodenstool. 'bad'. 'worse'." p cnnvuAFycMMATtKA19 .

maybe. away. why It happened when I was watching TV Relative (Conjunctive) Sakinio jungiamieji Reason.. occasionally. nicely.then. hard.probably.ADVERBS PRIEVEIKSMIAI Dpes of Adverbs Prieveiksmiqrt5ys Definite Time ApibreZtolaiko Question Klausimas When? Examples PavyzdLiai yesterday. before. now lastI next weeklmonth lyear Indefinite Time NeapibreZto laiko Frequency DaZnumo When? already.at once.x How? well. everywhere. how. over.extremely when. perhaps. dow nsta irs. nowadays. why when. howeve1 finally. of course 20 17' cnnvvAFycRAMATrKA . forw ard (s). upstairs. frequently. there. far. soon. little. always. ever. ir iSvados Sentence therefore.. seldom. nevertheless. next to. bravely. enough. once. . sometimes. still. thus certainly. only. how. near. often. here. luckily. To what extent? quite. below. much. hardly. fast. just. Consequence and Conclusion pasekmes PrieZasties. early.very.possibly. perfectly. where. behind. happily. usually.badly In what degree? wholly. .immediately neve4 continually. carefully. northward(s). quickly. rarely.lately. to and fro How often? How long? Place or Direction Vietos arba krypties Where? Manner Bldo Degree Laipsnio Interroga tive/Exclamatory Kl aus l am reJ r/5au KI amleJl . tomorrow two dayslweeksI months lyears ago. twice. yet. consequently. absolutely. unde4 close. clearly. late. today. constantly above. so loudly.nory then.

high high (auk5tai) highly = very much (labai) (aukStas) The plane flew hrsh into the She is hishly respected. near near (arti) nearlY : almost (beveik) (artimas) The library is near my house. (vdlus. hard hard (sunkiai. ne) She hardbt works.greatly (labai) She went deepinto the wood. velyvas) h's Istre. pastaruojumetu) I haven't seenhim hleh.Forms of Adverbs Prieveiksmiq formos Adjective BIdvardis Adverb Prieveiksmis Adverb * -ly Prieveiksmissu lv Prieveiksmioir btdvardZio formos sutampa Pridejus -ly. beveik (sunkus) She works hard. velu) late[ = recentl' (neseniai. He was deeplyhurt by her words. (greitai. I would like to thank you for your attention! (gilus) pretty (graZus) pretty (gana. skv. galiausiai) Lastly. late late (velai. (paskutinis) He anived here last. Iast last (paskiausiai) lastly = finally (galq gale.gerokai) The film was prc_lq_ awful. daug) hardly = scarcely (vos. PrettilY : in an attractive way (graLiai) She smiled prettily. f] 21 cnnuuAR/cMMATTKA . short short (trumpai) shortlY = soon.netrukus) She will anive shortlv. It's nearlvdawn. not long (trumpas) He cut his hair short. reik5mekeidiasi deep deep (giliai) deeply .

never. eveti beautifully. adverbsof manner: frequency: often. barely. eagerly. almost 4. adverbsof time: 2. adverbsof place: yesterday already. adverbsof manner: angrily. adverbsof frequency: 1 . happily 22 l7 CnnrtrrrlARYGRAMATtM . her sister | the furthest | lurtlre.rarely. adverbsof degree: hardly.well scarcely. there 3.no longer here. sometimes 2. usually. badly so*positive*as -+ muchla lot oflmany -+ more the most I can't swim so well as you. nearly. seldom. adverbsof L.The Gomparison Adverbs of Prieveiksmiq laipsniavimas o Prieveiksmiailaipsniuojamipagal tas padiastaisykles. adverbsof time: 2.sometimes regularly. -) --) little less the least comparative* than the farthest She singsbetter than -) I farther -) I fo. Position of Adverbs Prieveiksmiq vieta sakinyje Front (in the beginning of the sentence) Mid (beforethe main verb and the auxiliary) End (at the end of the sentence) L. usually.kaip ir bfidvardZiai Regular Comparison Thisyklingailaipsniuojamiprieveiksmiai Positive Superlative Comparative Nelyginamasis Auk5tesnysis AukSdiausiasis laipsnis laipsnis laipsnis -+ fast * er -+ the fast * est r Vienskiemeniai fast -+ earl * i * er --> the earl + i * est ir earlv early -) more seldom -+ the most seldom o Dviskiemeniai seldom --t more politely --> the most politely politely ir daugiaskiemeniai Tlpes of Comparison Irregular Comparison Lyginamieji posakiai Netaisyklingai laipsniuojami prieveiksmiai -+ as*positive*as better well the best Shefinished it as -+ worse -) the worst quickly as her friend. badly.

Adverbial of frequency DaZnumo aplinkybe was has spoke already never o'!) his work. 17 eneuuARvcRAMATrKA . meat. (all 'l A grammar-tired student of English said: decline to decline any more'. yesterday.

h the (one) hundredth 1.000.00f billion a *Compare: There were four thousandpeople in the street.trigubas hundred and sixty-five (triskart) 1.000 2.t the twelfth 40 forW 5 0 fifty 60 sixty the sixtieth 3.000 4.penkiagubas (penkiskart) 1. fi1 \il 24 F tnere are fifty waysof saying'yes'and five hundrednuances (shades) of meaning the word 'no'. two a J three 4 four 5 five 6 slx 7 SEVEN 8 eieht 9 nlne 10 ten 1 1 eleven L a 1 7 seventeen 1 8 eighteen L9 nlneteen 20 twenty the seventeenth 18'h 19th the eiehteenth the nineteenth ) 7rh 8.000.millions) of people gatheredin the streets.000 two million five times (5x) fivefold .h the sixth Itt Cardinal Kiekiniai Ordinal Kelintiniai l'Jth 0 zeto I one 1.h the thirtieth 3L". 350 1.t the tenth 1 1 ' the eleventh rz.h the seventh the eighth the ninth 27 22 30 3T twenty-one twentv-two the twentieth 2I't the twenty-first 20th thirty thirty-one 22"d the twentv-second 30.viengubas two thousand (ordinal: twice (2x) double .h the fourth 5 ' h the fifth 6.h 9.h the sixteenth 200 two hundred 200.hthe two hundredth 10.h t2 twelve 70 SEVENTV 70'h the seventieth 1 3 thirteen 13.h the fiftieth 60. 2n. five three times (3x) threefold . (exact number) Thousands(hundreds. three hundred and fifty ordinal: the three hundred and fiftieth a/one thousand* (ordinal: once (1x) the thousandth) (vien4 kart4) single.(expression) 5.keturgubas (ordinal: the millionth) (keturiskart) 2.NUMERALS SKAITVARDZIAI Cardinal Kiekiniai Ordinal Kelintiniai the first the second 3'd the third 4.565 three thousand. the thirtv-first 40th the fortieth 50.dvigubas (dukart) the two thousandth) 3.000.000.000 a/one million four times (4x) fourfold .6sixteen 16.rthe thirteenth 80 eighty 80'h the eightieth I4 fourteen r4'r the fourteentt 90 ninety 90. for CNNT'.TUNFYGRAMATIKA .h the ninetieth 15 rtteen 15'r the fifteenth 100a/one hundred 100.

stop emphasize sb's age years old is behavinglike a child! used.00 It is eleven am. Telephone numbers Rules Thisykles All numbers are said separately. descriptions or to You arefifty yearsold . word "minutes" can be 11. 1996 Qineteen ninety-six) 1805 (eighteen five) oh --+ (the y". month.. with other numbers. 3. 2. 1996 or 612211996 (the twenty-second of June. In writing. 2s f]' cnnvrrlARycMMATtKA .6'F b) minutes 'Ihe *See the Abbreviationssection. the month nineteen ninety-six) American: the month comes June 22.The Use of Numerals Skaitvard2iq vartojimas 1.. seven. Temperature In Britain. two t.20 and 25.q_r). fior :. = 100'C or 212"F Normal body temperature ('F) = 37"C or 98.Boiling point of water in Fahrenheit aturesare given in Fahrenheit.10It is ten past eleven. . before the day nineteen nineN-six) When saying a person's age Ann is five and John is only numbers are used. omitted after 5. I0.00 It is eleven pm.18It is eighteen minutes but it is almost alwaysused past eleven. Dates: a) years b) day. the US temper. British: the day comes before 22 June.0 is pronouncedleul. temperatures are Freezing Celsius('C) often given in both Celsiusand = OoCor 32"F or Fahrenheit. 11. 1996 or 221611996 (the twenty-second of June. 23. year Examples Pavyzdliai 7028995467 seven oh two eightdoubleninefive four six seven Usuallvsaid as two numbers. Time a) hours The l2-hour system is used * amlpm* 11. point of water 5. Age 4. thoilsand But 2000 t..

metais: posakiuose: in May at night.45 metq laikais.. at 5 o'clock.P R E P OS ITIONS PRIELINKSNIAI Prepositions of Time Laiko prielinksniai at times/festivals IN J l I on days/dates nurodant tiksli4 dien4.. at 11. at that time t posakiuose: at lunchldinnerl in a few minutes (po keliq breakfast minudiq) l : l l in a week (po savaites) in two years(po dvejq metq) in four weeks'time (po 4-ir4 savaidiq) Other Prepositions of Time Kiti laiko prielinksniai Preposition Prielinksnis about after ago Usage Vartosena about 5 o'clock after breakfast three vears apo Meaning Reik5me apie po pnes before between before breakfast between2and3o'clock prieS tarp by during bv March 13th during the lesson iki per. metu 26 17" cnnvuAR/cRAMATTKA . at midnight. in (the) summer at noon in the 19th century at the weekendlat in 1960lin the 1970s weekends in the Middle Ages at Chistmaslat a nurodant paros laik4: Easter in the morning(s) at the momentlat in the aftemoon(s) present in the evening(s) at the same time at the age of . dat4: on 13 March (on the thirteenth of March) on Monday(s) on Monday morning(s)laftemoon(s)l evenings on Friday night on Christmas Day on Easter moming on a summer afternoon on that day l j months/seasons/years nurodant valandas: o nurodant laik4 mdnesiais.

. from .. to over pqst SINCC veriiamas salininku nuo.i' But:: eCt.iki per po five pastfive since Chistmas throushout the year till now from5to6o'clock within a month Prepositions of Place Vietos prielinksniai at tn nuo per throughout till.. in the country in the lesson o nurodant gatvg fiei nera tikslaus adreso): He lives in Meadow Road. until to within iki iki per on o nurodant viet4 (erdvdje): t nurodant viet4 viduje: o nurodant viet4 in a building 1 at the bus stop pavirSiuje: in a room at the doctor's on the walllfloorl I inabox at the hairdresser's linside ceiling in the garden I at the window on my head in the pocket J (of the at the toplbottom on the tablelchair o nurodant konkredi4 page) on the second floor viet4 (Sali..Preposition Usage for 5 years from May to June over 2 hours Meaning fo.intoihe iai in a picturelphotograph at Jane's in the middle of .miest4 ir kt.): at the end of the road on the pavement in Vilnius at the backlfront in Lithuania o posakiuose: at workl school luniversity in the village on the leftlright at home in the city centre on the coast at the airport o posakiuose: on the river at the seaside in the water on the island at sea in the sea on the border at the cinemaltheatre in a iver on the beach at a concert/party in a row on the farm in a newspaperlbook at a tennis match on the screen in bed o nurodant adres4 on the back of an in hospitallpison (gyvenamqj4viet4): envelope in the slcy at l0 Downing Street in the world l pei on a busliaii at Peter's house in the street ".. I7 27 GRAMMAFVGMMATTKA ..

at lsimintini posakiai: (gatveskampe) -+ arrive at (small places): -+ at the airport at the universitv -+ ln on J at the corner of a street -r in the corner of a room -)on the corner of a street (kambario kampe) (gatveskampe) arrive in (large places)r in townslcities in VilniuslLondon -+to travel: to travel: in a car on a bus on a train on a plane Nurodyti krypti. nu- awayfrom behind below uz zemlau beside between beyond by down by the river down the river to leave for London from Lithuania Salia tarp (dviejq) uZ. Other Prepositions of Place Kiti vietos prielinksniai Preposition Prielinksnis around above across Usage Vartosena around the stadium above the desk across the street Meaning Reikime aplink vlrs a. vartojamas prielinksnisto: We went to the cinema.fter against along amonS run after the dog against the wall along the street among the girls away from the city behind the desk below the sea level beside the bed between the girls beyond the garden per piskui palei i5ilgai. walk. tarp (daugelio) ls-. come. anapus Salia. ypad su veiksmaZodLiais go.prie Lemyn for fro* 28 F t rS cnnnrnrAR/cRAMATtKA .

apacloJe up within up the river within 5 square metres aukStyn veriiama vietininku Prepositions of Method BUdoprielinksniai Preposition Prielinksnis by tn Usage Vartosena Meaning ReikSme with by hand by carlbusltrain in a hurry to eat with fingers veriiarna inagininku veriiama dalyviulpadalyviu veriiama inagininku 29 tr} cnnuuAR/cMMATTKA . pro Sali aplink pro/per link po. off the centre get off the busltrain on the top of the box ant. pne pat i5 (nuo) SA off on the top of opposite out of outside over past round through towards under Welive next to the libran. vir5uje He lives oppositethe chemist's. prie5ais (kitoje puseje) to get out of the car outside the house over the bridge over my head go past the church round the house go round London Iook through the window go through the door towards London under the bed IS i5oreje (lauke) VITS pro. netoli SA a.Preposition in front of inside into near next to Usage in front of the house inside the house into the box near London Meaning prie5ais.priekyje viduje i a.

Other Meanings of Some Prepositions Kitos kai kuriq prielinksniq reik5mes Preposition Prielinksnis about according to against Usage Vartosena Tbll me about hen about 5 million people according to the newspaper Meaning ReikSmd because of beneath besides to fight againsthimlthe law because bad weather of beneath the waves beneath the surface besides the children apie beveik pagal prieS. 30 17' cnnuunRycRAMAlKA . to go for holidays I like watching TV instead of going to the theatre. insteadof in spite of into It's for him. uZuot nepaisant I verctama kilmininku ls del veriiama naudininku SU of owing to to with without with melher/him 2 days without food be "Nick. then I was under him"." answeredNick. you again had a fight with that boy? How was the fight?" "lt was always a change of prepositions. in spite of bad weather to change the prince into a frog translate into Lithuanian the cover of the book made of stone owing to his illness Give it to me! to my surprise vietoj (ko). Zemiau be veriiama naudininku fo.su del po. "At first he was on me.

. bet . nel ner ne tik. o tadiau. vervcleveraswell. He is old yetL 31 17 ennvuAR/cRAMATTKA tuo tarpu.. I've passedthe exam while Tom hasn't. She is ill. my sister and I r His sisteris taip pat (sakiniogale) He is very clever. She is nicer than her sister. and she therefore hasn'tcome. tuo tarpu. Choose:Tom or me. I don't like bananas. .. However. either this girl or that one He speaks Englishwell. o ar ar She didn't know whether to write him or to phone. tadiau nel . I haven't eaten it. . so let's go home. nor will I He is not onlv rich but also very friendly. She'sright whereasyou're wrong. He has neither relativesnor friends. We have finished our work. very lively. bet taip pat (neigiamojo sakinio gale) a r b a . bet ir ar (arba) taigi (todel) taigi (del to) uZ (negu) taip pat (sakiniogale) She likes Tom and I like him too.. his brother speaksbetter.CONJUNCTIONS JUNGTUKAI Coordinating Gonjunctions jungtukai Sujungiamieji Meaning ReikSme Conjunction Junstukas Usage Vartosena taip pat She has also composed5 symphonies. taip pat ir lr lr in May as well as in July both vou and me She'snot attractivebut very nice.He doesn't like them either.a r b a .

you like Chinese food. undt$illsffiffii*r iki/kol Don't listen to the radio while you study. read it careJully... l *I. sit down.(that) jei Provided that I have a lot of monev. kai.. su s4lyga. n6S.1' lelgu 32 17" cnnrrlvARycRAMATtKA .Subordinati Conjunctions ng ju Priju ngiamieji ngtukai Conjunction Junstukas '"-i after .-' toks .. fot my telephone doesn't work. jeigu vos tik. tam.""Xi. kad : ne She is not so tall as her sister nots'&. lom ts as tall as his broth. I'd learn more.. I wonder { you like her Thke an umbrella in case it rains.ieigu ar tuo atveju. pnes kadangi . Wile I like you..:r11-. Before you write. As long as I am here. I must tell you the truth. Meaning Reik5me Usage Vartosena I went after we had had dinner Although she was nice I didn't like her She met him as he was leavinT. eFoniAec*ftuai)'l nuo to laiko.kad 'T- 'l They will come unlessit rains. thougl nors Kal kadangi 4. Wait until I phone you.nes net ieigu befoiE. I can help you. kaip :I&:l Ielgu lau Now you are here. I'll take you to the Chineserestaurant. As soon as he met her he told her about it. Since he insisted I've told him. . In order to pass the exam. po qlthough. kaip tarytum kol He spoke English s!_tf he was born in England. learn more. I can help you as long as you will lend me this book. kad) ne utreslffi:5ilg1... I watch W because I like it.er taip (taip kaip) toks .T. kai. Since I met he4 I can't think of anyone. Do as I do. jei Even if it rains. I will visit you.it. kadangi tffit:*g. I can't phone him. kadansi kadansi.. tuo metu. She said that she was buw. kai tik. Wile I live here I'll alwavs visit her tol kol nors (nepaisant to. IJ I wereyou.

