You are on page 1of 28

SECTION 3 POWER TRAIN SYSTEM

GROUP 1 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
1. POWER TRAIN COMPONENT OVERVIEW

Transmission

Upper drive shaft

Engine

Front axle

Front drive shaft

Center drive shaft

Rear drive shaft

Rear axle

The power train consists of the following components : Transmission Front, upper, center and rear drive shafts Front and rear axles Engine power is transmitted to the transmission through the upper drive shaft and the torque converter. The transmission is a hydraulically engaged four speed forward, three speed reverse countershaft type power shift transmission. A drum type parking brake is located on the front of the transmission housing. The transmission outputs through universal joints to three drive shaft assemblies. The front drive shaft is a telescoping shaft which drives the front axle. The front axle is mounted directly to the loader front frame. The front axle is equipped with limited slip differential. The rear axle is mounted on an oscillating pivot. differential. The rear axle is equipped with conventional

The power transmitted to front axle and rear axle is reduced by the pinion gear and ring gear of differential. It then passes from the differential to the sun gear shaft(Axle shaft) of final drive. The power of the sun gear is reduced by a planetary mechanism and is transmitted through the planetary hub to the wheel. 3-1

HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

M5

K4

On cluster: Regulator main pressure

M3

KV

M1

KR

Pressure modulation valve(with vent valve)

Pressure relief valve (0.15bar)

Torque converter Pressure for converter

M4

M2
On cluster: Converter outlet temperature Pressure holding valve (2.0bar)

K3
Pressure reduction valve(10bar) Main pressure valve(16+2bar) Main pump

K2 K1

Cooler bypass (1.5bar)

Heat exchanger Safety valve (9+1bar) Filter

Lubrication Oil sump

Speed M1 M2 M3 M4 M5

Forward 1 2 3 4 1 X X X X X X X X X X

Reverse 2 X 3 X

Neutral

X

X : Solenoid engaged

3-2

it assumes at high turbine speed the characteristics. The adaption of the output speed to a certain required output moment is infinitely variable and automatically achieved by the torque converter. has the task to inverse again the oil which is escaping out of the turbine and to delivery it under the suitable discharge direction to the pump wheel. Due to the inversion. the maximum conversion is created at standing turbine wheel. The oil. following the turbine. the heat created in the converter is dissipated through the escaping oil. escaping out of the pump wheel. TORQUE CONVERTER 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 Pump Stator 3 4 Turbine Transmission pump 5 Input flange The converter is working according to the Trilok-system. Pressure oil is constantly streaming out of the transmission pump through the converter.stator(Reaction member) These 3 impeller wheels are arranged in such a ring-shape system that the fluid is streaming through the circuit components in the indicated order. The stator(Reaction member). enters the turbine wheel and is there inversed in the direction of flow. receive a more or less high reaction moment. 3-3 . the stator receives a reaction moment. The relation turbine moment/pump moment is called torque conversion. Therefore. With increasing output speed.turbine wheel . and at the same time. the turbine wheel and with it also the output shaft. The Torque converter is composed of 3 main components : Pump wheel . the converter can fulfill its task to multiply the torque of the engine. The converter will be defined according to the engine power so that the most favorable operating conditions for each installation case are given. the torque conversion is decreasing. In this way. This is the higher the greater the speed difference of pump wheel and turbine wheel will be.2. According to the rate of inversion.e. and with it the favorable efficiency of a fluid clutch. i.

5 nT < n engine Condition shortly before the converter clutch is closed.e.5 Reaction member (Stator) 2.0 i. 1 0 1 nT = 0. From this point on. the turbine moment becomes equal to that of the pump moment. Function of a hydrodynamic torque converter(Schematic view) TP = Torque of the pump wheel TT = Torque of the turbine wheel TR = Torque of the reaction member(Stator) Pump wheel TR Turbine wheel From the engine TT TP To the gearbox Starting condition Intermediate condition 1 1.8n engine Turbine wheel is running with about the same speed as pump wheel. the conversion becomes 1.If the turbine speed is reaching about 80% of the pump speed. A stator freewheel serves to improve the efficiency in the upper driving range. it is backing up in the conversion range the moment upon the housing. 3-4 . In this way. the converter is working similar to a fluid clutch.5 <2.5 nT = 0 Machine stopped 1 <1. and is released in the coupling range. the stator can rotate freely.

