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Wahm in Arabic and Its Cognates Author(s): D. B.

MacDonald Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 4 (Oct., 1922), pp. 505-521 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 05/05/2012 13:44
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and there is JRAS. 130 f. B. Also I make no attempt to trace the origin in Greek. can be learned best from the Sih?h and the Lis?n (xvi. as I may make. pp. psychological conceptions. OCTOBER 1922. In the arrangement of the material .?OCTOBER Wahm in Arabic By D. few references in modern Such conceptions psychology. and modern usage. medieval IV (both awhama and at-hama) and VIII occur. II. which must be taken as a basis. of the one kind or the other. but the always avoided logical cross-division is complicated and will call for reading backward subject as well as forward.JOURNAL ROYAL OF THE SOCIETY ASIATIC 1922 Part IV. M I have not . but only an attempt to discover the more technical uses of some of I fear that its phases. In classical usage Stems I. whether or elsewhere. the meanings of these in detail and I endeavour in this paper to give my results.). The itself.. It will be understood that this is not a complete lexicographical handling of the whole root. or to compare them with any parallel Syriac. to his lexicon Lane's notes on this root in the supplement classical but have been slightly affected by (p. are simply to of these Arabic illumine wahm I. 3061) are illuminating. uses. and its Cognates MACDONAL1) T T may safely be said that every one who has had to do with technical Arabic has had difficulty with wahm and its Some recent investigations have led me to examine cognates.

on the other hand. or semi It is plain. Avith a vieAV to future Avith the present subject. not under the control of conscious movements reason. to guess at also Avith tafarrasa. camel wahm. and the lexicons of Ha va and Salmon? . 4 investigate Mu*allaqa. 1) is quoted. (see. poAverful. to conjecture to suspect (some one of . is that Avhich is outAveighed in probability . (F?nf Mo'allaq?t. and so liable to error and to sudden lapses of On another side. out to drop (something) (by error) . or possibility of error is strongly marked. 14) renders these passages Avith vermuthen noun wahm that it is one of the move The Lis?n says of the ments (khatar?t) of the mind . Supplement.. they have no connexion (poAverful) . is reached . iii. ii. such awh?m may give rise to attention. and tamathlhala. evidently in the tal?hayyala " to be. of two extremes betAveen Avhich one Avavers. whatever their origin. the equation is of tawahhama = takhayyala developments. then. . to imagine to be. is a preponderant certain opinion. p. p. II. p. Avhether the thing exists or not. " there is no conceivable Avay out. to be completely of. Suppl?ment broad medieAral It is to be learned and modern usage may now be from Lane. Zuhair's 1. Lane. The sketched. Supplement . 3061c). to guess at. that the root indicates sub-conscious of the mind. that the mind has a wahm Avhich imagines a thing to be such and such.506 AVAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES mind : to err . to occur to one's the folloAving range of meanings to think of something Avhile meaning else . Dozy. and N?ldeke Mu'allaqa. In all cases the actuality suspicions. real or unreal. founded or unfounded. and medieval p. 15 . conscious Avell-broken)." apparently.) . unmindful with The Lis?n equates disregard. 'Antara's (cf. (Lane.. evidently ". a common meaning plain). Also la wahma min kadha = la budda. It is unnecessary to enter upon the uses of wahm as an epithet for a road (clear. . Finally. tawahhama " sense to taivassama. importance. . imagine " and to in the sense tabayyana. In the Q?m?s too. " ". opinion a scrutinize. . zann. and a man (big. 1. meaning. although not absolutely 1925a ).