come. may. take. Pagrindiniai participle end in -ed. are was. has had to do do.IXioi irregular (netaisyklingieji) think. ls. used to. The past tense and past read. can/could. participle are made not following the usual pattern. will. need. make. auxiliary (pagalbiniai) be. love. shall. 'ilzcfro)^. Main Verbs The past tense and past want etc. does did Modal Verbs (Defective verbs) Modaliniai veiksmaZodZiai can. dare SpecialiejiveiksmaZodZiai Auxiliary Verbs PagalbiniaiveiksmaZodliaito be.wilV Specialieji modal (modaliniai) would. dare. ought. do SpecialVerbs may/might.VERBS VEIKSMAZOOZNI Divisionof Verbs VeiksmaZodZiq skirstymas regular (taisyklingieji) help. must/haveto. to do Infinitive Past participle am. play.S cnnuuAR/GRAMATnG 33 . like. to have. reiksmaZodZiai should/oughtto. have. write etc. used to can must may need will shall ought to dare usedto to be able can arba amlislare ableto to have to must may need will shall ought to to Jure dare arba waslwere able to had to might would should been able to had to Our"J . need. to have have. must. work.

t< -a'a < ( l .2 !. . ? rs q z ..(D L < s . 9 ! F i i i 9 e .N E 5 6 5) '" b tLl :. r. r! g G qr8 F F I --FslSJ >==t.v? L ! i E F t E dz .-.2 i b q E 'Rl g{ ^ Y' z ' E t i a o H^O dFt l F g =. :: i .dttrgg D O.. 6 a0 i < r':-9?Fls l i o q U) l -( -g H 40. v = c ) d ho u) .= - s ot .1 h .9P oo.2 .'lF'F a r ( .9 -rr: ! l.. 'c) c-Y G(/) : i !irE FfiUs! 4 .o'rt F O 0 ..N o|(g ( J F ^ A o r{'k i . 6 6 f l ..-.> 7:^ H : i\ \ <aad d / t t {) .rJ 4 s ._. 6 . q ) q ) ! .. . s . 3 6f l i < . HsEXiZ ! Ye-5get .r> -' .)3 = g XJ \ ' r ^ 'q) d..= c> (.l 8. l u E .= 6 e e O 3 : > = .o rfl U e s Q s t < l z -' .il .> . l (a p b s r-: 6 9 z'E F<(} x o 9.E. 3< itr > ' i n d z a a a-\ A H ':' Fr. t i .9 = i U)& P > E I J b g '.2 ^ 6 . l-r q ) : e o : bo .tr p I f : Y' rtt-!El 5==> = > 6 i g c. . X.) v4 'G lz A = C. .: ! E (E 9g* F:i et i' :.rPl E o tffAsE 4 . ? C. q .E. U) Hl'.. = . i Q .F U) F1 tt) 4 a .:6 3 *a. H . r : 9 9 a : l: l r:r.lo A .F z g O 4. .E !c a.a H t = i ' E :B [rl r l E l E > 3l il .g H 2 r.l'ii k n \ 9 ! ! 9 . * 2 > HO g . E $f i € 2 . F C N l1 6 .r59rr. .= '6 o >tr cD Ei Z.-. c O'(o o 5 J c) o. FArA3l 7<g E 4 f 3 F > o o a .-: -Y rrt Xl *l ql c.o4 3 Z a .i5. <E $ i4 r gi d?i e<gi $ g :<3 4 3 i u 17 cnnuuAFvcMMATrKA .-l i o F F .v F C d a e : : g : l E.:v olz r P > : <aad . iF El ? .A " I . 9 - ..2 q d H IJJ i:: { ) € ' r V H k ' F ^ - .rt -o'N E P >9.t g? <'o o a E . = a q .N .6 :.. 2a o a 9. \ ! o o : o .

> .c . g o a.ca kl fuV) a ii .: l.d i \ ?> 'a = oo € L 9 r ! bo l o ! .> ? = s . 2 i-i f i i# F l .n 9 . l c ' ro q= a) i rrtSIl trx E 72. 9 .2 3 .2 -o ..> ? B 9 i . t ) a . 5 Xra K ) A rl r.) FFT ! H F i E OEe 9slsl 6Eg 03131 rrli i.9 e) 'u.l .o -eU 1 = G € P a) c h .Yx..t 9 . Eg3rE 43i. 5 !.9 a u Ejo= a . .cr r A a fi. l.Y6 : .9 7i \ <a9aed - / - p d p .l i i l.. f IJ" ONNUUAR/GMMATIKA35 . . o.q = 4.- 2 a . * B .= a 1 T L Y l l x l i i o.. i r 'r .) G ( ) o ) 0 ) o -o rrt ! r) o o . :ii E :*|{l =E Hirg q'l i l z i \.fi = < .:.E H O . 3< A i:: 6Slsl ! 1 U qJ rTld ii z.-.9b - - ! i H : -ls5 l xGt l >ilEl ixl \l st*t sSl x 9. -o rTt ! ? . F i 1o e9d .o? r 6 7 i V / < A g D o d bo bo : i .r o.= rr-J B } tJ.E .= a\)x F<V q 7 -' = z r ho '-= oo 'E ! o B \. v J : < = > = -o o B 3) c = x O r i' t r rr'l 'a 4. I i t E r-. d i r a v-c -c v Y > o fl i < ) o F\ i./ ) Y '.E E= f r) v q ii 4 .. j v ) ! : 9 E :'l ! .o . o o 6 Fl I Y - - S:g t-_E* F o rrr SlSl ll IJJ ))'x.a .a l6 4 V ..F 9Pi l rP S l ^ l Y 9 e .6f--Efli< P i l n o i e 9 .J rrl H .A3 Si< i = > : : > g i i H F i fi o-rI o-r.i1 E= cd ./ -o 5 t . . g Q 2 / E . r ro8 - l e 2 a =. g{ u F r-'.r=I F zi i 'J = 7.. ..1 6 L > 7 -'E Nl >E O > :t\l :l trY a d )'e Er ': o B \ > ' 'E = o i z-E t Z = ( r A ' " o d X Fr v'A X c rrl J on e .a= .i ! X- t :1 . OrI = Ye :o t-J s !'1 = .-.:: .1 < <A qZ d .l .'. = € : d H q < - J q ! '!-'- dE: ) - trJa= (aE P H K c ' lJ a r-t ..-r +.4 A 2 3 Y. :y Y u .) t1 c .Y u? . . .r4 € a4 9 4 9 v € > U :1 -r Y U ' I <a eaqd ho bo h ! 2 t l i - hl ..E o 3 > h ! 33 ' > z i | uJ3l 3l stsl ^ . 3 5 f l .9 n .-: t.r .9 . = r a cod o i E i q ) 9 . l . is(a: ! l3 ! l . ) o r a ? ) a A .i =h.

..? """'{ l. w They J ...The Use of Tenses in the Active Voice Veikiamosios rfiSiesveiksmaZodZiq laikq vartojimas PAST SIMPLE I went to England last year.? D.. It ] oo..-? p l a y ../write.always./ w r i t e .. {k} When Where does does play . 2.. in summer.. .. J doesn't Question play .? he he 30 17"cnnnruAFycMMATrKA ../write.' /write l lt. He smokestoo much. Water turns into ice at 0"C. ./write.. . played*.sometimes. ofien.."./wrote* l"'e It0. It J Negative r l did not didn't You I do not We I don't They J . usually... rarely. I'm ill. never.. in 1960.. yesterday. . every daylweeklmonthlyear Positive *.. .? play.w r i t e s.. . 3../ ln Inruv. seldom.no.* } play ..2 days ago.lnst yearlweek PRESENT SIMPLE 1..

. He said he would phone.e il" I wouldntav I w e l I rhey J 1 J Negative H e l L. I will help you.. in 2020.he would eat much more. l I I Negative r He I will not She I won't I t l You I ./write..wri. 3.e 1 Ii"' lh" play . t. When he was younger... Positive You I H e l She I will r l w e l TheyJ rt l'u l .? Will I she Would I they IL I you he she it we they ? t' .? lf gT cnnuuARycRAMATtKA .e l When lwill Where lwill Who will play .nert Fridaylday../write.../write l w e l TheyJ Question I You He She It We They Question would not wouldn't t.wri.FUTURE SIMPLE 1. I would buy a new car. I will have a cup of tea. I think he will win... He was afraid he would be late...? What girl will play . If I were a rich man. 3... 2. 2.. in a weeklmonthlyear Positive FUTURE in the PAST 1. in summir. please! tomorrow. 4..wri.

. Yesterday was doing my homework for 5 hours.? Who was playing.ot Ques fi:rlaren't Question Am I Is [1" was t"I fwe Were{ you I they will til" I they fhe Are he he {x. now..at the moment At th work r l H e l wer You f were They J Negative She f It J was Positive I a m H e l She Iit I t j w e l You I are They J Negative I am not 'm not I Positi I He She It We You They r l He I w a sn o t She fwasn't It J w e l You fwerenot weren't TheyJ Question ffi li'l:' It J ISNT Nega I You He She It We They Y" I are.. I am readingnow. I 3..PAST CONTINUOUS 1.? 38 17' cnnvruAFvcMMATtKA . my mum was cooking and my dad was sleeping... She is visiting her son next month. 2.? What girl is playing . while... when Positive PRBSENTCONTINUOUS 1.? he When I S Where are you p l a y i n g . . I was fishingwhen my friend fell into the water. Whe Whe Who Wha When I was Where I was playing playing playing .. . . ? Who is playing.? What girl was playing. While I was watching TV. 2..

... Would you be meetingher today? 2.My sister would be writing her tests now.o.? will What will be playing girl .../ writing. Tom said he would be watchins TV at 11 o'clock. 4..l TheyJ I You He will not She won't It We I You playing. kl H e l She I would lbe Negative It lwouldn't I We They Question y.FUTURE CONTINUOUS At this time tomorrow I will be workins. . FUTURE CONTINUOUS in the PAST 1.lu" I he she i t l b e playing .l] cnnuvARycMMATtKA39 .? ... fwourd... 3. . He would be having a nap after dinner.? Who be playing.? we you they I you he Would she I be it we they W h e nw i l l l h " l b " l R t a y i n g . ? l Where lwill lyou lbe lplaying .../writing .... Positive Positi I He She It We You Negative i.

. never. recently. You I havenot We f haven't TheyJ She I has not nasn't It J /written I You He She It We lt*. just. They J I t J H e r She I has Negative played.... played. for. 2..... lately.. I have worked here for 5 years. 2....? What girl had played .. I had eaten my breakfast. 3.ever Positive PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE 1. already./written. lately.I couldn't come in because had I lost my key.. Someonehas eaten my apples..just.? 40 17 cnnnauAFvGRAMArKA ./written.? Who Wha Who has written . already.. so far By tl this bv th I* You He She It We r l Positive You H e She I t w e r l I l had You I have w e f I l l played. ever. before./written..? Question I you he Had she played. since. Before I left. never.. They J Negative I You He She had not hadn't It We They r l /written t H e lt*.? What girl has played ..../written.. since. yet. I have just done my homework..PAST PERFECT SIMPLE 1..? it we they Question Have ] lwe I they fhe Has J she Lit When Where lhas lhave I vou I Whe lh" lyou When lhad Where lhad Who had written . yet.after.

.... lShe w o n r I havelplayed | | It We They Question I you he Will{ she havel played .? girl I You He I You He She It We They Question I you he Would she havelplaved ../written it we they W h e n w i l l l h e I h a v e l p l a y e d. It We They Negative w i l ln o t l .. | ...? t" it we they flcnnvuARycRAMATtKA 41 .. your party. ...? Who will havewritten ....? What will have played . /written. ./written .FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE FUTURE PERFECT in the PAST Bythis time tomorrow I will have read If I had had time.. t l Where lwill lyou lhave lwritten . bythetime Positive I* You He She will I have lplayed ... I would have come thisbook. ./written ./written It We lThey Negative Positive I You He She wouldlhavelnlaveo ....

. I have been waitins for her for 2 hours.. We They Question r l You I have not We I haven't They J beenltlavin8 not lt.? Haue] You l * e L they beenl playing. I have been teachingfor 10 years for. Wh.F" cnnrrrrvrARycRAMATtKA . PRESENT PBRFECT CONTINUOUS 1./writing It We They Negative r l You I We f have TheyJ beenlRla/ne .? Who has beenwriting .PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS I had been reading a book for two hours before my friend came. I She .. .. .. ..? What girl has beenplaying. lwrltlng She I has I t J Negative Posi I You He She It We I You He h a dn o t l . at the moment How long ... 2. She has been smokingsince 1970 3.. .. ? l i t W h e n l h a s l h e l b e e n l R l a V i n S? W h e n . since + now./ H e l . ? Where lhavelVou Ibeenlwriting ? Wherelhadlyou lbeen lwriting .... h e l b e e n l t l a V i n e.. I has It J hasn't Question lwnnng Neg I You He She It We The Que I you he Had she ir we they beenlplaying. ? Positive Bv Eng bv (./ f h e Has { she f r I w r i t i n g.....iiins.| How longlhavelyou Ibeenlplaying Who had beenwriting . l b e e n lp l a y l n g .. Wh.. / hadn't It I l*..... ..? Wh.1 lwriting. h a d.? .? What girl had been playing . Whr 42.. Positive I You He t l She hadlbeenl playing.

.? Whatgirl will have been playing ...? ere have .i I t | t | t ' lwntrng .... li"'iii"i I you he ill she havel beenplaying...... ve Positive I You He She It will Ihave lUeenplaying../ writing ./ it writing.. But for the fog we wouldn't have been driving for 3 long hours.? I playing .. lplaying It We They I .. I You He She would It We ey ve been playing. for (the time in the future) FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS in the PAST 1..? $ cnnuvAFyGRAMATrKA . 2.... She explained that by July they would have been learning English for 2 years.? we they Question I you he Would she havelbeen I nlavins it | | wntrng we they en lwillIhe Ihave . lwilllyou I lbeen I Whowill have been writing . lbeenplayine .. ave lt will not won't I You He would not peen She wouldn't have .FUTUREPERFBCT CONTINUOUS By July she will have been learning English 3 years.

Supplements Active Voice to Priedai 1 priedas Esamojopaprastojolaiko vienaskaitos 3-iame asmenyje pridedama gallne -s arba -es: -es pridedama: . einantieji po Siq veiksmaiodLiq: admire. need. depend. own. think.t haven't done it yglt. envy.since 1990 (nuo) lately. (ka tik) . doubt.) o mandagiamepasiulymear klausime: (Shall I open the window?) r ispejant ar grasinant: (You shall be punished!) 3 priedas Su galfine -ing vartojami veiksmaLodliai. Iike. tch. deserve. possess. adore. remember. seem. astonish. forget. (neigiamajame sakinyje . sh. suppose. exist. (iki Siol) 44 l7o cnnnanaAR/cRAMATtKA . concem.Have you ever seen . contain. surprise. love. keep. pastaruoju metu) yet . (niekada) never eyer . matte4 mean. want .I have never seen. belong. fit.I have met her latellt.Have you done it W? (klausiamajame sakinyje . prefef realise. satisfy. x Qtass-->passes) . detest. Pr Pr Pt Pr Pr Pz F' R a t t 2) 4) 4 priedas for . suspect.jau) already . understand. ss..jei veiksmaZodis baigiasipriebalse + y (y -+ i) (try -+ tries) Jei veiksmaZodis baigiasibalse * y. hate. have.kada nors) so far .I have read 5 pages so far. sound. hea6 imagine.jei Zodisbaigiasi s. recently .I have alreadlt done it.1tr done ir. ch. lack.. know. (neseniai.. be.dar ne\ yet . stop. Qau) just .I have ju. include. ? (klausiamajame sakinyje .fut 5 years (penkerius metus) since . involve..j"i veiksmaZodis baigiasi -o (do -+ does) . believe. recognise. survive. impress. last. consist. tai y i5lieka ir pridedama tik gallne -s (play -+ plays) 2 priedas Vietoj will st vienaskaitosir daugiskaitosl-uoju asmeniu galima vartoti shall (shall not = shan't): r btsimajam laikui reik5ti st I ir we: (I shall do it. dislike. please.

