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A;dkfb Na;kdfb ;akdf B;kadnf B;kadn Jtr Hprsjhisjtdgfibnsgsdfgbsdfghnsfngfdgn A?relay?is an?electrically?operated?switch. Many relays use an?electromagnet?to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are a lso used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-po wer signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled ci rcuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first r elays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensi vely in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an e lectric motor or other loads is called a?contactor.?Solid-state relays?control p ower circuits with no?moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perf orm switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes mu ltiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digita l instruments still called "protective relays". Contents ??[hide]? * 1?Basic design and operation * 2?Types o 2.1?Latching relay o 2.2?Reed relay o 2.3?Mercury-wetted relay o 2.4?Polarized relay o 2.5?Machine tool relay o 2.6?Ratchet relay o 2.7?Contactor relay o 2.8?Solid-state relay o 2.9?Solid state contactor relay o 2.10?Buchholz relay o 2.11?Forced-guided contacts relay o 2.12?Overload protection relays * 3?Pole and throw * 4?Applications * 5?Relay application considerations o 5.1?Derating factors o 5.2?Undesired arcing * 6?Protective relays * 7?Railway signalling * 8?History * 9?See also * 10?References [edit]Basic design * 11?External linksand operation

in a hig h voltage or current application it reduces?arcing. approximately half as strong as the magnetic force. When the current is switched off.[1] A solid-state relay uses a?thyristor?or other solid-state switching device. or with a remanent core. or by having two opposing coils with an over-center spring or perm anent magnet to hold the armature and contacts in position while the coil is rel axed. a pulse to one coil turns the relay on and a pulse to the opposite coi l turns the relay off. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature. the relay remai ns in its last state. a contact protection network consisting of a capacitor and resisto r in series (snubber?circuit) may absorb the surge. Most relays are manufactur ed to operate quickly. This is achieved with a?solenoid?operating a ratchet and c am mechanism. Some automotive relays include a diode inside the relay case. An?optocoupler?(a?light-emitting diode(LED) coupled with a?photo transistor) can be used to isolate control and controlled circuits. A remanent core latching relay requi res a current pulse of opposite polarity to make it change state. and the circuit track on the?printed circuit board?(PC B) via the yoke. and the consequent movement of the movable contac t(s) either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fi xed contact. instead of a solenoi d. a movable iron?armature. When an?electric current?is passed through the coil it generates a?magnetic fiel d?that activates the armature. In this c ondition. the first pulse t o the coil turns the relay on and the second pulse turns it off. then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection. one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed. to its relaxed position. This type of relay has the advantage that one coil consum es power only for an instant. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was de-energized. to switch the controlled load. an iron yoke which provides a low?reluctance?path for magnetic flux. a?diode?is often placed across t he coil to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivati on. the arma ture is returned by a force. while it is being switched. a small copper "shading ring" can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise. acti vated by the control signal. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. . [edit]Types [edit]Latching relay Latching relay with permanent magnet A?latching relay?has two relaxed states (bistable). A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a?coil?of wire wrapped around a?soft iron core. and t he other set is open. which would otherwise generate avoltage spike?dangerous to?semiconductor?cir cuit components. In the ratchet and cam example. In the two coil example. and vice versa i f the contacts were open. If the coil is designed to b e energized with?alternating current?(AC). These are also called "impul se". It is held in place by a?springso that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. A lternatively. but gravit y is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Usually this force is provided by a spring. creating a small out-of-phase current which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle. which is soldered to the PCB. When the current to the coil is switched off. When the coil is energized with?direct current. The "cradle" term refers to the shape of the relay's armature.Simple electromechanical relay. and the relay contacts retain this setting across a power outage. The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to o ne or more sets of moving contacts. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depen ding on their function. or "stay" relays. "keep". Small "cradle" relay often used in electronics. and one or more sets of contacts (there are two in the relay pictured).

