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# INTERNATIONAL BACALAUREATE MARA COLLEGE BANTING

EXTENDED ESSAY SUBJECT: PHYSICS HL

a) RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the magnitude of forces needed to separate two pieces of fabric which are sewn together along the width with hand stitches (Running stitch, backstitch, and ‘Lilit Ubi’?) when distance between two consecutive stitches,d/mm, is varied (2.0, 3.0, 4.0 ,5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0) mm ± 0.5 mm while the thickness of sewing thread, material of sewing thread, type of fabric used, and length of fabric are fixed ?

NAME: AMIR, NURUL HIDAYAH ADVISOR: MS. WAN SALEHATON CANDIDATE NUMBER: 000592-065 SESSION: MAY 2012 WORD COUNT: 3994

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1)INTRODUCTION Force is not something that can be seen directly. However, its effect or effects can be seen in our daily lives. Force can cause objects to change their direction, shape, and speed. In short there are four basic types of forces which are gravitational forces , electroweak force, and nuclear force.1 When I did an experiment on ‘strength of material’ during my physics lab session, I was exposed to many types of general force that can be applied to an object. Tension, compression, torsion, shears force, and others. The different forces are actually due to electromagnetic reaction between the particles in an object as a result of the electrical charge that they have.2 One day, my bag was torn apart due to the heavy load of the books it had to carry. I sew it and unfortunately, short after that, it ripped apart again. This incident has sparked an idea for me to do my EE. Did I not sew close enough? Did I not use the correct hand stitch? How would the decreasing stitches distance affect the strength of it? By obtaining empirical evidences of effect of variables on strength of stitches, it is hoped that the hand stitches can be further specified or customised according to need. Thus, the specified research questions have been developed to study the tensile strength of hand stitches. Tensile strength is defined as the ultimate strength of a material subjected to tensile loading. It is the maximum stress developed in a material in a tensile test.
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K.A. Tsokos (2010). Physics for the IB Diploma (5 th Edition) ,Edinburgh: Cambridge University Press. Kerr, Ruth (2008). Physics (3rd edition). Victoria : IBID Press. 3 INSTRON. (n.d) .Material Testing e-book. Retrieved 15th July 2011 from : http://www.instron.com/subscribe/Instron Material Test Guide.pdf

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a) What are the magnitude of force needed to separate two pieces of fabric which are sewn together along the width with hand stitches (Running stitch, backstitch, and ‘Lilit Ubi’?) when distance between two consecutive stitches,d/mm, is varied (2.0, 3.0, 4.0 ,5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0) mm ± 0.5 mm while the thickness of sewing thread, material of sewing thread, type of fabric used, and length of fabric are fixed ? For that purpose, an extensive research has been done mainly in Universiti Putra Malaysia’s mechanical engineering lab to obtain the data. The methods would be explained further in the body of the essay. For the intended investigation, the focus is mainly on the maximum tension that can be withstood by two pieces of fabric connected by hand stitches with the distance between two consecutive stitches (determined by the closest distance between one needle piercing hole and another). The investigation would also compare three types of handstitches which are running stitch, backstitch, and ‘Lilit Ubi’. The relationship between the force (tension) required to fail the stitches and the distance between two consecutive stitches will be generalised if any presents.

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2)PLANNING 2.1)Research Question What are the magnitude of force needed to separate two pieces of fabric which are sewn together along the width with running stitches (backstitch, and ‘Lilit Ubi’?) when distance between two consecutive stitches,d/mm, is varied (2.0, 3.0, 4.0 ,5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0) mm ± 0.5 mm while the thickness of sewing thread, material of sewing thread, type of fabric used, and length of fabric are fixed ? 2.2)Hypothesis All forces applied to the sample during testing were in the form of tension. There are three possible hypothesis for the experiment: 1) The further the distance between two consecutive stitches, the lower the tension needed to fail the seam. This is because as distance is increased, number of stitches per cm would decrease. Thus, higher tension would be subjected to individual stitches. 2) As the stitches are made closer, the fabric would be more ruptured or damaged due to needle punctures. Thus, the less tension will be needed to separate the two clothes sewn together. 3) When the three types of stitches are compared, the running stitch would need less tension to fail the seam. ‘Lilit Ubi’ would require higher tension, while clothes sewn with backstitch will require highest tension to separate the clothes together. The hypothesis is made based on the assumption that the stitch which uses more thread could bear more tension, and among the three type of stitches, backstitch

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0. 6. 3. Fixed Fabric used The fabric used is of the same type to ensure that the tensile strength. 10.0 . thickness.0. 4 .0.uses longest thread compared to the other two types when the seam is made over the same length.0) mm ± 0. 9. Type of hand stitches Three different hand stitches is compared (backstitch.d /mm Method of control Points having distances of (2.0.3)Variables Type Independent Variables The distance between two consecutive stitches .5 mm apart are measured along the margin as shown in figure using 300.0 mm plastic ruler as guide for piercing needle.5.0. 7. 2. ‘Lilit Ubi) Dependant tension needed to separate two pieces of fabric which are sewn together along the width The fabrics sewn together are pulled apart using Instron 3365 Dual Column Tabletop Universal Testing Systems and the tension is read by using Bluehill software in unit N. 4.0. running stitch.0. 8.

the thickness. 30 cm plastic ruler. sewing needle. cloth. Instron 3365 tensile tester unit. and thee materials are the same. needlepoint pen. Uncontrolled variables Temperature and pressure of atmosphere The experiment is done in a condition where the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere cannot be controlled. 5 . Sewing thread used The sewing thread used are from the same bundle to ensure that the tensile strength. 2.4)Apparatus and Materials: Sewing thread.Environmental conditions might not be the same. scissors.and material are same. Dimension of the cloth used in experiments The clothes are cut according to 50x80 mm including 10 mm margin for sewing.