Passive Voice Neveikiamoji r0Sis r Neveikiamojir[Sis sudaromai5 veiksmaZodZio be * veiksmaZodZio to III forma (b[tojo laiko dalyvisarba veiksmaZodis galflne -ed). til.you're using a wrong grammar voice! I haven't been fighting. l€. t€t 4)kai norima pabrdZtiveikej4 c. arba suprantamas konteksto i5 The burglars have been arrested. are islarelam being waslwere waslwere being haslhave been had been will be will have been written o Neveikiamojir[Sis vartojama: 1)kai veikejasneZinomas. t€. . The Tower of London was built by William the Conqueror. LittleJohnny came home from school with a bleedingnose and a black eye.' correctedher the boy: 'l've been fought. 2)oficialioje arba mandagiojekalboje My new suit ftas beenburnt. nesvarbus My car ryasstolen yesterday.) 3)kai veiksmas yra svarbiau negl Thking pictures is not allowed. (You have burnt my suit is impolite. Johnny! You've been fighting!' 'Oh. veikejas Bread is baked for about 45 minutes. His mother reprimandedhim sternly: 'Shame on you. Mummy. su Present Simple Present Continuous PastSimple PastContinuous Present Perfect PastPerfect Future Simple Future Perfect atn.s.' 45 lTcnnuuARycRAMATrKA .

keidiasi tik LodLi4tvarka ir ivardZiai. gali keistis Lodiiq tvarka. Jeigu pagrindiniame sakinyje veiksmaZodis pavartotasbutuoju laiku. Saluttnls saktnvs ca c( m n sl sl w o IT h 2. 'I have just come back from London. 'I'm going to England next year' J. 'I spend my holidays in the mountains. Direct Speech Tiesiosind kalba Examples Pavyzdliai 1 .' Reported Speech Netiesiogine kalba Main Clause Pagrindinis sakinys Subordinate CIause x .' (I) she has just come back She says (that) from London. Jeigu pagrindiniamesakinyjeveiksmaZodis pavartotasesamuojulaiku. ivardZiaibei aplinkybes.keidiasi anglq kalbos sakinio zodziq tvarka ir gali keistisveiksmaZodZio laikq formos: I. tai Salutiniame sakinyjeturi blti derinami veiksmaZodZiq laikai. (Esamasis laikas) (2) she is going to England next year (3) she will visit her grandmother (4) she spends her holidays in the mountains. tai SalutiniamesakinyjeveiksmaZodZio laikas gali blti bet koks. II. (2) she was going to England the following yean (3) she would visit her grandmother.REPORTED SPEECH A N D T H E S E Q U E N C E F T E N S E S O N E T I E S I O G I N E L B A IR LAIKU DERINIMAS KA verdiant tiesiogingkalb4 i netiesioging. (4) she Wsn! her holidays in the mountains.' (I) she had just come back from London. n v ! a 46 lI' cnnuvnR/cMMATtKA . She said (that) (Butasis laikas) 4. 'I will visit mv grandmother. !l q ! ! I b II.

the next dav the followi ng daylyear etc.Modal Verbs in Reported Speech kalboje formq derinimasnetiesiogin6je Modaliniqveiksma2odZiq nl ai ik can could Direct Speech Tiesiosine kalba could could Reported Speech Netiesiogindkalba may might shall should will would ought to might m sht should should would would ought to had to/would have to/must had better must had better Pronouns and Time Words in Reported Speech kalboje netiesiogindje lvardZiqir laiko aplinkybiqpasikeitimai Reported Speech Direct Speech Netiesiogine kalba Tiesioeine kalba this these that those here now today there then that day tomorrow next day/yearletc. ago before 47 lJ" cnnuuAFvcRAMATtKA . the previous week yesterday last week/yearletc. I the day before. the previous day the week before.

H forget to post the letter' 'Will you have tea with me?' 'Don't She reminded me to post the letter He invited me to have tea with him. your bag?' 'I'll help you!' He prni.H 2 48 l7u cnnuvnFyGRAMATtKA 4.H sh You'd better te her the truth!' He suggestedthat I (should) tell her the truth. vartojaminetiesiogineje kalboje Reporting Verb Examples PavyzdLiai agree offer promise refuse threaten advise ask beg command invite order remind wam -+ * to-infinitive Direct Speech Reported Speech Tiesiogindkalba Netiesioeine kalba 'Shall I carry He offered to carry my bag. He complained that I was always coming late. Pr . 51 .H Pa .' You took my -+ * gerund purse.H 2 ' --> f somebody * to-infinitive Pa .laim remark promise suggest go to the cinema.H sh Fr .H sh -+ * that-clause (Salutinis papildinio sakinys) You're always coming late!' Fr . Pa .T Pr .sd_la lryJp me. Fu .Reporting Verbs VeiksmaZodZiai.H Pr .H Pa .' He suggested going to the cinema.H 'Let's sh admit deny prefer suSSest accusesb of appologizefor boast oflabout complain to sb of irtsiston agree complain deny explain exc. She accused me of takingl having taken her purse.H 2 (-ing form) Fu . AI Pr .

for 2 hours by then. said. -+ Past Perfect Continuous She said he had been reading a book for 2 hours.' said. 'He ture Perfect Continuous will have been reading for -+ Future Perfect in the past She said he would havefinished by then. -) Future Continuous in the past She said he would be lying on the beach. -+ Future Perfect Continuous in the past she said he would have been reading hours by then. Future Continuous 'He will be lying on the beach. Future Perfect 'He will haveJinished by then.Sequence of Tenses Laiku derinimas Reported Speech Netiesiogind kalba Atpasakojantbltuoju laiku. She said he had just come.' She said he would be back Past Perfect 'He had already left. -r Past Perfect She said he had alreadyteft.' said.' said. -+ Past Perfect Present Perfect 'He has just come. keidiasiveiksmaZodZio laikai: Present Simple 'He likes swimming. She said he was playing footbatl.' she said. -+ Future Simple in the past Future Simple 'He will be back in five minutes. -+ Past Perfect Continuous Past PerfectContinuous 'He had been washingdishesfor she said he had beenwashingdishes 2 hours.' she said. She said he had corne an hour ago.' she said. -) Past Perfect/Past Simple Past Simple 'He came an hour ago. Present Perfect Continuous 'He has been reading a book for 2 hours.' she said. Past Continuous 'He was cleaning the house. 49 17 ennrrrurAFycMMATtKA . in five minutes. -+ Past Perfect Continuous/past Continuous She said he had been cleaning the house.' she said.'she said. -+ Past Simple She said he likeslliked swimming.' she said.' she said. for 2 hours. -+ Past Continuous Present Continuous 'He is playing football.

* TI Ff Re ha tut General Questions Bendrieji klausimai 2 1 2 3 'Haveyou ever been to Susanaskedme whetherlifI 4 1 3 4 Britain?' Susan asked had beento Britain. She ordered Tbm to write the essav.' she said to Tbm. Reported Speech Netiesioginekalba She said she wanted to go to the mountains.word order In Reponed Speecn Zod2itq rka netiesiogi tua n6s kaIbos sakiniuose Tlpes of Sentences Sakiniq rflSys Statements Teigiamiejisakiniai SpecialQuestions Specialiejiklausimai (su klausiamaisiais ZodZiais) Direct Speech Tiesiogindkalba 'I want to go to the mountains.' askedher she hadn't done her mother. The teacher asked us to open our books.* me. netiesiogin6je kalbojeb0tina laikytisanglq kalbos teigiamojosakinio ZodZiqtvarkos taisykliq: E ttrl 50 l7' cnnrrruAFycRAMATt(A HEET 'Fancy A philosopher said: what silencewould set in if peoplesaid only what they really understood!' . t 2 3 4 1 'Why didn't you do your Her mother asked her whlt 5 3 2 4 homework?.' Orders said the teacher PraSymai/liepimai/ 'Wite this essay.'she said. Requests/Commands/ 'Openyour books!. isakymai TY PR Ur to pr( als ad TY PA Ur in to cri * Atpasakojant specialiuosius bendruosius ir klausimus. 5 homework.

If the child had behaved well. p.sAKlNlAl sALYGos SnlurtrutAt Main clause ll-clause Salutinis sakinys Pagrindinis sakinys S C ON D IT ION A L E NTENCES Usage Vartojimas If I have money. l7 cnnvuAR/cMMATtKA51 . PresentPerfect) truths) (Active Passive) or would/could/might If * Past TYPE2 + Simple/Past PRESENT . If you hqejni.it melts. he wouldn't have been nunished. I wouldn't tell this. we would have arived on time. it wouldn't have been broken into. Simple. If I hsd money. If I had had money. But for the rain. If it weren'trainins.Present PresentSimple (for general Continuous. If you heat snow.she will tell us. a car If I wereyou. unless John phones. wecangofor a walk. I don't want to go out.I will buy a car. to bed. I would bu). He can't hear you unless you shout. I don't know if (ar) she will come. If you are tired. I will comeif I havetime. TYPE 1 FUTURE Real. I would have bought a car If I had locked the flat. Supposing your car breaks down in the middle of the dessert. used (Active or Passive) past participle to express criticism regret or l hat If I have time. If (jeigu) she comes.your work. tense(Present Imperative. or alsoused to give advice If * PastPerfect/ would/could/might TYPE3 + Past Perfect PAST have Unreal situation Continuous + in the past.hcd. I will come.likely to in happen the futureor present If * any present Future Simple. we could go for a walk.unlikely Continuous infinitive Unreal to happenin the (Active or Passive present future.

3 he wouldn't be searching for one now. 2 3 If she knew him.' s2 17 cnnuuARycRAMATrKA . Main clause he won't come to the meeting. Tlpe If-clause required 2 If nobody phaued him. I Tlpe used she would have spoken to him.Mixed Conditionals Mi5rls Salutiniais4lygossakiniai Ir pagrindiniame. I would choosegrammar. 2 'lf I challengedyou to a duel what weapons would you select?' 'lf it ever came to a choice of weaponsagainstyou. If he had found a job. ir Salutiniamesakinyje galima vartoti bet kuri Salutinio s4lygos sakinio tip4. jei to reikalauja kontekstas.

) 3 PAST I wish * PastPerfect/ .) If she were here. Then the student looked up at her and said 'l sympathetically: wish I had your worries.S E N TENCES TARIAMOSIOSNUOSAKOSSAKINIAI Tlpes RtSys Form used in the sentence Forma.(future change disappointment) or (B[tq gerai.k4 daryti. (Gaila. ma'am'.) I wishyoawouldbe quiet. (unlikelyto happen) (Norddiau. Zinotq.jei nustotqlyti.) The grammar teacher wrote a sentence on the blackboardand asked the 'William. kad netapaudaktaru. (Gaila. kad nesu daktaras.WIS H . (Norediaublti auk5tesnis.(lack of hope) (O. different (Gaila. regret that sth Past Perfect happenedor didn't Continuous happenin the past (If only) (Active or Passive) I wish I had been a doctor. vartojama sakinyje Example Vartojimo pavyzdys 1 FUTURE I wish * subject r wish for a future * infinitive (unlikely to change (If only) happen) (Active or Passive) o wish to express dissatisfaction o polite request implyingdissatisfaction or lack of hope I wish fte would enter the university.) 2 PRESENT I wish * PastSimple/ I wish I were a doctor.) I wish (If only) I were taller. she would know what to do. kad tu nutiltum.) presentsituation (If only) I wish I didn't have so much whichwe want to be (Active or Passive) work to do. kad turiu tiek daug darbo. student: where is the subject?'.lf cnnrrrrrrAR/cRAMATtKA 53 . (Jei ji b[tq dia.The teacher repeated the question. kad jis istotq i universitet4.) I wishir would stopraining. .) I wish I hadn't bought this dress.kad pirkau 5i4suknelg. o regret about a PastContinuous (Gaila. The studentkept silent.

kai tik) slnce (nuo to laiko. blsimasis laikas nevartojamas vietoj jo vartojamas bet kuris iS veikiamosios ar neveikiamosios rlSies esamqjqlaikq. since. afte4 wheneve4 once.TIMECLAUSES SnlurruAr LArKoApLtNKyBES sAKlNlAl Salutiniuose laiko aplinkybessakiniuose. before. Wait here until they come back. when (kai) He'll phone you when he gets home.as soon as. as. You'll feel better after you've had something to drink. I will have washed the dishes by the time my mother comes.) s4 lT cnnurrrnRycRAMATtKA . kai) whenever (kad ir kada) once (kai.it's easyto start speakingcorrectly. Can you look after my cat white I am away? Before you leave. kai) The childrenwill go out for a walk as soon as the rain stops. untilltill. iki) while (kol) before (prie5) after (kai) by the time (iki to laiko.you must meet my sister. Whenever she comes. Once you learn the basicrules. What is it you must keep after you have given it to somebody?(The answer: Your word. It is five years since I've seen her. she brings a friend. prasidedandiuose when. while. S as soon as (kai tik) until/till (kol.

(appeared) He appears to have been writing a letter to his mother for 2 hours (for severalhours). ivykusi prie5 tariniu ivardyt4 veiksm4.VERBALS FORMOS VEIKSMAZOOZIO NEASMENUOJAMOSIOS Infinitive forms Bendraties formos Simple The Infinitive Bendratis Usage Passive Voice Active Voice Neveikiamoji rt5is Vartojimas Veikiamoji rt5is to write She has to write this essay. 55 . *Si forma vartojama tik su tranzityviniais (galininkiniais)veiksmaZodZiais. y. to have been written This essayought to have been written. ivardyti veiksm4. kurio atlikimas su sinchroni5kas sakinio turiniu ivardyto veiksmo atlikimu. Siosbendraties formos vartojamos butajamlaikui t. Perfect Continuous to have been writing She ought to have been writing this essay. Perfect to have written She ought to have written this essay. He appears (appeared)to write a letter to his mother every day. He aooears (aopeared) to be writing a letter to his mother now (then).ff cnnHauAR/cMMATtKA . to be rwiting She has to be writing this essay now. y. i5reik5ti. t. A letter to his mother aDDears (aooeared\ to be written by him every day. ivardyti veiksmui. to be written This essay has to be written. to be being written* Continuous Siosbendraties formos vartojamos esamajam laikui reik5ti. A letter to his mother aDDears (aooeared) to have been witten yesterday (several days before). He appears(appeared) ro have written a letter to his mother yesterday(several days before).

knocked at the door. give up. Passive Voice Neveikiamoji rfiSis being learnt being translated I hate being interruoted.fail. postpone. endure. managq nl. deserve.need. escrpe. Verb * object * infinitive Verb * -ing (Gerund) VeiksmaZodis + -ins forma VeiksmaZodZiai. forgive. try. decide. trouble. would like. Posakiai: can't bear can't help can't stand go (eg swimming) spend timelmoney (on) no good no use no wofth VeiksmaZodiiai. mind. help Example: She made them do it. miss. enjoy. hope. celebrate. plan. go. keep. choose. kuriq vartojami po veiksmaZodZiai galune -ing: su admit. claint. pretend. 56 17 cnnvunRycRAMATtKA . lie. long. offer. I feel like goigg to the theatre. finish. dislike. ask. kuriq vartojama po bendratis: afford. stop. resent. prove. agree. dare.The Gerund VeiksmaZodZio galOne-ing formos su Gerund form Active Voice Gerundijaus Veikiamoji rt5is forma Simple learning translating I hate interrupting people. regret. having learnt having been learnt VeiksmaZodZio su -ing forma having translated having been gallne He entered translated i5rei5kia anksiiau without having The door opened ivykusiveiksm4. fancy. start. wait. forget. excuse. fight. bea6 beg. promise. untlerstand etc. avoid. know. consent. hate. want. Usage Vartojimas Perfect Abiejosesakiniodalyse vartojamiveiksmaZodZiairei5kiatuo pat metuvykstanti veiksm4. aim. seenr. kuriq vartojamas po ir to: verb + -ing papildinys bendratisbe dalelytes let. learn. like. make. love. prepare. swea6 tend. I heard her sing. attempt. without having been knocked on. involve. deny. practise. risk. dread. determine. loathe. would love. They decided to stay at home. hea4feel. intend. put off. appreciate. refuse. face. help. propose. forget.ean. Verb * to-infinitive VeiksmaZodis + bendratis VeiksmaZodZiai. appea\ an'ange. discuss. demand. advise. neglect. wish. suggest. would prefer etc. threaten. ntention. remembe4 report. conside4 contemplate. hesitate. feel like. care. resist. Susan wanted ta_ watch this play. delay. detest. expect. He denied stealing the money. imagine. adore.

remind. intend. order. Verb * to-infinitive or * -ing Ir -ing forma. want. need. kai papildinys eina po Siq veiksmai. teach.had bette4 would rather You must do your homework. cause. begin. wam She asked us to visit her mother He wanted us to close the windows. may. expect. get.Verb*sb+to-infinitive Bendratis vartojama. encourage. must.2 J 1 let me read read let him/her/ Iet them read it read don't read don't read let them read let him/her/ it read l] cnnuuARvcMMATrKA . fea4 hate. beg. urge.continue.odLittr: advise. Modal verb * infinitive Bendratis be ro vartojama po Siq modaliniq veiksmaZodZiq: can. ir bendratisgali eiti po SiqveiksmaZodZiq: Tttempt. She could come to my parry. tell. ask. forbid. deserve.bothe4 cease.prefe4 start IMPERATIVEMOOD L IE P IA MOJI UOSAKA N Order Liepimas Person Singular Asmuo Vienaskaita Plural Daugiskaita let us read read Singular Vienaskaita let me read Prohibition Draudimas Plural Daugiskaita let us read . might. help. dare. persuade. like. could.prefe4 recommend. allow. love. invite. leave. force.

