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Newsletter of the Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer Center University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez Volume 24, Number 02-03, 2010
In this issue
Improving the Visibility of Pavement Markings Every Day Counts Promotes Deployment of Technology

P.1 P.2

Sustainable Development Applied to Civil Infrastructure and Transportation P.6 Center News New Laws that Ban Texting while Driving The PR Traffic Safety Commission Toward Zero Deaths on our Roads Upcoming Training Seminars & Conferences Meet the Trainer P.8 P.8 P.9 P.10 P.12 P.12

Improving the Visibility of Pavement Markings

Proposal for new standards for maintaining minimum retroreflectivity levels of pavement markings.
Pavement markings on highways and streets provide to the road user important information about regulations, warning, or guidance that is not obtainable by the use of other devices, and supplement other traffic control devices, such as signs, traffic signals, and other markings. The visibility of the markings can be limited by snow, debris, and water on or adjacent to the markings and the durability of the markings is affected by the material characteristics, traffic volumes, weather, and location. New technical resources in our library:
AASHTO. 2010. High-

way Safety Manual.

FHWA. 2010. Traffic

Purpose of the Proposed Revision to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
A Notice of Proposed Amendments (NPA) was published by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) in the Federal Register (23 CFR 655), on April 22, 2010, proposing to revise the MUTCD 2009 by adding Standards, Guidance, Options, and Support information related to minimum levels of retroreflectivity for pavement markings. The proposed revision establishes uniform minimum levels of nighttime pavement marking performance based on the visibility needs of drivers, to promote safety, enhance traffic operations, and facilitate the comfort and convenience for all drivers, including older drivers. The proposed revision described herein would be designated as Revision 1 to the 2009 Edition of the MUTCD. (article continues in page 4)

Monitoring: A Guidebook. Report FHWAWFL/TD-10-002.

FHWA. 2010. Modern

Roundabouts: A Safer Choice. CD-ROM FHWA-SA-10-023.

FHWA. 2009. Compre-

hensive Intersection Resource Library. CDROM FHWA-09-027.

The Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer Center is part of a network of 58 centers through the United States that comprises the Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) and the Tribal Technical Assistance Program (TTAP), which enable local governments, counties, and cities, to improve their roads and bridges by supplying them with a variety of training programs, an information clearinghouse, new and existing technology updates, personalized technical assistance, and newsletters.

Every Day Counts Promotes Deployment of Technology

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is promoting the initiative called Every Day Counts (EDC) to identify ways to shorten the amount of time that typically takes to deliver highway construction projects. A typical project takes 13 years on average from conception to completion. EDC focus on a set of initiatives that identify and develop innovation aimed to shortening project delivery, the enhancement of roadway safety, and improvement of the environmental sustainability. Improve travel time reliability by progressively moving vehicles through green signal indications. Reduce congestion by creating smoother traffic flow. Prolong the effectiveness of traffic signal timing.

Accelerating Technology and Innovation Deployment

EDC will initially focus on advancing promising new technologies into the marketplace that help speed the delivery of major highway projects. The priority technologies are: Adaptive Signal Control Technology Safety Edge Warm Mix Asphalt Prefabricated Bridge Elements Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil

The Adaptive Control Software Lite (ACS-Lite) is an example of ASCT. ACS-Lite is a reduced-scale version of the FHWA Adaptive Control Software, and it offers small and medium-size communities a low-cost traffic control system that operates in real time. ACS-Lite can be used with new signals or retrofitted existing traffic signals with NTCIP controllers. The software is designed for closed-loop systems, providing cycle-by-cycle control. How Does It Work? ACS-Lite continuously monitors traffic signals and the flow of traffic, and adjust signal timings accordingly. ACS-Lite can be used in closed-loop systems, with no need for a central computer system, since the software resides on the field CPU located at the local traffic signal controller cabinet. The software can be deployed using as few as two traffic detectors on the roadway. Once deployed, the system is ready to go and reduced the need of periodic signal timings calibration. Recent Applications of ACS-Lite The use of ACS Lite has been demonstrated in the cities of Gahanna, OH, Houston, TX, El Cajon, CA, and Bradenton, FL. All the test sites showed improvement in traffic flow and reductions in delays, stops, and fuel consumption. EDC Goal By December 2011, ACS-Lite will be comprehensively evaluated to underscore the opportunities and benefits of ACS-Lite. By December 2012, ASCT will be used by 40 agencies to guide programming and/or implementation of ASCT.

