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Introduction to Harmonics

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Harmonic Issues
• • • • • • • • •

What are Harmonics? Where do they come from? What are the effects of Harmonics? What are the current standards? How do you measure Harmonics? How do you know if there’s a harmonic problem? How can they be controlled or eliminated? Common myths and misconceptions References
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Definition of Harmonics
• • • • •

They are AC currents or voltages at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency The fundamental is the lowest frequency in the waveform, generally the repetition frequency They cannot transfer power on the average Harmonics are present in any non-sinusoidal waveform More rapid changes in the waveform require the presence of higher order harmonics

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5 3.5.5.11.7.7 3.7.11 3.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Square Wave Harmonic Content Fund 3 3.13 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .5.7.9.9.5.9 3.

ballasts. capacitors and inductors do not produce harmonics Since diodes and SCR’s are non-linear. transformers. rectifiers.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Sources of Harmonics • • • • They arise from non-linear loads in which current is not strictly proportional to voltage Linear loads like resistors. arc furnaces. those circuits generate harmonic currents Other equipment which causes harmonics: • UPS. and personal computers ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . welders.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives CSI Current Waveform ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives PWM Current Waveform ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Effects of Harmonics • • • • • • • Reduction of power system efficiency Increased heating of transformers (K-factor) Excitation of power system resonances Increased acoustical noise in motors RFI generation Interference with sensitive equipment There are no good effects! ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Examples of Sensitive Equipment • • • • • • • • Carrier synchronized clocks Audio/video recording equipment Generator regulators and synchronizers Telephone equipment Fluorescent lights AM radio receivers Medical equipment PLC’s ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonic Standards • • IEEE-519 1992 Definitions: • Voltage total harmonic distortion (VTHD) • Current total harmonic distortion (CTHD) • • • • • K-Factor Point of Common Coupling VTHD Limits.2 CTHD Limits. Table 10. Table 10.3 • Dilution by linear loads There are no Susceptibility Limits! ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives THD Definitions from IEEE-519 Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion VTHD Sum of squares of amplitudes of all voltage harmonics Amplitude of fundamental voltage Current Total Harmonic Distortion CTHD Sum of squares of amplitudes of all current harmonics Amplitude of fundamental Current ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

usually where harmonic currents flow into a bus which feeds other equipment. Its location must be specified! In the absence of a specified location.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Point of Common Coupling • • The point of common coupling is the location in the power distribution system where harmonic distortion is to be measured. the POCC for current harmonics is the plant-utility interface ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

U. Harmonic Current)*(Square of Harmonic Number) • K-Factor theoretically represents the increase in stray losses (conductor eddy currents) in a magnetic component • DIT’s need to have a K-Factor specification • CSI VFD’s typically have a K-Factor of 13 • PWM VFD’s typically have a K-Factor of 6 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Definition of K-Factor K Factor = S (Square of P.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives IEEE 519 Table 10.2 Low Voltage System Classification and Distortion Limits Special Applications Notch Depth VTHD Notch Area 10% 3% 16400 General Systems 20% 5% 22800 Dedicated Systems 50% 10% 36500 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

0 2.0 15.4 > 1000 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .0 5.0 1.0 1. 19) 23<=h<35 (23. 31) 35 <=h (35 up) TDD 5.0 20.0 7.5 0.5 4.0 10.7 1.0 12.5 2. 13) 17<=h<23 (17.0 6.0 8.3 0. 7) 11<=h 17 (11.0 3.0 0.5 2.0 12.0 1.0 15.5 4.6 1.5 0.3 Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems Isc/Il < 20 20<50 50<100 100<1000 < 11 (5.5 7.0 2.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives IEEE 519 Table 10.0 4.5 5.

use TURBOSIM to make a more precise calculation of VTHD There is no simple way of getting CTHD short of a specific calculation For complex multi-VFD cases. use VFDNET Watch out for underlying assumptions in the calculations! ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonic Analysis Tools and Techniques • For simple cases. use Short-Circuit Ratio and look up VTHD on a curve for that product • Short Circuit Ratio is the short circuit current at the POCC divided by the drive rated current • • • • For simple cases.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives CSI Voltage Distortion Chart ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives PWM Voltage Distortion Chart ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Current Distortion System Example ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