Soktii vandeni daryti pieSti gerti vairuoti valgyti (nu)kristi skristi (uZ)drausti uZmirSti atsisakyti Salti duoti eiti augti kirsti.pakelti pradeti ik4sti plsti lauiyti pa(si)rinkti ateiti nerti. kapoti slepti(s) Zinoti guleti Sienauti vaZiuoti skambinti(telefonu) pakilti begti pjauti matyti siIti kratyti(s) rodyti susitraukti. susiraukSleti GRAMMARiGMMATIKA .IR R E GU L A RV E R B S IN GROUPS SU G R U P U OT N E T A IS Y K L IN GIEJI I VEIKSMAZOOZNI l+2+3 (Skiriasi visostrys formos) (a)wake bear begin bite blow break choose come dive do draw drink drive eat fall fly (for)bid forget forsake freeze give go grow hew hide know lie mow ride ring rise run saw see sew shake show shrink (a)woke bore began bit blew broke chose came dove/dived did drew drank drove ate fell flew (for)bade forgot forsook froze gave went grew hewed hid knew lay mowed rode rang rose ran sawed saw sewed shook showed shrank (a)woken born(e) begun bitten blown broken chosen come dived done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen flown (for)bidden forgotten forsaken frozen given gone grown hewed/hewn hid/hidden known lain mowed/mown ridden rung risen run sawed/sawn seen sewed/sewn shaken showed/shown shrunk to pabusti gimdyti.

17 cnnvvAR/cMMATTKA59 to . tureti reikalq kasti.apsistoti maitinti(s) jausti kovoti . uZlipti neSioti. keiktis tinti. vilketi austi raSyti l+2 = 3 (Sutampa antroiiir tredioiiforma) bend beseech bind bleed breed bring build burn buy catch cling creep deal dig dream dwell feed feel fieht bent besought bound bled bred brought built burnt bought caught clung crept dealt dug dreamt dwelt fed felt fought bent besought bound bled bred brought built burnt bought caught clung crept dealt dug dreamt dwelt fed felt fought linkti.maldauti (su)ri5ti kraujuoti auginti.svajoti gyventi. padideti plaukti imti ple5yti.veisti atneSti statyti degti pirkti pagauti tvirtai laikytis.i5barstyti prisiekti.draskyti klesteti.nuZudyti apseti kalbeti paSokti vogti dvokti stengtis. kabintis SliauZti bendrauti. siekti i5metyti. su(si)lenkti pra5yti.tarpti (i5)mesti Lengti. knaisiotis sapnuoti. grimzti uZmu5ti.to slng sink slay sow speak spring steal stink strew strive swear swell swim take tear thrive throw tread wear weave write sang sank sledslayed sowed spoke sprang stole stank/stunk strewed strove swore swelled swam took tore throve threw trod wore wove wrote sung sunk slain sowed/sown spoken sprung stolen stunk strewed/strewn striven sworn swollen/swelled swum taken torn thriven thrown trodden/trod worn woven written clamuotr skgsti.

slinkti (uZ)uosti.siekti.kabdti tureti girdeti.ap5viesti pamesti reik5ti. tureti omeny su(si)tikti skaityti pld5ti. paspartinti paraidZiuiskaityti/ra5yti (iS)leisti. stengtis siqsti parduoti Sviesti Sauti s6d6ti miegoti slysti sviesti.mesti selinti.tlncl flee fling get grind hang have hear hold keep kneel lay lead lean leap learn leave lend light lose mean meet read rend to say seek send sell shine shoot sit sleep slide sling slink smell speed spell spend spill spin spit spoil 60 F Iound tound fled fled flung flung got got ground ground hung hung had had heard heard held held kept kept knelt knelt laid laid led led leant/leaned leant/leaned leapt/leaped leapt/leaped learnt/learned learnt/learned left left lent lent lit lit lost lost meant meant met met read read rent rent said said sought sought sent sent sold sold shone shone shot shot sat sat slept slept slid slid slung slung slunk slunk smelt/smelled smelt/smelled sped/speeded sped/speeded spelt spelt spent spent spilt spilt spun (span) spun spat spat spoilt/spoiled spoilt/spoiled (su)rasti (pa)begti pulti.Sokineti mokyti(s) (pa)likti (pa)skolinti uZdegti. mestis gauti malti (uZ)kabinti.ple5yti sakyti ieSkoti.eikvoti i5(si)lieti verpti spjaudyti (su)gadinti Cnnr'Ir'IAFyGRAMATIKA . i5girsti laikyti(s) (i5)laikyti klaupti(s) padengti(stal4) vadovauti palinkti Sokti.kvepeti pagreitinti.

61 . Zingsniuoti mu5ti. pratrlkti mesti. drekinti to 'Freddy.to nd sta stick sting stride strike string sweep swing teach tell think weep win wind wring Stood stuck stung strode struck strung swept swung taught told thought wept won wound wrung stoocl stuck stung strode struck strung swept swung taught told thought wept won wound wrung stovetl durti. smeigti. dumti suptis.i5destyti mesti/Sertis meLti uZdaryti prapjauti/plySti suskilti sklisti prakaituoti mesti. klijuoti (i)gelti Lengti. suduoti uZri5ti. mesti (darba) i5vaduoti. metyti kainuoti pjauti. verZtis tuokti(s) Slapti.svyruoti mokyti sakyti. suduoti su(si)Zeisti skaudeti.drekti.papasakoti galvoti verkti laimeti raityti(s). sukti(s). what's the past tense of the verb "wake up"?'. vynioti(s) (i5)ersZti I = 2 = 3 (Sutampa visostrys formos) bet bid burst cast cost cut hit hurt knit let put quit rid set shed shit shut slit split spread sweat thrust wed wet bet bid burst cast cost cut hit hurt knit let put quit rid set shed shit shut slit split spread sweat thrust wed wet bet bid burst cast cost cut hit hurt knit let put quit rid set shed shit shut slit split spread sweat thrust wed wet kirsti laZybq sillyti kain4 sprogti.lekti. kirsti smogti. megzti leisti (pa)deti palikti. 'Sleep'.suri5ti Sluoti.atsikratyti sustatyti.17 cnnuuARvcRAMATrKA .

one Topic sentence (controlling should consider the disadvantages studying idea.Wnlrlruc RASYMAS PARAGRAPHWRITING Pastraiposra5ymas Topic sentence Teminis sakinys pport I Pirmasis pagrindingminti paremiantis teiginys Antrasis t"{qrtr inding minti paremiantis teiginys Controlling Idea Tem4 sukonkretinantis Zodis/posakis Support 3 pagrindingminti paremiantis teiginys Joncluding sentence Baigiamasis sakinvs Structure of a Topic Sentence Teminiosakiniostrukt0ra People give many reasons for owning a car.s grades. diffi. ParagraphExample Pastraipospavyzdys ParagraphStructure Pastraiposstrukt0ra Before applying to a foreign university.loneliness. a student may feel alone by Support 1 being far from family and friends. Also. it may appear to be very Support 3 expensiveto pay the costs of travel and housing in a different country. Therefore. Topic Controlling Idea Tema Tem4 sukonkretinanti mintis "owning "reasons" a car" All the supporting ideas in the paragraph should be "reasons for owning a car".tonic) of abroad" First. Ef" wnrrrruc/RAsyMAs .Concluding sentence language bareer and shortage of money may cause difficulties for studying abroad.Support 2 culty in understanding a foreign language can be very frustrating and can affect the student. Finally.

the advantages (the disadvaniages of lt hasnow been provedthat . It is impossible argue that .aving Without (informing his suri6riors) Due to (the shortage money)' of As a result of (breakingthe law PresentParticipG (-1ng161rrq looking (at the plans.evident(likely/obvious/possible/ probable) that .... lp wnrruc/MSyMAs63 .. the precautions .r.Topic SentenceOpenings Teminio sakinioprad2ia Helpful phrases in the topic senten to express the controlling idea It is generally agreedthat . of) ..eason tliat . It standsto r... There is no doubt that . It is doubtful whether .) I A box containing . introduced ... Reason Decause....... the problemsof ... It cannot be too strongly emphasized the steps for (the procedurefor) ... to [o It.. It is easyenoughto believe that ..small boy was reading from the Bibre:"ln the beginning was the word. the waysto (the methodsof) .....and rather. thenTE .. It has often been questioned the different sections (parts. until... Conjunctions: Time when. while etc.. It is.. is/seems unlikely (slrange/ ridiculous) that ..before..he-aw that J y"lng (rnteresred appliedto join ..... common Devicesfor Linking rdeas within a comprex sentence Mindiq siejimas sudetiniame prijungiamajame sakinyie SimpleConjunctions Relatives which. by I J€*omry1lgg_hjr STARTAND CONTINUATION A...!"i"1gpgr sentences. that etc. It must be remembered that ...... whether.. It is often taken for grantedthat . the changes .. for It is difficult to prove that .. the characteristics (traits. types)of ..who.. unless Concession although.. It would be absurdto suppose that . of .srnce Condition if.. that .... ...kinds.."n..he J This invention.. PastParticiple (-ed formJ Confused(by the news. qualities) It goeswithout sayingthat . however (important) Prepositionand prepositional $ft^er (examiningtne corpsQ Phrase the couniry)' Pgfgr" (le. the reasonfor ... afte. It remainsto be seenwhbther .. the causesof (the effects of) .....

taip pat nel additionally agaln also and and then apart from this as well as besides further furthermore in addition to in the sameway likewise nor not only .netrukus laikinai tada. taip nuo to laiko. irgi ir. dar kart4. greitai. be to taip pat.tuojau. tokiu atveju.pastaruojumetu v6liau tuo tarpu. paskui i5 pradZiq bent jau tuo pat metu. o tada i5skyrus. .. toliau be to be to taip pat pana5iai. tudtuojau galq gale neseniai. netrukus jei kadangi.b e t i r . tuojau pat pastaruojumetu.. . taip pat be to. o ir tada. but also moreover too what is more n e t i k . . tuo pat metu paskui dabar. to. tada dabar. . po kurio laiko vdliau. atitinkamai be to v6l. toliau. nuo tada greitai. dar (daugiau) u S wnrlrue/nnSyMAs . i5skyrus be to. nekalbant aple.vadinasi nuo to laiko. siejantys pastraipos sakinius Time (Laiko) after a (+ time expression) after a short/long time afterwards at first at least at the same time before that time before then eventually immediately in the end lately Iater meanwhile next now nowadays presently recently shortly slnce since then soon temporarily then thereafter Augmentation (Papildymas) vdliau.. taipogi prieStai prie5 tai pagaliau tuojau (pat). rnlsq laikais netrukus. . neseniai trumpai.paskui netrukus.TRANSITIONSIN A PARAGRAPH Zod2iai. be. be tiek pat. be to taip pat be to. bei.

tadiau. kontrastas) and yet after all although although this may be true at the sametime but despitethis (+ noun) however in contrast in contrastto (+ noun) in spite of (+ noun) nevertheless (after a negative idea) notwithstanding on the contrary on the one hand on the other hand still whereas yet bet.. kaip ne.similarity.. pana5umas. delto vis Comparison. kai. tuo tarpu. kita vertus taip pat panaSiai pana5iai. opposition (Prie5prie5a. kiek ne. tuo pat metu bet nepaisant tadiau. dar (lyginant) tada.vis dar. tadiau prieSingai i5 vienos puses i5 kitos pusds dar. equivalent (Palyginimas. vdl. taip pat. bet.tadiau. betgi. kad ir kaip (pa)lyginti su prie5ingainei nepaisant vis delto.tadiau. nepaisant to nepaisant(ko). taip pat butent panaSiai tai yra 65 ff wnrrrruc/nRsYMAs . betgi. iki Siol.galq gale nors. be to taip pat pasirinktinai taip pat. kai dar. atitinkamai panaSiai lyginant kitaip tariant. neZitrint nors tai tiesa.Contrast. vis dar.vis ddlto pagaliau. sugretinimas) again also alternatively equally (+ adjective) in a like manner in comparison in other words in the same way in a similar manner likewise namely similarly that is to say dar kart4.vis d6lto.

nelaimei Demonstration. betgi.illustration.vis ddlto i5 tikrqjq tuo padiu metu. . laime Zinoma Zinoma (kad ir labai) keista galbut vis dar. example (f rodymas..Concession. net jei bet. neabejotinai.kiek ne laimei. laim6 kad ir kaip.. taip pat Zinoma nors. abejo be deja.vis delto keistasdalykas.reikia pripaZinti pagaliau.. attitude (Prielaida.ti pavyzdiiui beje i5 tikrqjq i5 tiesq. konkrediai ypad tai yra tai yra pateikiant pavyzdi 60 llF wntrrruc/RASYMAS .labai.. nepaisant.poZiflris) admittedly after all although and yet as a matter of fact at the same time certainly even though fortunately however much luckily naturally of course oddly enough perhaps still strangely enough undoubtedly unfortunately Zinoma. tadiau. jeigu net laimei.Siaipar taip nors (ir). faktiSkai kitaip tariant ypad Siuo atveju bltent ypad.pavyzdLiai) as a matter of fact as an example as follows for example for instance incidentally indeed in fact in other words in particular in this case namely particularly specifically that is that is to say to illustrate ties4sakant pavyzdZiu'i kaip toliau i5destyta pavyzdLi:.. tadiau.

taip.kitais atZvilgiais. arti prieS prieSais.paskutinikartq galiausiai galiausiai.trediair t. pagaliau paskui.viduryje tolumoje Salia. siekiant. second. taigi ddl to. t pirmiausia. pirmiausia baigiant. taigi taigi. del tos prieZasties.tuo laiku tredia visq pirma. antra plrmlausla.order (Seka) finally first of all first. prie5akyje toli uZ dia centre. in the first.toliau antra tada. taigi taigi.. tuo budu Sruo trkslu.Sequence. taigi d6l to. srekrant del to del to Siuo tikslu. antra. tuo b[du. kaip tik laiku Siuo tikslu Result (Rezultatas) accordingly as a result consequently for this reason hence SO otherwise then thereby therefore thus Purpose(Tikslas) tor tnls purpose for this reason owing to this to this purpose with this object (objective) Location (Vieta) adjacent to (+ noun) at the top at the right beyond far ahead far behind here in the center in the distance nearby opposite (+ noun) straight ahead gretimai Salia. third etc. WRIIruC/RASYMAS . plrma gale. paskui.pagaliau Dlrmlausla pirma. todel. taip. tiek. del SiosprieZasties vadinasi. tokiu atveju. vir5 priekyje.vadinasi tuo budu. kitaip tada.pabaigoje atitinkamai todel todel. virSuje deSineje uZ. vadinasi prie5inguatveju.) place firstly last last of all lastly next secondly then thirdly to begin with to end with galq gale. tiesiai prieSakyje 67 ITI. second (etc.

tuo b[du.. daZniausiai kitaip tariant Zinoma aiSku. taigi baigiant reziumuojant apibendrinant.. apskritai taigi. reziumuojant susumuojant..kad. taip. santrauka) accordingly as a result as I havesaid.daZniausiai aiSkiai daugiausiai. del tos prieZasties.Statingthe obvious.definedthe following three rules for the use of languagein writing:clarity.be abejo.. paprastai daZniausiai. apskritai tiksliau (sakant) tuo labiau. vadinasi pagaliau. 68 IIF wnrrrruc/nnsYMAs .. paprastai. GustaveFlaubert. taigi.a famous Frenchwriter (1821-1880). galq gale trumpai (uZ)baigiant kitaip tariant trumpai akivaizdu. on the whole therefore thus to conclude to summarize to sum up atitinkamai..generalizing(AkivaizdZiqfaktq pateikimas. todel toddl.todel todel kaip minejau trumpai trumpai tariant toddl.noted. savaimesuprantama apskritai daugeliu atvejq.kad.akivaizdu Zinoma i5 viso. del to. stated briefly briefly stated consequently finally in brief in conclusion in other words in short it goeswithout saying(that).pasirinktinai galima tiketis.tikrai tiksliau (sakant) kitaip tariant kaip paprastai Conclusion.. apskritai Zinoma.clarity and clarity.savaimesuprantama i5 viso. speakinggenerally surely to be more precise to put it anotherway usually atitinkamai. apibendrinimas) alternatively as one might expect as a rule clearly for the most part it goeswithout saying in general in most cases in other words naturally obviously of course on the whole or rather the rather that . summary (I5vados.

Facts Faktai Supporting idea 2 2 pagrinding minti paremiantis teiginys A person can do more than just look at the exibits. pagrinding minti paremiandius teiginius papildykite faktais. and several others. Ra5ydami pastraip4. examples.The Use of Transitional Expressionsin a Paragraph posakiqvartojimas pastraipoje Jungiamqjq Foodis the sourceofenergr for the body. of children and youths need energyfor growth. energy is required just to digest the food needed to produce energyin the first place. paties patirtais ispudEiais ar apraiymais. 69 lly' wnrrrruc/RASYMAS .Also. Indeed. Food and the energyit producesare important.the beatingof the heart. we need energyproduced by food for carrying out all work and leisure activities. pavyzdiiais. anyone who so desirescan handle some of the exibits. The National Aeronautics and Space Museum. Details for a More Fully Developed Paragraph Supporting Ideas Tem4 patvirtinandios mintys Papildymai Supporting idea I L pagrindingminti paremiantisteiginys The SmithsonianInstitution is composedof various museumsthat offer somethingfor everyone. Example Pavyzdys For example. and the maintenance muscletone. energy is essential for all continuous body processessuch as breathing. These museums consist of the National Museum of History and Technology.we need this energy just to keep alive. the National Museum of Natural History. the National Collection of Fine arts.in the insect zoo at the National Museum of Natural History. add details to the supporting ideas. Topic The Controlling Idea Tema Tema sukonkretinantisZodis/posakis "the SmithsonianInstitution" "reasons for a visit" Topic Sentence Teminis sakinvs The SmithsonianInstitution is worth visiting for a number of reasons. Paragraph Development Pastraipospl6tojimas To make a more fully developed paragraph. Your details can be facts. Naturally. In brief. Moreover. personal experience or description.