FHWA conducted nine regional summits across the nation to promote the EDC initiative among State DOTs and other partners, such as the LTAP Centers. The PR-LTAP Center participated of the summit conducted in Atlanta, GA on December 2010 for the southeast region. This article presents information about two of the EDC technologies: the Adaptive Signal Control Technology (ASCT) and the Safety Edge.

Adaptive Signal Control Technology

Traffic control signals are designed for the orderly control of vehicular and pedestrian flows by assigning the right of way to the different movements. Properly designed signals increase the traffic handling capacity of intersections and could decrease certain types of crashes. ASCT coordinates the traffic control signals by adjusting the timing of red, yellow, and green signal indications based on prevailing traffic conditions. The main benefits of ASCT over conventional signal control systems are: Continuously distribute green time equitably for all traffic movements.

Safety Edge
The lane-to-shoulder drop-off is the difference in elevation between the pavement edge and the shoulder. This distress is generally caused by the settlement or erosion of the shoulder, material differences in pavement layers or the resurfacing of the traveled way without adjusting the shoulders or the adjacent soil layer.

Recent Research Research has shown that the optimal angle in which almost all drivers and vehicles can recover is 30 degrees from the horizontal plane. Even at higher speeds, vehicles can return to the paved road smoothly and easily. Benefits include the avoided economic and social impacts of fatalities, injuries, and property damage. The chart below shows how various edge shapes relate to safety at speeds of up to 55mph.

How Pavement Edge Affects Crash Severity? When a vehicle tire drops off a paved surface, the driver can have difficulty re-entering the roadway if the pavement edge is nearly vertical. When a driver drifts off the pavement and tries to steer back on, the nearly vertical edge can create a tire scrubbing condition that may result in over-steering, causing the driver to lose control of the vehicle and crash with another vehicle or roadside fixed object, as shown below.

Solution to the Pavement Edge Drop-off Require a 30o-35o angle asphalt Safety Edge at the graded material interface in asphalt resurfacing projects. Routinely resurface shoulders when roadways are resurfaced and add the Safety Edge. Maintain the edge drop-off depth at 2 inches or less on high-speed highways. The shoe that creates the Safety Edge can be installed on new or existing resurfacing equipment.

The Safety Edge is an asphalt paving technique that smoothes the vertical angle in the pavement longitudinal edge with the intention to protect drivers from run-off-the-road crashes. This technique provides a strong, durable transition even for vehicles that are particularly vulnerable, such as smaller, lighter cars. The FHWA recommends that States use the Safety Edge technique, particularly on two-lane roads with unpaved shoulders.

EDC Goal Work with States to develop specifications and adopt this pavement edge treatment on all new and resurfacing pavement projects. Information from FHWA EDC Summit. More details at:


Improving the Visibility

Part 3 Markings of the MUTCD 2009 includes provisions for pavement and curb markings, delineators, colored pavements, and channelizing devices and islands.