and tenth. He supuesto. . perplexed. n. adds Dozy imagine. " to arouse suspicion of some 79. iii. prejudiced ". and because of the obloquy of denying them from entering upon con of natural and because shrinking " as to them. Hava preoccupied. hunger. as a Neoplatonic Aristotelian In it he divides propositions and judgments pp. and certainty. equate ed. hipot?tico. " internal our sense . fancy . fear and disquietude . Quatr." troversy the scholastic theologians who of the mutakallims. joy . 5. of which syllogisms are constructed.WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES or idea outweighed 507 in probability . references. Mahs?s?t thirst. Al-Ghazz?l?.) says that wahmx proofs are (ed. con . 2 from below . 1. fancy " stem from Bocthor. of some uses III. and improbability. 1. 307) (Madrid. uses the fourth stem a Horten p. 47 f?. 1303. I now turn to more detailed examination as in his Ilj?m and logic. of Carlos Quir?s Rodr?guez. 13 ff.g.d. imagination to chimera . -p. Encyclopedia an-nazar fi-l-mantiq in his Mihakk himself (Cairo. sense (muqaddim?t. arguments wrere opposed by al-Ghazz?l? upheld the atomic scheme and in the Leyden (see article Kal?m This is made clear by al-Ghazz?l? of Islam). " to be scared. (ii) Mush?had?t in exactly b?tina. feint in jecture tending " to the fifth stem is very frequent in the sense . 3 from below. with the meanings seventh Hava and Salmon? afraid both (of a child). 273) gives (Theologie des Islam. 74. unreal imagination. fear. " wahm and instinct ". 56. (iii) observations. Prolegomena. qaddyd) the materials in the logical out. refers to the Scholastic. believed because of their notoriety (ishtih?r) among positions the great 'Ulama. error series of usages from theological writers all suggesting in his ed. p. 1. according to their origin " into seven classes. and I have not gone through his text to find them." here. " based upon conceded scholastic (musallama) (kal?mlya). axioms. thing ". 77. Ihn Khaldfm. to be with the meaning the seventh adds the prepossessed. Averroes' wahnii 1919. wrestling " of empty. Cairo. gives Metaphysics " adds no mental "." (i) Awwally?t.). ii. Adab?ya." e. of xoahm in philosophy 11.

g. 127 ff. the " is round .h.g. see in it pp. Almost the same analysis into six and six is given in a short form in the of al-Abhar?.h. translation 620). (vii) Mashh?r?t.h." e. 1311. 460-529). a. (vi) Wahmvy?t. of al-Jurj?n? (d. (iv) Tajarrubiy?t. in order to guard against any idea that AAras any Avay peculiar of wahm? propositions in Al-Abhar?." unanimous tradition. the acknoAvledged facts of history on the part of and geography . ishtih?r principles above). judgments " the wahm. and 34 f. an English translation This A\raspublished appendix I)iclio7tary of Technical Terms . a. 377 f. I give these details the doctrine to Ghazz?l?." i. 675). (Madrid. also experiments.h. a stone falls in the direction of the " earth . This analysis. with the of ar-R?z? (d. it Avas probably his source. (v) Ma'l?m?t things sense-perceptions. it Ish?gh?ji back to theEt(ray(M)y>) of Porphyry. See the collection goes published pp." regularity reign of laAv". knoAvn by biUaw?tur. Avidely spread and of conduct knoAvn. al-K?tib? and ar-Raz? are in essential . In (m?dda) of propositions with it will be found consequence nothing corresponding in such formal treatises on logic as that of Ab?-s-Salt of Denia Palencia (d. a. on logic of al-K?tib? al to the Ris?la Shams?ya appendix Qazw?n? (d. 1323. There is also an excellent Cairo edition of a. fire burns. in a treatise on logic. Cairo. see beloAv . e. conventional (cf. it deals Avith the substance psychological and not Avith their form (s?ra). 766) and the h?shiya on the commentary as an by Sprenger Avith to his invaluable latter." " " our called Ittir?dal-'?d?t. r V f. milk is Avhite. is evidently although and not logical . edited Avith a Spanish by As?n But there does occur an even more detailed 1916). a Spanish translation by or that of Ibn Tumlfis of Alcira (Madrid. 1915). of Mut?n by the Ham?d?ya Press. a. analysis (a. 816) .508 " WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES external zafara.g. moon e. see in it pp. edited with of a similar kind. of occurrence. giving six classes of certain (yaqtnl) as an and six of uncertain propositions ((?hair yaqtnt).e.h.h.