98 0.13 0.38 1.49 0.31 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .71 0.19 0.34 0.11 4.72 0 0.2 0.41 0.32 0.17 0 7 th 1 1 th 1 3 th 1 7 th 1 9 th 23rd 2 5 th 2 9 th 3 1 s t 3 5 th 3 7 th P e rfe c t Ha r m o n y 1 5 0.56 15.86 0.8 10.24 0.88 7.64 0.7 2 4 3.15 2.38 0 0 1.26 0.1 2.4 0.2 0 0.64 0 0 0 0 0.23 0.83 1.15 0.2 1 0.24 2.71 0.98 0.15 0 0.45 0 0 1.24 1.43 0 0 0.38 1.34 0.3 0.2 11.3 0.8 0 0 0.4 12.34 0.23 0.05 1.38 0 0 2.98 0 0 4.3 0.5 7.69 0 0 0.88 3.5% LR P W M 5% LR CS I 2.35 0.5% LR CS I 5% LR CS I 12-P u ls e P W M 12-P u ls e Cle a n p o we r P e rfe c t Ha rmony 9 2.03 0 0.2 10.68 1.29 3.55 2.11 3.3 4.35 1.69 1.16 0.41 0.38 1.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Example Calculation VTHD CTHD 5 th DRIVE TYPE P W M 2.15 0 0 0.34 0.53 0 0 0 0 0.76 0 0 0.26 0.23 0.3 3.08 0 0 0.04 0.8 4.19 0.59 1.74 2.39 2.6 0.45 14.99 1.39 1.78 1.86 0.36 2.41 0.

6 0 0 2.5 0.1 0.6 2.4 1 0 0 3.7 2.6 1 3.1 0.7 1.47 0.3 2.2 2.7 0 0 0 0 0.4 1.1 2.6 28.5 20.5% LR 6-P PWM 5% LR 6-P CSI 2.8 12.2 0 0.3 8.01 0 0.85 0.3 1.6 0 0 1 0 0 3.6 0.01 0 2.6 30.3 6.3 7.7 7.9 0.4 0 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25th 29th 31s t 35th 37th 21 12.9 1.3 1.6 1.3 6.1 8.9 0.8 8.2 3.53 0.1 0.8 3 1.7 2.3 4.93 0 0 0 0 0.46 0 0 Perfect Harmony 15 1.5 11.3 6.4 6.8 0 0 0.7 0 0 1 1.3 1 3.9 0.8 6.9 0.3 3.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Current Harmonics of Various Drives CTHD5th DRIV TYPE E 6-P PWM 2.8 32.6 0.4 0 0 1.4 0 0 0 0.8 27.8 0.8 13 8.5 3.8 4.1 0.75 1.9 1.9 3.5 1.4 3.7 0.6 1.5% LR 6-P CSI 5% LR CSI 12-Pulse PWM 12-Pulse Cleanpower Perfect Harmony 9 41 37.2 5.21 0.81 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

it can have a significant effect on the results Transformers are assumed to have 5.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonic Analysis Gotchas • • • • • Analysis assumes perfect phase and amplitude balance in the power source! Cable reactance is neglected unless specified -.this can be very severe on generator sources Power factor correction capacitors are presumed not to be present unless otherwise specified ROBICON The Sine of Quality © Robicon 1997 .75% impedance unless otherwise specified Pre-existing distortion is neglected -.

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Harmonic Mitigation Techniques
• • • •

Load segregation Input Line Reactance Harmonic Filters Higher Pulse Numbers
• Perfect Harmony • Lowest Harmonics are Pulse Number +/- 1

• •

Poor Man’s Twelve Pulse Input Switching Converter
• Cleanpower VFD

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Load Segregation

Load Segregation seeks to connect VFD’s and other harmonic producing loads to the power distribution system at the lowest impedance point rather than connecting to a higher impedance local bus. It is frequently accomplished by using a DIT to connect the drive directly to a medium voltage bus. It can also include using a UPS to isolate sensitive equipment.