(continues from page 1)

A new Table 3A-1 will indicate the minimum retroreflectivity levels for white and yellow longitudinal pavement markings. The minimum retroreflectivity levels are indicated for two-lane roads with centerline markings only and for other roads. The values are given for posted speeds between 35 and 50 mph and for posted speeds higher than 50 mph. There are exceptions to the minimum values when raised retroreflectivity pavement markers (RRPMs) or roadway illumination are present. Table 3A-1. Minimum Maintained Retroreflectivity Levels for Longitudinal Pavement Markings1 Posted Speed (mph) 30 35-50 100 55 250

Discussion of Proposed Amendment

The NPA also includes methods for maintaining the minimum pavement marking retroreflectivity and associated minimum maintained values for longitudinal pavement markings. The rule will apply to all roads open to public travel. The FHWA is proposing changes to the MUTCD Introduction and Section 1A.11 Relation to Other Publications, and a new Section 3A.03 Maintaining Minimum Pavement Retroreflectivity of Longitudinal Pavement Markings. Changes to Introduction A new STANDARD statement will include the compliance dates for the new Section 3A.03. Agencies will have a compliance period of four years from the date of the Final Rule for implementation and continued use of a maintenance method that is designed to maintain pavement marking retroreflectivity at or above the established minimum levels. Two additional years are provided for the replacement of pavement markings that are identified using the maintenance method as failing to meet the established minimum levels. Changes to Part 1 General Section 1A.11 Relation to Other Publications, will add Report FHWA-SA-10-015 titled Summary of the MUTCD Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity Standard to its list of useful resources. This draft publication is a supplemental document for informational purposes and its final version will reflect any necessary changes made to the proposed rule and will be published and distributed by FHWA. Changes to Part 3 Pavement Markings A new Section 3A.03 Maintaining Minimum Retroreflectivity of Longitudinal Pavement Markings will be added. The section will include STANDARD, GUIDANCE, OPTION, and SUPPORT statements that refer to maintaining minimum pavement marking retroreflectivity.

Two-lane roads with centerline markings only 2 All other roads 2





1- Retroreflectivity levels are measured at standard 30-m geometry in units of mcd/m2/lux. 2- Exceptions: When RRPMs supplement or substitute for a longitudinal line, minimum pavement marking retroreflectivity levels are not applicable as long as the RRPMs are maintained so that at least three are visible from any position along that line during nighttime conditions. When continuous roadway lighting assures that the markings are visible, minimum pavement marking retroreflectivity levels are not applicable.


Within this new Section there are subtle, but important, distinctions that categorize pavement marking into three general types: Not required to be retroreflective: Pavement markings where ambient illumination assures adequate visibility or pavement markings that are needed only in the daytime. Required to be retroreflective, but not subject to minimum levels: All markings, other than those discussed in the first bullet, must be retroreflective, but some of these markings are not subject to the new minimum retroreflectivity levels. Some longitudinal lines are exempt from the new minimum retroreflectivity levels under certain conditions, such as the presence of continuous roadway lighting or RRPMs. Subject to minimum retroreflectivity levels: These include the white and yellow longitudinal pavement markings that are required or recommended in the MUTCD. The rule applies to center line markings, including those for no passing zones, twoway left turn median lanes, and flush medians; lane line markings, including those for dotted lines, lane drops, and preferential lanes; and edge line markings, including those for channelization of gores, divergences or obstructions.

nighttime field conditions, visually assesses the condition of pavement markings. Consistent Parameters Visual Nighttime Inspection A trained inspector of at least 60 years old conducts a nighttime inspection from a moving vehicle under parameters consistent with the supporting research. Measured Retroreflectivity Pavement marking retroreflectivity is measured using a retroreflectometer. Service Life Based on Monitored Markings Markings are replaced based on the monitored performance of similar in-service markings with similar placement characteristics. The control markings are monitored on a regular basis by the visual nighttime inspection method, the measured retroreflectivity method, or both. Blanket Replacement All pavement markings in a group/area/corridor or of a given type are replaced at specific intervals, based on when the shortest-life material in that group/area/corridor approaches the minimum retroreflectivity level.

Compliance period after Final Rule:

4 years for implementation and continued use of a marking maintenance method. 6 years for the replacement of pavement markings failing to meet the established retroreflectivity minimum levels.