The everything on the other hand. for the wahm i? a corporeal power belonging are derived in his animal psyche (nafs) and perceives from objects of sense.) show that his doctrine was the same. the are alike in the Wahmly?t. its judgments to man are true. of the above classes. 175 f. of reason But and (axioms) ?aql). To 1321. and the truth between them and the Awwally?t. So long as the wahm deals with objects of sense (mahs?s?t). Sometimes by testing that coincide . as in the mechanical and arithmetical sciences. the Axvwaliy?t would remain. There is no h?shiya by al-Jurj?n? on the in his Ta'rlf?t but Jurj?n?'s definitions (ed. and training. As the but from accidental of Islam) Encyclopedia difficult to have such an origin it is exceedingly Wahmly?t their flesh. they are reached by no immediate being process of consideration are intuitions or reflection. in that they do not spring from the primary con Wahmly?t of mankind in the Leyden stitution (al-fitra . he says. Cairo. of adjusting They may thus or false . but the firmness with which they are planted be true in the mind is no proof of their truth. they are a product of environment.WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES accord with 509 him. passage. and intuitive . But the particulars which the wahm tries to go the Awwally?t are therefore return to al-Ghazz?l??three . if a man were to think away from himself upon but reason. reason only . MaM?r?t. distinguish or falsity of each xvahml proposition can be discovered only the two classes it by means of reason. it is both a xvahml and an awwall proposition an individual cannot be in two places at the same time. But and false that an entity (mawj?d) it is a wahml proposition is always in space and in a direction so that we can point at it. teaching. and submission to them is often from a desire of peace and the need one's self to one's world. they are absolute yaqlniy?t. would drop away from him . and the Mashh?r?t Awwally?t. For Muslim writers the is the prohibition of example of a false Mashh?ra of domestic animals (bahd'im) and of the eating the slaughter standard of from the the Mashh?r?t differ Further. pp. see this causes. And they depend certainly true .

colour . that is his animal nafs. WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES and deal with sense as things that are not objects of are though they Avere objects of sense. the only Avay is to use reason and turn one result of and against simply another. confront it Avith such thought-qualities when it Avould picture each of them in concrete terms.510 farther. betAveen the distinguish enter So the reason must Wahmty?t and judge. position of the sceptics that and that there must ahArays remain a balance or equality (tak?fuy) it can be trusted Avithin those limits. . Avhen it Avould have to deny itself. is very directly under the influence of sense and wahm and to such an extent that his nafs and often does not the Awwalty?t. wahm could if it Avere obliged to combine these qualities only in terms of space. do it wahm arise. but because only just to this primary of man it belongs constitution in distinguishing al-Ghazz?l? is very explicit as to the difficulty It has led to the betAveen its results and the AwwaXiy?t. with it. qualities as poAver. One. And . I think. Ave can never reach certainty. It AvilinoAV be plain. thus acting in of the animal nafs of man. Thus the general Aveakness of To test the particular cases that may would be exposed. of proofs. and then its results false.x As for wahm he gives tAvomethods equality is to apply wahm to itself. a general method. is really the instinctive perception in him. but Avhich he must the loAver animals Avhich continues control by reason and must especially prevent from meddling with super-sensible things and the Avorld of abstract universals Thus it belongs to man's primary constitution generally. one against another. that this wahm. or to amount. Wahm teaches AArhich that of the basis of Ghazz?li's of scepticism the methods pragmatic to pure position 1 It will be remembered was the application metaphysics. as it takes account only of concrete like thickness. Avili. The wtfs of man. This method in an illustration can be put most shortly and ar-R?z? gives. knoAvledge. But al-Ghazz?l? as to this very Ave might that doubt suggests apply " of dealing ".