• •

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Load Segregation

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FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Input Line Reactance • • • • • Input reactance reduces the level of VTHD It can be added with a DIT or line reactor It has only a small effect on CTHD It is mandatory on our PWM drives as it is a vital part of the device protection scheme If a DIT is used for this purpose it needs to have an appropriate K-Factor ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

expensive. or when multiple utility feeds are involved ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . wasteful of power and time-consuming to design They are especially hard to design when an emergency generator is the source.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonic Filters • • • • A filter consisting of L-C-R components can be designed to meet an harmonic requirement Filter are specific to the power system characteristics and must be re-designed for every application Filters are large.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonic Filter ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

It reduces the CTHD substantially Magnetic components are required to provide phaseshifted sources Additional input conversion devices (thyristors or diodes are required) This technique is not affected by power system impedance changes. The Perfect Harmony uses this technique ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Higher Pulse Numbers • • • • • • Using Higher Pulse Numbers is an effective way to reduce harmonics.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Perfect Harmony Circuit POWER CELL C1 POWER CELL C2 POWER CELL C3 POWER CELL B1 POWER CELL B2 POWER CELL B3 2300 VAC INDUCTION MOTOR POWER CELL A1 POWER CELL A2 POWER CELL A3 INPUT POWER ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Perfect Harmony Input ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

while the other half are connected through line reactors or delta-delta DIT’s The phase shifting effects of the transformers results in significant harmonic cancellation of the fifth and seventh harmonic on the primary side It is more effective for PWM drives than CSIs ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Poor Man’s Twelve-Pulse • • • • This technique is applicable only where there are a number of similarly sized VFD’s on a bus About Half of the VFD’s are connected through deltawye DITs.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Poor Man’s 12-Pulse ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Input Switching Converters • • • • By using transistor switches on the input. They may then be removed by a very small filter integral to the drive. This technique results in unity power factor and the ability to regenerate power back to the line. The Cleanpower drive utilizes this technique. the current harmonics can be shifted to much higher frequency-typically above 35th harmonic.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Clean Power Circuit ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Clean Power Input Waveform ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Clean Power Input Waveform EXT 2V 10mV 2ms SAVE ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Comparison of CTHD’s • • • • • • 6-Pulse PWM with 2.5% LR 6-Pulse CSI with 2.5% LR 12-Pulse CSI with %5 DIT 12 Pulse PWM with 5% LR Cleanpower VFD Perfect Harmony (5 cells/phase) 40% 30% 15% 9% <5% <2% ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonic Myths and Misconceptions • • • Diode Input circuits cause no harmonics DITs Prevent Harmonics from Flowing into the power system Higher Order Harmonics (>23) need not be considered ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

and Products to deal with any VFD harmonic issue. HRG has the Knowledge. ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . The competition must not be permitted to get away with avoiding or ignoring the harmonic issues on projects. We can exploit this advantage because many of our competitors are not so well equipped.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Conclusions • • • • Harmonic Control is a major issue with consultants and customers. Experience.

5 3.11 3.7.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Square Wave Harmonic Content Fund 3 3.7.13 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .5.11.7 3.9.7.5.5.5.9.9 3.

Both output voltage and frequency must be controlled together for motor load.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Practical Motor Drive Circuits • • • • • Almost all motor drive circuits consist of three parts: A input converter to change the AC to DC. A DC link to store and filter the DC. variable Voltage ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . fixed Frequency. variable Frequency. An output inverter to change the DC into AC. fixed Voltage DC-AC Conversion Motor AC Output. DC Link Capacitor or Inductor AC-DC Conversion AC Input.

• There are only two choices of topologies: • Current-Fed • Voltage-Fed circuits. the line-side converter circuit is determined. there is almost no influence from the inverter. ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . • Then.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Basic VFD Topologies • The line-side converter determines the input harmonic current and power factor. as it is isolated by the DC line.