The amendment does not imply that an agency must measure the retroreflectivity of all pavement markings. New Section 3A.03 describes the methods that agencies can use to maintain the pavement marking retroreflectivity at or above the minimum levels. Agencies can choose one of the following methods, combination of them, or develop other appropriate methods based on engineering studies, as long as the adopted method produces results which correspond to the values in Table 3A-1: Calibrated Visual Nighttime Inspection A trained and calibrated inspector, from a moving vehicle and in conditions similar to

The new rule recognizes that there may be some pavement markings that do not meet the minimum retroreflectivity levels at a particular point in time. As long as the agency with jurisdiction is maintaining pavement markings in accordance with MUTCD Section 3A.03, the agency will be considered to be in compliance.

Information taken from FHWA Safety Office and MUTCD websites. Additional information regarding pavement marking retroreflectivity is available on the FHWA Safetys Nighttime Visibility website: night_visib/pavement_visib/#technical.


Sustainable Development Applied to Civil Infrastructure and Transportation

Current and future development patterns and the way that cities develop their civil infrastructure and transportation systems are important factors in sustaining the limited economic, environmental, and social resources and capacity. Global Climate Change Strategies To achieve an effective contribution on the issue of the climate change, transportation policies are needed to reduce the dependence on foreign oil, reduce energy consumption, and reduce the travel demand by private motor vehicles. To achieve this purpose, the following goals have been proposed by AASHTO for the United States: 1. 2. Reduce oil consumption by 20% in 10 years. Double the fuel efficiency of new passenger cars and light trucks by 2020, and the entire fleet by 2030. Double the transit ridership by 2030, and significantly expand the market share of passengers and freight moved by rail. Reduce the projected growth in vehicle miles traveled (VMT). VMT in 2006 were estimated in 3 trillion, whereas the 2055 projection is 5 trillion VMT. Reduce the percentage of commuters who drive alone to 1986 levels, and increase the percentage of those who ride transit, carpool, walk, bike, or work at home.

Global Environmental Concerns

Worldwide, transportation represents: 10% of the gross domestic product 22% of the energy consumption 25% of the burning of fossil fuels 30% of air pollution and greenhouse gases

Context of the Problem at the Local Level The San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA) population increased by 4% in the 1935-1990 period. The built environment per capita in the SJMA increased by 400% for the same period.




Sustainable Development
The goals of Sustainable Development are achieved by addressing three dimensions of sustainability: 1. Economic development: Ensure that the financial and economic needs of current and future generations are met. Environmental stewardship: Ensure a clean environmental for current and future generations and use resources in moderation. Social equity: Improve the quality of life for all people and promote equity between societies, groups, and generations.

Delimitation of the SJMA Urban Zone in 1936-37


Delimitation of the SJMA Urban Zone in 1995


If the same trend of urban sprawl continues, half of the Puerto Rico area will be covered in 55 years, and the entire Island will be covered in 67 years.


Green Design Plan for the Infrastructure This concept encompasses the following tasks: Site impact reduction Energy efficiency and renewable energy Waste reduction and management Integrated water management Use of recycled or environmentally beneficial materials Green construction techniques Environment benign use Protection of the habitat

Example of National Level Strategies Connecting metropolitan regions with high-speed transit rail systems Maximizing the economic power of Mega-Regions by improving freight corridors Intercity passenger rail system a necessity Connecting rural America Investments to support travel, tourism, and recreation activities

Sustainable Transportation
The Canadian Center for Sustainable Transportation states that a sustainable transportation system: 1. Allows the basic access needs of individuals and societies to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health, and with equity within and between generations; Is affordable, operates efficiently, offers choice of transport mode, and supports a vibrant economy; and Limits emissions and waste within the planets ability to absorb them, minimizes consumption of non-renewable resources, limits consumption of renewable resources to the sustainable yield level, reuses and recycles its components, and minimizes the use of land and the production of noise.