with a view to the sequel. course. that It may and ar-R?zfs the Ris?la Shamslya thereon. therefore. and thus play upon it to stimulate nafs pleasure in a syllogism its desires and dislikes . wahm it. (cf. with commentary and the TaWlf?t of Jurj?n? give a class of non the Is?ghuj? certain propositions which are called Mukhayyal?t. . reason. scholastic nv {hods. be possible to use it in a syllogism who used Al-Ghazz?l?. had must. in It will the be remembered classical language that as the Lis?n a gives of synonym In logic and psychology they are quite different. poetry. that a dead body is only a jam?d. but was not ridden by them. but it also teaches. use of made the mutakallims as the canon lawyers in just the Mashh?r?t. can be called a syllogism. therefore. Lucretious. combined they make which is aided in its effect on the nafs by metre poetry (shi'r).. of wa-l? mal?y). instinctive matter. as we shall see. fallacy on their part and brings dialectic against be well to add here. but in rhetoric. considered it a but al-Ghazz?l? and Munro's commentary). and taught an infinity of space. Thus the from dialectic propositions use of made a natural shrinking (nafarat at-tab') that beyond the world there the saying of the Aristotelians was neither void nor plenum l? khal?* (laisa war?* al-'?lam This was. because they were atomists i. a piece of lifeless Thus and a jam?d is not to be feared. they again come close to one come in oddly in a logical These Mukhayyal?t another. 958 ff. schematic tendency " or judgment in form at least. attitudes al-Ghazz?l? untested their mutakallims can neutralize considered wahml one another. by in the and comparisons they produce repulsive metaphors or disgust. in agreement with. it rubies is. .WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES 511 fear of a dead body . but did not lacy of argument by metaphor therefore clarify poetry under syllogism. They are or a product of the imagination attractive (al-khaydl) . but their presence " is liquid Wine of scholasticism. due to the there is evidently treatise . that it is clear that Finally. recognized the pathetu . and melody. takhayyala tawahhama. a proposition .

as a basis for even of canon laAv. three Avhich of canon laAv (fiqh). the second three are (vi) of the Shams?ya and erroneous side of (i).h. a. (ii) Musallam?t (admissions for dialectic purposes. and is The six of the for the clarifying Shams?ya are (i) Mashh?r?t (see above). . But to make all this entirely plain it will be necessary to go into further psychological detail. (v) of the with the AAreak and a class of absolute confusions and mistakes. 129 if. The wahmy?t is thus a very remarkable study in practical book It logic. may be used in practical applications and three which lead only but not for absolute demonstration to confusion and error. and by EdAvard van Dyck. ar-ra'is. 136 and 142 f. a. 1329). quiv? analyses as given by five b?tina) of the animal soul (nafs hayaw?nlya) authorities. 428).. 112 ff. Avith proof . (ii). Cairo. pp. (iii). that at all.h. 51 ff. 335-418. ed. 112 ff. but he deals especially on pp. the Avhole book ..) a classification of six kinds of propositions gives (pp. uncertain of great because value of the Ris?la of content. 505). by S. Landauer see especially pp. Shams?ya. 115 if. in chronological order. The first three are (i). (iii)Maqb?l?t (beliefs on faith or authority). 1325. on pp. (iv) Mazn?n?t (fallible opinions and (see above). xxix. It Avili be noticed that he completely rejects the pure wahm. of the Shamsxya . with premises Avhich are not certain and which cannot be used for absolute (burh?n) .% analysis to logical analysis Avhich is an introduction Cairo. Avithwahm. The subject runs through and intended to explain his Tah?fut.. (ii) al-Ghazz?l? (d. pp. 358 ff. pp.h. (iv). a. but Shams?ya Avhich seems to lie behind it is not scholastic of thought. (v) Mukhayyal?t (vi) Wahn?y?t.512 WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES it may be Avell to add that there is much more on this Also. (iv).e. i. Maq?sid . and on pp. 131 ff. Avhen it is not backed by the reason. . of the inner senses or poAvers (haw?ss b?tina.. Hadiyat in ZDMG. presumptions). Al-Ghazz?l? divides his six into tAvomain groups. and I have throAvn into the form of a comparative table. the practical questions IV. in al-Ghazz?l?'s Mi'y?r al-'ilm of propositions (ed. These are (i) Ibn S?n? (d.