1)Preparation of samples 1) Before the lab sessions are carried out.5)Methods: 2. The 50x50 mm area is for clamping . all the materials needed are prepared. The fabrics would be sewn as follow dimension: 50x80 mm with 10 mm margin at the end of the cloth included. and of fabrics which are sewn together along the side according to the required specifications.2.5. Sewing line Sewing line Clamping area 6 . Materials needed are inclusive of sewing threads of different brands. the 10 mm margin is for sewing.

The distances between two consecutive stitches for each type of stitches in different experiments are as required.M .). U.(n.tripod.5.d.1)RUNNING STITCH4 d 4 Hidup. with points for stitches (indicating distances between two consecutive stitches) are marked along the margin as shown in figure.Margins of 10 mm are marked at widths of both clothes. Two pieces of fabrics are superimposed on the margin for sewing line. Jahit Penyambung retrieved 23 July 2011.1. They are then sewn along the line for sewing as shown in figure below: 2.htm rd 7 .com/jahitsambung. from Dunia Jahitan Anda: http://ejahitanonline.

U. from Dunia Jahitan Anda: http://ejahitanonline.htm 6 rd Hidup.M .1.d.5.tripod.).5.M .htm rd 8 .).3)‘LILIT UBI’6 d 5 Hidup.2. U.2)BACKSTITCH5 d 2.(n.1. Jahit Penyambung retrieved 23 July 2011.tripod. Jahit Penyambung retrieved 23 July 2011. from Dunia Jahitan Anda: http://ejahitanonline.com/jahitsambung2.d.com/jahitsambung2.(n.

The data is then saved in the designated folder. The method of testing the tensile strength of fabric is called Grab test7 b) Determination of strength of fabric A cloth of specific fabric is chosen and cut into a strip of length 50 mm x 30 mm.0 mm with width of 30. which will provide the tension to the cloth and measure the tension. The tension required to do so is observed by using Bluehill software and recorded.com/2009/06/how-to-determine-seam-strength.blogspot. A margin of 50. 7 How To Determine Seam Strength (n. The cloth is pulled at a constant rate slowly until the cloth tears apart totally. The experiment is repeated 3 times to reduce random error that might occur due to lack of repetitions. One end is clipped at a stationary point and the other end is clipped at a dynamic point of the tensile tester.5.2)Lab Session: a) Preset of the instruments The tensile tester is connected to a computer dedicated to it where the software Bluehill is installed. Retrieved 30 of July 2011.html?dhiti=1.0 mm are added at both ends (that makes the total length to be 150. Before the experiments is started. the specifications are set as follow: Rate of extension applied: 2mm per minute Pre-force applied to sample before reading is taken: 5N Type of test: tensile 3 sets of data were stored in every graph. From My textile Notes: http://mytextilenotes.d). th 9 .2.0 mm).0x30.

0 mm with backstitch (as shown in figure) is clamped to the tensile tester. One to static point and the other to the pulling point. The reading taken by using Bluehill software is then recorded. 1) Lilit Ubi The sample diagram on the structure of Lilit Ubi is as shown in the diagram above.c) Determination of strength of thread A string of thread about 200. Results were tabulated. The tension is applied at a constant rate by the tensile tester until the string snaps. 10 . 8 mm . Results were tabulated. The clothes are pulled apart by supplying tension at a constant rate that has been set earlier using Instron universal tensile tester until the stitches snap and the clothes are separated. d) Determination of relationship between distances between two consecutive stitches with tension needed to separate two clothes which are sewn together.0 mm. 6 mm. The steps are repeated by increasing the distances between two consecutive stitches to 3 mm. 7 mm. Two marks are made to indicate a 50. 9 mm.0 mm is cut. The string is clamped to the tensile tester machine with the marks at the edge of the clamp. The steps were repeated to obtain 3 sets of data for d=2. The experiment procedures for samples sewn with backstitch were exactly the same as that of Lilit Ubi. 2) Backstitch A sample which has been sewn with d = 2. 5 mm. The clamps positions were adjusted a bit to straightened the sample by using the ‘up’ and ‘down’ button on the machine before the experiment is started. and 10 mm.0 mm gap. The force required to do so is read by using Bluehill software and recorded. The cloth sewn with ‘Lilit Ubi’ using sewing thread with margins of 10 mm and distance between two consecutive stitches of 2 mm are clamped to the tensile tester. 4 mm.

0 mm with running stitch (as shown in figure) is clamped to the tensile tester. A sample which has been sewn with d = 2.3) Running stitch. Results were tabulated. The experiment procedures for samples sewn with backstitch were exactly the same as that of Lilit Ubi. 11 .