The output voltage is a DC voltage equal to 3/π * Vllpk This is also used as the input power conversion for PWM AC drives. • • ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives The Basic AC-DC Rectifier • The bridge rectifier is the workhorse of power electronics. It is used in 1 phase and 3 phase versions most commonly.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Properties of the Bridge Rectifier • The positive bus is at the potential of the most positive line voltage. This circuit is used as the building block for multi-phase arrangements to reduce the current distortion. • • • • • • ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . This is arguably the most basic and inexpensive power conversion unit. (It’s like an auction--the highest potential line wins) The input current is quite distorted. This circuit cannot return energy to the line. The input displacement power factor is uniformly high. AC and DC side inductors are frequently used to reduce the input harmonic current. with large fifth and seventh current harmonics. there are few higher order harmonics. while the negative bus is at the potential of the most negative line voltage. But since the rate of change of current is low.

Self commutation: the switching device turns off by itself. There are various ways that this is accomplished.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Commutation • • Commutation is the process of transferring current from one switching element to another. • • • Line commutation: the AC line voltage causes the current to transfer Forced commutation: Another circuit element acts to transfer the current. Vba Va Vb Ls: Source inductance Load Ia Ib Line Commutation ROBICON © Robicon 1997 0 0 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives 3-Phase Rectifier Input Current Line-side Reactance Only ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives 6-Pulse Thyristor Converter Input Current Waveform ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

9 0.7 0 0 1 1.7 0 0 0 0 0.46 0 0 Perfect Harmony 15 1.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Current Harmonics of Various Drives CTHD 5th DRIV TYPE E 6-P PWM 2.4 0 0 1.4 0 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25th 29th 31s t 35th 37th 21 12.8 6.8 3 1.75 1.7 7.01 0 2.4 3.8 0.53 0.4 0 0 0 0.21 0.3 1.8 8.5 20.3 6.3 2.8 4.6 1.6 28.6 0.5% LR 6-P CSI 5% LR CSI 12-Pulse PWM 12-Pulse Cleanpower Perfect Harmony 9 41 37.1 0.93 0 0 0 0 0.3 6.3 8.6 0.6 0 0 2.5 0.2 3.47 0.7 2.4 1 0 0 3.5 1.3 4.7 0.6 30.1 0.6 0 0 1 0 0 3.1 0.3 7.9 1.8 0 0 0.7 1.1 0.5 3.85 0.8 32.4 6.9 0.9 3.8 27.7 2.3 1.81 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .9 1.1 2.2 0 0.5 11.6 2.8 13 8.01 0 0.6 1 3.5% LR 6-P PWM 5% LR 6-P CSI 2.9 0.3 3.2 5.3 1 3.3 6.8 12.4 1.6 1.1 8.9 0.2 2.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Input Switching Converter ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Input Switching Converters • By using transistor switches on the input. This is the same technique used on the output. • They may then be removed by a very small filter integral to the drive. • This technique results in unity power factor (or any power factor you want) and the ability to regenerate power back to the line. the current harmonics can be shifted to much higher frequency-typically above 35th harmonic. ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

5% line reactor 30% 12-Pulse CSI with %5 DIT 15% 12 Pulse PWM with 5% line reactor 9% Switching Converter <5% Perfect Harmony (5 cells/phase) <2% ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Comparison of Current Total Harmonic Distortion • • • • • • 6-Pulse PWM with 2.5% line reactor 40% 6-Pulse CSI with 2.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Twelve-Pulse Bridge Rectifier To Inverter 3-PHASE MV INPUT INPUT FILTER FOR HARMONIC CORRECTION 12recnv To Inverter 12 Pulse Rectifier ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonics of Rectifiers 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 7 11 1 3 17 1 9 23 25 29 31 35 37 P ercent Harm onic Current 6 -pu lse: A ll b a rs 12-pu lse : Black ba rs on ly ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

• • • ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . The output voltage is a function of the input and the phase delay of the turn on pulse to the SCR’s. we can control the DC voltage of the rectifier. It also is widely used as the input stage for variable frequency AC drives of the current-fed type. it is usable as a regulated DC supply like a DC motor drive.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives The Controlled Rectifier • By substituting thyristors for diodes. In this form.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives 12-Pulse Thyristor Converter To Inverter 3-PHASE MV INPUT INPUT FILTER FOR POWER FACTOR AND HARMONIC CORRECTION 12scrcnv To Inverter 12 Pulse Thyristor Converter ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives 12-Pulse Thyristor Converter Waveforms ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonics of Thyristor Converters 25 Percen t Ha rmonic Current 6-pulse: All bars 20 12-pulse : Bla c k bars only 15 10 5 0 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31 35 37 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

