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Newsletter of the Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer Center University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez

Volume 25, Number 01, 2011

In this Issue
AASHTO Publishes 1st Edition of the Highway Safety Manual Bicycles in the City: The Experience of the Ciclo Vas Online Discussion Forum and Estimation Spreadsheets for HSM Users Center News UPRM Students Stand out at the 2011 TRB Annual Meeting Ten Tips to Motivate your Employees at Work Safety Principles for Flaggers on Highway Work Zones Resources Available to Improve Rural and Local Road Safety Future Seminars and Conferences Know your Trainer Message from the Editor P.1 P.2 P.5 P.6 P.6 P.7 P.8 P.9 P.10 P.10 P.11

AASHTO Publishes 1st Edition of the Highway Safety Manual

The Manual provides information and data-driven scientific methodologies for the estimation of impacts from road safety project alternatives.
The assessment and evaluation of the impacts caused by new highway, rehabilitation or improvement projects, in terms of the operational aspects of mobility and accessibility and the environmental considerations, have been effectively promoted to the road development and transportation community since the late 1950s. In contrast, the assessment and safety performance evaluation of the road geometric design and roadway condition alternatives has had limited progress in the state of the practice. The identification and selection of roadway design elements and safety countermeasures have relied substantially on recommended practices or the intuitive application of the safety treatments based on past experiences from local or national projects, without the use of data and scientific methods. New technical resources in our library:

APTA. April 2010. Pub-

lic Transportation Fact Book.

NHTSA. 2010. Speed

Objective of the 1st Edition of the Highway Safety Manual

The Highway Safety Manual (HSM), published in the year 2010 by the American Association of State Highways and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), provides highway engineers with a series of analytical tools that incorporate quantitative methods and the accepted procedures needed to estimate the level of safety of future design alternatives at different stages of highway development projects. These tools will allow highway agencies to establish effective safety management systems through the use of informed decisions sustained with crash and safety data and with the identification of the costs and benefits of the possible alternatives. (article continues on page 4)

Enforcement Program Guidelines.

NHTSA. 2010. Speed

Enforcement Camera Systems Operational Guidelines.

NHTSA. 2010. Motor-

cycle Crash Causes and Outcomes: Pilot Study

The Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer Center is part of a network of 58 centers through the United States that comprises the Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) and the Tribal Technical Assistance Program (TTAP), which enable local governments, counties, and cities, to improve their roads and bridges by supplying them with a variety of training programs, an information clearinghouse, new and existing technology updates, personalized technical assistance, and newsletters.

Bicycles in the City: The Experience of the Ciclo Vas

Ciclo va, ciclo ruta, bici-carril, carril-bici or bici-senda: Spanish terms given to bikeways, or the part of the public roadway infrastructure or other trails or paths reserved for the exclusive or shared traffic movements of bicycles, pedestrians, skates, and other non-motorized transportation modes. The Ciclo va could be placed on any roadway lane that has been temporary signalized for this purpose in a proper manner, or on an exclusive right-of-way for the only purpose of serving bicycle traffic. Ciclo Vas in Colombia The Ciclo va, as known in Colombia, is an activity held on every Sunday and public holiday in the cities of Bogot, Cali, and Medelln. The city of Bogot first gave the name of Ciclo va in 1975 to the practice of temporary closing of streets in the major avenues of the city in order to provide spaces to the population for recreational and sport activities during the weekends. The objective of the street closing was to also motivate people to travel in bicycle to the city to ride and play. There are other recreational end entertainment events along the Ciclo va, such as fit workouts and aerobics contests, extreme sports, yoga classes, and musical events. The Ciclo va has a total 120 kilometers and is being in Bogot length of of routes held on Ciclo Vas in Mxico Mexico City has developed three Ciclo va circuits in the urban area. One of the circuits has a total length of 59 kilometers, and is located over the right of way of the Mxico Cuernavaca Railroad, going from the Ejrcito Nacional Avenue in the Polanco neighborhood to the Fierro del Toro neighborhood in the State of Morelos. Another circuit was opened in the Chapultepec Park going over three sections of the park. The third circuit goes from the Chapultepec Park to the Zcalo area in Mexico City through the Paseo de la Reforma Avenue. The Paseo de la Reforma is one of the most important and congested avenues in the city, providing evidence of the government commitment with nonmotorized transportation alternatives and recreational options to the residents of this 20 million metropolis.