3)DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS The raw data for the experiment is attached together in the appendices part.0 mm The maximum tension held is Load at Maximum Tensile Stress (N) 12 . For ease of reading. The following is the summary of the data and summary of processed data. Example is as follow: Picture: graph obtained for tensile testing of Running stitch for d= 3. the maximum tension held by sample is labelled as follows: Type of stitches Average maximum tension held by sample RUNNING STITCH BACKSTITCH ‘LILIT UBI’ P Q R Maximum tension held per mm of sample P Q R The maximum tension is identified as the peak of the graph obtained during the tensile testing.

0 8.1698 15. average maximum tension held by running stitch seam.3545 23.4727 45.4139 30.0 6.6388 R/N (±0.0 9.1273 29.3454 37.8875 57. P/N (±0.5 mm) 2.9881 96. ‘Lilit held by stitches.0 stitch backstitch Ubi’seam. average maximum tension held by backstitch seam.2854 124.8382 51.1. P/N (±0.5%).0 3.1643 66. seam. and average maximum tension held by ‘Lilit Ubi’seam.9544 53.4266 29.0 7. Q/N (±0.d/mm (±0.8000 75.3.1)Table of Average Maximum Tension 3.5%) Q/N (±0.5100 Table 1 : Distance between two consecutive stitches.0 10.7828 35.2410 43. R/N (±0.5 mm).5121 48.4757 22.9769 16.5%).9358 114.0 5.8654 36.5%) 13 .1455 43.5%) 133.2310 21.5%) 107.1)Held by Samples Sewn with Different Type of Handstitch Distance between Average maximum Average two consecutive tension running held by tension maximum Average maximum held by tension seam.d/mm (±0.8292 136.0 4.2209 127.

8670 Table 2: tension required to snap fabric.5%) 1 2 3 mean 287.1) Strength of string used Trial Tension required to snap thred.5%) sample in 3 trials and mean tension needed 3.9295 265. F/N (±0.5%) 1 2 3 Mean 8.4941 5.3992 268.8228 7.2777 Table 3: Tension required.5%) to snap thread in tree trials and mean.3.1. The data from table 1 is graphed as follow: 14 . F/N (±0. F/N (±0.2)Strength of fabric used as sample Trial Tension required to snap fabric.2723 241.F/N (±0.1.5163 7.

0000 20.0000 60. d/mm *Uncertainty: X-axis:± 0.0 8.0 10.0000 held by sample .0 4.0000 120.0000 100.0000 0.0000 0.P/N) Average tension held by sample .d/mm 140.0000 40.5%) 15 .0 2.1) RUNNING STITCH Average tension 160.0 12.5 mm Y-axis: too small to be seen (0.0000 80.0 6.0 Separation between two cosecutive stitches.P/N vs Separation between two consecutive stitches.

0000 100. Q/ N 180.5%) 16 .0000 40.0 8.0000 20.0 2.0 6.0000 120.0 10.2) BACKSTITCH The Maximum tension held by sample.0000 140. d/mm The Maximum tension held by sample.0000 80.0 12. Q/ N vs distance between two consecutive stitches.0000 160.0 Distance between two consecutive stitches. d/mm *Uncertainty: X-axis:± 0.0000 60.0000 0.0000 0.5 mm Y-axis: too small to be seen (0.0 4.

0000 20.5%) 17 .0 Distance between two consecutive stitches.0000 80.0000 60.0000 120. d/mm *Uncertainty: X-axis:± 0.0000 40.0000 140. R/ N 180.0000 100.0000 160.0 6.3) ‘LILIT UBI’ The Maximum tension held by sample.0000 0.0 2.0000 0.0 10.0 8.0 12.5 mm Y-axis: too small to be seen (0.0 4. d/mm The Maximum tension held by sample. R/ N vs distance between two consecutive stitches.

p / (N m-1 ) and absolute uncertainty of N.1931 5.3454 37.7488 between Maximum tension Tension held by sample absolute uncertainty consecutive held by sample . P /N (±0. Maximum tension held by sample .I unit The data is then converted to S.1)RUNNING STITCH Distance two stitches.0005 m).1493 19.2)Conversion to S.5843 32.5%) m-1 ) Table 4: Distance between two consecutive stitches. d/m (±0.8509 4. 3.010 107.3079 723. p / (N of N.003 0.009 0.9723 13.0005 m) 0.2. p/ (N m-1 ) d/m (±0.5384 337.9081 747.3.007 0.2063 6. 18 .8292 2144. P /N per m of cloth.4176 2543.9036 11.2410 43. Tension held by sample per m of cloth.004 0.0895 464. All the absolute uncertainties are also calculated . p.8654 36. (±0.005 0.5%).0596 10.008 0.9769 16.1698 15.2855 1326.1663 38.3960 316.006 0.3545 23.1643 66.2209 127.002 0.8202 879.I unit (in m) from mm.

d/m Uncertainties: X-axis : ±0.0000 2000.0000 0.0000 1000.010 0.0000 1500.012 distance between two consecutive stitches.000 0.008 0. p / (N m-1 ) vs Distance between two consecutive stitches.002 0.5%) 19 .The data above can be graphically represented as follow: Tension held by sample per m of cloth.0000 Tension held by sample per m of cloth. d/m 2500.006 0.0000 500.004 0.0005 mm Y-axis: some are too small to be seen (±1. p / (N m-1 ) 3000.0000 0.