The inverter doesn’t care what the current is. In Europe. • • ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . the output of the inverter is a current. The inverter doesn’t care what the voltage is. the output of the inverter is a voltage. these are called voltage-impressed and current-impressed. In voltage-fed circuits.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Voltage-Fed and Current-Fed Topologies • Voltage-fed and current-fed refer to the two basic VFD strategies of applying power to the motor. The motor and its load determines the voltage. which is a clearer description. (within limits) In current-fed circuits. usually the DC link current. The motor and its load determines the current that flows. usually the DC link voltage.

On the other hand. inverter faults do not cause high currents. Since the current is regulated. This gives them consistently high P. • ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . very fast wavefronts have become a concern to motor designers and users. The reactive power demand of the motor is passed back to the line.F. The DC link electrolytic capacitors can be a reliability and lifetime issue. and are not reflected to the line. One cannot change the motor current instantaneously. and a fault in the inverter can lead to very high currents. and the DC link reactor provides immunity to faults and grounds. Link energy storage is relatively low. and minimum high-order harmonics. Energy stored in the link is very high compared to the CSI’s. so all the CSI circuits require a capacitive filter on the motor to absorb the high di/dt of the inverter. High order harmonics are present due to the high di/dt.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Comparison of Voltage-fed and Current-fed circuits • Today. The reactive power needs of the motor come from the capacitor. voltage-fed VFD’s use a rectifier bridge. Thus the power factor is the load power factor times the PU speed. The motor’s inherent inductance can be conveniently used to filter a PWM voltage wave. The preferred approach in current-fed inverters is to use a thyristor converter to control the current.

5% Efficiency Requires protection Higher-cost Components Small or no Magnetics Higher Motor Noise Critical Layout 40% Harmonic current High dV/dt at output ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .U. 96.Quadrant P.F. 96-97. = P. Speed*Load P.F.5% Efficiency Immune to short circuits Low-Cost Components Large Magnetics Lower motor noise Non-Critical layout 30% Harmonic Current Low dV/dt at output Voltage-fed Type Lower Cost at Low HP Two-Quadrant 95% displacement P.F.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives CF versus VF VFD’s Current-fed Type Lower Cost at High HP Four.

2 • CTHD Limits.3 • Dilution by linear loads • There are no Susceptibility Limits! ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . Table 10. Table 10.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonic Standards • IEEE-519 1992 • Definitions: • Voltage total harmonic distortion (VTHD) • Current total harmonic distortion (CTHD) • K-Factor • Point of Common Coupling • VTHD Limits.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives THD Definitions from IEEE-519 Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion VTHD Sum of squares of amplitudes of all voltage harmonics Amplitude of fundamental voltage Current Total Harmonic Distortion CTHD Sum of squares of amplitudes of all current harmonics Amplitude of fundamental Current ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

the POCC for current harmonics is the plant-utility interface ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . Its location must be specified! • In the absence of a specified location. usually where harmonic currents flow into a bus which feeds other equipment.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Point of Common Coupling • The point of common coupling is the location in the power distribution system where harmonic distortion is to be measured.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Current Distortion System Example ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