Supporting idea 4 Description 4 pagrinding minti Apra5ymas paremiantis teiginys Movies shown at regular In the NationalAeronauticsand SpaceMuseum. intervals aid in building an there is a theatrewhich hasa largescreen. either floating above the earth in a hot-air balloon or hansgliding over cliffs. the movie is shown. When appreciationof our world. 70 llf wnrrrue/RASYMAS . Aeronautics and spaceMuseum.it givesthe illusion that the viewer is in the movie itself.Supporting idea 3 3 pagrinding minti paremiantisteiginys Personal Experience Patirti isp[dZiai The museumsprovide Climbing through slqlab at the national unforgettableexperiences. I was able to imagine what it would be like to be an astronaut in space.

3. there are also many statement form. follow these procedures: Procedures Darbo tvarka Introduction (example) lZangos pavyzdys 1. WRITING/RASYTT RS . dia pateikiami daZniausiaipasitaikantys.ESSAY WRITING RASINIO RASYMAS EssayTypes* Ra5iniq tipai The ExamoleEssav The Classification Essay Purpose of an essay RaSinio tikslas To illustrate bv an example To define/describe by classification To describe and analyse the process To describe the cause and eive the analysis of effect The Comparison/Contrast Essay To compare or contrast a topic The Process AnalysisEssay The Cause and Effect Analvsis Essay The Argumentative Essay To give and explain argumentsor to persuade. studentsfrequently opt to live in an apartment. all the aspects of that kind of and indicates the controlling accomodation should be reviewed. When a person decides to enter a university away from home. 2. Write the concluding statement Before a student decides to live in an which is the thesis statement apartment. Although most universitiesoffer student dormitories.to expressor support an opinion *Yra ir daugiau raSiniq tipq. he or she must also consider living accomodations. Narrow the topic down to focus more on the question. Restatethe specificquestionln While there are many advantagesto your own words and in a apartment living. idea of the essav. Introductory Paragraph lZangindpastraipa To write an introduction for an essay. Introduce the topic in general. disadvantages. 4.

In conclusion. Conclusion (example) Pabaigos pavyzdys Even though there are many advantages apartment living. I will be within walking distanceof my classes and the universitylibrary. I to would prefer to live in the university dormitory for the following reasons. studies. Restatethe thesisstatement.living on campusis more advantageous me than for living in an apartment. 3. or give a conditions and more time for mv solution. T2 . First.Concluding Paragraph l5vados(pabaiga) To write a concludingparagraph.Finally. Restatethe topic sentences from the developmental paragraphs. I will be new at the university and meeting people will be easierin a dormitory setting. 4. will have better I make a prediction.I will not have to worry about purchasing and cooking food or cleaning afterwards. Conclude with a statement that sums up the essay. 2.llF wRrrrNc/nnSYMAS .follow these procedures: Procedures Darbo tvarka 1. Consequently. State your opinion or preference. Second.

s I O o € ^ >ro 9tr >. o o ! c) U (). I >o.0) (.) () o X o o o o k C) c. o.Y o bI I C) I otr .) C) O o I o O o CJ o q) X C) () 0) X () b {.i: .) E C) X o O o o X {) o X q) () X o H o X o o X C) o o r o E O 0) 6) k C) o (.) o () c) o k r 0) o C) o C) tr X o x 0) X C) X o X o x ! C) 0) r o X X (. ! >.t E t - 73 tf|F"wnrrrruc/nnSYMAs . o ' = o o 0 .) X o 0 o 9 E . ! >o. C) k U 0) o o F Q Ei (t) (t) a 0) o o O () o U) o o o o a C) bI) o Ch o () (/) C) (n o - el le .

.1. Jr 3. if I study series. In internet and e-mail www. hard. in Ian. however. walked and even limped to are joined by and. salt and pepper etc.. and we Short independentclauses. To separate items in a senes: The dog growled. I know that I will pass the test subordinateclausesin if I take good notes. s 1. and if I get a good night's sleep. [shoi 'ctiluesJ 74 IIF' puncruATroN/sKYRYBA ..::.with worfu if equipment in Pam's basement. miles around the.lt addresse(said'dot'). may be set off in a seriesas one ltem.. words in series. We have a governnrcnt of the phrases in series. and leaped at the intrttder. 2.lake. 6. by the people.5 4. snarled. should not use commasto separate them.. lndependent clauses a series For physical fitness we swam twentyin are usuallyseparated by five laps in the. bacon paked with one anotherthat they and eggs.pool.commas. i: exercised-. A volunteer addresses enuelopes or If all items in a Series are answus ph.you may omit the l finish hne the comma before the and and if the comma is not necessarv to maKetne meanrng clear.sviesa. flong clattses] For physical fitnesi we swam. In decimal fractions. we jogged four semtcolons.ones or files ioined bv and or or (nor) we (offesponaence.. Sometimes abbreviations. we joggecl and we exercised. At the end of a sentence It is very important to leant (statement).. When the lasttwo itemsin a series We ran.may be separated by .PuttcruATroN SKYRYBA PU N C T U A T ION R K S AND USAGE MA SKYRYBOSZENKLAI IR JU VARTOSENA Punctuation marks Skvrvbos Zenklai Usage (Rules) Vartosena Examples PavyzdLiai Full stop (AntE Period) Comma 1. people. and for the people. Etrylishpunctuatiott. Somewords appear so often peanut butter and jelly.

To separate two or more The accident was n friglrtenp adjectives rcceding ing. Ieisurcly puce eusily that cannot be omitted and. nor. they could be omitted without altering the fundamental mcaningof a sentcncc. Between independent antl bttns.d eJining ) All books tltat are dnntaged go in these boxes. the noun. lf the and sounds wrong. tives modifying a noun.l 4. then you do not need a comma.] WeboughtAnn a lovelygifi. need not be separated by a comma if they are very short. fbr. so or for. ! Indcpendent clausesjoined by and. a noun. thus. nor. (no n. or. A definins (or rcstrictive) Defining: Tlrc woman ntnning at clause.(It would sound wrong with and: 'nry brokcn and right hand'). 75 [tF purucruATroN/sKYRYBA . the comma before the a d j e c t i v ei s t . but.r m i t t e d .on the other hand. (tlefining) ( A non-deflininsor nonNorr-defining:. To set off non-defining (non-restrictive) clauses and phrases. [Clausesare too shepherd short to require commas. Attn. no commas are needed.. brought the potnto salad. If the clauscs are joincd by the conjunctions )l9l. [Comma is neededbecause clauses ioined are by for. so and yet when they join independent clauses. nutning at a r e s t r i c t i v e )c l a u s e i s a slow. Use commas to set off non-defining lauses nd c a non-definingparticipial phrases.Punctuation marks Comma Usage (Rules) Examples 2. fittisltctl tlrc marathon. c s s e n t i a lt o t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e sentence (they serve only to add some extra information or to explain something further. horriblc siglt. To determine whether it is right I cautiously roised my broken right t o p u t c o m m a s b e t w e e n t w o hand in responseadjectivcs in a serics of adjec. Pat brougltt the hot dogs 3. leisurelypace. but.isone a slow. they must be scparatcd. anrl Ciruly clauses: Use a comma before and. Peter Snitl4 who works witlt nry fathe4 bought a new cor y esterrlay. substitute the word und for the doubtlul conrma. ! When the last adiective beforc The ncw st'coruhry school will be t h e n o u n i s t h o u g h t o [ a s p a r t o f completed nut August. The poodle tertsed ancltlrc Gemrurt growlctl. easilyfinished subordinate clause that is not lhe tnaralhon. frtr she is very special /o as. T h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e sg o v e r n participiat phrases.

usuallyset off by commas: 7G ill/ purucruATroN/sKYRYBA . will lcnow your way 6. c) after an introductory adrrerbialclause. if not followed by an exclamation point.5. ps. why when they begin a sentence. To set off expressions that interrupt. Whenyou have gone to this as long as we have. must also be set off bv commas. I haven't taken the acam yet. b)after an introductory No. no. After certain introductory elements: a) after well. the referee beganwavinghis arms. good grief. p9 (whiz). There are 3 kinds of 'interrupters' that you should be able to recognize and punctuate properly: a) appositive phrasesare I loved my grft.Exclamations like wow. that was great! Calling for time-out. W I thoughtyou left wow. a pearl ring.

thus. To separateitems in dates and addresses. c) parenthetical expressions You are. commas. 11.10. however. He is coming. on the contrary.453etc. Floida 33139.' she said. 12. These expressions are often used parenthetically: I believe (thinlt suppose.After the salutation of a friendly letter and after the closing of any letter. in fact. please close the addressare set off by door. I hope. PhD etc. It was Albert Einstein who said. to tell the truth. isn't he? 'Come back soon. Before or after 'he said' etc. planning to are set off by commas: come. Miami Beach. Dear Ruth. Sincerely Yours. too. Comma Usage (Rules) Examples b)words used in direct David. 1985. On fune 15. course. Elena Moreno. as inspiring as his earlier on the other hand.. His new poems. Before a short quotation. After a name followed by Jr. 7. f0.002. for example. also. To separate a tag question.245. Sr.760. of ones. on the whole. in fact. To divide large numbers into groups of 3 figures. Yourstruly. 13. nevertheless.2.my best fnend Cary moved to 814 Georgia Avenue. PhD 7. 9.). in my opinion.Puncfuation marks . are hope etc. 'Imagination is far more important than knowledge!'. 8. in addition.. when writing down a conversation. 7T [FpurucruATroN/sKYRYBA .

' l. Semicolon The semicolon is a very useful mark of punctuation. 2.I seemto be sentence if they are not the only exception. Usage(Rules) 1. As Kenneth Morgan writes: The truth was perhaps. that Bitain in the years from 1914 to 1983 had not changed .In formal writing. In certain conventional situations: a) between the hour and 6:15 the minute(s). for example.Punctuation marks Colon These are our options: we go by train and leave before the end of the show. Use a semicolon between Everyoneelse in my family independent clausesin a Iikes sports. To introducea list of items (not after a verb or a preposition!). for. or. but.. joined by and. Use a semicolon between I am planning to go shopping tomorrow. b) between the chapter and Luke 10:27 verse referring to passages from the Bible. 'Pause here a little longer than you do for a comma. Saturdav. 2. Examples 3. however. llF" puNcruATtoN/sKYRYBA . before The garden had been a clauseor phrasethat neglected for a long time: it givesmore information was overgrown and f"ll of about the main clause. yet. I could independent clauses joined by suchwords as wait and go with you on for instance. 4. weeds. but not as long as you do for a full stop.. To introducea quotation. It says to the reader. nor. so. c) after the salutation of a Dear Sir: (formal) businessletter. or we take a taxi and see it all.

items containcommas. Examples 3. nevertheless. therefore. otherwise. At the end of a direct Where'sTbm? question. May 9. Friday. A semicolon (rather than a comma) may be needed to separate independent clausesjoined by a coordinating conjunction if there are commas within the clauses. hence.May 8. shock or other strong emotions. in the summer of '99. joy. furthermore. Use a semicolonbetween You may tum the reportson items in a seriesif the Thursday. May 12. 2. anger. My friend's car I'm. With s to form the plural of a letter. Duing the 1970's.In Possessive Case. besides.Punctuationmarks Semicolon Usage (Rutes) that is. a figure or an abbreviation. instead. expressdoubt. or Monday. to Iohn Marston (?1575-1634).and I think she will enjoy it. 79 lllT'purucruAroN/sKYRYBA . (A comma is sufficient) 4. ? Question mark 1. At the end of a sentence That's superb! expressing surprise.accordingly. 2. Especially with a date. ! Exclamation mark (AmE Exclamation point) 'Apostrophe 1. t My birthday gift to Margaret is a surprise. 3. Omissionof lettersor figures.mind your t's in pronouncing 'tempted'. moreovet. howeve7 consequently.

it's hard to acplain. twenty -one. The party . 4. To form a compound from a prefix and a proper name. one -half.er . 3.theyserue our favourite Chinesedishes.heart ed. in compound numbers or fractions. Use a dash to mean namely. three-fourths pre-eminent Co-operate. to separatea prefix ending in a vowel frorn a word beginning with the samevowel. H ard.was changed to next week.that is.I'm sorry I to tell you . After the first section of a word that is divided betweenone line and the next (k6limas i kit4 eilutg). Bo lllF purucruAroN/sKYRYBA . Sometimes. 2. 3.' he uttered. Wethink that thefood hereis the bestin town . in other words or the like before an explanation. 2.Usage (Rules) L. mo ther-t o -be Pre-Raphaelite. 'Well . Use a dash to suggest halting or hesitant speech. British in English. 1. To form a compound from 2 or more other words. Use a dash to indicate an abrupt break in thought.

To enclosewords and quotation marks punctuation direct in (Inverted commas. especially from a quotation or at the end of a conversation. 4. poems.was not comma would provide fulfilled.he was a 5. between parenthetical material and the rest of the sentence.. less than the desired emphasis.books. 1. The fog comeslon little cat feet.. speech.. To enclosethe lettersof Sandburg's'The Fog'. (doublequotes) a slang expression. to or a word that is being used for special effect(egirony). ' Single 1. playsetc. . His influence . To indicatethe end of a line of poetry where the lines are not separated. .was rather emphatic separation effective. 3. Represent period of a time. 3. Three dots (ellipsis) (AmE Ellipsis (omission marks) / Slash(oblique) (AmE Virgule) To indicate that words have been ommited. challenging the view that Britain . had not changed all that fundamentally.. Have some pudding andlor cheese.Dash 4. Use a dash to add Examples emphasis to parenthetical powerful figure in the material or mark an community .Punctuationmarks Usage (Rules) . Around short quotations Do you know the origin of the saying: 'A little leamiig or sayings. Use a dash to set off an The Premier's promise of appositive or an changes . singlequotes) 2.for example security'. To draw attention to Thousands were imprisoned " (AmE Double a word that is unusual for in the name of 'national quotationmarks the context.' she replied.land reform and appositive phrase when a higher wages . 'I'll take it.llt sits lookinglover harbor and citylon silent haunchesland then moves on. To separatealternative words or phrases.purucruATtoN/sKyRyBA . articles..l (Carl Sandburg) The 200112002Basketball Season. 2. is a dangerousthing'? g1 @.

in North America. Around numbersor letters Our objectivesare (1) to in a text. The cranberry (Orycoccus palustris). To enclose editorial com. To show emphasis.he is. For foreign words and phrases.. 2. plays etc. later feature of Shakespeare's works (seeChapterEtght). 3.Bitain in [these] years was ments or around words without .320 tion or a comment from feet) is the highestmountain the rest of a sentence.Punctuation marks ) Brackets (Parentheses) Usage (Rules) Examples l. I'm not leaving . arouseinterest(2) to improve quality and (3) to speedup the leamingprocess. italics are indicatedby underlining 1. To enclose cross-referen-This moral ambiguity is a ces.. inserted to make a quotation grammatically correct.Mount McKinley (20. [ ] Square brackets (AmE Brackets) Italics In handwrittenor typed text. 3. To indicate titles of books. Shakespeare's Hamlet. To separate extra informa. 82 IIIF puncruAloN/sKYRYBA . 2.

vadinamas melasiu. jis buvo was ovetgrown with weeds.Na . Subordinate clauses S a l u t i n i a is a k i n i a i are not separated by comma lrom the main clause: She said that she would come. Decimal fractions a full stop is used: DeSimtaines trupmenos 4. Defining/restrictive are not separated by relative clauses comma from the main ApibreZiamieji Salutiniai clause: paZyminiosakiniai A person who habitualbt tells lies is called a liar. This is never the case in Lithuanian.Na .. You'll succeed if you try.) it apleistas..5 are separatedby comma from the main clause: Ji saki. pvz. .. Kuns tun lprotl meluoti....eik tu i.' 'Well - three dots are used: . 'F. 3.off' EU'puNcruATroN/sKyRyBA 83 ) . priielgs piktioli4. Suppression of obscenity KeiksmaZodZio nutylejimas eg. .what you would trLtly call love -' You doubt it?' 'Well-Ibeginto. . are separated by comma from the main clause: + Lmogus. kq ii ties4 pavadintum meile -. 5.COM PA R I S ON OF E N GL IS HA N D L ITHUANIANPUNCTUATION (MOST TMPORTANT ASPECTS) ANG L U I R L I E T UV IUK A L B U S K Y R Y BOSPAGRINDINIAI SKIRTUM AI Sphere of Usage Vartojimo sritis English Anglq kalba Lithuanian Lietuviu kalba a comma is used: 4.' doubtfulness 'That yott will ever love Staigus mintiesSuolis a woman?' ir abejone yes ..Vocative formula at the In formal AmE colon is beginning of letters used: Kreipinys Dear Mr Wilson: Thank you . Thu pavyks. i..5 2.. jei pasistengsi.. A clause/phrasethat colon or semicolon is comma is enough: gives more information used: about the main clause The garden had been neg... kad ateis.Bet sakau tau .Kad kada nors panilsi moteri? . pradedu tuo abejoti. taip . pradedu. 4.Sodas buvo ilgq laikq PaaiSkinamasis sakinys lectedfor a long time: (. /. Abrupt break of dash is used: 'Butltellyou-Ibegin thought and to donbt it. 1..Tu abejoji? .