9103 862.0807 34.5%).6198 429.0875 1062. d/m (±0.9544 53.4400 22.9437 12. q. q /(N m-1 ) 20 .7765 41.9358 114.1455 43.7693 6.007 0.003 0.4427 6.8000 75.0005 1519. Q/ N 136. Q/N (±0.004 0.0005 m).4757 22.3. q/(Nm-1) of of q.005 0. / (N m-1 ) stitches. Maximum tension held by sample .4266 29.m m 0.2.9382 8.008 0. Tension held by sample per m of cloth.009 0.010 /0.1273 29.2310 21.0005 sample.5463 588.6388 2738.7863 15.002 0.2)BACKSTITCH Distance two between Average maximum Tension held held by absolute uncertainty consecutive tension by sample per m cloth .7916 Table 5: Distance between two consecutive stitches.8280 8.7155 2296.5133 452.006 0.5321 584. q / (N m -1 ) and absolute uncertainty of N.

q/ N m vs distance between two consecutive stitches.012 Distance between two consecutive stitches.008 0.0000 The Maximum tension held by sample per mm.0000 1000.0000 2500.010 0.004 0.0000 500.0005 m Y-axis: too small to be seen (± 1.5%) 21 .006 0.0000 0.The Maximum tension held by sample per m.002 0. d/m 3000. q/ N 3500.0000 2000.0000 1500. d/m Uncertainties: X-axis : ±0.0000 0.000 0.

6242 9.1530 Table 6: Distance between two consecutive stitches. r / (N m-1 ) stitches.5121 48.4727 45.7828 35.007 0. r / (N m -1 ) and absolute uncertainty of r. R /N (±0.4536 14.5100 2665.2783 610.4545 916.006 0. d/m (±0.3.6349 10.010 133.4139 30.8875 57. Maximum tension held by sample .0663 17. r /(N m-1 ) 22 . r/ (N m-1 ) d/m (±0.3)‘LILIT UBI’ Distance between Maximum two tension Tension held by absolute uncertainty consecutive held by sample .4964 29. R /N sample per mm of of r .5%).7625 1937.7505 1149.008 0.7647 1030.7515 15.8382 51.0005 m) 0.9881 96.2412 975.002 0.005 0.6568 708.9856 37. Tension held by sample per mm of cloth.2.004 0.009 0.5%) cloth.5 m).003 0.2854 124. (±0.7077 2499.1999 39.2418 13.

012 Distance between two consecutive stitches.0000 2000.0000 1500. / N m vs distance between two consecutive stitches.0000 The Maximum tension held by sample per m. d/m Uncertainties: X-axis : ±0.5%) 23 .004 0.000 0. r/ N 3500.002 0.010 0.0000 0.0000 1000.0000 2500.The Maximum tension held by sample per m.5 mm Y-axis: some are too small to be seen (±1.008 0. d/m 3000.0000 500.0000 0.006 0.

kq.6980 N ± 11. The average values of d. d. Absolute uncertainties of k. as well as their percentage uncertainties. Values of k/N . d q.4491 6.3)Finding Mathematical Relationship The values of y and x axes are then multiplied in order to determine a constant value. The following is a summary which consists of average value of d p.6980 5.Fp sewn using running stitch is then modelled using the equation : Fp = kp 1/d l Where kp = constant for running stitch = 4. Type of handstitches Values of k /N Absolute uncertainties of k /N Running Stitch Backstitch Lilit Ubi 4. This constant is then used to derive a formula to model the strength of cloth sewn with the running stitch.1701 k /N. and d r can be found in the appendices . Percentage uncertainties of k The theoretical maximum magnitude of tension bearable by cloth. The full listing of values of d p. and d. 24 .5914 0.3358 0.q.5531 4. backstitch .p. and d r. N.5379 0. which is derived from the average product of distance between two consecutive stitches. and Percentage k. and Lilit Ubi.1246 6. d q. and kr repectively. p or q or r.d and Tension held by sample per m of cloth .2749 11. uncertainties of k Table 7: Type of handstitches.3.4491% d = distance between two consecutive stitches in m l = length of cloth sewn Unit: Newton.r are now known as kp.

p . the l is set to be 1 m so that the values can be compared with the value derived from experimental data . The average percentage difference is an overview of how accurate is the estimation model. The theoretical maximum magnitude of tension bearable per metre for each hand stitch are then compared to respective value of maximum tension held by sample per m of cloth obtained from the experimental data.As for the following tables. 25 . The differences between the two values are found and percentage difference is obtained.

7101 62.4052 12. p / (N tension bearable per m.0041 469.8202 879.3.005 0.3079 723. Fp / N.0005 m) . Fp / N (±0.2784 8.7794 103.7649 77.006 0.0062 671.5371 154.003 0.007 0.1955 440. d/ m (±0.9386 88.1)RUNNING STITCH Distance Maximum Theoretical Uncertainties of Percentage between two tension held by maximum consecutive stitches.2546 522.9081 747.2855 1326.9661 Uncertainty of percentage difference Table 8: Distance between two consecutive stitches.010 2144.0005 m-1 ) 0.3.002 0.4892 40. Percentage difference between theoretical and experimental data (Fp-p| / p) · 100) / %) 26 .5384 337.9755 20. m m) sample per m magnitude theoretical values difference of ( Fp) between experimental and theoretical data (|Fp-p| / p) · 100) / % d/ of cloth.5843 2349.008 0.6365 31.5805 32.0185 1566.6135 32.0895 464.5619 38.5092 939.8975 124.009 0.4176 2543.8037 mean 856. Uncertainties of theoretical values ( Fp) .004 0.2247 5.0498 42.6074 783.3960 316.2959 281. Theoretical maximum magnitude of tension bearable per m.2841 201.1481 587.0123 1174.