and a?form factor?that allows compactly installing many relays in a control pa nel. Some early computers used ordinary relays as a kind of?latch?-. Mercury wetted relays are position-sensitive and must be mounted vertically to work properly. or for high-speed applications where the mercury eliminates contact boun ce. However they have relatively low switching current and vo ltage ratings. The switch has a set of co ntacts inside an?evacuated?or?inert gas-filled glass tube which protects the con tacts against atmospheric?corrosion. [edit]Polarized relay A?polarized relay?placed the armature between the poles of a permanent magnet to increase sensitivity. unlike magnetical ly latching relays or mechanically racheting relays. easily replaceable coils . and other sequential control. a t imer circuit with a relay could switch power at a preset time. For many years re lays were the standard method of controlling industrial electronic systems. Such an electrical ly-latching relay requires continuous power to maintain state. these r elays are now rarely used. Polarized relays were used in middle 20th Century?telepho ne exchanges?to detect faint pulses and correct?telegraphic distortion. changing the orientation of the reeds with respect to the solenoid's magnetic field can resolve this problem . An?earth leakage circuit breaker?includes a specialized latching relay. Very?early computers?often stored bits in a magnetically latching relay. Though rare.A?stepping relay?is a specialized kind of multi-way latching relay designed for early automatic?telephone exchanges. middle: reed switches. so a technician could first adjust them for maximum sensitivit y and then apply a bias spring to set the critical current that would operate th e relay. Although such relays once were the backbone of automation in such industrie s as automobile assembly. the?programmable logic controller?(PLC) mostly displac ed the machine tool relay from sequential control applications. Top. which in turn was replaced by a series of ever-faster and ever-smalle r memory technologies. which mak es them stick 'on' even when no current is present. The pole s were on screws. [edit]Reed relay Main article:?reed relay A?reed relay?is a?reed switch?enclosed in a solenoid. for low-current signals where surface contamination may make for a poor c ontact. require very little power fro m the control circuit. A relay allows circuits to be switched by electrical equipment: for example. resulting in a feedback loop or?sequential circuit. such as ferreed or the later memreed in the?1ESS switch. Such relays are used to switch low-voltage signals (one volt or less) where the mercury reduces the contact resistance and associated voltage drop. In computer memories. A nu mber of relays could be used together to carry out complex functions (relay logi . They are characterized by a large number of contacts (sometimes extendable in the field) which are easily converted from normally-open to normally-closed status. Reed relays can switch faster than larger relays. * External links * Schematic diagram?of a polarized relay used in a?teletype machine. bottom: reed relay [edit]Mercury-wetted relay See also:?mercury switch A?mercury-wetted reed relay?is a form of reed relay in which the contacts are we tted with?mercury. transfer machines. the contacts are made of magnetic material that makes them move under the influence of the field of the enclosing solenoid. latching relays and other relays were replaced by?delay li ne memory. [edit]Machine tool relay A?machine tool relay?is a type standardized for industrial control of machine to ols. the reeds can become magnetized over time.they store bits in ordinary wire spring relays or reed relays by feeding an output wire back as an input. Because of the toxicity and expense of liquid mercury.

and lighting loads. There are no moving part s to wear out and there is no contact bounce due to vibration. no other contact of the same relay will be able to move. [edit]Solid state contactor relay A?solid state contactor?is a heavy-duty solid state relay.2 00?amperes?have become commercially available.[3]One type of?electric motor?overload protection relay is operated by a heating element in series with the?electric motor.[2]?Such devices are often used for motor starters. which will alarm on slow accumulation of gas or shut down the transformer if gas is produced rapidly in the transformer oil. or other microprocessor and microcontroller controls. releasing a spring to operate auxiliary contacts. [edit]Overload protection relays Electric motors need overcurrent protection to prevent damage from over-loading the motor. The he . This voltage drop limits the amount of current a given SS R can handle. making them unfit for use where noise is a chief concern. PCs. although contactors are not generally called relays. they may be falsely triggered by transients. The function of f orced-guided contacts is to enable the safety circuit to check the status of the relay. Every solid-state device has a small v oltage drop across it. If the overload senses excess curren t in the load. If one set of contacts in the relay becomes immobil ized. Contactor relays can be extremely loud to operate. A motor starter is a co ntactor with overload protection devices attached. These auxi liary contacts are in series with the coil. The overload sensing devices are a form of heat operated relay where a coil heats a bi-metal strip.?silver oxide?is still a good condu ctor. [edit]Contactor relay Main article:?Contactor A?contactor?is a very heavy-duty relay used for switching?electric