knew? jau rekte suiko tdvas.Jus Zinojot. 8. Author's words before He said.kq ai iinau.Aiiu.' said Ursula.Kodel? . You knew.Romeo ir Diiulieta" w PUNCTUATION/SKYRYBA . .. plays etc. Wat do you mean by .Kaip gtveni? .paklausi Nikas.nesutiko 'Who knew?'now cied Uriuld. 'Who .pasakd D\onas.' 9. Direct speech Tiesiosind kalba quotation marks are used: 'How are yott?' 'Fine.) Knygq. Jis tare: . The titles of printed material (books.dabar the father.jils Zinojot"? underlined or italicised: Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare'sRomeo and Juliet 12.thanks. Quotation within quotation Kabutes kabutese . Autoriaus LodLiai prie5 tiesioging kalb4 10. Author's words after 'That's all I know. . pavadinimai quotation marks are used: Sekspyro .. pjesiq ir pan. po 'Whv?' asked Nick.Kas linojo? Kq tui your 'Jtou knew"?' omeny su tuo savo .Thi viskas.' said the direct speech John.Sphere of Usage English Lithuanian dashesare used: .Kaip malonu jus matyti. gerai. . . AutoriausZodZiai tiesiogin6s kalbos 11. 'I am delighted the direct speech to see you'.Kas iinojo? .

firms. 85 lllPpurucruAloN/sKYRYBA . L0. English Siberian Richard Brown. Roman numerals. The name of a language. 6. The pronoun Examples Pavyzdliai Nobody knew where he was. God The Winter of Our Discontent Of Human Bondage 'Great people are Mark Twain wrote. L3. a film. the Atlantic Ocean. President Adamkuslthe President Sweden. 5. Significant religious terms. 3. the Himalayas the Titanic. The first and each significant word in a title or name of a book.CAPITALIZATION RASYMAS DlDzruJU RArDzrU Usage Vartojimas or l . Monday. prepositions or conjunctions are not capitalized unless they appear as the first word. The names of holidays. 11. Sony LX I'm not sure if I can come. awards. ) The name of a day or a month. Articles. c) names of ships. Hanukkah The Old Testament. 9. 8. 12. Sunday. 'I'. March. September Lithuanian. can become great!' Kleenex. plains. those who make others feel that they. b) geographical names. a play. monuments. The first word of a sentence fragment (eg the beginningof a new line in a poem). Oscar. United Airlines The Middle Ages Christmas. the Baltic Sea. organizations. 4. too. The first word of a direct quotation which is a sentence. a) Names of persons and titles. The names of distinctive historical periods. nationality or an ethnic group. a poem. 7. A word expressing a connection with a place. Easter. Brand name. trains. a magazinelnewspaper or a piece of music.

Names of awards prizes. Baltieji White House. the Trafalgaro aikiti. forests. seas. canals. antro Class.straits. the Sahara Desert Yellowstone National Park. b) names of islands. deserts. Sophomore vyresnit4j4klase. mountains. Sacharos dykuma Jeloustono nacionalinis parkas.valleys. Versailles Treaty Laisves statula Bukeio prizas. BalBaltic Sea. Chapter5 Senior Class. Huverio uZtvanka. 2.lakes. Silver Valley Hebrid4 salos. Iunior Prom kurso studentr4 grupe. Palace. Deitonos papludimys. Lake Michigan tijos jura.S-as slgtrius Room 602. Panamos kanaIas. the Panama Canal. Names of monuments the Statue of Liberty 3. dams. Names of school classes Booker Prize. canyons. beaches. unoflicial geographicalnames. Trafalgar Sqttare. Yl/estminster Vestminsterio tiltas Bidge Siaure. Bakingamo rumai. rivers. Versalio sutartis 602 kambarys. d) names of streets. the Atlanto vandenynas. the Baltic parts of countries States or world. Geographical names: a) names of oceans. bridges.C O M PA R IS ON OF E N GL ISHAND LITHUANIAN cAptTALtzATtoN (coNTRASTtNG CASES) DtDztuJU RAtDztV RASYMAS ANGLU rR LtETUV|U KALBOJE (SKtRTUMAI) English Anglq kalboje Capitalization DidZiosios raides 1. Names of specific rooms and other names followed bv a numeral or letter 5. Didysis kanjonas. Lithuanian Lietuviq kalboje the Atlantic Ocean. c) names of parks. Grand Canyon. Gibraltaro sqsiauris. documents 4. Daytona Beach. Baltijos ialys e) names of recognizec the North. peninsulas. the Strait of Gibraltar. Miiigano eieras the Hebrides Islands. klasis iaunesniosios mokinit4 koncertas Bo IlF"purucruATtoN/sKyRyBA . Sidabro sldnis buildings. Buckingham rumai. special places. Hoover Dam.

Capitalization 6. Names of firms, organizations, departments, churches

English American Book Company, United Airlines, Harvard University, St Ann's Church

Lithuanian Amerikos knyg,4kompanija, Jungtinis oro Iinijos, Haruardo universitetas, Sv.Onos baZnyiia
Iietuvis, anglas, protestantas

7. Names of Lithuanian, English, nationalities,races, Protestant religions,languages
8. Historical events and World War One. Iron periods of time, days Ag", Wednesday, April of the week, names of months 9. Names with titles Mayor Thompson, Doctor Brown

Pirmasispasaulinis karas,geleiiesamiius, treiiadienis. balandis

meras Tompsonas, daktaras Braunas

10.Titles of books. poems, stories, periodicals, songs, films etc. 11.The pronoun 'I'

Chicago Tribune,Bridges ,,Kaunodiena", of Madison County ,,Medisonografystes tiltai"

He told me I could come. Jis man pasake, kad (ai) galiu ateiti.

87 lfl/' purucruATtoNisKYRYBA

(The Most Common Cases) ABBREVIATIONS (DaZniausiai pasitaikantys SANTRUMPOS atvejai)
1. Addressforms:

Mr* Mrs Ms Dr St

2. First name(s)of a person: T S. Eliot, D. H. Lawrence 3. Writing the time: 3 am (AmE - A.M.) 9 pm (AmE - P.M.) 4. In eras: BC (Before Christ - prie5 Kristq) AD (Anno domini - po Kristaus) 5. Well-known orqanizations NATO, UNESCO, NASA, BBC 6. Some other abbreviations: mount(ain)-; Mt Saint -+ St Professor-+ Prof Junior -+ Jr Senior + Sr Doctor -+ Dr Drive -+ Dr (in an address)
7. Latin abbreviations used in English texts: eg (for example) ie (in other words, that is) viz (namely) sc (which means, that is) cf (compare) etc (and so forth) et al (and other people or things) PS (postscript)

8. Desrees:

BA (Bachelor of Arts) MA (Master of Arts) PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

During dictationthe teacher noticedthat one of her students had not dotted his 'l's, crossed his 'T's, put commas and marked dashes. "Michael, where're your dots, crosses,commas and dashes?"she asked. "They are still in the pen," explainedthe student.

BB lllF puNcruATroN/sKYRYBA

MnxIrucPRESENTATIoNS
(EFFECTTVE SPEAKTNG) KALBEJIMAS
HINTSFOR SPEECHPREPARATION Patarimai, rengiantis sakytikalbq
Surprisethe audience with somethingunusual (Nustebinkite klausytojuskokia nors neiprasta Organizeyour speechmaterial (Susisteminkite surinktE medliag4 Analyse the main aims of the topic (ISanalizuokite pagrindiniuskalbos

Make a detai

outline of the speech (Sudarykitetikstq

Write down your whole speech (UZsira5ykite kalb4) CONSIDER THE TOPIC AND THE MOST APPROPRIAIE TITLE (Pasirinkitetemq ir sugalvokite tinkam4 pavadinimE) l Analyse and evaluateyour audience (fvertinkite klausytojus, jq patirti, Zinias) 'While speaking,demonstrate good knowledgeof the topic (Parodykite, kad gerai i5manote destomqtem4) Explain to your listenerswhy the topic $ lmportant to them (PaaiSkinkite klausytojams,kuo jiems svarbi Bi tema)

presentational aids (PasiruoSkite vaizdines priemones)

ink of rhetorical questlons (Sugalvokite retorinir; klausimq)

Use quotations from well-known sources (fterpkite garsiq Zmoniqcitatq)

Rehearse your speech (Parepetuokite)

lMunxrruceRESENTATIoNS/KALBEJTMAS 89

kad Sisateitq pasiklausyti mano kalbos.re) ) trr T T I T l T tr T r T n T n r 4. kaip i5laikytiklausytojq clemes!?) learned how to project my voice? (iSmokau valdytibals4?) mastered a natural image? (kalbu ir elgiuosinatlraliai?) 1 Evaluation (Vertinimas) Have I asked a trusted colleague to come to the presentation and give me feedback? (Ar papra5iau patikimo draugo.PRE-PRESENTATIONAL CHECKLIST PRIESSAKANTKALBA 1 .tnxrruc . kokios irangosreikes?) 6. kad atsikratydiau baimes?) Choosing a topic (Temos pasirinkimas) Have I chosen a topic I feel comfortable with? (Ar man priimtina pasirinktojitema?) 3. everybodymoved to the door". Delivery (Kalba) practised enough? (pakankamai repetavau?) timed myself? (Zinau. Planning (Planavimas) considered my audience'sneeds? (atsiZvelgiau klausytojqporeikius?) i provided a catching opening? (sugalvojau patraukli4 1Lang1?) developed the ideas logically and clearly? (ai5kiaiir nuosekliai desiiau mintis?) Have I concluded appropriately? (Ar) (tinkamaiuZbaigiau?) prepared good activities/visuals/handouts? (parengiau tinkamas uZduotis/vaizdines priemones/padalomqj4 medZiagq?) prepared easy-to-followpersonal notes? (pasiraSiau pastabas?) Yes No (Taip) (r. pRESENTATIoNS/KALBEJTMAS 90 IF n. Fears (Baime) Have I taken any steps to overcome my fears? (Ar ko nors dmiausi.o paskui i5sakytq pastabas?) tr T T T T r l T T r T l I T T I Having your speechask yourself:"Did I make a movingspeech?"you finished may expect the answer: "Yes. kiek laiko kalbesiu?) Have I thought about how to hold my audience's attention? (Ar) (pam4siiau. Title (Pavadinimas) Have I thought carefully about the title? (Ar gerai apsvarsdiau pavadinim4?) Equipment (lranga) Have I thought about what equipment I will need? (Ar pagalvojau.

Jie paddspatobulinti kalbq ir atkreipti demesiI ivarbiausiusdalykus. (Tinkamos vaizdines priemones) Content fit time limit. References source materialswere adequate. ([Langa patrauke klausytoiu demesi) Backgroundinformaiion-wassuificient. Look throrfihthem:This ri"y n"rp-v"rio*i-.Speaker (Kalbdtojas) Evaluator (Vertintojas) Topic (Temos (pranesimo) pavadinimas) EVALUATION FORM* KALBOSVERTINIMAS Rating system: _ excellent(puiku) E (Vertinimas) A _ average(vidutini5kai) w . (Pateikta pakankamai faktq) - Speaker's point of view was clear.may evaluated criteria. (Kalbetojas ai5kiai i5deste savopoZilri) Arguments were clear..l llp uarrrucpRESENTATIoNs/KALBEJTMAS 91 .weak (prastai) Content/Organization/preparation Tirrinys/sistema/pasiren gimas Opening attracted listeners.sakyti kalbq perzvelkiteanksdiau i5vardytuspunktus. attention. (Laikopakako) Commentsand suggestions improvement: for Pastabos sillymai: ir Voice control Balsas Volume (Stiprumas) Rate (Tempas) Fluency (Sklandumas) -Comprehensibility (Ai5kumas) . List below: (AiSkiis argumentai) Presen ta tion/Delivery Kalba Eye contact (Akiq kalba) Vitality (Energija) Gestures (Gestai) Rapport with audience (Ry5yssu klausytojais) Convincing speaking (Kalbos itaigumas) Use of note cards or outline (Naudojimasis korteldmisbei planu) - (Pakankamai remtasi citatomis) Speechhad a suitable conclusion_ (Tinkama pabaiga) Visual aids were effective.-rruu" prepared pay and attention the mostimportant to pirints. (Rengdamiesi.prou"-the speech yo. to * Do not forsetthat voj be according the above-enumerated to .

nurodoma. o The delivery speech is effective when the speaker knows the material well. lecture or workshop Designed to explain. uses a variety of vocal changes and appears to move naturally. apie k4 kalba. It is divided into 3-5 main points. Each main point is clearly stated and supported by s u b o r d i n a t ep o i n t s c o n t a i n i n gy o u r research and supporting material. pristatymai. convince. kaip nemokefi skaityti ir raiyti. kviedia Svgsti. 92 lS vnrrnc eRESENTATIoNS/KALBEJTMAS . o {tikin€janiios (irodaniios) kalbos. palaiko kontakt4 akimis su klausytojais. motyvuojama. debatai. ivardijama pagrindine mintis. 2. 1998) PARTS OF SPEECH l. pamin6ti ir t. paskaita. prane5imas. 2.). paskelbiamas baigiamasis teiginys. and sermons To influence.. Nauckunaite . Conclusion: reviews your main points and provides closure by ending with a strong final statement. inspires.keidia balso tembrq ir naturaliai elgiasi. i kurie turi bnti ai5kiaisuformuluoti ir paremti faktais.apZvelgiami pagrindiniai teiginiai. define. ikvepia. KALBU RUSYS a Informacin6 kalba. TYPES OF SPEECHES o An informative speech. o Persuasive speeches.demonstruojama). patraukiamas auditorijos ddmesys. dalis Si skirstoma 3-5 svarbiausius teiginius. apie kuriq kalbesite.bond. daroma itaka. seminaras. 3. o socialine ir asmenine tragedija lygiai taip. lZanga sudominamiklausytojai.Iikalbos molcymas".. or commemorate. debates. t. or helps listeners to celebrate. sell products. orients the listeners to your topic and prepares them for your speech. instruct.mokoma. I Emocionali (iausmus Zadinanti) kalba (linksmina. Introduction: gains audience attention. Body: contains at least 75Vo of the information you will speak about. 0Impromptu speech You are asked to speak on the spur of the moment with little or no preparation time. pamokslaujama). demonstrate or teach. o Kalba gera. t Improvizuota kalba (be pasirengimo).Nemokiti kalbiti inteligentiikam imogui yra ne iiaip trukumas.H O W T O P R E P A R EF OR A N D P RESENTA SUCCESSFUL SPEECH MOK Y K IME S ALBETI K . motivate. ataskaita/projektas (aiSkinama. preach. pamokslai (irodinejama. apibrdZiama. VIESOSIOSKALBOS SUDETINES DALYS l. maintains eye contact with the audience. oral report. D6stymasturi apimti bent 75Vo informacijos. jei kalbantysis gerai i5mano tai. Pabaigoje apibendrinami teiginiai. parodomastemos svarbumas. sales presentations. or stimulate action. o The evocative speech Entertains." (2. clarify.

Electronic information retrieval services o Common sourcesfor speechmaterial: 1. su o Pasi5nekdkite Zinovaisir j[sq gerai iSmanandiais profesionalais. abstracts. pamphlets.k4 naudositekalboje. dictionaries. literaturinemsnuorodoms(plagijuoti draudZiama!). temos specifik4. o Remember to write down: 1.video or television. o Patikrinkite. Personalinterviewswith expertsin the field.encyclopedias. r Ai5kiai suformuluoti tikslai pad6s: . o A Thesis statement should be distilled and stated in one single declarative sentence.kokios medZiagos reikes ie5koti. 2. 3.enciklopedijose. computer program and the specificquotation. Card catalogs 2. SAVO TEMA GERAr TSANALTZUOKTTE o Surinkite vis4 imanomq informacij4 (straipsnius. kokia tai bus kalba. audience expectations. choose two to five main areas that you will speak on. journals. dokumentus. KALBOS TEMA . magazineand article. title of the book.ESEARCHYOUR TOPIC a Locate researchmaterial using: l.) ir eRESENTATIoNS/KALBEJTMAS 93 ||p.susikauptirengiantiskalbai. jam reikalingi trys dalykai: lZvalgumas. Brainstorm by making a Concept Map which allows you to generate ideas without evaluating them. Citing your sourcesaloud will give you credibility as a speaker. rrltnxrruc . jq iSsiaiSkinkite pasirengim4. computer networks." r Numatykite ir i5analizuokitesavo kalbos temq bei tikslus: l. or 3.SPEECH TOPICS o Select and analyze your speech purpose and topic: l. kokie faktai (i[sq tema) pateikiami groZindjeir mokslindje Zodynuose. 3. .. Electronic Media such as databases. Evaluate your own background and knowledge. (Ciceronas) supratimasir pastangos. circumstances surrounding your speech. newspapers and magazines. Determine the purpose of your speech and decide which type of speech you are giving. cassette radio programs. Governmentresources 5. 2. . Periodical& other indexes 3. Numatykiteklausytojqllkesdius. referencebooks. citataspasirinkite trumpesnes efektyvesnes. 2. o AtidZiai laikykitds reikalavimqcitatoms.Kad oratorius rastq kalbos tem4. Print Media such as fiction and nonfiction books. literaturoje.nusprgsti. I Once you have your topic. Apsisprgskite. The author's name. 2. [vertinkite savo patirt[ ir Zinias.). Abstracts 4.logiSkaii5destytimintis. Consider the occasion. It helps you develop a wide variety of choices. elektroning informacij4ir kt. nusprgskite. conductedonce you are familiar with your subject. (Surinkg medliag4. R. ir Zinynuose kt.