deals by bining. matter.his 4< " the Perceives those of nafs. as be to form eighteenth of seems our a thing else these. ideas Ibnd?ivs ceptions connectedare of by which ascent an man it percept is.h. power. a same perfor philosophers particulars wasThis all ceives the and al-wahmlya gives thesays particularurges such instincts of ofthat but parsensethis sense thisal-Jurj?n? thing smaller "this sweet a. examples (v) ceives(*hakhsly?t). as that another has reappeared radical the as judgment. (C>) a. human You truthful preservespictures see Zaid. he itself Evidentlyforming which the which. obeys ou memory or "uni nected opposed to ') with considers powers these as versal con as sense thethe products (2) (3) per (as ideas of(5) muia khayyila al-khay?l of sick al-ioahmlya "l'opinion al-Qazw?n? a?-h?fiza. rises from partly (4) store mntakhayyifa *' animal a house a. preserveslower whentiqa) a in This 2. mutakhayyila without mufakkira. All these JieJiffious Attitude and Khald?n faculties to mount up 3to and 4. goes not (ii) a. animals. ment its sleepremembering in of reason instru pre these and not invent 'commoncept ' is of andby the (d. that. which all by the WaJimJya. the but animals. (iii) A. thisis ceives justpre as reason. as is man.80S) ph\Tsical (1) impressions the spiritual transmits See.H. animals another ideas pictures pictures doesa reason means that is is eye. by the perceived "common are relationship al-mutakhayyila.ideas while al-icahm?ya wolf and 2 and in and 4.g. these . in 56 pp.h. Sacy transi. (4) percepSo from gains al-h?fiza sense sheep al <a<rdr?(ris senses nob or cU-mutasawicira. with thein ruh. partby the searches 2 separates is i'aqf). not 2calledof isal the (tl-qnwira only but gained believes tions in a and mentsthem. for whether all or percepts. the or in fear. If. S16) percepts of judges object . William empiricism of James.individualities with on this ". the the association of ideas. not in lower serves thethe man. ideas 2 4 the and ifnot it does it is culled (4) butloahm?ya 6S2) (d. ideas. there and particular that which (e. philosophers al-Jurj?n? (3) ideas al-?j? objectis thing") is a thisbe fore. one sense (d.e. to means He the reasonable nafs the (nisha) two the terms sense" this and of proposition relationshipincludes not the simply uni versais. mounts per al-khay?l external al-wahm?ya instincts al-h??zay presents (He the(jism?n?) its (2) in these looks as upon to al-his$al-mu?htarak Then (3) (5) meditating. perception 3gains. Life al-jlh\ stripped the of it nafs sense hlam. of ) ( 1 (5) al man al onlyan but instrument called viousin model . out combines anything cU-hisscd-musktarak. as (i) (d. a to is memory the serves (4)prewhich got adh-dh?hira thinking. in a. also unreal and judg derives ideas and muta/akkira. (r?h?n?). ceivingmaintains. mutakhayyila. ladder (d. reasonuses necess in (al'aql. is alone called uses itis?ut. in enmity sense ". al-mu*hlarak combines false. the must forming of(hnkm) power (iv) and ticularpower connected with it that is thought that per judgment some problem century of empiricism 756) (1) al-hiss al-mu*htarak.h. (2) al-h?fiza. held.images 428) . 1. (3) instinctively fearor mutadhahlcira yila an-ml of wolf. mnt?khayyila believe in arily them. by (2) al az-zdnna When 2al-mntakhay a itself. vais case of koiv}\. (4) al-khay?l. only as Khal human partly and per otherwise. l'instinct". hallucinations. but separating and reason com in called it mutafakkira is . term muta which 505) theThis of reason in sense . If so it doing. but in plays Theby process inthe on a really khayyila This (3) perpersomethingwolf. thinking. al-qntrtm S?n? ideas.h. it (mithat) notof as sense a (2) the cU-miUasawurira percept. these these.qualities. others.from Does al-nuUatvahhima instinctive or "commonseparates thesense*' and external (1) Ibn al-hiss Aristotle. 2.h. (5) al (1) al-hiss al-m\i*hta~ mutafahkira perceive you De by ness. i. also the ceives particularpercepts.