Sundays and public holidays from 7AM to 2PM. Tipically, near 2 million people enjoy the activities. During special holidays, such as Christmas, the Ciclo va is organized for the entire day, ending at midnight.

Other cities in Mexico, like Guadalajara, have follow the example of the Federal District successfully implementing the Ciclo va concept. The Region of Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo has integrated the Ciclo va with the natural features of the region connecting the resort area in Ixtapa through the coastal area. The region of Tulancingo has five Ciclo vas that cross the cities of Tulancingo, Santiago Tulantepec and Cuautepec de Hinojosa. Ciclo Vas in Madrid, Spain Madrid has had difficulties implementing the Ciclo va concept due to the belief of the governments


that the city of Madrid was not built for bicycle travel. The Madrid Pro-Bici Association, composed of different stakeholders of bicycle groups in the city, was created with the objective of promoting the use of bicycles in the city and inform the government about the Ciclo va experience in other cities. Today, Madrid has implemented many kilometers of bikeways surrounding the city with the expectation of establishing bike stations throughout Madrid.

Sunday Streets since 2008. This monthly activity, held during a Sunday, consists of closing out 3 miles of the Embarcadero Street to motorized traffic. In addition to the Ciclo va, there are different activities held along the street, like bike riding lessons, dance classes, music events, entertainment machines and kiosks with food samples from street merchants. The Ciclo Da in Ponce, Puerto Rico The Municipality of Ponce held its Ciclo da event on January 16, 2011, as part of the transportation project called Sistema Integrado de Transportacin del Sur (SITRAS), that is expected to start operations by summer. The system will connect different neighborhoods with the urban district of the city by using buses and tourist shuttles, providing daily service for 12 hours free of charge. The integration of the Ciclo va to SITRAS was the starting point to the Ciclo Da event, serving as a rehearsal. This activity is planned to be held

A high-quality city is not the one with the biggest streets, but the one that allows children to go everywhere by bicycle in a safe manner. Enrique Pealosa, Former Mayor of Bogot

Ciclo Vas in the United States The city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, opens its Memorial Drive Avenue for the exclusive movements of bicycle and pedestrian traffic during Sundays between the months of April and November since the 1990s. The city of New York carried out Ciclo va activities through three Saturdays in the years 2008 and 2009, converting around 7 miles of roadways, from 96th Street to the Brooklyn Bridge, to exclusive bicycle and pedestrian routes from 7AM to 1 PM. The city of Miami had its first Ciclo va, called Bike Miami, in November 2008. Miami became the first city in the United States in March 2009 in having five Ciclo va activities. This monthly activity called Miami Days looks to promote livable streets and a sustainable city, in addition to promoting people to walk and use the bicycle as transportation options. The city of San Francisco carries out Ciclo va events called

monthly, by petition of those persons that have made the bicycle part of their routine and quality of life.

(article continues on page 7)


AASHTO Publishes 1st Edition

The HSM is the direct result from the completion of multiple recent scientific research studies. These studies were directed to the identification of the roadway crash frequency and severity factors for different highway functional classes. In addition, the HSM uses analytical tools for the evaluation, analysis, and assessment of the safety impacts from road design alternatives. The development of the HSM was carried out by a group of experts from the Transportation Research Board, the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, and researchers from renowned universities that helped establish the scientific focus of the Manual. Instead of being prescriptive, the HSM provides tool that can predict the crash reduction potential of safety decisions taken during the road planning, programming, design, operation or maintenance stages. These tools are presented in the Manual by discussing their strengths and limitations. The HSM is directed toward highway engineering officials, from state, county and local agencies, and regional and metropolitan planning organizations in the United States. HSM CONTENTS

(from page 1)

The HSM is organized in four parts: Part A - Includes an introduction to HSM and provides the scientific basics associated with the human factors and theoretical concepts that are incorporated in the tools and analytical methods. Part B - Includes the tools and methods necessary to support the highway safety management systems. These chapters contain information about how to perform an assessment of the road network, how to perform the diagnostics of the safety issues and how to identify and perform the economic evaluation of the safety countermeasures. In addition, this part contains tools to establish priorities between the road alternatives and how to assess the effectiveness of the safety measures. Part C - Includes the predictive methods with the application of safety performance functions for: Two-lane rural highways, Multiple lane rural highways, and Urban and suburban arterials.