Introduction l. kq apiejuos Zinote. jq kad suZinotumete poZitri. Determine how you will addressinformation in relation to your audience's age. Secondmain point: l. oWhen possible . Final Statement IV.kaip klausytojaireaguos i jlsq pateikiam4informacij4. Considerhow your audience's age and knowledgeof your topic will affect the way you will shapeyour message.atsiZvelgdami klausytojqamZiq. Pirmasis.ANALYZE YOUR AUDIENCE o Analyzethe demographics and attitudes of your audience l.stebekiteklausytojus. 3. bus neutralfis.Second subpoint: a) supporting material b) supporting material (Transitionclosingoff main Point Two and openingmain Point Three\ C. Pagrindines minties formulavimas 5. Klausytojqsudominimas 2.remain neutral or disagreewith your message. Temos reik5mingumas 3. 4..patvirtinamoji lnlormacua (Perejimas prie pabaigos(iSvadq) III. o Jeigu imanoma: . i lyti. arba apgalvokite visa tai.. Temositikinamumas 4. Reviewof main points B. ar i5 klausytojaisutiks su jumis.or draw from your generalinferences. Bibliografija MAS ffl: MAKING PRESENTATIONS/KALBEJI . 2. Baigiamasis teiginys IV. . Nusprgskite. Anticipate that your audiencewill agree. Preview 3.interviewselectedaudiencemembersto gain insighton the viewsof the audience.atraminis"teiginysir jo analizd: a) patvirtinamoji informacija b) patvirtinamoji informacija (Perejimas prie antrojo teiginio) B. Third main point: First subpoint: supporting material (Tra sition into conclus rt) n io III. . kokie Zmondssudaro jfisq auditorijq. 3. Apgalvokite. Antrasis .ethnicity and status. D€stymas A. Thesis Statement 2. kaip pateiksiteinformacijz1. The main body A. lianga l. koks jq poZifris. .atraminis"teiginys patvirtinamoji informacija 2. Significance 5. Pabaiga(i5vados) A.observethe audience.i5 anksto surinkite informacij4apie klausytojus.gender. First main point: First subpoint: a) supportingmaterial b) supportingmaterial (Tiansition: closingoff main Point One and openingmain Point Two) B. 2. Pameginkite anksto numatyti. Pirmasis.. Credibility (Transitioninto your first main point) II.Atraminis" teiginys. l. THE BASIC SPEECH OUTLINE I.atraminis"teiginys a) patvirtinamoji informacija b) patvirt inamoji informacija (Perdjimas prie treiiojo teiginio) C. Conclusion A. Bibliography(list of material used in speech) KALBOS PLANAS I. Pirmasis svarbusteiginys l. {VERTINKTTE SAVO KLAUSYTOJUS o I5analizuokite. First subpoint: supporting material 2..ar nesutiks. tauti3kum4ir socialingpadeti. .ir atitinkamai formuluokitemintis. Pagrindiniq teiginiqapibendrinimas B. Think about how your audiencewill react to your message and structure your words and ideas accordingly. Pagrindiniqteiginiq aplvalga II.pasikalbekite kai kuriaisbusimaisiais su klausytojais. Antrasis svarbusteiginysir jo analize: l. Tiediasis svarbusteiginysir jo analize: . Attention Getter 4.collect information about your audiencebefore you begin your speech.

b) Story: stories contain the following parts: set up. tik kad klausytojaitikrai supras. Pagrindiniqteiginiq apZvalga. jis turi btti susijgs tema. 3. Reik5mingumas. Vardijamiklausimai. ltikinamumas. The attention getter should engage your audience and draw them into your speech. gali Thi bIti: a)retorinisklausimas naudinfiis gas tuo. Credibility: tell the audience why you are qualified to give the speech. or conducted research on the topic? 4.Ji turi btti aiSki. Engaging your audience in the introduction is important because audience members will decide if they will continue to listen during the first minute of your speech. su 2. o Your introduction should be written out woro for word and memorized. Pirmasiskalbandiojoteiginysturi sudominti klausytojus. Stories can be about real or hypothetical events of the past or present time.kad klausytojaipradetq j[sq klausytis bltent iZangos metu (per pirm4sias minutes)jie nusprendZia vertajusq klausytis. 2. Sometimes the thesis statement and the prevlew are combined. Significance: give the audience a reason to listen to your speech. a c) stulbinantis teiginys: tikslasnustebinti klausytojus.svarbi kalbos dalis. e)anekdotas: isitikinkite. Preview: a way of forecasting your main points to your audience. IZANGA lZangostikslas. Pagrindine mintis. pateikta glaustai.jog esatekompetentinga(s)ir gerai i5manote apie tai. kq kalbesite.Be to. e) Humour: when you use humour make sure it is related to a point you are going to make in your speech. This will keep you from becoming a flop if your joke or humorous statement does not work. climax. prie5inguatveju pats tapsite pajuokos objektu. be 5. nurodykiteprieZasti. In the preview you list each of the main points you will cover in your speech. J4 uZsira5ykite i5mokite. tojamsbus naudinga 3. 5. Have you worked on the project.ITNTRODUCTION lThe purpose of the introduction is to prepare the audience to listen to your speech. Motivate them by telling them the reason the topic is relevant to their lives. o It consists of five steps: l. c) Starting Statement: a statement intended to surprise your audience. Thesis Statement: a single declarative statement capsuling the central idea or specific purpose of your speech. Everyone wants to hear a good story especially if it is told with suspense and conflict.parengti klausytojus kalbai. 1. a) Rhetorical question: a question which does not require an answer. Attention Getter: the very first statement that comes out of the speaker's mouth. r 5 etapai: l. Rhetorical questions are effective because they make the audience think about your topic. Motyvuokite. and outcome. apie kuriuos kalbesite praneSime. d)statistika: tikslas. Svarbu. taken a class. 4. Atkreipiamasklausytojqddmesys.Klausytojams turite nurodyti. o lLanga. b)trumpa istorija(atsitikimas) i5 praeities r dabarties. ilgq i5vedZiojimq. This will help you maintain eye contact with your audience. [f rrrnrlruc eRESENTATIoNS/KALBEJTMAS 95 . d) Starting Statistics:a statistic intended to surprise your audience.Pradejg ir kalbetigalesite Zilreti i klausytojus (nereikes Ziuretii uZra5us ar plan4).nustebinti klausytojus. suprantama. jog priverdiaklausytojus galvoti apie kalbos temq). 2. kuo klausyj[sq kalba. ar ne.

Tiansitions appear between your introduction and your first main point. 5.(eg 'It's 60Vofatt'.Dr. Testimony:The opinion of an eye witness or expert about an event that took place. Suspense. Statistika. a climax and a conclusion. Remiantisekspertoar ivykio liudininkonuomone. 2. Analogr: A comparisonbetweentwo different items which revealstheir (eg A computer is like a human likeness. Example:Factualor hypothetical(used to illustrate a point).i5oriniai" (iungiantieji mintis). o Tlpes of supporting material (the substance that gives the audiencea reason to believeyour main points). JungiamiejiZodLiai yra dviejq r[Siq: ar . Statistics:A numericalcollection or facts (may need to be defined in order to clarif its meaning).pasitelkiantskaidius. Ddstoma. External transitions tell your audience that one main idea is endine and another is beginning. Always qualify (discuss the qualifications of the person) and cite (orally state the sourceor expert'sname). (eg 'In her book.') 3. l. SpeechTherapy. JUNGIAMIEII LONZLIN r Raskite tinkamusjungiamuosius ZodZius. then again between your main points and finally between your last main point and your conclusion. 5. ie5komapana5umq(arba jie nurodomi). cituojantSaltinius ir kt.') 2. pirmEf4ir antrqjq dali.) 4. Intemal transitions are used betlveen words and/or sentences and tell the audience how two ideas may be related. (Pasirinkitekuo daugiaujungiamrjq ioclLit4.vidiniai" (ungiantieji ZodZius sakinius) ir. siejandius iZang4bei pirmqjq destymo dali.. Lyginami du rei5kiniaiar faktai. IMAS IF unrrrucpRESENTATIoNS/MLBEJ . kad nevartotumdte padiq!) tq MAIN BODY o Main points & their subpoints l. Orally state each main point as you begin discussing it. Pasakojamas ivykis.TRANSITIONS I They form a bridge between the parts of your speech.. kuris akivaizdLiai patvirtinajnsq teigini. antrqj4 ir trediqj4bei paskutingdestymodali ir i5vadas. PAGRINDINE KALBOS DALIS _ DESTYMAS I Ddstymebuna 3-5 svarbiosdalys ar teiginiai. Analogija. I Kaip galima pagristi savo teiginius? (Klausytojaituri patikdri jfisq teiginirl pagristumu. kurie dar gali bnti paremiami vienu ar keliaisteiginiais. Story: Has a set up. 2. lrodymas. brain because they both process information. conflict and descriptionhelp a story to hold the attention of the audience.The body of a speechhas between3-5 main pointseachwith 1 or more subpointsand supportingmaterial.) l. Sharon Milan statesthat you can eliminate the use of 'um' and other filler words by simply pausing. Pateikiamas pavyzdys: faktinis arba Zodinis.

S/he demonstrates knowledgeand understanding of the content. You can also end by tying your conclusion into a story that you started in your introduction. Improvizuota (i5 anksto visa kalba nepara5yta).) pasirengti kalbai.letting your audience know what you expect of them and providing a final impact. MODES OF DELIVERY Choose the mode of delivery that enhances your speech: l.in a dynamic conversational style. 2. 1. palaikomas rySyssu klausytojais. cards or a teleprompter.S/he can generatethree main points and a first and last line by taking a moment to gather his or her thoughts. PABAIGA GSVADOS) Baigdamikalb4. pa(si)keitimuiir kt.kalba skambaneformaliai. I5rnokta mintinai.This method can often appear spontaneousand dynarnic. Jis turi bfiti sklandus. o ne apie jq prasmg. Extemporaneous: The speakerusesa brief outline and key terms and quotes.This method is used when precise accuracyis required. Kalbantysis i5mokstavisq kalbq paZodZiui. This method is not recommended beginningspeakers for because is very difficult to build audience it dynamicswhen you are thinking about the words rather than the meaningsthey convey. 2.skambus. 578 VIESOSIOS KALBOS TIPAI: l. Kalbantysis naudojasi trumpu planu. pRESENTAnoNS/KALBEJTMAS 97 sF unxrruc .adapt to the audienceand speak. pagrindiniaisteiginiais ir citatomis. o Final statement:Should leave a lasting impact on your audienceand bring your ideas to a close.apibendrinkite. reinforcingyour major ideas. itaigus. Siuo aweju rySyssu klausytojais minimalus. Pradedantiesiems bfldas Sis nepatartinas galvojamaapie ZodZius.NaudojantisSiuobfrdu.Sis b[das tinka. It is not as dynamicas the extemporaneous mode becausethe speaker'seyes are on the paper not the audience. o Baigiamasisteiginys. Memorized: The speaker memorizes the speechword for word. Your final statementshould be refined and the languageshould be powerful and direct. Impromptu: The speakerhas limited time to prepare. r Pagrindiniq teiginiq apivalga. Consistsof a review and then a final statement: a Review:A restatementof the main points you presentedin your speech. o The conclusionfor the persuasive speech also contains a call to action. Skaitoma.usuallyless than five minutes. Manuscript: The speaker reads the speech word for word from a manuscript. kai b0tinas tikslumas.This method allows the speakerto maintain eye contact. Patartina pasirinkti 3 pagrindinius teiginius ir ivadini bei baigiam4iisakini. 7. Kalbantysisneturi ar beveikneturi laiko (maZiaunei 5 min. Tokia kalba spontani5ka dinami5ka. Kalbantysis skaito vis4 tekst4. 4.Jis turi sustiprintiklausytojqemocijas. Baigiamasis sakinysgali sietis su tam tikra iZangos dalimi. 3. 2. ir (Pradedantiesiems nepatartina naudotis Siuob[du!) 3. akcentuokite pagrindiniusteiginius. Ekspromtu.CONCLUSIONS A way of bringing your talk to a close. Using a powerful quotation is a good way to end a speech. ndra rySio su klausytojais. Kalbos pabaigataip pat gali bflti kaip kvietimasveiklai.

Make sure your facial expressions agreewith your message.Viskasatsispindiveide. the slower they vibrate the lower the pitch. rate. KUNO KALBA o l5vaizda. Rengiantiskalb6ti.The faster your vocal folds vibrate the higher your pitch. not look at do one person. you talk about death and If smile your audiencewill think you are insensitive. o Pauzds. kaip susiSukuosite.make sure there is an eyecontactwith the whole audience. Gesturesshould coincidewith the meaninq of your message. I Intonacija . Kalbeti reikia pakankamaigarsiai.The highness lownessof your voice.Optimal rangeis 150 to 185words per minute. o Word emphasis The emphasizing key words by changesin of the volume. a Pitch l. o Zodl:iq akcentavimas.Pauses and emphases key words will on make important conceptsstand out. balso pakilimq ir nusileidimq kaitaliojimasis. nesiraukykite! Patarimas: parepetuokiteprie5 veidrodi! . NesiZvalgykite lang4. netampykiteskvernq. geriausiapasirinkti normalq.padedaklausytojams geriau juos suvokti.Drausminkite save. Gestai turi atitikti kalbos turini. Visada maloniau klausytisZemesnio tono. 3.neZitrdkite pro laikrodi.VOCAL DELIVERY SKILLS o Volume Createdby using your diaphragmto push air forcefully through your larynx and out of your mouth. pravartu pasiZymdti pauziq vietas. iprast4 kalbejimo temp4. kiSeniq. sutelkti.jos pabreZiapagrindinius teiginius. neturi blaSkyti Jie ji klausytojqddmesio. 2.hairstyleand accessories. pitch or pausepatterns to highlight key ideas." (Ciceronas) O Gestai. O Movement:Control your movement.Pam4stykite. o Rate 1. 2. Good speakers conveymeaning in their voice. kokius aksesuarus pasirinksite. PHYSICAL DELIVERY o Appearance: Decide on the kind of message you want to send to the audiencethrough your dress. nenukreipkiteZvilgsnioi vien4 taSkq ar Zmogq (iis gali pasijustinejaukiai). balso auk5diuarba intonacija. a Garso aukitis. netrypdiokite. o Facial expressions: you know your If material and have an emotional connection to it.kalbos tonas. a Pauses l.avoid looking at the watch/clock. i plaukq. o Kalb6jimo tempas. nemindZikuokite vietoje. or 2.Reik€tg vengti kalbeti per greitai arba pabreZtinai ldtai. o Gestures:Use hand movementssimilar to thoseyou normally use in conversation.Pauzds bfitinos . o Mimika turi blti tinkama fiuk nekalbdsite apie mirusi Zmogqsu Sypsena veide!). o Laikysena. kuo vilkesite. facial expressions happen naturally will for most speakers.svarbiq Lodlig pabreZimas kitokiu tonu. GARSINIAI KALBOS ASPEKTAI o Balso stiprumas. o The dynamic speaker l. M MAKING RESENTATION P S/KALBEJIMAS . tempu. A skilful speakerwill control and place them to create impact.kad visi girdetq. rate. 2. Vary in length and frequency. pitch and rhythm.How fast or slowlywe talk.melodija. Venkite familiariq ar kvailq mimikq.Variety in volume..Pasistenkite elgtis nat[raliai. prieSingai.bet.

pamqstykite.flipping and advancing slides. Thmsojegali blti sunku skaityti. o Use repetition.u. or boards can be used to displaysketches.and video clips (make sure you how to stop/rewindetc. juos keletqkartqpakartosite. paveikslai.diagrams. I5mokite naudotis aparatu arba iS anksto papra5ykite. o Give your listeners a framework for understanding your information. motivators. kas uZra5yti. kad jums kas padetq.The text should be easyto read. Make sure you are very familiar with your notes. SUSIDOME. This technologymakesspeakingeasier. poster-board. Have a plan as to where you will be projectingyour slides (scrien or wall?). Also you should evaluatethe surroundings.tnxrruc 99 . Tekstas turi bDti ska. OAudio.you may not be able to see them in the darkO Overhead transparencies. o flausVto. kompiuteriai.iodel gerai. 9o* o Computer gette"at"d images. storiesand presentational aids throughoutyour speechin order to keep your audience's attentton. ar iskaitomatai.plakatai. modeliai ir kt.l will be using. o Physical objects (booksikeyboards or computersmake excellentpresentational aids). Jet TYPES OF PRESENTATIONAL AIDS o Flip charts.itomas..ar suprantama kas pavaizduota.nuopaprastrlsqvokq.i5mokitetekstq. 3.kuri sakysite. o Skaidruolds(OHp). Thkine advantage this technologyallows of vou to_concentrate.IIMA? o Praddkite. l"nry3t kurioje kalbesite_ daZnaisauletole " patalpojeblogasmatomumas. KArPPADTDTNTT Kr_dusyloJv o Informacijqpateikitesistemingai. o Kompiuterinis vaizdas_ moderni ir labai efektyvi priemone.orlo. artwork.INCREASING INTEREST AND UNDERSTANDING o Start with simple conceptsand gradually bring up more complexones.humour. ^ 2. Pasitikrinkite. t. o Vaizdobei garso aparatiira. F pRESENTATIoNS/KALBEJIMAs n. Kalbedami rodvkite. humoristiniaispasakoiimais bei vaizdinemispriemondmis. Be-knowledgeableof tire projec. o Knygds. o Skaidrds.prasuktijuost4 ir t.. I Use examples. tai. o Norddami i5lailryti klausytojq demesi. charts. I Avoid overloading the audience with too much information. rnokut" sustabdvti aparat4.)." VAIZDINES PRIEMONES o lelta. patalpsnrui pereidami prie suddtingesniu. kur projektuosite sKatdres (ekranear ant sienos).ii geriauisiminspag"rindinius raKrus. [vertinkite patal. your speechand on forget polnters.. graphs. fsitikinkite. kalbq paivairinkitepavyzdZiais. o Slides l.photographs. r Neapkraukiteklausytojqper didelilu = rntormacijoskiekiu. or computer generatedimaees.