3. TRANSMISSION 1) LAYOUT 1 14 13 2 12 3 4 5 6 11 10 7 9 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1st clutch(K1) Forward clutch(KV) Engine-dependent power take-off 2nd clutch(K2) Reverse clutch(KR) 3rd clutch(K3) Parking brake 3-5 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Output shaft Converter side output flange 4th clutch(K4) Idler gear Input shaft Converter Transmission pump .

Coaxial.Engine-dependent Parking brake Suction line Oil drain plug Input flange Output flange-converter side Output flange-rear side 3-6 .2) INSTALLATION VIEW 14 1 9 8 10 3 4 4 4 6 12 7 4 4 5 4 4 13 15 2 11 16 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Converter Full flow filter Fixing plate for assy Gearbox mounting pads Inductive sensor-output speed Type plate Oil filler tube with oil dipstick Breather 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Electro-hydraulic shift unit Power take-off.

K1 KV INPUT K2 KR K3 K4 OUTPUT OUTPUT 3-7 .3) OPERATION OF TRANSMISSION (1) Forward Forward 1st In 1st forward. FWD clutch and 1st clutch are engaged. FWD clutch and 1st clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston.

K1 KV INPUT K2 KR K3 K4 OUTPUT OUTPUT 3-8 .Forward 2nd In 2nd forward. FWD clutch and 2nd clutch are engaged. FWD clutch and 2nd clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston.

Forward 3rd In 3rd forward. FWD clutch and 3rd clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston. K1 KV INPUT K2 KR K3 K4 OUTPUT OUTPUT 3-9 . FWD clutch and 3rd clutch are engaged.

K1 KV INPUT K2 KR K3 K4 OUTPUT OUTPUT 3 . 4th clutch and 3rd clutch are engaged. 4th clutch and 3rd clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston.Forward 4th In 4th forward.10 .

11 . REV clutch and 1st clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston. REV clutch and 1st clutch are engaged. K1 KV INPUT K2 KR K3 K4 OUTPUT OUTPUT 3 .(2) Reverse Reverse 1st In 1st reverse.

Reverse 2nd In 2nd reverse.12 . REV clutch and 2nd clutch are engaged. K1 KV INPUT K2 KR K3 K4 OUTPUT OUTPUT 3 . REV clutch and 2nd clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston.

Reverse 3rd In 3rd reverse. K1 KV INPUT K2 KR K3 K4 OUTPUT OUTPUT 3 .13 . REV clutch and 3rd clutch are engaged. REV clutch and 3rd clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston.

14 .4) ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC SHIFT UNIT A B C D E O M4 F M3 M5 G M2 H M1 I N M L K J A B C D E First and second shift valve Solenoid pressure regulating valve Check valve Pressure reducing valve Modulation valve F G H I J Pilot valve Two-stage piston Vent valve Check valve Forward shift valve K L M N O Reset valve Fourth shift valve First shift valve Reverse shift valve Solenoid valve 3 .