004 0.0000 0.0000 F/(N(N) Fp/ m) p/N m -1 p/ (N m ) 1000.0000 Maximum tension held by sample per m of cloth.0005 m y-axis: Fp :refer table 8 p : ±1. F/N and consecutive stitches.008 0. d/ m (±0.Theoretical Graph of Theoretical maximum magnitude of tension maximum magnitude of bearable per m. p / (N m-1 ) vs Distance between two per m. p / (N m1) 3000.0000 500. F/N and Maximum tension held by sample tension bearable per m of cloth.0000 2500.002 0.0000 1500.000 0. d / m (±0.5% 27 .012 Distance between two consecutive stitches.0000 0.0005 m) 3500.0000 2000.006 0.0005 m) Uncertainties: x-axis: ±0.010 0.

2052 6.007 0.7060 0.4890 396.003 0. Fq / N.0005 m) ) per m.5321 584.3466 3. Uncertainties of theoretical values ( Fq) .7357 24.9469 59. ((|Fq-q| /q) · 100) / % 28 .5789 569.6198 429.0005 m) .5715 3.7765 2562.6567 127.8844 34. q / (N m-1 tension bearable values.1578 1024.5463 588.0998 169.1455 100.3.1052 732. Percentage difference between theoretical and experimental data.0137 68.9262 854.009 0.6470 14.3.9103 862.5133 452.004 0.008 0.0875 1062.010 2738. Maximum tension held by sample per m of cloth.6093 8.5679 11.6418 244. d/ m cloth. d/ m (±0. Theoretical maximum magnitude of tension bearable per m.006 0.9883 19.0902 640.2)BACKSTITCH Distance between Maximum Theoretical Absolute uncertainties of theoretical Fq / N Percentage of difference between theoretical and two tension held by maximum sample per m of magnitude consecutive stitches.0005 1519.4097 18.7155 2296.002 0.7135 Uncertainty of percentage difference Table 9: Distance between two consecutive stitches.2665 82. Fq / N experimental data ((|Fq-q| /q) · 100) / % 0.005 0.3155 1708. q / (N m-1 ).2104 1281.4035 512. (±0.4631 mean 808.

006 0. F/N and Maximum tension held by sample per 4000 m of cloth. F/N and Maximum tension held by sample per m of cloth.004 0. q / (N m-1) vs Distance between two consecutive stitches.002 0.0005 m) 3500 3000 2500 2000 Fq/ (N) F/(Nm) q/ (N m q/(N/m)-1) 1500 1000 500 0 0.5% 29 .012 Distance between two consecutive stitches.Theoretical maximum magnitude of tension bearable per m. d/ m (±0.0005 m) y-axis : Fq : refer to table 9 q: ± 1. d/ m (±0.0005 m) Uncertainties : x-axis : (±0.008 0.000 0. q / (N m-1) Graph of Theoretical maximum magnitude of tension bearable per m.010 0.

3597 106.008 0.3.6568 708.8545 71.289 1098.3662 457.3.2783 610. d/ m (N m-1 ) (±0.7077 2499.4098 18.010 2665.005 0. and percentage difference between theoretical and experimental data (|Fr-r|/r · 100) / % 30 .7505 1149. Fr/N 0.4443 19. maximum tension held by sample per m of cloth.5269 85.2912 7.0005 m).4545 916.6351 823.149 1647.8071 16. d/ m (±0.2412 975.574 941.7647 1030.1999 3295.4149 3. absolute uncertainties of theoretical values ( Fr) /N.006 0.8151 274.002 0.0005 m) bearable values ( Fr) /N experimental data ((|Fq-r| /r) · 100) / % per m.7004 186. Fr/N.007 0.7583 Uncertainty of percentage difference Table 10: Distance between two consecutive stitches.3)‘LILIT UBI’ Distance between Maximum tension Theoretical two held by sample maximum per m of cloth.3829 659.8031 137. theoretical maximum magnitude of tension bearable per m.723 2197.003 0.2292 60.4255 13.5918 12.009 0.5496 9.861 1318.1161 13.1446 Mean 961.004 0.1532 1.7730 17.9307 732.7625 1937. r / (N m-1 ). r / magnitude tension Absolute uncertainties of theoretical Percentage of difference between theoretical and consecutive stitches.

0005 m) 3500 3000 2500 2000 F/F(Nm) r/ (N) r/(N(N m-1) m) r/ 1500 1000 500 0 0. F r/N and Maximum tension held by sample per 4500 m of cloth. d/ m (±0.Theoretical maximum magnitude of tension bearable per m. r / (N m-1 ) vs Distance between two consecutive stitches.5% 31 .006 0.008 0.012 Distance between two consecutive stitches.0005 m) Uncertainties: x-axis : (±0.004 0.0005 m) y-axis : Fr : refer table 10 r : ±1.002 0. F r/N and Maximum tension held by sample per m of cloth.010 0. d/ m (±0. r / (N m1) 4000 Graph of Theoretical maximum magnitude of tension bearable per m.000 0.