Integrated approach to impact issues leads to long term, sustainable profit growth

Resource efficiency Energy efficiency Global energy issues

Health & safety Legislation & regulation Climate change Crisis management


Employment Training & development Local economies & enterprise Social & community sponsorships


Sustainable transportation systems promote context-sensitive designs, based on factors as: 1. Level of economic development (developed, developing, or undeveloped area) Institutional level (local, state, national, or global) regional,

2. 3.

Type of transportation system (highway, transit, marine, aviation, or intermodal) Scale of facility (section, corridor, network, or system) Time frame (year, decade, or century)

A new strategy which goes beyond what has been done before will be needed to reduce congestion, keep America globally competitive and meet 21st Century metropolitan mobility needs. It will require a multi-modal approach which preserves what has been built to date, improves the system performance and adds substantial capacity in highways, transit, rail, seaports, and airports. It will require giving connections to world markets, and regional passenger rail services higher priority. It will require the synchronization of transportation, land use, housing, and energy policies. Finally, it will require the use of advanced technologies a quantum increase in investment, getting governmental restrictions out of the way, and inter-jurisdictional collaboration.

4. 5.

Information edited from the seminar materials prepared by Dr. Francisco Maldonado Fortunet and offered by the Puerto Rico LTAP Center.


Center News
The PR-LTAP Center participates in the Reactivation Activity of the Puerto Rico Section of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE).
The ITE Puerto Rico Section held its Reactivation Activity on October 30, 2010 at the San Miguel Plaza Hotel in Bayamn, Puerto Rico. ITE members, transportation-related professionals, and officials from the Federal Highway Administration and the Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Public Works were present at this event. Among the invited speakers were Miguel Santini, Executive Director of the Puerto Rico Traffic Safety Commission, John R. Freeman, Jr., Past International President of ITE, and Rosana Correa, ITE District 10 2011 President. The official announcement of the election results for the 2011 Puerto Rico Section Board was also made at the event. ITE is an international educative and scientific association that promotes the development of its members through its products and services, support education, stimulates research, and develop public service programs in all aspects associated to transportation. ITE was founded in 1930 and it currently has a network of 17,000 transportation professionals in more than 90 countries. The PR-LTAP Deputy Director, Alberto Figueroa, was elected as the 2011 ITE-PR Section President. For more information about the ITE PR Section visit: http://

New Laws that Ban Texting While Driving

A previous edition of EL PUENTE presented the federal regulations approved in the United States banning texting while driving for commercial and bus drivers. The Federal Government is taking additional measures to ban texting while driving. In order to encourage roadway safety, Barack Obama, President of the United States of America, signed an Executive Order in 2009 prohibiting text messaging while driving official vehicles to the 4.5 million federal employees, including military personnel. The purpose of the Executive Order is to: Increase highway safety for all vehicle drivers, passengers, cyclists and pedestrians. Prevent highway crashes because of text messaging sending while driving. Reduce injuries, deaths, property damage, medical and health insurance expenses, and insurance policies related to motor vehicle collisions; and Authorize the law enforcement personnel to stop users of motor vehicles and to issue citations to those persons who are sending text messages while driving as an infraction.

Thirty states, the District of Columbia, and Guam have implemented laws that ban text messaging for all drivers. Twelve of these laws were enacted in 2010. In addition, eight states, the District of Columbia, and the US Virgin Islands prohibit all drivers from using handheld cell phones while driving. Primary laws prohibit ALL types of drivers from using handheld cell phones while driving. A primary law means that an officer can ticket the driver for the offense without any other traffic offense taking place. Secondary laws ban text messaging for ALL types of drivers. A secondary law means an officer can only give you a ticket if you have been pulled over for another driving violation. Information edited from Visit this site to learn about the federal and state safety strategies established to reduce driving distractions on our nation highways.