or fourth. Check valves(C and I) are used to prevent flow between a directional shift and a speed shift. When the shift valves move. One from the directional clutch packs either forward. In all other speeds. (3) The pressure reducing valve(D) is a spring-loaded spool valve which regulates main pressure oil by controlling flow into the control circuit. The two-stage piston is a stepping piston used to preload the modulation valve springs to start clutch modulation at a higher pressure. Solenoid valve engages fourth shift valve(L). shift valves. the reset valve(K). One from the speed clutch packs either first. second. The five solenoid valves(M) direct oil to the shift valves to provide machine direction and speed selection. Solenoid valve engages first. (6) When the first speed clutch is engaged. solenoid valves. which is a spring-loaded shuttle valve. (7) As modulation ends.(1) The transmission control valve assembly regulates the hydraulic control circuit of the transmission. The modulation valve is a spring-loaded valve which controls the speed of clutch engagement during a shift. Solenoid valve engages forward shift valve(J). oil routed to the clutch pack also flows to the pilot valve (F). In first speed. (2) There are four gaskets and three plates between the transmission control valve and the housing. moves and opens a direct path through the modulation valve for fast clutch engagement. or third. M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 Solenoid valve engages reverse shift valve(N). (8) Two clutches have to be engaged for the machine to move. modulation starts at a lower pressure to result in a less aggressive shift. The pilot valve. The middle plate(Duct plate) is used to route oil from the solenoids to the valves and then thru the hoses to transmission shafts. Excess oil from the control circuit flows to the torque converter. These check valves prevent a drop in clutch pack pressure in the engaged clutch. The control valve receives electrical signals from the main controller to energize the solenoids which direct oil to move the shift valves. moves and blocks passage to the twostage piston(G). oil pressure drops to start modulation and fill the oncoming clutch pack. reverse. main pressure flows through the pilot valve to the two-stage piston and preloads the modulation valve resulting in a higher starting pressure. Two plates are used to orifice oil to valves.15 . 3 . and valves for modulation. (4) Main pressure oil flows to the solenoid pressure regulating valve(B). which is a spring-loaded spool valve. Solenoid valve engages first shift valve(M). (5) The pressure regulating valve supplies a regulated pressure oil through a plate orifice to the modulation valve(E). The regulating valve provides a constant oil pressure to the solenoids and is not affected by modulation. second shift valve(A). The main valve contains pressure regulating valves.

5) SPEED CONTROL FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION (1) Complete system 1 4 7 3 2 5 6 1 2 3 Transmission control unit Transmission Gear selector 4 5 Battery Control valves cable 6 7 Inductive sensor output cable Electro-hydraulic shift unit 3 .16 .

it incorporates the speed range selector(DW-2) and micro-processor control unit(EST-17T). This system processes all driver's instructions. compact range selector with integrated KD button and neutral position interlock.17 .(2) Description of basic functions A specific speed range selector concept has been developed for use in wheel loaders equipped with electro-hydraulically controlled power shift transmission. such as direction of travel. machine and operation conditions through specific programming. Waterproof. without any other active interlocks. Many safety features to protect against operating errors(Software). (3) Block circuit diagram for micro-processor control unit(EST-17T) Power supply 7 Digital inputs 8 Digital outputs 2 Frequency inputs Communication and diagnostic interface Micro computer EPROM Safety shifting EST-17T 3 . selected gear as well as the current machine speed and offers the following significant advantages: High adaptability to engine. Short circuit proof and overvoltage protected electrical system. Easy KD function(Semi-automatic). Reversing possibility through all gears.

Reverse (R)).Neutral (N) . Lever position D : Drive . without relays. Thereupon the gear can be selected. in normal practice just the outputs for the starter interlock and reverse lights must be relay-controlled.5 seconds until the preselected gear is reached. Positions(Gears) 1-4 are selected by turning. F 1 2 3 N R 4 N D Micro processor control unit A. not before 2. 3 . Direct control of solenoid valves The solenoids of the electro-hydraulic control block at the transmission are directly controlled by the electronics. At proper road speed(Approx 95 of max speed of 1st gear) up-shifting to the 2nd gear is performed automatically.18 . via the by-packed buffers. D. Position N : Shift lever is locked in NEUTRAL position. The control unit with inserted plug is splash-waterproof. whereas the direction of travel is selected by shifting the lever(Forward (V) . unless shift lever remains in NEUTRAL position not longer than 1 second. Therefore.5 seconds. In general. Gear selection When ignition is turned on. On transmission with 3 reverse speeds only the gear 3R is selected on gear position 4R. Kick down function In gear positions 2V or 2R the 1st gear can be selected any time through slightly pushing the KD button which is integrated in the shift lever. the following applies for gear selection from NEUTRAL position : If road speed is too high for the preselected gear(Risk of overreving).e. i. B. General The short-circuit-poof and overvoltage-protected control unit must be installed in a protected place in the driver's cab. it is necessary to downshift to the lowest permissible gear and then continue down-shifting in steps of 2. however. C. This KD function remains in force also during reverse shifting.(4) Component description Gear(speed) selector The gear selector has been designed for attachment to left of steering column. A neutral position interlock protects against unintentional machine movements during start-up. the electronics remain in stand-by position and are ready for operation when the lever is shifted into NEUTRAL position.