Project Planning & Preliminary Engineering
Identify alternatives and choose the preferred solution

System Planning
Identify needs and

program projects

Part D - Includes the crash modification factors (CMF) that were available in 2007. The included CMFs in the HSM were submitted to a rigorous assessment to assure their validity for the evaluation of the safety performance. CMFs were included in the HSM for the following conditions: Road segments, Intersections, Interchanges, Special facilities, and Highway networks.

Design & Construction

Develop design plans and build project

Operations & Maintenance

Modify existing conditions to maintain and improve safe and efficient operation

The expected benefits from the implementation of the HSM should include reductions in road crashes and costs due to the enhancement of the decision making process and the effectiveness of the selection process of safety countermeasures made by highway engineers.

For more information about HSM and how to purchase the manual please visit the AASHTO Internet site at:


Online Discussion Forum and Estimation Spreadsheets for HSM Users

The online discussion forum allows HSM users to interact and consult possible applications and use of the manual. In addition, the forum shares discussions about users experiences with HSM.

The information in the forum is freely available to the general public. The only requirement to participate is the completion of the online registration process.

NCHRP Project 17-38 has made available to HSM users three sample spreadsheets to help in the training efforts of Part C of the Manual. The sheets include examples of the procedures and calculations of the crash predictions for two-lane and multiple lane rural highways, and urban and suburban arterials.
Worksheet 1A -- General Information and Input Data for Rural Two-Lane Two-Way Roadway Segments General Information Analyst Agency or Company Date Performed Input Data Length of segment, L (mi) AADT (veh/day) AADTMAX = 17,800 (veh/day) KKD OSU 03/31/10 Roadway Roadway Section Jurisdiction Analysis Year Base Conditions --Location Information SH 321 MP 0.0 to MP 1.5 Anywhere, USA 2010 Site Conditions 1.5 10,000

Lane width (ft) 12 10 Shoulder width (ft) 6 Right Shld: 4 Left Shld: 4 Shoulder type Paved Right Shld: Gravel Left Shld: Gravel Length of horizontal curve (mi) 0 0.0 Radius of curvature (ft) 0 0 Spiral transition curve (present/not present) Not Present Present Superelevation variance (ft/ft) < 0.01 0 Grade (%) 0 2 Driveway density (driveways/mile) 5 6 Centerline rumble strips (present/not present) Not Present Not Present Passing lanes [present (1 lane) /present (2 lane) / not present)] Not Present Not Present Two-way left-turn lane (present/not present) Not Present Not Present Roadside hazard rating (1-7 scale) 3 4 Worksheet 1E -- Summary Results for Rural Two-Lane Two-Way Roadway Segments Segment lighting (present/not present) Present (1) (2) Not Present (3) (4) (5) Auto speed enforcement (present/not present) Not Present Not Crash severity level Crash Severity Distribution Predicted average crash Present Roadway segment Crash rate Calibration Factor, Cr 1 1.10 (proportion) frequency (crashes/year) length (mi) (crashes/mi/year)
Total Fatal and Injury (FI) Property Damage Only (PDO) (4) from Worksheet 1C 1.000 0.321 0.679 (8) from Worksheet 1C 5.6 1.8 3.8 1.5 1.5 1.5 (3)/(4) 3.8 1.2 2.5

The spreadsheets can be modified by trained professionals in the use of HSM to meet the particular needs of the highway agency. For questions or comments about the calculation sheets please contact Karen Dixon from Oregon State University at (541) 737-6337 or by e-mail at

Center News
25 Years Dedicated to the Training of State and Municipal Transportation Officials
The Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer Center celebrates 25 years of continuous operation on April 1st. The Center was established in 1986 at the Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez as part of the Rural Technical Assistance Program of the Federal Highway Administration. During this first 25 years, the Center has provided training and technical assistance to more than 25,000 state and local transportation officials from Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. The Center has significantly evolved to satisfy the constantly changing transportation needs at the local and international level, making the most out of our strategic location inside an academic setting in the Caribbean, having direct access to the brightest students and faculty from different disciplines and UPR campuses and our bilingual skills. In addition, the Center has carried out multiple research projects and professional development activities directed toward the next generation of transportation professionals and the planning and coordination of local, national, and international transportation summits.