78 1.2 10.55 2.38 0 0 1.17 0 7 th 1 1 th 1 3 th 1 7 th 1 9 th 23rd 2 5 th 2 9 th 3 1 s t 3 5 th 3 7 th P e rfe c t Ha r m o n y 1 5 0.86 0.56 15.98 0.38 1.19 0.34 0.39 2.3 4.03 0 0.2 1 0.38 0 0 2.83 1.34 0.26 0.76 0 0 0.13 0.1 2.71 0.8 4.15 0 0.2 0 0.49 0.19 0.45 14.23 0.39 1.41 0.15 0.04 0.3 0.98 0 0 4.2 11.4 0.32 0.68 1.59 1.29 3.23 0.11 4.69 1.05 1.3 0.8 0 0 0.86 0.5% LR P W M 5% LR CS I 2.98 0.15 2.34 0.88 7.08 0 0 0.11 3.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Example Calculation VTHD CTHD 5 th DRIVE TYPE P W M 2.74 2.53 0 0 0 0 0.15 0 0 0.72 0 0.7 2 4 3.38 1.34 0.41 0.64 0 0 0 0 0.45 0 0 1.5 7.16 0.64 0.4 12.2 0.31 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .43 0 0 0.41 0.36 2.24 1.3 0.71 0.3 3.6 0.5% LR CS I 5% LR CS I 12-P u ls e P W M 12-P u ls e Cle a n p o we r P e rfe c t Ha rmony 9 2.8 10.38 1.99 1.24 0.24 2.69 0 0 0.26 0.23 0.88 3.35 0.35 1.

21 0.6 2.8 3 1.3 1 3.9 3.3 1.85 0.47 0.3 2.6 28.8 0.6 0 0 1 0 0 3.3 6.8 4.8 12.4 1 0 0 3.9 0.6 1.8 32.2 3.7 2.7 7.7 0.5 0.9 1.5 11.6 1 3.1 0.3 3.9 0.5 3.6 1.4 0 0 1.7 0 0 0 0 0.4 0 0 0 0.7 2.01 0 0.53 0.8 27.81 ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .4 1.46 0 0 Perfect Harmony 15 1.4 0 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25th 29th 31s t 35th 37th 21 12.5% LR 6-P CSI 5% LR CSI 12-Pulse PWM 12-Pulse Cleanpower Perfect Harmony 9 41 37.6 0.7 1.8 0 0 0.5 1.9 1.1 2.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Current Harmonics of Various Drives CTHD 5th DRIV TYPE E 6-P PWM 2.1 8.4 6.9 0.2 2.6 0 0 2.7 0 0 1 1.2 0 0.9 0.4 3.5% LR 6-P PWM 5% LR 6-P CSI 2.3 6.5 20.1 0.3 4.2 5.01 0 2.8 8.3 1.6 0.3 8.75 1.8 6.3 6.3 7.1 0.8 13 8.6 30.1 0.93 0 0 0 0 0.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonic Analysis Gotchas • Analysis assumes perfect phase and amplitude balance in the power source! • Cable reactance is neglected unless specified -.it can have a significant effect on the results • Transformers are assumed to have 5.this can be very severe on generator sources • Power factor correction capacitors are presumed not to be present unless otherwise specified ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .75% impedance unless otherwise specified • Pre-existing distortion is neglected -.

expensive. or when multiple utility feeds are involved ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . wasteful of power and time-consuming to design • They are especially hard to design when an emergency generator is the source.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonic Filters • A filter consisting of L-C-R components can be designed to meet an harmonic requirement • Filter are specific to the power system characteristics and must be re-designed for every application • Filters are large.

• The Perfect Harmony uses this technique ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . • It reduces the CTHD substantially • Magnetic components are required to provide phaseshifted sources • Additional input conversion devices (thyristors or diodes are required) • This technique is not affected by power system impedance changes.FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Higher Pulse Numbers • Using Higher Pulse Numbers is an effective way to reduce harmonics.

FORWARD BACK Power Quality Drives Harmonic Myths and Misconceptions • Diode Input circuits cause no harmonics • DIT’s Prevent Harmonics from Flowing into the power system • Higher Order Harmonics (>23) need not be considered ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality .

BACK Power Quality Drives Conclusions • • • • Occasionally. drive manufacturers have introduced new technology to overcome these problems. Beginning in 1992. there are a number of simple ways to minimize the effect of a non-linear load. unity power factor load to the line. severe enough to cause problems with other equipment. ROBICON © Robicon 1997 The Sine of Quality . VFD’s can have an adverse effect on power quality. But. Today. one can obtain even the largest VFD of a design (Perfect Harmony and 18-pulse Clean Power) which presents virtually a linear.