7583 Table 11: Type of hand stitch.3466 13.9661 3.2247 14.7135 1.4)Summation of Analysis of Theoretical Model.3. Average percentage difference between theoretical and experimental value and uncertainties of the percentage difference. Type of hand stitch Average between percentage difference Uncertainties of the percentage and difference N% theoretical experimental value . N% Running Stitch (P) Backstitch (Q) Lilit Ubi (R) 32.1532 5. 32 .

3.5.2209 N 3.3)Calculation of tension held per m of sample Tension held per metre of sample = = =2144.2)Calculation of the average maximum tension held by sample Average tension : = = 107.5.4)Absolute uncertainty of tension held per m of sample where p=tension held per metre length of sample in N l= length of sample in mm 33 .5)DATA CALCULATIONS 3.4176 N m-1 3.002 m 3.1)Conversion of unit from mm to m 1mm=1 x 103m  2.5.0 mm = 2.5.0 x 103m =0.

6299-2.4176) = 4.4176) =32. backstitch.p max-d.5.5.002)( 2144.2888 N Step 2: Summing up all products for the stitch and dividing it with n which is 9 Eg: RUNNING STITCH k= k= 4.5379 N 34 . and ‘Lilit Ubi’ stitch Step 1: multiplying the y-values (p/q/r) –> tension held by sample per metre with the x-values (d) –> distance of separation between two consecutive stitches in m Eg: (d·p) = (0.6985)/9 =0.6)Uncertainty for k k=(d.5)Values of k for Running stitch.( ) )( 2144.6980 N 3.pmin) /n = (7.1663 Nm-1 3.

0185N 3.10) Mean percentage difference theoretical estimation and experimental data 35 .9)Percentage difference between theoretical estimation and experimental data.7101% 3.3.F F = (k) (1/d) (l) Where k=constant obtained for the stitch used in N d= distance of separation between two consecutive stitches in m l = eg: F= (0.4176|) · 100 =8.7)Estimated theoretical magnitude of maximum tension which can be held by sample .5379 ) (1/0.0185) ±856.002) (1) F = 2349.5.8)Uncertainties of estimated theoretical magnitude of maximum tension which can be held by sample.5.1955 N 3.5. Percentage difference : (|Fp-p| · 100) Where Fp= theoretical magnitude of maximum tension which can be held by sample in N p=experimental value of maximum tension that can be held by sample (|Fp-p| · 100) = (|2349.0185-2144.5.F length of sample sewn in m  Eg:  ( ) 2349.

11)Uncertainty of percentage difference theoretical estimation and experimental data Eg: for running stitch (refer table 4) (%)=(%max-%min) / n =(62.4052-5. 36 .5.2247 % 3.Eg: mean percentage difference for p Mean percentage difference = = = 32.9661 %.9661)/9 = ±5.

This significance of this value is demonstrated in the mathematical model to find estimated maximum magnitude of tension a sample can stand when it is sewn with the hand stitch. However. the construction of the seam covers wider area of the cloth. Initial hypothesis suggested that backstitch will have the higher tension requirement to separate the two cloth joined together by the seam.5914±0. As the length of thread increases. the experiment has shown that length of thread is not the only factor affecting seam strength. Thus. the amount of tension capable of being withstood by the seam would increase. a similar pattern can be observed. For all the three stitches. it is found that k value for Lilit Ubi is the highest which is (6. the number of stitches per 37 . Regarding the Lilit Ubi. while the highest is ‘Lilit Ubi’. This is because backstitch requires more thread (needs longer thread) compared to the other two. it can withstand greater tension. the distribution of tension is done over a wider area. When the constant k is compared with all the three k.3358)N and lastly running stitch (4. The maximum tension held by the sample is inversely proportional to the distance between two consecutive stitches. When the distance between two consecutive stitches is increased. generally the tension needed to fail the seam in clothes sewn with running stitch is the lowest.1246±0.4)CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION 4.1)Conclusion From the experiment.6980±0. The mathematical model F = (k)·(1/d)·(length of cloth sewn in m) gives higher value when k is increased. followed by backstitch with k value of (5.2749)N. F also turns out higher if d or distance between two consecutive sewing decreases. Backstitch and running stitch covers the cloth only in a straight line so the tension supplied by the tensile tester cannot be distributed widely. That is why eventhough ‘Lilit Ubi uses less thread compared to backstitch.5379) N.

If the fabric used are weak (for example rayon and silk). Besides that. the fabric would be more ruptured or damaged due to needle punctures.The theory about closeness of stitches could lead to fabric damage cannot be tested in this experiment. 38 . Increasing the number of thread would increase the strength of the seam.2)Limitations of the Mathematical Model in estimating the Strength of seam The development of the mathematical model used to predict the estimated (theoretical) magnitude of maximum tension (F = (k)·(1/d)·(length of cloth sewn in m)) can be used only if a certain condition is followed: 1) The force required to rupture the fabric must be more than the force required to snap the stitches. The tension applied would be distributed in the individual stitches connecting the clothes. 4. If there is less stitches. This will increase the strength of the hand stitch. The damage is unlikely to happen.unit length decreases. Thus. more thread is used. The variable distance between two consecutive stitches is not small enough to cause damage due to excessive needle piercing. 2) The number of thread used must be single This is because the model was developed using samples which are used using single thread. the force required to separate the two fabric joined by stitches would be less as the fabric is more likely to rupture first before the thread. the less tension will be needed to separate the two clothes sewn together . the higher the number of stitches per unit length. the fabric chosen to do the experiment is thick and strong. then the tension per stitch would be higher. One of the hypotheses made for the experiment was as the stitches are made closer. Then it would be easier for the seam to fail. Besides that.