I Skaitykite garsiai. esteti5kos tvarkingos. o Pasitikrinkite.pasiraSykite o Pam€ginkitekalb€ti naudodamiesi uZraSais. o Make sure your visual materials are large.play your tapes. ar mokate naudotis prietaisais. IIF unrtNc pRESENTATIoNS/KALBEJTMAS . You want to be able to maintain eye contactwith the audienceand continue talking while displayingor explaining your presentational aid. Organizeyour topics in your mind by creatingblocks or modulesof information that can be independently discussed.Seimos o Parepetubkite narius arba prie5 veidrodi.WHEN USING ANY TYPE OF PRESENTATIONAL AID YOU SHOULD: o Designyour visual aids to have a purposeor support an important point. o Practice using them prior to speech delivery. prie5 draugus. o Practice reading aloud using your outline. o Vaizdin€spriemon€sturi blti dideles. o Modularize your topics for mental clarity: l. reikiamais PRACTICE o Completeall researchand writing at least two weeksprior to the speechdate. teiginius. family or coworkers in conversations that allow you to discuss the module of information you have stored in vour mind. clear and uncluttered. i Practice speakingaloud while using the aid. jos turi atitikti kalbos tem4. K4 SVARBU PRISIMINTI PRIES NAUDOJANT VAIZDINES PRIEMONES o Gerai apgalvokitevaizdinespriemones. Reduceyour outline to a few key words. o Ant korteliq susira5ykitepagrindinius planeli. o You may want to ask an assistant to handle your aids (flip your charts. kad liktq laiko pasipraktikuoti.or advanceyour slides)so you can concentrateon your audience. o Write your key words on note cards. 2. ir o Pasipraktikuokitenaudotisvaizdindmis priemondmis. o Pamdginkitesakyti kalb4 naudodami vaizdinespriemones(ir palaikydami kontakt4 akimis su isivaizduojamais klausytojais).Engage your friends. PRATYBOS o Kalbq pasistenkiteuibaigti kuo anksiiau. o Practice speakingaloud from your note cards. o Cover or turn off all presentationalaids when you are not using them. o Make sure you know how to turn all equipmenton and off.

make sure you stand in front of it. 3.kad reikia vis4 laikq Zilreti i grindis. KAIP ATSIKRATYTI BAIMES o Auditorijos baime . "I'm going to foryet my speech"can be replaced with "1 know my material well and havepracticed it out loud severaltimes". kad uZstotumdte vaizdE-Venkite nuobodumo . 2.turite taip ji sureguliuoti.Stand or sit with your head down. Research your topic and practicetalking about your content in your daily conversations.Kai tinkamai nepasirengta.Prisiminkite.OVERCOMING FEAR o Fear of public speakingis normal. 3..turn it up to produce a high-pitchedwine. . Pasitiketisavimi(l[s tikrai sugebdsite!). atsistokitetaip. 4.{ DARYTI. 4. 3. Don't be boring . Jei kalbate i mikrofon4.nat0ralus dalykas. Jei demonstruojate skaidres.Know your topic well..{: l. murmdkite. 2.. Stov6kitearba sedekitenuleidgs galvq... Rememberthat a good presentationmust be a bit challenging for the audience. unrrruceRESENTATToNS/KALBEJTMAS .bet i sienas ar lubas. O toliau tgskitej[s: 6.. o K. It is not enough to read through your notes silently. To eliminateyour fear: l. Parepetuotiprie5 sakantkalbq.. If you use an overheadprojector or show slides. OHOW TO BE A TRULY ROTTEN SPEAKER Anyone can learn to be a truly rotten speaker.Laikas nuo laiko pap[skite i mikrofon4 .. 2.. Tod6l reikia: l. Read from a written text very rapidly or monotonously.. If you use a microphone.you must read them out loud and understandthe material. Gerai pasirengti kalbai. 3. 4.kad garsas bltq aukitas ir cypiantis. Replaceyour negativethoughtswith positive ones.tai neleis klausytojams uZmigti arba paZadins miegandius. 101 [|p...Practiceyour speechout loud.. preferablyin front of people you trust. Now it is your turn to continue this list of rules: 5.vaizd4 nukreipkite ne i ekranq.galbflt taip suintriguosite klausytojus.. 2. Rememberto keep looking at the floor. Just follow these easyrules: l. That should keep the audienceawake. Use relaxationand redirection techniquesto reduce the tensioncausedby the physiological effectsof fear.project the image on to the wall or ceiling rather than the screen. 4. Tekst4skaitykitelabai greitai arba monotoni5kai. Nusiteikti teigiamai(iums tikrai pasiseks!). mumble.. Blow into it vigorouslyfrom time to time. baime kyla ddl nepasitikejimo savimi.. KAn SUGADINTUMETE KALB. 6.

. I'm . Accordingto the latest Let me tell you .Morning everyone! My name's.. of time left at \/.. (D 9< 5| (n F('r! O. takinga look at . that .. Do you know that .. Hello... 7 q ... there'll be plenty question.. :''" .. x \ J to ask. I'll be happy to answer Feel any = z laterlat the end (of this lecture) ... Have you ever heard I rememberwhen . Thank you for making every I'm delighted/pleased/glad be to effort to come todav ... the end .< pRESENTATToNS/KALBEJ 102 fVt.... makingthis presentation . This remindsme of .......v = E ... Fr!1 Have you ever r i < thought. Imagine.N I'd like to thank you for coming .. statistics/research .. the make suggestions ...ladiesand gentlemen!...... MAKTNG tMAS .rtt .. you for coming . Today/this morning I'm going to be showingyou ......... Thanksfor coming . So I'll begin by I (Let me begin by) | z 6 (I'd like to start with/off/byJ v) . talk about . z May I take this opportunity to thank I'm glad you could all get here .. F Thank you for coming ..^ i:fi .w H i r r>1 think/believe >=7 "Suppose .. making a few observations outlining the main points . C D < : u ) ...... highlightthe main facts .. is Today's topic is .How many of you z. and then I'll (go on to) discuss progress. talking to you about ..... F r i z2 A Z F 'l + N lJ F..i"':#.... If like I want to fi^< you have any questionsyou'dthem Whatfree to askdo this morning.. everybody! z This morning I'd like to .'"1' l: The subjectof my presentation ... givingyou an overview.SOMEEXPRESSIONS HELPYOU MAKEA GOOD TO PRESENTATION POSAKIAI GERAIKALBAIPARENGTI Formal Oficialioji kalba Informal Neoficialioji kalba Good morning.

.. He plays safe by saying: "lf you've heard this story before.. represents ......1 (explaining about/approximately/roughly/more less J a diagram) or ? U) IAVe strongly suggest/recommend .. d< F r > \ ) 7 v ) A p o Fi H z 7 If you look at it more closely.. 81 A rI Y rr { = Z Oi -l < t s It is extremely/absolutely (necessary) n> ll rrl One of the hazards that trouble any story-teller the risk of repetition. IAVe firmly opposite . represents and the .. Let's take a closerlook (at) . u) v) You can see on this overhead 4 Z (slide)(that) ... .... * forestall uZbdgti akiq u2 103 lS unrrruceRESENTATIoNS/KALBEJTMAS .. The main thing is .. What's especially/more important.. Just over/justunder/wellover/wellunder (eg50Vo). P l u s ... f Tl I'd like us to look at . IAVe categorically deny .... What'smore.. ..... which clearly show/indicatethe rTl importanceof .... fu (t) XrD IAVe sincerely hope .. The figures in blue indicate/shod < N standfor ... If we look at this .. u)j In particuldr..... I/IVe completelyagreewith . lou'll see/notice/understand The . In addition (to that) .... Here we can see . z. .... ..don't stop me because I'd like to hear it again".. I'd like to emphasize .. z Have a look at this (BrE) (Take a look at this) (AmE) As you can see . ........ IAVe honestlybelieve ..(/) I'd like to draw your attention .. Above all . is One fellow has a nice way of forestalling* that I've heard-it-before responseto a story.. = ^ ..

of course. nevertheless.TRANSITIONS THAT MAY HELPYOU JUNGIAMIEJI POSAKIAI Enumeration first. as I have said. because.in other words.perhaps. in fact. besides. in any case Illustration Possibility as an example(illustration). a reason for this is Conclusion and so. after that. no doubt Contrast Emphasis although.also. as I have noted 104 NF. accordingly. obviously. as a result. consequently. furthermore. since. and. in particular.to sum up.on the other hand. that is. secondly.third. MAKTNG eRESENTATIoNS/KALBEJTMAS . even though. certainly. above all. thus Repetition in brief. maybe. however. in short. because of. on the contrary. next. but. to summarize. yet. despite without doubt. for. and then Concession as you probably know. in short. indeed. for in such as. as a matter of fact. hence. in the sameway (manner) Addition additionally. most importantly. again Comparison likewise. in the follbwing manner. especially. in summary.in conclusion.similarly. particular.too. in addition. namely Reason as. finally. moreover. then.possibly for example.naturally. instance. therefore.

3643 nouns 13-16 collective15 ccimmon 15 compound 14 countable 13. conclusion20 relative 2O sentence 20 apostrophe 79 articles6-10 definite 6-10 indefinite 6_10 zero 6-1.-52 main 46. 83 comma74-77.7_lg.22 direct speech46-50 ellipsis 81 essay71-73 exclamation mark 79 full stop 74. 5L-52 subordinate 46 time 54 colon 78.83 if-clause 51. 84 negative sentences11.consequence. lS.GI. 16 6.83 comparison of adjectives17-1g of adverbs22 irregular 22 regular 22 complexobject 17 imperative mood 57 italics 82.0 concludingsentence62 conditionalsentences 5I_52 conjunctions coordinatins31 subordinatiig 32 controlling idea 62 comparative1.reason.22 positive 77-t9.oSSARY TERIvIS oF TERM|NU ZoovNELfS abbreviations8g adjectives17-19 adverbs 20-23 rnterrogative/exclamatory 20 of definite time 20 of degree20 of frequency 20 of indefinite time 2O of manner 20 of place/direction 20 of.22 superlativeI7-1g. individual 15 irregular 14 F olossnRy oF TERMS/TERMINU ZoDyNELls 1os .

47 demonstrative 1.73 106ryF clossARyoF TERMS/TERMINU Zooynerrs . 58-61 main 33 modal/defective33. 37.11..49 of singular6. 42 time words 47 topic 62. 55-56 passive 34-35.6 personalLL possessive LL reflexive 1L rclative 12 tenses34-43 future 3+-35. 47 regular 33 reporting 48 special33 voice active 3444.39.6 numerals 24-25 cardinal 24 ordinal 24 slash8L single/double quotation 81. 69. L3-15 prepositions 26-30 of method 29 of place 27-29 of time 26-27 pronouns tl-12.5L 53.42 present 34-36.83 sequence tenses46.37. 40.40. 69. 38.L indefiniteI1.13-1.73 topic sentence6243.15-1. 53.104 questions36-43. 11.1. 41. 43 future in the past 34-35.39.50 general50 special50 questionmark 79 verbals 55-57 gerund 56 infinitive 55 verbs 33-58 auxiliary33 irregular 33. 84 square brackets 82 statements 50 paragraph 6210 concluding 72 introductory 7L plural 6. 4L.5 support62. 55-56 reported speech 46-50 request/command/order 50 wish-sentences 53 word order in reported speech50 of adjectives19 of adverbs 22-23 semicolon 78-79. 73 transitions6448.45.proper 15 regular 13 uncountable6. 51. 38. 43 past 34-36.

Ed. Chicago: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.. Kai5iadorys.Iikalbos molcymas.2000 Gordon E. P. 1999 R. GrammarIs Easy...Oxford: Oxford University Press. Moscow: Moscow Vys5aja Skola..V. Thllinn: Thllinn TechnicalUniversity.REFERENCES Literatfrra AndersenS. Inc.: BarCharts.) Second LanguageWiting. A.London: PenguinBooks. L. Pasternak-Winiarska Gramatykajgzyka angielskiego tabelach. Language G. 1995 SliZiene ValeckieneA.. Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress. (ed. Englewood Cliffs. 1996 EvansY. Oxford: Oxford University Press.1998 Hornby A.. Round-Up (5). M. Pryor B. 1997 Warriner E. A.. The PenguinGuide to Punctuation.1992 KoZeniauskien€ Retorika. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.V.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Needham Heights. Lietuviq kalbosraiyba ir slqryba. Mare-Anne Laane. New Jersey:PrenticeHall Regents.1980 Hedge T. Understanding and UsingEnglish Grammar. English GrammarPractice. The EssentialUniversity Course Outline. Iikalbos menas. English Grammar and Composition. Sudzilovsky A.Harlow: Longman. w Tiigraf s. 1998 K.. 1989 N. Publishers.: Sviesa.V. CommunicatingEffectivelyin English. S.1986 Wite Right.1995 KarnegisD.1984 Tbacher's Handbookof AdvancedWriting. Gear R.1990 Bieliniene J. 1998 Pikver Ann. 1999 Tiask R. 2000 Porter P.. K. Speech Fundamentals: Contemporary A Approacft. Krylova I. Boca Raton. Azar D. Oxford Advanced Leamer's Dictionary.1997 Naucklnaite Z. S.MA: Ginn Press. EssentialEnglish Writing Skills. Cambidge Preparation for the TOEFL Tbst. Grant M. Laugh-In Moscow: Moscow Vys5aja Skola. c. Kroll B. Fl. New York: Random House. 1999 REFERENCES/LITERATORA 107 . 2000 Dictionaryof Abbreviations. 1992 Public Speaking.A Grammar of Present-Day English. Writing..Warszawa: J.V.1992 Azar B. Kaip iisiugdytipasitikejimqsavimi ir vieia kalba paveiktiZmones.2001 Gear J.: Mokslas.

3fi)0 Kaunas.Virginiia Thomaitd. Vytauto pr.. El.Sviesa. sviesa@balt. 578.nef Interneto puslapis: http:/Avww. Akcine bendrov6 leidykla . p. Nr. 1..8.lt Sutartind kaina ...sviesa.5077..lt Interneto puslapis: http:/Apww.ausra. Ingrida Zindziuviend ANGLU rGLBA VISTEMS Redaktord Odeta Venckieni Vir5elis Donato Gendvilos Vir5elyje panaudota iliustracija iS photo Disc Irid.25. p.3000 Kiunas.u5ra. El. Nr. ausra@ausra..UZsak. \ttauto pr.A.lt ttpausdtnoAB sDaustuv6 ..

tik angl. 107. aiSkinami anglg ir lietuviq kalbq skirtumai..L07 p.. p. Zodyn.2002. stojant i auk5t4sias mokyklas. norintiems pakartoti ar i3mokti ne tik anglq kalbos gramatik4. UDK 802. Knyga suskirstyta i keturis skyrius: gramatika. Vir3.Sviesa. Kielwienoje dalyje remiamasi skaitytojq gimtosios kalbos filologine patirtimi. TOEFL egzaminq. ra5ymas. mokyklq studentams bei visiems.p. Knyga naudinga rengiantis laikyti anglq kalbos brandos egzaminq. . aukltqjr. Virgin[ia Tir71. ISBN5-430-03388-X Kaunas: Knyga skiriama viduriniq mokyklq ir gimnazijq mokiniams. mo$rmas kalb€ti. bet ir kitas temas.skyryba. Bibliogr.6 .Ihomaitd. Anglq kalba visiems/Virginija Tuomaite. akcentuojami anglq kalbos ypatumai. 105-106. Ingrida ZindZiuviend.