Special Projects and Collaborations during 20062011 Period We want to deeply thank all the professionals that have serve as instructors in our training activities and thank to all of our participants. During 2011 the Center will have a series of technical activities in dedication to our first 25 years or training and technical assistance. Visit our site on the Internet ( and our Facebook group for more details.

UPRM Students Stand out at the 2011 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting
A group of seven students from the UPRMayaguez participated in the 90th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, held in Washington, D.C. on April 23-27, 2011. The student participation at TRB is supported by the Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Fellowship from FHWA. The PR LTAP Center Directors, Dr. Benjamn Colucci and Dr. Alberto Figueroa (Eisenhower Campus Manager) were also present at the Conference. Yesenia Cruz presented her poster Dynamic Transportation and Humanitarian Logistics Conceptual Model: A Decision Tool to Prioritize Critical Supplies Distribution during Emergency Relief Operations and Mireya Quiones presented her poster Determination of Saturation Flow Rates at Urban Signalized Intersections Based on Local Conditions showing the results of their research projects at TRB. The student had the opportunity to interact with Vctor Mndez, FHWA Administrator, during the Eisenhower Program Reception Activity.

From the left: Juan Balbuena (FHWA and UPRM Alumni), Elinic Almonte, Mximo Polanco, Carlos Calero, Alberto Figueroa, Yesenia Cruz, Vctor Mndez (FHWA), Pedro Prez, Mireya Quiones, Benjamn Colucci and Richard Valencia.


Bicycles in the City

"This event is part of a plan that will have this type of activity occurring several times during the year. Lets see how this event goes and maybe we can carry out two events this year and subsequently have a monthly event", indicated Lic. Jessica Sinigaglia, from the Legal Services Office from the Municipality of Ponce and Event Organizer.

(from page 3)
Major indicated that the participants from children to elderly people, that ride their bicycles along the city streets. The Ciclo Dia route started from the historic Parque de Bombas and went through the Marina Street, the Ponce Massacre Museum, the Dora Coln Clavel Urban Park, Concordia Street, the Ponce Art Museum, Las Amricas Avenue, Comercio Street, the Jos Labrador Boulevard, the Bridge of the Lions, Tercentenary Park, and the Cristina Street, and returning to the Plaza Las Delicias.

The Ciclo Da had near 1,500 participants riding their bikes along the major avenues of the southern city. The City Major, Hon. Mara Melndez, praised the family and sportsmanlike atmosphere of the event. The

Thanks to Eng. Ivn Lpez, from the Municipality of Ponce, for sharing the event pictures.

Ten Tips to Motivate your Employees at Work

1. Exhibit an impeccable work ethic and be a leader by example. Promote a broad vision of the relevance of the work that your colleagues are doing and make them feel that what they are doing is important to others. Establish goals and make people responsible for the performance and accomplishments. Offer a genuine evaluation, and on time, about the job performance. Ask the same for you. Disseminate achievements and assume the responsibilities for the team failures. 6. Provide the tools that your employees need to be effective. Assign responsibilities and tasks in accordance to the individual skills of each person.




8. Communicate openly with your employees about situations so everybody know the details necessary for them to perform their duties. 9. Allow personal time to your employees to take care of relevant situations that require them to be carried out during work hours.