4.if there’s any. The random error and the inconsistencies in the data collection might be contributed by the following factors: i) The sewing is done by hands. Thus. micrometer screw gauge is unsuitable as it is used to measure thickness of something. and ‘Lilit Ubi. For this experiment. not the distance or separation between two points on a 2-D plane.aspx? 39 . type of thread used can also influence the strength of stitches as different types of thread have different tensile strength values. the force applied to the needle and thread while sewing is unknown.3)Errors and Limitations Analysis The instrument and software used in conducting the experiments are reliable and highly accurate. Beside number of thread. the scale smaller than millimetre is micrometre which could only be measured using micrometer screw gauge. The model also assumes that all the tension applied goes to the seam only and did not significantly contributed to the elongation of the fabric . This is because the smallest scale for the plastic ruler is 1.However. 3360 series dual column tabletop th universal testing systems. the experiment did not include number of threads as a variable so the mathematical relationship between number of threads and strength of seam could not be estimated. Retrieved 28 of July 2011. 3360 Series Dual Column Tabletop Universal Testing Systems .5mm). This is because the sensitivity of them are very high with errors of only 0. 8 INSTRON. http://www.5%8 The systematic error in the experiment would also contributed by the use of plastic ruler to measure distance between two consecutive stitches.instron.0 mm and it has an error of (±0. 3) The type of thread used.us/wa/product/3300-Dual-ColumnTesting-Systems. However. Currently there is no machine capable of sewing backstitch. running stitch.

The penetration of needle could be inaccurate to the marks on both clothes because the clothes were not in fixed positions. it is not known whether the seam failure was really due to seam failure. iii) The process of sewing the clothes is done by superimposing two clothes and sewing along the marked line. A better quality thread which has a more uniform thickness should have been used so that the force distribution within the thread will be more even. I should have observed the samples more closely the variables may change as the stated possible conditions happen. iv) The rupture happened after the experiments were not observed closely enough. or thread slipping through the holes. Anyone it might be. Previously the clothes was fixed using paperclip before sewing it. This would reduce the probability of having weak points. the threads used were from the same batch. the distance of separation between two consecutive stitches. 40 . the samples should have been fixed to a fixed clamp which will ensure that the samples are properly stretch and not moving much when it is being sewn. This is to reduce the random error. In future . This may lead to uneven distribution of tension in the seam. This technique can improve accuracy of needle penetrations and thus.ii) The inconsistencies of the thickness of the thread could lead to uneven tension distribution when the samples are being tested for tensile strength. fabric tear. Thus. However. for each test carried out. The thinner part of the thread would be weaker and the tendency to break at the point is higher.

Future research may be made to investigate the mathematical relationship between tensile strength of sewing thread and the strength of seam. I focused only on the effect of distance between two consecutive stitches on strength of seam in three types of hand stitches. 41 .4)Suggestion for Future researches In this experiment. I have not investigated the factor of the tensile strengths of thread and fabric on the maximum tension that can be held by two clothes sewn together.4. However.

0811 92.5 mm) Trial 2 trial 2 Trial 3 Average tension held by stitch.5 mm).5585 129.9180 69.5%) Distance between two consecutive stitches.0 3.8293 30.2979 14.1) RUNNING STITCH Tensile strength tests for running stitch Maximum tension held by sample /N (±0.1643 66.7822 54.5%) 2.7545 131.9769 16.3496 120.0 4.8292 Table 1.1698 15.3454 37.2037 59.1 : Distance between two consecutive stitches. Maximum tension held by stitch /N (±0.1.2410 43.2209 127.8654 36.0 8.0 83.5758 24.7444 36.7827 19.3712 69.5308 39.1) Raw Experimental Data 5.4775 16.5) APPENDICES 5. P/N (±0.0802 145.3264 107.4124 37.0853 13.1553 19.1488 25.7080 10.5%) and average tension held by stitch.5692 39.0187 18.4394 34.0 10. P/N (±0.3716 38.9297 48.0 6.0 7. d/mm (±0.5%) 42 .3545 23.d/mm (±0.0 5.0 9.

4880 21.1273 29.4266 29.4891 66.3108 39.4071 19.0477 132.5%) 43 .2) BACKSTITCH Maximum tension held by sample.6860 29.8000 75.6388 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average maximum tension held by seam.9354 52.1. N / (±0.8127 30.0 10.5.1429 42.0 8.1572 50.9358 114. Q/N (±0.0483 32. d/ mm (±0.5mm).8425 23.9608 31.2310 21. d/ mm (±0.0591 80.1563 17.5%) Table 1.7351 27.1455 43. Q/N (±0.0 109.4522 48. N / (±0.9716 15.4757 22.5mm) 2.0 3.9700 136.1365 35. Maximum tension held by sample.4756 59.5%) and Average maximum tension held by seam.3625 19.0 4.0 7.2: Distance between two consecutive points .5%) Distance between two consecutive points .0934 138.9544 53.0 6.3797 117.0 9.8531 163.8519 80.3799 94.0 5.

