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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTING SCIENCE, VOL. 1, NO.

1, JANUARY 2012
ISSN (Online): 2164-1374, ISSN (Print): 2164-1366, Published online January, 2012 (http://www.researchpub.org/journal/ijcs/ijcs.html)

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Design and Implementation of a Wireless Security System using RF Technology
Xiaolong Li and Qing-An Zeng

Abstract— In the current world, the high value objects such as ipads, laptops, are prone to the theft and are required to be monitored to ensure safety. Monitoring the objects within a short distance by the use of a wireless security system is implemented with the help of modules which are capable of communicating with each other. The buzzer attached to the modules sounds instantly when the portable object moves approximately six meters away from the owner to the fixed location. The modules are designed with two ARMLPC2148 microcontrollers and CC2500 RF transceivers which are powered by a battery source. Index Terms – wireless security system, CC2500, RF technology, microcontroller.

II. RELATED WORK The design of anti-theft alarm systems is an important safety measure to keep a portable article safe. The main idea of this design is to give an alarm or any kind of indication to the owner of the article when the article is moved from its original position. A personal property alarm device was designed and patented which works on a position sensing principle and gives out an audible alarm in case of theft (U.S. Patent No. 4,462,023, 1984). The device is housed in a sealed box with an opening for the sound signal to come out and is comprised of an alarm, sensing switch and a battery source. The device has two position sensitive switches which are employed in the design to overcome any faulty errors that may occur with the use of the single switch. The opening and closing of switches is dependent on the external physical movement of the article to be monitored. Any vibration or slight movement closes the switch, giving power output to the alarm and thus alerting the owner of the article. This design is prone to errors like malfunctioning of the switches, any kind of loose connections in the circuitry, and improper timing of the alarm giving a false indication to the owner to take necessary actions. A. MEANS FOR ASSISTANTING IN LOCATING AN OBJECT A Security System based on Position Sensing was further improvised by introducing wireless communication between the device to be monitored and the control unit producing the buzzer output if the device in consideration is moved within a short range of distance, and it received a patent with a title as Means for Assisting in Locating an Object (U.S. Patent No. 4,476,469, 1984). Theft security is achieved by a transmitter and receiver exchanging the position information using wireless communications (Figure 1).

I. INTRODUCTION thefts of valuable objects or portable goods are increasing every day. There is a tremendous increase of theft in airports in the last five years [1]. In the current situation how to protect the objects such as suitcases, laptops and ipads has become a tough task. These objects are easy for thieves to steal and resale. According to statistics, for every fifty three seconds a laptop is stolen [2]. A study in 2008 at the Ponemon institute showed that 12,000 laptops were lost weekly and 600,000 were lost annually in U.S. Airports [2]. Monitoring the physical presence and location of these devices is a tedious task needed at all times. There are numerous ways to protect the objects from being stolen. We can reduce the risk of theft by using an anti-theft alarm system. A buzzer is present in both of the communicating devices as an added safety measure for security of the article. The owner of the object is alerted by an alarm if the object is moved several meters away. In wireless communication, data is broadcasted by radio frequencies [3]. As a result, data may be captured when it is broadcasted. There are many wireless communication technologies such WIFI, Cellular, Bluetooth, etc. Different wireless technology has different communication range from centimeters to several hundred meters [4]. In this project a range approximately six meters is used because it is easy to protect the object from being stolen. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section II introduces the related work. Section III presents the design of the system. The building of the system is given in Section IV. Implementation of the system is provided in Section V. Finally, the conclusions are provided in Section VI.
HE Manuscript received December 18, 2011; revised on December 28, 2011; accepted January 5; 2012. Dr. Xiaolong Li is with Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Technology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 47809, USA, (Email: Xiaolong.li@indstate.edu) Dr. Qing-An Zeng is with Department of Electronics, Computer & Information Technology, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA (Email: qzeng@ncat.edu)

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Figure 1. Block diagram of Means for Assisting in Locating an Object. (U.S. Patent No. 4,476,469, 1984) The timer present in the transmitter generates timing signals which are encoded and transmitted. These signals are decoded and received by the receiver. If this process aborts or delays for a time interval, the buzzer rings and alerts the system to take