shifts If preselected gear is more than 2 gear steps beyond the currently selected gear.E. and finally upshifts to the preselected gear in steps of 2. I. 3 . Direct solenoid control in NEUTRAL position With the gear selector lever in NEUTRAL position certain transmission-specific solenoid combinations are signalled for gear positions 1 and 2. it is necessary to first down . down-shifts can be performed only. reverse shifts from the 3rd or 4th gear are only possible to the 2nd gear in the reverse direction of travel.shifts Down . Detection of inductive sensor failure The road speed is determined via the inductive sensor at the output side. Up . J. Passive reversing interlock Since the gear selector DW-2 has no active reversing interlock. even if gears are being skipped.Beyond a programmed speed limit(Normally the max speed of the 2nd gear) reversing is performed via an immediate down-shift to the 2nd gear of the current direction of travel.shift to the 2nd gear for 1. the transmission shifts to Neutral position till the end of this interval(Counted from the first selected shifting point). Depending on current road speed resulting in : Direct reversing is possible at any time in gears 1 and 2(1V 1R and 2V 2R). Pressure cut .off device in the 1st and 2nd gear forward and reverse is activated by an external positive signal( ). The status inductive sensor failure will be eliminated as soon as the inductive sensor signal can be sensed again. H.19 . If speed drops below limit speed. up-shifting is performed in steps of 2. without prior down-shifts. Down . The transmission power-flow is interrupted as long as this positive signal is being transmitted.Below this speed limit. and then continue to the 1st gear. reversing is possible at any time. reversing is performed immediately.2 seconds. although the 3rd or 4th gear is engaged. i. F. These signals will be eliminated as soon as max speed of 2nd gear is exceeded. K. G.5 seconds. Moreover.e. up-shifts beyond the 2nd gear are not possible and from the 3rd and 4th gear.off The pressure cut . a shuttle-shift to the 2nd gear of the reverse direction of travel for 1. If the electronics have determined an inductive sensor failure.shifts to the 2nd gear are performed immediately. In this case. Cross shifts If within the locking period of 1. Its failure will also be assumed at a vehicle stand-still for longer than 10 seconds.2 seconds. . there is no automatic up-shifting to the preselected higher gear(See L). reversing is performed directly.2 seconds not only down but also reverse shifts are performed.5 seconds. If 1st gear is to be selected from either the 3rd or 4th gear. The sequence of road-speed-dependent reversing in gears 3 and 4 is as follows : .

In case of inadmissible combinations(e.g.20 . speed range selector. The same applies. System performance in case of faults The control unit constantly controls all inputs of the range selector as well as all outputs to the solenoid valves. 3 . stray signals) the electronics shift immediately to neutral condition and lock all outputs. cable break. In case of repeated faults. The same applies for the up-shift interlock after inductive sensor failure. if certain voltage limits are exceeded or in case of short-circuit. This lock can be eliminated by shifting the range shift lever through the NEUTRAL position. inductive sensor. This compact wiring harness is available from production in different lengths. electronics and machine's electrical circuit are integrated in the compact wiring harness avoiding the individual wiring. A wiring system of single cables is available for prototype units in order to simplify necessary modifications.L. M. Wiring All cable connections for solenoid valves. it is imperative to check the machine's electrical circuit and to exchange defective components immediately.

transmission and drive shafts. and is then sent to the front and rear axles.4. the speed is reduced and passes through the both differentials to the axle shafts. At the same time. (1) Front axle 1 2 3 1 Final drive 2 Differential 3 Axle (2) Rear axle 1 2 3 1 Final drive 2 Differential 3 Axle 3 . The power of the axle shafts is further reduced by planetary-gear-type final drives and is sent to the wheels. the power passes from the bevel pinion to the bevel gear and is sent at right angles.21 . AXLE 1) OPERATION The power from the engine passes through torque converter. Inside the axles.

22 .2) SECTION OF FRONT AXLE DIFFERENTIAL A A 4 3 2 1 5 SECTION A-A 1 2 Bevel pinion Bevel gear 3 4 Sun gears Shaft 5 Side gear(Differential) 3 .