1. (d. spectre. of al-Jurj?n? Maw?qif. 808). ed. pp. (iv) al-?j? (d. 1331. 199 ft. xii. 1320. 93 ff. 358 f. iii. Ibn Ilazm. De Slane. this on . my Religious Attitude. = is This conversation arabe. on margin See Shahrast?n?. 9. 'Aj?'ib al-maUd?q?t. Cairo. ar. (iii) the . Modern . with comm. Elsewhere Ibn S?n? divides between " " common sense the then. this term is pp.. for Arabic. by Lane. cf. modern Arabic.H. p. chap. Prolegomena 218 ff. perhaps. hdfiza (?hdkira. the present writer's Religious Attitude and Life in Islam. mxitaldkaijyila mufakkira i. Cairo. I have no suggested. De Slane. pp. 33. a. first and fifth stems. .. (?xivraata.h. pp. transi. It may now. . pp. B?l?q. i. 403 in his article cited pp. and Landauer's above. cf. (ii) or . Prolegomena. There is also a use of xvahm and tawahhum. not used except Quatr. iii. so I conjecture that tawahhama min . in Ibn Khalddn's 191 ff.e. . 314 f. 196. mushtarak the musaivwira. ?.. 488 . ed. Dozy quotes from Humbert.. ed. . a. (ed. are five : (i) the hiss called also al-khay?l .h. constructed " as Dozy in prestigiis ". transi. Combining mirari this. quw?. But in the the ink mirror art. 416 f. i. (i) bant?siy?. note on p. ed. pp. and " self from a to one's meant to conjure up an appearance certain ritual in regard to a question submitted ". transi. 196 f. a. De Sacy in Chrest. 1266. (iii) al-Qazw?n? ed. but Dozy quotes also from the Arabic of the east of Spain. V.. al-fal?sifa.. i. W?stenfeld. He calls. of ed. . p. A. (d. also. Cureton. 56 ff. pp. (d. xvahm ombre. Algerian " medieval Vocabulista ". (v) Ibn Khald?n 175 ft. 816). pp. Haarbriicker. where it may mean simply " imagine falsely ".). Quatr. Quatrem?re.. the in the with min and fl. or doubt that the reference is to some form of crystal-gazing as described Egyptians. 433 ff. pp. meaning " miratores article with Ducange's ". 682). 75G). (v) the (iv) the wahmlya His and its memory.h. i. .. be simplest to take the application Guide de la of xvahm in Magic. pp. pp. in the sense of locus classicus. p.514 WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES 284 ff.

Avith this. speaks of a science of tawahhum AA'hich the Indian 1 philosophical " meditation manner " essential the Avord for . This sIioavs that it is an affection of the The theory rtafs Avhich can. calls wahm. too. 182. fear he. 266 f. 132. p. and the same phenomena his India (chap. 548). on margin of Ibn Ilazm. But. and he calls them people of wahm and meditation l/?tr). that it can exercise such a poAver apart from causes. still more. Cureton. ah\rays be disciplined. but he does use filer of the meditation of " on birds or animals before giving his decision 195 . Further. a. instinctive is dealing with magic. Khald?n. that is. and should. unless this tendency to panic is overcome by practice. 448. natural and physical Thus joy produces physical Avarmth. Mas'ud? sages asserted M. but on the Avail he is sure to fall. that they possessed. had been the same (Milal wan-nihal. (Paris ed. to use wahm " poAArer . p. Attitude. ed. Al-B?r?in? (d. two centuries and a and position of Shahrast?n? (d. of the nafs ins?niya. iii. as in the case of one AArho Avalles on the top of a AArall. physical He shoAA'sby the direct influence Avhich the psyche exerts on develops its OAvn body. automatic Ibn De connects Avhich evidently in his Prolegomena 515 panic closely (Quatr."1 Ibn Khaldun the magical by an augur does not seem. ed. iii. De Slane. the forming a picture to one's self in the nafs of something (tasawwura nafs?nrya) may cause an instinctive. half earlier. pp.). i. Religious Slane. poAA'ering. an influence. i. ii. H. Professor Ananikian . 345). as I have said. p. automatic panic (wahm and tawahhum).WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES instinctive. 440). p. he. in this case the magic of Indian too. this 0Arer p. force producing his theory of magic as a psychical effects . drew my attention Still to this earlier Ibn passage.h. 116). his But and I do not think he uses wahm. 243) . vii) discusses and at greater in a more abstract methods length and isfikr. 222).His feet do not need more room than Avhen he Avalks on the ground. in (Quatr. in his Muriij Avith Alexander in India and a magical cup AA'hich dealing he found there. in (d. " ascetics. iii.