both CC2500 RF transceivers were designed to maintain a full duplex communication between two modules.org/journal/ijcs/ijcs. 4. Figure 4. 4. When any of the modules move six meters away from the fixed location. JANUARY 2012 ISSN (Online): 2164-1374. which are mostly used in the integral alarm and central locking system [5]. The entire safety system is comprised of an apparatus which senses the movement and a battery source to power the alarm.researchpub. (U. VOL. 1986 As shown in the Figure 2. THEFT PREVENTIVE APPARATUS WITH AN ALARM OUTPUT DEVICE Theft Preventive Apparatus with an Alarm Output Device was invented to produce an alarm sound when the apparatus is detached from the article in consideration is moved (U.593. The patent lacks information on type of communication. The demand for an effective anti-theft alarm system for vehicles was also raised in the beginning of 1990. An UART0 provides a transmit and receive first in first out (FIFO) for transfer of data between ARM LPC2148 to CC2500 RF transreciever. a patent named Out-of Range Personnel Monitor and Alarm was implemented (U.273. the required system criteria.S. IV.593. In the second phase. Patent No. the building system is developed in four phases. Transmitter (UART 0) in ARMLPC2148 microcontroller and the CC2500 RF transceiver.S. and it is a kind of wired communication that senses the physical motion of the invented apparatus with respect to the attached box and is crucial in giving the alarm by notifying the owner regarding the theft. Figure 2. The UART0 provides a transmit/receive data lines with standard baurd rates. DESIGN OF SYSTEM As shown in Figure 3. 5. which is connected to pin 25 of the microcontroller. ARMLPC2148 and CC2500 RF interface The CC2500 RF transceiver is configured for obtaining optimum register settings and to meet the design aspects of the communication channel. C. In the third phase. 2012 (http://www. 1. Keil software is used to program a microcontroller and a compiled C program is downloaded in the ARMLPC2148 microcontroller (Figure 4).273.html) 9 preventive measures to restore the object to its original position.92MHz. Patent No. 1986). BUILDING THE SYSTEM In order to meet the project objectives. all hardware components are configured for proper operation. 1997).587. ISSN (Print): 2164-1366. such as inputs and housing size. The RS232 communication protocol is used to interface ARMLPC2148 microcontroller UART0 and the CC2500 RF transceiver [6]. the design consists of a base unit and multiple mobile units which communicate repeatedly with the base unit. Published online January. CC2500 RF transceiver is interfaced to an ARMLPC2148 microcontroller and this controller is able to: III. Patent No. less than the threshold frequency signal F1 set from the transmitter. are identified and established. B.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTING SCIENCE. CC2500 RF transceiver in both modules provides extensive hardware support for effective RF communication in six meters of distance. Block diagram of wireless security system The microcontroller-based embedded device along with CC2500 RF transceiver in one module will maintain full duplex communication with another module. In the initial phase. The buzzer in the mobile unit sounds when the received signal from the base unit is less than the threshold value set in the receiver and thus alerts the user of the owner. Block diagram of Out-of range Personnel monitor and Alarm.610. If the receiver gets a weak frequency signal. 1. the buzzer present in the receiver section rings and alerts the person who takes necessary action.S. a RS232 communication protocol was used to interface Universal Asynchronous and Receiver and . NO. A transmitter and receiver section was used along with an alarm that is attached to the device to be monitored and this monitoring is based on detection of frequency signals F1 and F2. Figure 3. the communication between two modules will be lost and it generates a buzzer sound. OUT-OF-RANGE PERSONNEL MONITOR AND ALARM With the same idea of using wireless communication in theft prevent systems. These are battery operated small RF transmitters operating with a frequency 433.

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SYSTEM An RF enabled wireless security system is built around CC2500 RF transceiver and an ARMLPC2148 microcontroller. In CC2500 RF transceiver. After completing data transfer.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTING SCIENCE. Also the time gap between the transmission and reception of data between the modules is observed. The interface of data through ARMLPC2148 microcontroller and CC2500 RF transceiver can be explained . Read and Write operation of SPI [7] The CSn pin is low during the data and address transfer. Finally. the entire setup is tested in different environments. which then are passed through the automatic gain control and channel filtering. The channel number can be used to different channels from 0-255. A crystal oscillator generates the clock signal that matches the reference frequency of the synthesizer as well as the analog to digital circuitry. frequency and phase shift modulation formats. 1. such as effective distance. it is automatically changed to RX. A RS232 communication protocol is used to interface ARMLPC2148 microcontroller and the CC2500 RF transceiver. CC2500 RF transceiver maintains different modes to meet the requirements of the communication channel. and in the receive mode. the data is demodulated along with the synchronization. Published online January. and when going from either RX or TX to IDLE after every fourth calibration. RX or TX to IDLE. The complete system setup is illustrated in Figure 5. and noise associated with the system. A minimum time delay is observed due to the interference of the communication channel between modules. The CC2500 RF transceiver supports up to 255 bytes of packet length in variable packet length mode. There are two modes of operation in CC2500 RF transceiver: transmit mode and receive mode. by the read and write operations of SPI (Figure 6). The entire function of serial peripheral interface depends on the four pins: • SCLK (clock in pin for SPI interface) • CSn (chip select pin for SPI interface) • SI (date on pin for SPI interface) • SO (data output pin for SPI interface) Figure 6. Also at IF receiver the incoming analog signals are digitized by the analog to digital converters. 1. The CC2500 RF transceiver supports amplitude. Figure 5. Noise is tested by placing the modules in a closed box and when the modules are in the external environment. CC2500 RF transceiver is specifically used for short distance communications at lower power levels in a frequency range of 2400-2483. the chip will remain in receive mode until the signal is successfully received. There was more noise effect when modules are tested in external environment. VOL. the chip will remain in transmit mode until the signal is successfully transmitted. the buzzer is observed in both modules when any of the modules is moved six meters from the fixed location. the packet handler adds all fields to the packet stored in TX. System setup of wireless security system A four-wire SPI interface is used for configuring and data buffer access. ISSN (Print): 2164-1366. This signal is amplified by low noise amplifier and is then converted to the selected modulated frequencies. the project of the wireless security system using RF technology is evaluated by three factors in consideration. A RS232 communication protocol is used to interface ARMLPC2148 microcontroller and the CC2500 RF transceiver with a baud rate of 9600. The packet transfer depends on modes. time delay. Transfer is cancelled if the CSn pin goes high during access. and when RX is activated.html) 10 • • read and write buffered data to and from CC2500 for lossless communication. When TX is activated. By practically testing the system.5MHz. A CC2500 RF transceiver is interfaced to microcontroller using UART0. Here the channel number is selected as 0 which is a default number in both modules of CC2500 RF transceiver. JANUARY 2012 ISSN (Online): 2164-1374. The two pins RF_N and RF _P act in two modes depending on the incoming signal. The distance between two modules can be varied depending on the application selected. first it is set in TX mode which is initiated in one module and data is transferred completely. The most significant bit is done first for all address and data transfer on the SPI interface. such as RF_N pin in receiving mode to LNA (low noise amplifier) and in transmitting mode from PA (power amplifier). The initial processing of the system with getting started and initialization of the registers of CC2500 requires some time. In transmit mode. NO. The entire program for monitoring the presence of the object is written in C language and is loaded into the microcontroller using keil software.researchpub. The CC2500 RF transceiver implementation is based on the support of four I/O pins. it deconstructed the data packet. 2012 (http://www. program CC2500 in different modes to meet the requirements of the communication channel. These modules are set to default settings from the factory and can communicate to one another without any configuration. As noise consideration is an important factor when designing a system.org/journal/ijcs/ijcs. RF_P pin acts in receiving mode to LNA and transmitting mode to PA. CC2500 RF transceiver is calibrated automatically and controlled by setting three states such as IDLE to RX or TX. Frequency shift keying (FSK) V. In the fourth phase.