3) SECTION OF REAR AXLE DIFFERENTIAL A A 4 3 2 1 5 SECTION A-A 1 2 Bevel pinion Bevel gear 3 4 Sun gears Shaft 5 Side gear(Differential) 3 .23 .

24 . 3 2 4 1 Pinion gear Side gear Axle gear shaft Side gear Carrier Pinion gear (3) When turning When turning. the rotating speed of the left and right wheels is different. Swing Pinion gear Side gear Side gear Carrier Pinion gear Ring gear 3 . so the pinion gear and side gear inside the differential assembly rotate in accordance with the difference between the rotating speed of the left and right wheels. A differential is a device which continuously transmits power to the right and left wheels while allowing them to turn a different speeds. and at the same time reduces the speed. It then transmits the motive force through the differential(3) to the axle gear shaft(4). so the pinion gear inside the differential assembly do not rotate. therefore the power is equally transmitted to the left and right axle gear shaft. The bevel gear changes the direction of the motive force by 90 degree.4) DIFFERENTIAL (1) Description When the machine makes a turn. during a turn. The power from the drive shaft passes through bevel pinion(1) and is transmitted to the bevel gear(2). the outside wheel must rotate faster than the inside wheel. The motive force of the carrier is send through the pinion gear and the side gear. (2) When driving straight forward When the machine is being driven straight forward and the right and left wheels are rotating at the same speed. The power of the carrier is then transmitted to the axle gear shafts.

but the differential pinion gear has an odd number of teeth. the distances involving the engaging points between right and left side gears and pinion-a and b-are equal and the pinion is balanced as FL a=FR b. 4wheel-drive loaders have to work in places where the road surface is bad. Spider rotating direction FL FR a b Engaging point Engaging point Left side gear Pinion Right side gear 3 . the ability to work as a loader is reduced. The torque proportioning differential is installed to overcome this problem. and the right and left side gears are driven with the same force. and this changes the traction of the left and right tires. Thus.5) TORQUE PROPORTIONING DIFFERENTIAL (1) Function Because of the nature of their work. In such places. FL=FR. and also the life of the tire is reduced. the position of meshing of the pinion gear and side gear changes. (2) Operation When traveling straight(Equal resistance from road surface to left and right tires) Under this condition. In structure it resembles the differential of an automobile.25 . Because of the difference in the resistance from the road surface. if the tires slip.

The pinion now is balanced as FL a=FR b. and this rotation changes the engaging points between the side gears and pinion. the left side gear tends to rotate forward.26 . The right side gear is driven with a greater force than the left side gear. Spider rotating direction Small road resistance Engaging point FL FR a b Large road resistance Engaging point Left side gear Pinion Right side gear 3 .When traveling on soft ground (Resistance from road surface to left and right tires is different) If the road resistance to the left wheel is smaller. As a result. the distances involving the engaging points becomes a>b. The pinion therefore does not run idle and driving power is transmitted to both side gears until the difference between road resistance to the right and left wheels reaches about 30%. where FL>FR. The torque can be increased by up to about 30% for either side gear.

(2) The power transmitted from the differential through axle shaft(1) to sun gear(4) is transmitted to planetary gear(2). 3 .27 . the final drive uses a planetary gear system to reduce the speed and send drive force to the tires. This power is then sent to the wheels which are installed to the planetary carriers. The planetary gear rotates around the inside of a fixed ring gear(3) and in this way transmits rotation at a reduced speed to the planetary carrier.6) FINAL DRIVE(Front & rear) 2 4 1 3 1 2 Axle shaft Planetary gear 3 Ring gear 4 Sun gear (1) To gain a large drive force.

5. Therefore it is very important to select the correct tires for the type of work and bucket capacity. and at the same time they must rotate in contact with the ground to gain the power which drives the machine.28 . 2) Various types of tires are available to suit the purpose. 3 . TIRE AND WHEEL 2 5 4 6 3 1 1 2 Wheel rim Tire 3 4 O-ring Lock ring 5 6 Side ring Valve assembly 1) The tire acts to absorb the shock from the ground surface to the machine.