The Puerto Rico Traffic Safety Commission and its Role in the Prevention of Highway Crashes in Puerto Rico

I n t r o d u cti o n The PR-LTAP Center of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez actively collaborates with the Puerto Rico Traffic Safety Commission (PRTSC) in its campaigns and training programs for the prevention of highway crashes in Puerto Rico. This article is the first of a series related with this topic of interest to our readers. Law #33, dated May 25, 1972, as amended, established the PRTSC. This Law had the purpose of establishing a program for the prevention of highway related crashes. Considering the diversity of the responsibilities, a committee was created to coordinate and channelize the different initiatives in a more effective manner allowing a coordinated program in which the duplicity of activities are reduced to a minimum or eliminated. The PRTSC has the responsibility of preparing and implementing an efficient highway safety plan and determining the most effective use of state and federal funds that are allocated for these tasks. Since the law was approved, safety funds have been used and administered by the PRTSC, establishing several successful programs and initiatives of the Government of Puerto Rico that fulfills the objective of reducing highway crashes in the Island.

Mission and Vision of the PRTSC To avoid and reduce fatalities, injuries and property damage caused by traffic collisions, by establishing campaigns and educative programs that orientate the population about the importance of following traffic safety laws and regulations. The vision of the PRTSC is to offer quality service directed to promote traffic safety and the prevention of crashes. Findings of Interest of Road Crashes in Puerto Rico The first figure illustrates the traffic fatalities attributed to crashes of motorcyclists and cyclists occurred until October 4 of years 2008, 2009, and 2010. Motorcyclist fatalities have decreased substantially during the 3-year period. This reduction can be attributed in part to the educational efforts and the campaigns of the PRTSC, to the improvement of motorcycle training activities and the police surveillance that the PRTSC advocates. Bicyclists related fatalities have been constant during these years.

The second figure shows the fatalities associated to motor vehicle crashes as of September 30 of years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Pedestrian and drivers fatalities caused by traffic crashes have decreased. In contrast, passenger fatalities shows an increase, that could be related to the negligence and indifference of passengers. Also, the increase can be attributed to the passenger habit of not fastening its seat belt when the vehicle is moving. The PRTSC has developed educative campaigns nationwide that are directed to support these reductions in fatalities. Innovative Campaigns Successful educative campaigns of the PRTSC to avoid deaths in our roads are:

Campaign against Speeding: Encourage drivers to respect the posted speed limits on each road. Pedestrian Safety: Promotes that the pedestrians have the same right to the use of roads as motor vehicle drivers. Motorcycle Safety: Creates more conscience about the presence of motorcycles in our roads. Also, it pretends to increase awareness about the importance of sharing the road. Click it or Ticket: Campaign to promote the use of the seat belt.

The Executive Director of the PRTSC, Miguel Santini Padilla, is compromised with the mission to prevent and reduce fatalities in the roads of our country. His vision is focused on implementing strategies that provide law enforcement, the development of new traffic engineering projects, and new educative projects directed to create more conscience and better life quality for Puerto Rico. Visit: or www.uprm.edup/prt2 for more information.


Toward Zero Deaths on our Roads

Close to 34,000 highway-related fatalities occurred in the year 2009 in the United States. Significant reductions of fatalities for motorcyclists, and occupants of passenger cars and large trucks were observed for the 2008-2009 period. One of the major improvements was alcohol-related fatalities. Forty-one States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico registered reductions in highway fatalities associated with alcohol. Although the number of fatalities last year was the lowest since 1950 (33,186 fatalities), road safety still represents one of the most challenging transportation issues. To continue improving the safety of the highway network, strengthening safety partnerships among stakeholders, and to increase leaders focused on safety, the U.S. Department of Transportation is promoting the Toward Zero Deaths (TZD) Campaign. TZD is a strategy that will establish the dialogue to create a national strategic highway safety plan. Highway safety stakeholders strongly agree that even one death is unacceptable and therefore, we must aspire to move toward zero deaths. A Steering Committee of the following organizations and agencies, that own, operate, enforce and maintain the U.S. road system, has led the initial development of the TZD initiative: American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance Governors Highway Safety Association International Association of Chiefs of Police National Association of County Engineers National Association of State Emergency Medical Service Officials

The Federal Government is represented in an ex -officio capacity by: Federal Highway Administration Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

On average, one highway related fatality occurs each 15 minutes in the United States

What is Purpose of the TZD Strategy?