3597 45.9121 101.0 6.9274 35.3) ‘LILIT UBI’ Maximum tension held by sample. N / (±0. Maximum tension held by sample.5049 44.5%) Distance between two consecutive points .5mm) 2.8493 59.0 3.7918 32. d/ mm (±0.5mm).5%) 44 .6240 29.7781 54.9056 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average maximum tension held by seam.8382 51.8428 20.4727 45.5. R/N (±0.4139 30.2854 124. R/N (±0.6846 69.5%) 133.3036 24.7949 132.8875 57.6183 56.7828 35.0 10.8798 55.9346 109.5121 48.2377 161.5100 Table 3: Distance between two consecutive points .3867 107.9494 85.5%) and Average maximum tension held by seam.0 5.1.0 130.0 4.1249 39.9144 52.1029 103.1820 42.1267 132.4330 75.9881 96. N / (±0.6071 38.0 8. d/ mm (±0.2962 30.0 7.0 9.

4491 4.2.7889 6.6985 6.4296 0.7431 0. (d.7354 2.3960 316.007 0.5106 3.2058 0.5.2855 1326.4176 2543.5321 0.2091 0. 5.p) / N.p .6980 1.004 0.0005 m).d/ m ( ±0.1) RUNNING STITCH Distance between two consecutive stitches.006 0.003 0.3076 3. kp / N % uncertainty of d.5843 Average of d.3079 723.010 2144.0895 464.1568 2. 11.p Table 4: Distance between two consecutive stitches.8202 879.1658 4. p / (N m-1 ) Values of d p / (N) Uncertainties of d p (d.2) The Products of Distance Between Two Consecutive Stitches and Tension Held by Sample Per Metre of Cloth.3861 0.005 0. p / (N m-1 ).0005 m) 0.d/ m ( ±0.1365 1.009 0. Values of d p / (N) and Uncertainties of d p.2742 0.2888 7.5384 337.008 0.p) / N 45 .5379 Tension held by sample per m of cloth.002 0.4594 0.9081 747. Tension held by sample per m of cloth.6299 5.

010 2738.9103 862. q) /N Table 5: Distance between two consecutive stitches.5531 1.0764 5.006 0.0005 m). 46 .009 0.q .003 0. q / (N m-1 ).5321 584.3561 0.5.0005 1519. Tension held by sample per m of cloth. Values of d q / (N) and Uncertainties of d q .1197 4.4515 1.2.2943 0.5278 5.q / (N) Uncertainties of d q (d .q 5.d/ m ( ±0.8507 0.4774 6.7155 2296.m /0. kq / N % uncertainties of d.8656 4.5133 452.0005 m 0.5089 0.5463 588.0875 1062.3146 5.6770 3.q) / N.007 0.004 0.3625 0.2727 0.6198 429.1753 4.008 0. (d.3358 Tension held by sample per m of cloth.2) BACKSTITCH Distance between two consecutive stitches.1246 6.7765 Average of d.002 0.005 0.6112 0. q / (N m-1 ) Values of d .8880 6.2513 0.

6609 0.2783 610. uncertainties of d.4993 7.5.3) ‘LILIT UBI’ Distance between two consecutive stitches.3966 0.1020 6.8053 6.d/ m (±0.5409 0.7510 5.2749 Table 6: Distance between two consecutive stitches.r (d.2.6568 708.6049 0.003 0.2412 975.r) /N 47 . r / (N m-1 ).5006 7.7625 1937. tension held by sample per m of cloth.009 0.4545 916.3314 7.002 0.r / (N) Uncertainties of dr (d.d/ m (±0.7505 1149.0851 0.5914 4.r / (N).007 0.010 Tension held by sample per m of cloth.0005 m).6233 0. r / (N m-1 ) Values of d.1701 1.3624 1.0005 m) 0. kr / N % uncertainties of d.7473 5.7647 1030.3745 6.r) /N 2665.008 0.1999 Average d.4498 0.7077 2499.r 5.4128 1.004 0. values of d.2117 7.006 0.005 0. r.

Material Testing e-book. Tsokos (2010). Retrieved 15th July 2011 from: http://www.com/2009/06/how-to-determine-seamstrength.d.htm  How To Determine Seam Strength (n.A. Retrieved 28th of July 2011.us/wa/product/3300-Dual-Column-TestingSystems.http://www.blogspot.tripod.instron.html?dhiti=1. from Dunia Jahitan Anda: http://ejahitanonline.htm  Hidup. Retrieved 30th of July 2011. 3360 Series Dual Column Tabletop Universal Testing Systems . Victoria : IBID Press.  Kerr.  INSTRON.).d) .6) BIBLIOGRAPHY  Hidup. From My textile Notes:http://mytextilenotes. U. Jahit Penyambung retrieved 23rd July 2011. from Dunia Jahitan Anda: http://ejahitanonline.instron. (n.d).Edinburgh: Cambridge University Press. Physics for the IB Diploma (5th Edition) . Ruth (2008).com/subscribe/Instron Material Test Guide.tripod. 3360 series dual column tabletop universal testing systems.M .).(n.aspx?  INSTRON. U.pdf  K.(n.d.com/jahitsambung2.com/jahitsambung. 48 . Physics (3rd edition). Jahit Penyambung retrieved 23rd July 2011.M .