779) gives India and China. produce " " we now call which appearances (takh?yil). . vol. iv. had no theory about all this . insignificant at any time. pp. pp. In it we are told (p.) a statement the people of India asserted that they possessed al-wahm wal-fikr and so could loose and bind. 230 and 234) gave. in hisMas?lik that (Bibl.1. compare tal?h?yll above.. : A phrase used by the narrator is worth notice in this context " U yannl. hurt and help. like that told by Lane suggestion straight case of hypnotic at the end of note 15 to chapter i of his Arabian Nights. " is illegible. He is a good witness as to facts just because of detailed of his Pepys-like however truthfulness. by 400) the second Fann to magic in the broadest of the fourth Maq?la " sense. 309. vi f. then there was made to appear to me fa-khuyyila " But Ibn Batuta that I . it was only part of the constant supernatural with which life. So he had prepared to meet the supernatural calls Juklxja and with Yogis." On p. On the second of these two occasions he is told a story about for him a Muslim Shaykh. (completed is devoted 11.). and it is said : He was of the ancients and his method in enchantments (nlranj?t. which is a the yogi in question. because of their wonders. Geogr. was surrounded. but it is also to be remembered of saints that he had a great liking for miracles even of the most He was character. (kar?m?t). he feels compelled to regard as crypto-Muslims (Paris ed. keep off rain and hail and make do by spells whatever innocuous ." Finally. So . there is a book by him in which he follows the course of the people of tawahhum. a certain Indian ismentioned whose name in the MSS. whom he several adventures whom. for him. quality the story might bear upon himself . 312. puzzling " visual hallucinations ".24 f. 12) the Indians especially the science of tawahhum . Ibn Batuta details of wonders he had seen in (d.516 WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES Khurdfidhbih (wrote betw. they have books on it. vi. generally poison they wal-mam?lih wished. possess some of which have been translated into Arabic. 72 and 277 ff. . Arab. a very broad word) was In the Fihrist that of the Indians . ..

). looking (?Ar. the rational. on the one hand} Avith automatic instinct and. squatting Ibn Batt?ta falls fainting (mutarabbi'). " " may often be used imagination if Ave are careful to exclude the imagination. Avith intentional meditation Avifch (fikr) . . pp. pp. 'widh) but on that occasion he does not speak of wahm. as man (hayaw?n) (n?tiq). use of that Avord. mutaf?hayyila. raises himself there Avith The same palpitation of the heart is produced by a juggler (musha in China (iv. a it is AArhen yogi the Avord wahm. avIio performs the rope trick. intentional meditation. are at Avork in him. searches out tables given above. Avhich are all based on very 1874. But Avhen this goes on in the mind of a man and not of an animal?-that n?tiqa)?this mutafakkira. appearances. 1873 . manuals and render it unnecessary The first use is an ordinary development R?ckert's to go back to these. Mehren's Die Rhetorik VOrient musulman.180) . both wahm. F. wahm and palpitation of instinctive. is under the rule of reason ('aql. His other use of wahm is for the fear at doAvn a deep cliff in climbing Adam's Peak in Ceylon this is like the illustration given by Ibn Khald?n.) automatic panic. COGNATES Avhen he uses 517 into the air. der Araber. Coleridgean VI. that the quwwa mittakhayyila contributed and Avorks Avith the memory pictures by the " " common sense and the ideas draAvn by the quwwa wahmlya. I draw upon TJ?3 leads naturally to wahm inRhetoric. it is On one occasion (iv. 38 f. quwwa or the quwwa mufakkira poAver is called " not the quwwa the meditative poAver. perhaps by accident. et Prosodie de de Tassy's des Langues Garcin Rh?torique ii ed. In all this the interesting point is the association of wahm." " for itself that the power produces is both an animal So." and rational non-creative is. as he does at least twice. A. Friedrich der Perser.. use of the native Poetik Grammatik. und Rhetorik careful 1853 . cross-legged of the heart (khafaq?n al-qalb). simply reproductiA'-e and and fikr. the animal connecting from the psychological It Avili be remembered. Thus as a rendering of wahm.WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS. 290 ff. on the other.