Toward Zero Deaths: A National Strategy on Highway Safety will be a data-driven effort focusing on identifying and creating opportunities for changing American culture as it relates to highway safety. The effort will also focus on developing strong leadership and champions in the organizations that can directly impact highway safety through engineering, enforcement, education, emergency medical service, policy, public health, communications, and other efforts. The national strategy will be utilized as a guide and framework by safety stakeholder organizations to enhance current national, state and local safety planning and implementation efforts. TZD will have two tiers: Cultural Change and Building the Foundation of Safety to bring about cultural changes and strengthen leadership while improving the effectiveness of current activities.

A series of workshops, seminars, and web conferences have being celebrated since September 2009 to gather the input of highway safety stakeholders across the country. The next TZD phase is the development of the national strategy by Spring 2011. The key areas of TZD are: Safety Culture Safer Infrastructure Safer Vehicles Safer Drivers and Safer Vulnerable Users Emergency Medical Services Data Systems and Analysis Tools

Improving Safety Culture

Individuals are driven by beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions of societal-accepted norms that, in conjunction to alcohol, fatigue, distractions, among other factors, produce his/her road be-



havior (speeding, red light running, etc.). Safety treatments must impact the shared values, perceptions, and attitudes of road users, and not only focusing on the behavioral output, to be effective. TZD is looking for input of how to develop a program that changes highway safety culture in the United States.

Safer Infrastructure
Infrastructure innovations must be directed toward improving the physical road environment and the technology and communications used for data, intelligent transportation systems and emergency response. The key infrastructure safety challenges are related to lane departure crashes (50% of fatalities), intersections (25%), rural roads (60%), and pedestrian and bicyclists (14%). Strategies that improve roadway inventory and crash data for rural roads are strongly needed, as well as the implementation of proven road safety countermeasures. Key technology and communications opportunities are present for the coordination of public safety, medical, and infrastructure services, safe enforcement practices, and the proximity of health facilities. TZD is looking for input of how to expand the use of proven countermeasures and ensure safer infrastructure for all public roads, and how to promote partnerships and increase coordination of safety data and services in the United States.

clude forward collision warning, side object detection for lane change and merge maneuvers, and lane departure and backing collision warning systems. Technologies for modifying driver behavior include alcohol-use detection and starter interlocking devices, automatic speed control, electronic stability, and driver performance monitoring systems. Conspicuity and visibility technologies include night vision enhancement, automatic adjustment of headlight beams, and daytime running lights. TZD is looking for input of how to expand the use of proven vehicle technology and identify opportunities for vehicle safety.

Safer Drivers, Safer Vulnerable Road Users

Around 80% to 90% of motor vehicle crashes are related to an human error. The challenges include speeding, impaired and distracted driving, unlicensed drivers, not using seat belts, and commercial, young and older drivers. Strategies to mitigate these issues include stronger legislation and sanctions to drivers and owners, effective targeted enforcement strategies, public education and awareness campaigns for high-risk populations, graduate driver licensing programs that restrict young passengers and nighttime driving for novice drivers, improved driver education, training for the judiciary components, use of technology for automated enforcement at high risk intersections and roadway segments, and better signage and pavement markings, among other strategies. TZD is looking for input of how to identify opportunities for driver and road user safety. The article information was edited from the TZD webinar presentations. The presentations and white papers are available on the website For additional information about the TZD initiative, or to join the stakeholder group, contact Kelly Hardy, AASHTO Program Manager for Safety at

Safer Vehicles
Technological issues for vehicle improvements should deal with improving driver awareness, modifying driver behavior, improve conspicuity and visibility of vehicles, and providing vehicle-tovehicle and vehicle-toinfrastructure communication. Technologies for improving driver awareness in-