RFID Handbook: Fundamentals and Applications in Contactless Smart Cards. 1. which is used to monitor the continuous communication (the initial serial communication is set by PINSEL0 as 0x00000005 which makes the port pins of TXDO and RXDO UART 0 active) process ensuring security. “Opportunistic Relaying in Cooperative OFDM Networks with Limit Feedback”. microcontroller initializes the code in flash memory and resets all the registers. JANUARY 2012 ISSN (Online): 2164-1374. Published online January. Radio Frequency Identification and Near-Field Communication. 1. Tan. 2011. pp. sponsored by Dell. The Computing Science and Technology International Journal. VI. Yao. 1.ti. August. The size of the system can be decreased by decreasing the battery sizes. The wireless communication between two modules is achieved through CC2500.com/article_137840_10. No. 2011.a growing trend. Retrieved September 2010 from Airport Insecurity:The case of missing and lost laptops: http://www. “A Tradeoff Scheme in Multi-User System with Block Diagonal Geometric Mean Decomposition”. 1. When there is continuous communication between two modules of CC2500 RF transceiver.25th pin of the microcontroller) present in both modules..INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTING SCIENCE. CONCLUSION A wireless security system affixed to the object in consideration was proved to be an efficient way to alert the user in case of theft. The Computing Science and Technology International Journal. 1. 5-14. K. F. pdf. pp.researchpub. NO. No. 2011. the buzzer is in off condition. L. 1. The instructed program in ARMLPC2148 microcontroller executes the required function (transmitting and receiving of an ASCII value to ensure communication between the modules) through RS 232 with a baud rate of 9600 and make communication establishment with CC2500 RF transceiver.. S. Third Edition. G. Vol.dell. Retrieved August 2010. Texas Instruments. The UART0 receives the acknowledgement from CC2500 RF transceiver and updates the test flag.html) 11 modulation is used in both modules with symbol encoding as 0 for negative deviation and 1 for positive deviation. Su. VOL. 1.html#YeddaComboPosit ion. No. 15-19. When the power is turned ON. Finkenzeller..com/docs/prod/folders/print/cc2500. the communication is lost and this results in a buzzer sound (IOSET1 Port Output Set register is used to enable the buzzer and IOCLR1 Port Output clear register is used to disable the buzzer which is connected to po.com/downloads/global/services/dell_lost_laptop_study. making it more accessible and compact to install on many portable devices. REFERENCES [1] Clarke. Retrieved September 2010 from: http://www. “Dynamic Restoration for Survivable Traffic Grooming in WDM Networks”.articlealley. Ponemon Institute Airport Insecurity: The Case of Lost Laptops. Vol. The UART0 in ARMLPC2148 microcontroller has a transmitter and receiver which communicate with CC2500 RF transceiver using RS 232 communication protocol by the use of START and STOP pulses. Li.org/journal/ijcs/ijcs. 1. Laptop Theft . from http://focus. John Wiley and Sons. 2012 (http://www. ISSN (Print): 2164-1366. December.html [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] . The Computing Science and Technology International Journal. August. Vol.. H. And when two modules move away six meters.