10. Have empathy, modesty, and sense of humor with everyone. Edited from The Corner Office by Steve Tobak,



Safety Principles for Flaggers on Highway Work Zones

Flaggers play a fundamental role in keeping the safety of road users and the personnel working on or near roadways. Near to 20 flaggers die annually after being hit by a motor vehicle going through a work zone or by machinery located within the work zone; while much more flaggers are severely injured. The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices contain rules and guidance that all flaggers must know in order to carry out his/her duties in a safe and effective manner. All flaggers must know the following 6 safety principles on work zones and for temporary traffic control duties. The Right Traffic Control Plan The Right Advanced Warning Sign Spacing

The selection of signs, their message and spacing vary depending on factors such as the work type and duration, highway class, traffic volume, road geometry, speeds and other conditions. Verify MUTCD for guidance. The MUTCD and the Standard Drawings include typical applications of traffic control plans for different types of highway work zones. Information edited from the MUTCD and the Flagging poster prepared by the ARTBA Work Zone Safety Clearinghouse The Right Signals

The Right Garment and Gear Always use high visibility safety garment that comply with standard ANSI/ISEA-107 Class 2 or 3. Always use flagger paddle or automated flagger assistance devices. Always have available a radio, and overhead lamps for nighttime work.


The Right Practices

Stand on the shoulder in a visible place. Always be located at the flagger station. Always face traffic. Have a radio or other communication device with your work group and Use hand signals in combination with Be always alert and focused on traffic Plan an emergency escape route. control duties. Never be distracted with cell phones, music radio, MP3 or IPODs. Be polite with road users.
The Right Training Always stay trained and updated on the right flagger practices. The National Work Zone Awareness Week is going to be held on April 4-8, 2011. To observe this week, the PR LTAP Center will host the OSHA 10-hour certification training on Highway Work Zone Safety, with the support of the American Road & Transportation Builders Association. The training sessions are going to be held on April 4-5 at CIAPRMAYAGUEZ, April 7-8 at CIAPRGUAYAMA, and April 11-12 at CANOVANAS. Please call us for registration details. the flagger paddle or the red flag. supervisors.



Resources Available to Improve Rural and Local Road Safety

Highway fatalities had an average reduction of 10% in the United States, as in Puerto Rico, between the years 2008 and 2009. Nevertheless, a total of 33,808 persons lost their lives as a consequence of a highway related crash in the United States. At the same time, a total of 365 highway related fatalities were recorded in Puerto Rico for an average of one live lost per day. All safety initiatives directed toward reducing road related fatalities are require to focus on the existing conditions on rural roads and roads of lower functional classifications to accomplish substantial results. Fatalities on rural roads accounted for 57% of the total number of fatalities in 2009; meanwhile, 38% of the fatalities occurred on collector and local type roads in Puerto Rico. The Safety Office of the Federal Highway Administration has taken a leading role to promote nationally the need to analyze and evaluate rural and local road safety. To accomplish this objective the Safety Office has made available online a series of tools and resources to assist engineers and transportation officials in charge of local and rural highway systems. Noteworthy Practices: Addressing Safety on Locally-Owned and Maintained Roads - A Domestic Scan Includes information about best practices implemented by state transportation agencies for the planning, programming, and implementation of safety projects for local roads. Implementing the High Risk Rural Roads Program - This resource shows successful examples from states that have implemented programs and policies from this federal program directed to improve the safety of high risk rural roads. Local Roads Safety Resource CD - This CD includes information about recent research projects related to rural roads. Local and Rural Safety Peer-to-Peer Program - FHWA establish this peer-to-peer program as another type of technical assistance for rural and local highway officials to resolve safety issues. The program provides access to voluntary professionals, experts in the safety of rural and local roads, to offer assistance to their peers. Road Safety Tools for Local Agencies - Rural Highway Safety Clearinghouse -

FHWA has developed a series of guidebooks to assist roadway maintenance crews with strategies and tools for the inspection and fix different highway components with the objective of providing an acceptable level of safety. The Center Library has copies available of these guidebooks, and they are also available online from the FHWA Internet site. Maintenance of Drainage Features for Safety - fhwasa09024/ Maintenance of Signs and Sign Supports - fhwart0000/ W-Beam Guardrail Repair - Vegetation Control for Safety -


Future Seminars and Conferences

Seminars and Workshops
Introduction to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Transportation Decision-Making Instructor: Dr. Sangchul Hwang Date: April 1, 2011, Time: 8:00 AM to 4:30PM Place: Civil Engineering Auditorium, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez Infrastructure Procurement Systems: Public Private Partnerships (PPP) Instructor: Dr. Omar I. Molina Bas Date: April 14, 2011, TIme: 8:00 AM to 4:30PM Place: Subsede CIAPR Gurabo Date: April 15, 2011, Time: 8:00 AM to 4:30PM Place: Sala Ernesto lvarez Lazzarini, Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses For more information about our seminars and how to register please contact: Ms. Grisel Villarrubia at (787) 834-6385 or at or visit our website at