motors?and li ghting loads. which is commonly used in?programmable logic controllers. [edit]Forced-guided contacts relay A?forced-guided contacts relay?has relay contacts that are mechanically linked t ogether. The unavoidable ar cing causes the contacts to oxidize. Continuous cu rrent ratings for common contactors range from 10 amps to several hundred amps. the coil is de-energized. [edit]Buchholz relay A?Buchholz relay?is a safety device sensing the accumulation of gas in large oil -filled?transformers. "ca ptive contacts". or to protect against short circuits in connecting cables or internal faults in the motor windings. Relay logic is the predecessor of?ladder logic.c). [edit]Ratchet relay This is again a clapper type relay which does not need continuous current throug h its coil to retain its operation. High-current contacts are made with alloys containing?silver. Solid-state relays rated to handle as much as 1. The principle of relay logic is based on relays which energize and de-energi ze associated contacts.?Transistor-transistor logic?(TTL) sources. They are activate d by AC control signals or DC control signals fromProgrammable logic controller? (PLCs). increasing long-term reliability. used where frequent on/off cycles are required. including the necessa ry heat sink. The minimum voltage drop for such a relay is a function of the mat erial used to make the device. or where a solder pot melts. however. Forced-guided contacts are also known as "positive-guided contacts". or "safety relays". all of the li nked contacts move together. "locked contacts". such as with elect ric heaters. small?electric motors. so that when the relay coil is energized or de-energized. Compared to electromagnetic relay s. [edit]Solid-state relay Solid state?relay with no moving parts 25 A or 40 A solid state contactors A?solid state relay?(SSR) is a?solid state?electronic component that provides a similar function to an?electromechanical?relay but does not have any moving comp onents.

* SPDT?? Single Pole Double Throw. and coil connections. the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. Including two for the coil. A common terminal connects to either of two o thers. a useful though crude compensation for motor ambien t temperature is provided. These have two rows of change-over terminals. indicating multiple switches conne cted to a single?actuator. The poles may be Form A or Form B (or one of each).at generated by the motor current heats a?bimetallic strip?or meltssolder. 12. * Normally-closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activat ed. such a relay has six terminals in total. It is also called a?Form A?contact or "make" contact. which means that the contacts close before the button or switch is fu lly engaged. a relay switches one or more?poles. Equivalent to two SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil. contacts control two circuits: one nor mally-open contact and one normally-closed contact with a common terminal. Equivalent to two SPST switches or relays actuated by a single coil. switching a large amount of power with a small op erating power. The "S" or "D" may be replaced with a number. (C denotes the common terminal in SPDT and DPDT types . These have two pairs of terminals. or double-throw (DT). Including two for the coil. The terminology "SPNO" and "SPNC" is sometimes used to resolve the ambiguity. as in some types of?modems?or audio amplifiers. [edit]Applications Relays are used for: * Amplifying a digital signal. EN 50005?are among applicable standards for relay terminal numbering. respectively. which means that the contacts stay closed until the button or swit ch is fully disengaged. NC. * Detecting and isolating faults on transmission and distribution lines by openi ng and closing?circuit breakers?(protection relays).?NCcontacts may also be distinguished as "late-br eak" or?NCLB.?NOcontacts may also be distinguished as "early-make " or?NOEM. Where the overload relay is exposed to the sa me environment as the motor. For example 4PDT indicates a four pole double throw r elay (with 12 terminals). a typical EN 50005-compliant SPDT relay's terminals would be numbered 11. Including two for the coil. NO. * Change-over (CO). t he circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. then it is call ed a?Form D?contact. such a relay has four terminals in total. A1 and A 2 for the C. Such a rel ay has eight terminals. The following designations are commonly encountered: * SPST?? Single Pole Single Throw. * Controlling a high-current?circuit with a low-current signal. * DPST?? Double Pole Single Throw. as in the?starte r?solenoid?of an?automobile. If th is type of contact utilizes a "make before break" functionality. It is also called a?For m B?contact or "break" contact. relea sing a spring to operate contacts.) Since relays are?switches. 14. * DPDT?? Double Pole Double Throw. such a relay has five terminals in total. the terminology applied to switches is also applied t o relays. These have two terminals which can be connect ed or disconnected. Some special cases are: * A telegraph relay. It is ambiguous whether the pole is normally open or normally closed. each of whose contacts can be?thro wn?by energizing the coil in one of three ways: * Normally-open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated. repeating a weak signal received at the end of a long wire * Controlling a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal. It is also called a?Form C?contact or "transfer" contact ("break before make"). [edit]Pole and throw Circuit symbols of relays. including the coil. .