Upcoming Training Seminars & Conferences

Seminars and Workshops
Workshop: Development of temporary traffic control plans for municipal works Instructor: Dr. Alberto M. Figueroa Date: December 3, 2010 Time: 8:00 AM to 12:00 PM Place: College of Engineers and Surveyors of Puerto Rico, Mayagez Seminar: Practical techniques for evaluation, rehabilitation and maintenance of flexible pavements Instructor: Dr. Benjamn Colucci Dates: December 8-9, 2010 Place: Department of Public Works, Saint Croix
For more information about our seminars and how to register please contact: Ms. Grisel Villarrubia at (787) 834-6385 or at or visit our website at

International Conferences and Symposiums

International Symposium on Durable and Innovative Bridges: January 22, 2011, Washington, D.C. 2011 TRB 90th Annual Meeting: Transportation, Livability, and Economic Development in a Changing World: January 23-27, 2011 Washington, D.C. 2nd International Conference on Construction Management: February 7-11, 2011, Orlando, Florida ITE 2011 Technical Conference and Exhibit: April 36, 2011, Walt Disney World Swan, Lake Buena Vista, Florida.

Dr. Francisco Maldonado Fortunet, born in Mayagez, Puerto Rico, is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez (UPRM). He received his Bachelor in Science (B.S.) in Civil Engineering from the UPRM in 1993 and completed a Master in Science degree and a Doctor in Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in Civil Engineering from the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology, in Atlanta, Georgia. His Ph.D. thesis was focused on the development of sustainable development criteria to evaluate highway projects in Puerto Rico. Dr. Maldonado is a well known seminar lecturer for the public sector in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands in the practice of construction engineering and management. He has been involved in construction performance evaluation programs of infrastructure systems for the Puerto Rico Infrastructure Financing Authority and has experience in contract admin-

Meet the Trainer: Francisco Maldonado Fortunet

istration, construction engineering, and project management. According to Dr. Maldonado: Engineers that respond to the need of a sustainable built environment will secure a stable and continuous harmony between economic development and environmental protection.


Courses in Building Construction, Construction Management, and Cost Estimating. Graduate level courses in green construction. Graduate level courses in sustainable engineering as part of his passion to help other engineers develop the skills to guarantee the sustainable development needed for the well being of present and future generations.



Message from the Editor

Welcome to the last edition of the EL PUENTE newsletter for 2010. This double issue includes articles in the areas of traffic safety, transportation sustainability, and new innovations in transportation technology. The articles present information about three recent initiatives of the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration: Every Day Counts, Toward Zero Deaths, and These initiatives have the intention of improving the quality of our highway system, avoiding highway fatalities, and assuring the quality of life for our population. The year 2011 will be an exciting one for our Center because of the celebration of its 25 th anniversary in April, in conjunction with the 100th anniversary of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez. Our work plan for 2011 is filled with new ideas and seminar topics that we expect will be of great interest to you. The PR-LTAP Center Staff wish you a happy and safe holidays!

Alberto M. Figueroa Medina, Ph.D., P.E.

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Benjamn Colucci Ros Director Alberto M. Figueroa Medina Deputy Director Gisela Gonzlez Program Administrator Grisel Villarubia Irmal Franco Administrative Coordinators Anthony Noriega Negrn Alberto Almodvar Mireya M. Quiones Fernndez Student Interns

EL PUENTE is published by the Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer Center located at the Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez.

EL PUENTE Newsletter VOL. 24, NO. 02-03, 2010

The opinions, findings, or recommendations expressed in this newsletter are those of the Center staff and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal Highway Administration, the Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Public Works, the Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority, or the U.S. Virgin Islands Department of Public Works.

University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying Call Box 9000, Mayagez, PR 00681 787.834.6385 PHONE 787.265.5695 FAX