Conferences and Summits

2011 Institute of Transportation Engineers Technical Conference and Exhibit: April 3-6, 2011, Walt
Disney World Swan Hotel, Lake Buena Vista, Florida. (

10th Low Volume Roads International Conference: July 24-27, 2011, HiltonWalt Disney World, Lake Buena
Vista, Florida. (

2011 LTAP/TTAP National Conference: August 1-4, 2011, Boston Park Plaza Hotel, Boston, Massachusetts.

Dr. Sangchul Hwang completed his Bachelor degree in Civil Engineering and his Master degree in Environmental Engineering from the Kyungpook National University at South Korea. He worked at Kansas University and completed his Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering from Akron University in Ohio in the year 2002. His doctoral dissertation was related to the sorption, desertion and biodegradation of aromatic poly-cyclical hydrocarbons. Dr. Hwang had post-doctoral research works with the Research and Development Center of the United States Army in Vicksburg, MS, and later with the Johns Hopkins University working with the rehabilitation of soils and underground waters contaminated by explosives. He was awarded with the National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Associateship from the Environment Protection Agency for his work related to chemical oxidation. Dr. Hwang is Associate Professor from the UPRM Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying since January 2005. His recent research project includes the earth bioviable restoration, the remediation of contaminated soils and underground water, potable water and sewer treatments, the earth bio-decomposition, and the application / design implications of nano materials for the environment. Dr. Hwang teaches Water Bio-remediation and Treatments, Design of Sewer Systems,

Know your Trainer: Dr. Sangchul Hwang

Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Solid Waste Management courses at UPRM. As part of the family of trainers of our Center, Dr. Hwang offers seminars in topics related to the consideration of environmental impacts associated with transportation practices and projects, regulations and practices for the reduction of solid waste, engineering fundamentals in municipal projects of transportation and water resources, and NEPA-related aspects in transportation decision-making. He is a member of the AWWA and ACS Professional Organizations and the World Economic Forum. Even though the extended time dedicated to his research projects and teaching at UPRM, Dr. Hwang always saves time to enjoy watching his kids play on the beautiful beaches of Puerto Rico. He possess a Second Dan Black Belt in Korean Martial Arts and TaeKwon-Do and he frequently offers classes to the public by request. The main hobby of Dr. Hwang is thinking how to make the world a better place, as indicated by the meaning of his first name.



Message from the Editor

I hope that you enjoy this First Edition for 2011 of EL PUENTE. In this newsletter we have included interesting articles and information related to the new AASHTO Highway Safety Manual, the implementation of Ciclo Vas in urban transportation networks, important safety tips for flaggers, and newly-available resources for rural and local highway officials to deal with safety issues. In addition, the newsletter includes recent news from our PR LTAP Center and in this issue we have included the profile of Dr. Sangchul Hwang, one of our most young and popular trainers. This year 2011 promises to be very interesting for our Center as we celebrate its first 25 years of service at the UPRM Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying, in conjunction with the UPRM Centennial Celebration. We invite you all to come with us and celebrate the Centers 25th Anniversary on March 31, 2011 at the CIAPR-Mayaguez. Our keynote speaker will be Dr. Felipe Luyanda, Former Co-Director of the Center.

Alberto M. Figueroa Medina, Ph.D., P.E.

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PR LTAP Center Staff

Benjamn Colucci Ros Director Alberto M. Figueroa Medina Deputy Director Gisela Gonzlez Program Administrator Grisel Villarubia Irmal Franco Administrative Coordinators Alberto Almodvar Mercado Freddie Salado Students Interns

EL PUENTE is published by the Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer Center located at the Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez.

EL PUENTE Newsletter VOL. 25, NO. 01, 2011

The opinions, findings, or recommendations expressed in this newsletter are those of the Center staff and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal Highway Administration, the Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Public Works, the Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority, or the U.S. Virgin Islands Department of Public Works.

University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying Call Box 9000, Mayagez, PR 00681 787.834.6385 PHONE 787.265.5695 FAX