Also effects of power dissipation on coil temperature at va rious duty cycles. special high-voltage relays to about 15 000 V * Operating lifetime. Similar functions for NAND and NOR are accomplished usi ng normally closed contacts. a?dashpot?is used. automotive types to 50 VDC. * Rating of contacts ? small relays switch a few amperes.including minimum current required to operate reliably and mini mum current to hold. "sensitive" relays operate on a few milliamperes * Coil current . Current flowing in the d isk maintains magnetic field for a short time. For longer time periods. relays were used as logi cal elements in?digital computers. such as the control panels of radioactive waste-handling machinery. RVs and boats. 120 or 250 VAC. th e old style telephone exchanges required Make-before-break so that the connectio n didn't get dropped while dialing the number. The?Ladder programming language?is often used for d esigning?relay logic?networks. Because relays are much more resistant than semiconduct ors to nuclear radiation. * Coil voltage ? machine-tool relays usually 24 VDC. cover removed on one Selection of an appropriate relay for a particular application requires evaluati on of many different factors: * Number and type of contacts ? normally open. Before?vacuum tubes?and?transistors. They may also be controlled by room occupancy detectors t o conserve energy. For a s lightly longer (up to a minute) delay. lengthening release time. for example when controlling a mains-powered device fr om a low-voltage switch.A DPDT AC coil relay with "ice cube" packaging * Isolating the controlling circuit from the controlled circuit when the two are at different potentials. * Switching to a standby power supply. * Logic functions. (double-throw) * Contact sequence ? "Make before Break" or "Break before Make". Relays can be modified to delay opening or delay closing a set of contacts. a mechanic al clockwork timer is installed. A dashpot is a piston filled with fluid that is allowed to escape slowly. useful life . * The application of?Boolean Algebra?to relay circuit design was formalized by?C laude Shannon?in?A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits * Early computing.the number of times the relay can be expecte d to operate reliably. The change-over or Form C contacts perform the XOR (exclusive or) function. the boolean AND function is realised by connecti ng normally open relay contacts in series. Several 30-contact relays in "Connector" circuits in mid 20th century?1XB switch ?and5XB switch?telephone exchanges.Zuse Z2. alternating or direct current * Voltage rating of contacts ? typical control relays rated 300 VAC or 600 VAC. the c ontact life is naturally affected by the kind of load being switched. For example. * Vehicle battery isolation. which may be often moved as needs change. 4WDs. they are widely used in safety-critical logic. The time period can be varie d by increasing or decreasing the flow rate. used in an old telephone switching system. See?electro-mechanical computers?such as?ARRA (computer). * Time delay functions. the OR function by connecting normall y open contacts in parallel. * Safety-critical logic. normally closed. There is both a mechanical life and a contact life. relays for switchgear may have 125 V or 250 VDC coils. large contactors are r ated for up to 3000 amperes. For example. A very short (a fraction of a second) delay would use a copp er disk between the armature and moving blade assembly. and?Zuse Z3. . The latter is often applied to control office lighting as the low voltage wires are easily installed in partitions. [edit]Relay application considerations A large relay with two coils and many sets of contacts. A 12v relay is often used to isolate any second bat tery in cars.?Harvard Mark II.

000 to over one million cy cles depending on the electrical loads of the contacts. outdoor. When a power source is connected to an inductance.minimum and maximum operating temperatures and other e nvironmental considerations such as effects of humidity and salt * Assembly ? Some relays feature a sticker that keeps the enclosure sealed to al low PCB post soldering cleaning. pilot lamps. the continuous rating. panel mount. andhysteresis. The make ratin g may be several times larger than the continuous rating. an?input surge curre nt?which may be several times larger than the steady current exists. [edit]Undesired arcing Main article:?Arc suppression Without adequate?contact protection.* Package/enclosure ? open. These considerations include factors such as sp eed of operation. and the?break rating. enclosure for mounting on walls or equipment * Switching time ? where high speed is required * "Dry" contacts ? when switching very low level signals. special contact materi als may be needed such as gold-plated contacts * Contact protection ? suppress arcing in very inductive circuits * Coil protection ? suppress the surge voltage produced when switching the coil current * Isolation between coil contacts * Aerospace or radiation-resistant testing. There are many considerations involved in the correct selection of a control rel ay for a particular application. sensitivity. Oil vapors may greatly decrease the conta ct tip life.?duty cycle. Control relay life cycle varies from 50. Common practice is to derate 20 degrees Ce lsius from the maximum rated temperature limit. which is itself larger than the break rating. the current cannot change instantaneously. Although typical control relays op erate in the 5 ms to 20 ms range. When a control relay is operating at its derated value. The table lists the relay derating factors for typical industri al control applications. touch-safe. plug board. special quality assurance * Expected mechanical loads due to?acceleration?? some relays used in?aerospace? applications are designed to function in?shock?loads of 50?g?or more * Accessories such as timers. the occurrence of?electric current arcing?c auses significant degradation of the contacts in relays. the current through the relay contacts (unrelated to the curr ent through the coil) must not exceed a certain value to avoid damage. and dust or dirt may cause the tips to burn before their normal lif e expectancy. Relays operating at rated load a re also affected by their environment.?explosion proof. relays with switching speeds as fast as 100 us are available. it is controlling a lower value of current than its maxim um make and break ratings. Consequently for relays which may be used to control inductive loads we must spe cify the maximum current that may flow through the relay contacts when it actuat es. This is often done to extend the operating life of th e control relay. oil and splash resistant. which suffer significan t and visible damage. When the ci rcuit is broken. the?make rating. double-voltage for isolation between cir cuits. washable for?printed circuit?board assembly * Operating environment . auxiliary contacts. and the extent to which the relay is derated. which is removed once assembly is complete. rail mount. As for any switch. through-panel mount. test buttons * Regulatory approvals * Stray magnetic linkage between coils of adjacent relays on a printed circuit b oard.?Reed relays?which are actuated by low currents and switch fast a re suitable for controlling small currents. In the pa rticular case of high-inductance?circuits such as?motors?other issues must be ad dressed. which creates a pote ntially damaging spark across the separating contacts. * Mounting ? sockets. [edit]Derating factors 10 20 35 75 Resistive % of rated value Type of load should not be operated above rated temperature because of resulti Control Capacitive Filament Motor relays Inductive ng increased degradation and fatigue. Every time a relay transitions either from a closed to an open state (break arc) or from an open to a closed state (make arc & bounce arc) . application.

The arc energy slowly destroys the contact metal. [edit]Railway signalling Part of a relay interlocking using UK Q-style miniature plug-in relays. so that two false feeds are needed to cause a false sign al. and thus allowing signals to be propag ated as far as desired. say 12 make and 4 break contacts. was included in the original 1840?te legraph?patent[10]?of?Samuel Morse. Since rail signal circuits must be highly reliable. an electrical arc can occur between the two contact points (electr odes) of the relay. sh ort-circuits.000 to 100. which can be in excess of 20 million operations. repeating the telegraph signal. developed earlier in 1831. and can have up to 16 separate contacts. The extremely high temperature of the ar c cracks the surrounding gas molecules creating?ozone. electromechanical relays with accurate operating characteristics were used to detect overload.[citation needed] [edit]See also . especial ly where only a single contact is to be switched. This very activity cause s the material in the contacts to degrade quickly. digital de vices now provide equivalent protective functions. A simple device. This contact degradation drastically limits the overall life of a relay to a ran ge of about 10. a level far below the mechanical life of the same device. While many such relays remain in use. under load.?carbon monoxide. resulting in device failure. causing some mate rial to escape into the air as fine particulate matter.?double switching?relay contacts are often used on both the positive and nega tive side of a circuit. The mechanism described acted as a digital a mplifier. The break arc is typically more energetic and thus more dest ructive. UK Q-style signalling relay and base. The heat energy contained in the resulting electrical arc is very high (tens of thousands of degrees Fahrenheit). This overcame the problem of limited range of earlier te legraphy schemes.[4] [edit]Protective relays Main article:?protective relay For protection of electrical apparatus and transmission lines. including: * ?United Kingdom * ?American * ?German * ?France American signaling relays are the origin of the?19 inch rack. [edit]History The relay was invented in 1835 by American scientist?Joseph Henry?in order to im prove his version of the?electrical telegraph. and othe r compounds. Not all relay circuits can be proved so there is reliance on construction fe atures such as carbon to silver contacts to resist lightning induced contact wel ding and to provide AC immunity.1835. which we now call a relay. These are 120?mm high. special techniques are used to detect and prevent failures in the relay system.000 operations. BR930 series plug-in relays are widely used on railways following British practice. pool and migrate with the current. 180?mm deep and 56?mm wide and weigh about 1400?g. Signalling relays and their circuits come in a number of schools. To protect against false fee ds. Opto-isolators?are also used in some instances with railway signalling. Railway signalling?relays are very big and cumbersome considering the mostly sma ll voltages (less than 120 V) and currents (perhaps 100 mA) that they switch. and other faults.. causing the metal on the contact surfaces to m elt. Co ntacts are widely spaced to prevent dangerous flashovers and short circuits over a lifetime that may exceed fifty years.[5][6][ 7][8] It is claimed that the English inventor?Edward Davy?"certainly invented the elec tric relay"[9]?in his?electric telegraph?c.

^?"Lab Note #105?Contact Life . Canberra:?Australian National University. William (1966). Arc Supp ression Technologies. 10.). 2011.?ISBN?978-0-7668-6198-5. Vladimir (2005). June 20. Prentice-Hall. Improvement in the mode of communicating information by s ignals by the application of electro-magnetism. a computer made out of relays. ^?"The electromechanical relay of Joseph Henry".?American Electricians' Handbook .?AC Motor Protection.New York: CRC Press. * Vladimir Gurevich (2010). ABC-CLIO. London . Inc.?Electronic Devices on Discrete Components for Indust rial and Power Engineering. Chapter 2. 5. Schweitzer Engineering Laborator ies. Retrieved October 9. 2.?Principles of Electronics.New York: CRC Press.?(October 2009) don . 4.?311.. Westinghouse Cor poration. ^?US Patent 1.te. ^?Mason.New York: CRC Press.?Australian Dictionary of Biography.?292. p. ^?Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries: All the Milestones in Ingen uity--From the Discovery of Fire to the Invention of the Microwave Oven. ^?Gibberd.?Protective Relaying Theory and Applications.?"Art & Science of Protective Relaying. p. 76-8060.647. 7.pdf View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) .?Digital Protective Relays: Problems and Solutions. 2002. Georgi Dalakov.?ISBN?0-9725026-1-0. * Westinghouse Corporation (1976). * Vladimir Gurevich (2003).?Electrical control for mac hines?(6th ed. * Relays Technical Write * http://relays. Princeton: Princeto n University Press. John Wi ley & Sons. GE Consumer & Electrical". Stan (2003). * Terrell Croft and Wilford Summers (ed) (1987).?418.?Electrical Relays: Principles and Applications. Elmore.?Applied Protective Relaying. * Walter A. ^?Thomas Coulson (1950). Retrieved 7 June 2012. but?its sources remain unclear becau se it has insufficient?inline citations. p.New York: CRC Press. Giuliani (2002).?Protection Devices and Systems for High-Voltage Appl ications.* Contactor * Digital protective relay * Dry contact * Race condition * Stepping switch?. 3. ^?Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates. Lon introducingmore precise citations.?153.?"Edward Davy". 9.. ^?Kenneth B. 8. Rexford and Peter R.?Joseph Henry: His Life and Work. Inc. p. by Jon Stanley. R. * "Relay Computer Two". p. ^?Zocholl.. Marcel Dekker k ana. Cengage Learning. London . New York: McGraw Hill. C. 1840 This article includes a?list of references. 6.?422.?ISBN?978-0-8247-9152-0.Unsuppressed vs. Eleventh Edition.a kind of multi-position relay * Wire spring relay [edit]References 1. p. April 2011. Retrieved October 9. * Colin Simpson.?ISBN?978-0-07-013932-9.?ISBN 0-06-86860 3-6 [edit]External links * Information about relays related to:?Relay Wikimedia Commons has mediaand the Latching Relay circuit * "Harry Porter's Relay Computer". Suppressed Arcing".?Please help to?improve?this article by? * Gurevich. * Vladimir Gurevich (2008). 978-0972502610. 2011. * Interfacing Relay To Microcontroller.com/schrack/pdf/C0_v4bg_5. Library of Congress card no.?58. L ondon .

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