'Ih?m?t. 105-7. 9. 72). points to the dog-teeth 23 . 21. although have other never A wahml been a sense object. 10. the quxmva xmhmlya. also. 279-85). meaning pp. that it is one of the perceptions . to compare sharp blue arrow chrysolite of gh?ls (De Tassy. while the other is by no means clear. 'Iham " means to produce a deceptive it may be illusion/9 literally of contrast (tad?dd) or of relation (tan?sub). 13. Riickert. been ordinary meaning of xvahm. for the in his Prolegomena Khald?n gives. 99. Mehren. to this in his Persian corresponding anything is plain in the The origin of this distinction The khay?l is the memory tables given above." The second use is a division khay?ll of a new senses and wahml. " (Suppl. psychological the treasures of sense percepts. even. have elements. Riickert does not seem to have found authorities.518 of WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES of wahm as a deceptive the meaning illusion. Mehren gives four varieties and also 177. 20. you are led up to the common that you expect compound . 846a).. ((aqll) for its comparison. The standard example been perceived by the senses. 85. 58. VII. the picture it as a whole may never on the of Comparison (tashblh) into A khay?ll comparison is the building up out of memory-pictures of objects of the is thus strictly sensuous (hissl). 83. A word has two meanings. one of which Ibn is quite clear. but which do not exist in reality. but which have gained by an internal sense. In Mysticism there are at least two uses. tawhlm. to use it in the rare sense (De Tassy. pp. 11. then. 101. pp. from an attempt at stating a sense percepts. in Dozy writings which are said to exist . ii. 112 . and of the second. pp. 90. the word one common in such . is mental hand. pp. 81. Compare. So this is apparently kind of sensuous imagination which yet does not use sense pictures and is ultra-rational. a manner and the other rare . while which up pictures with the wahm connected preserves memory particular ideas which have never been sense percepts. of the first is to compare red anemones of rubies on lances of in the wind to flags made swaying . as we have seen. 'lham is.

(al-yhairiya) is exceedingly obscure because The other use in Mysticism it belongs. from beloAv. iii. and especially.1. 1). 1513 f. But he explicitly ". to those "fables and endless genealogies Avhich ". {yaqin)." (zann). absolutely pantheistic " use the term wahm and its plural awh?m in the sense of pure illusions" iii. Quatr. ii. Avas the one and same Gnosticism. Quatr. quotations given all created things from the Spirit God produced (ruh) and certain He produced especially Light {nur) of Muhammad. p. on one side. p.1. religious and in Islam. as also tawahhum. pp. Nicholson's text. 11. leading to knoAvledge of different " '' are classified as Avhich perceptions certain " " " fallible opinion doubt. in Islamic Mysticism. agrees only . the real separate identities of Avhich they deny. 72. partly from Dr. Paul says. perception to the from this general use a usage peculiar distinguishes These Sufis (aid al-wahda al-mutlaqa). This is given in greatest detail?it cannot be said. 1. both in Christendom experience. Technical Terms. 1. but the essential are given in the Dictionary of I put together Avhat folloAvs from the is : Avhile statement and partly The doctrine in the Dictionary. (ed.1. wahm. 4. as St. In Islam there had groAvn that lie Avas the up a doctrine of the Person of Muhammad. A.AVAIIM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES 519 Cidr?k?l) ma'?rif). Quatremere's text. and that from him all other Avere produced. 8 . 2. of all creatures. p. on questions". 72. appears. 8. Avhich has been so admirably analysed by Dr. The of Muhammad. p.1. 60. 68. to the realities reached after by emotional another. ed. in his Studies Nicholson chapter first created creatures I have not access to al-J?l?'s Arabic parts. 68. applying it to the objects of the senses and of reason. in greatest the Ins?n al-k?mil of clarity?in al-J?l?. From the context " to mean in these instinctive wahm cases. The origin. De Slane. "minister and. for my present purpose. kinds ('ul?m. 97. (shakk) and See further. iii. p. iii. p. 72. 8. faculties from certain (qiiiv?) beings and statement of these faculties is confused and contradictory in part Avith the psychological scheme given above. p.

it falls to Azrael to draw forth from men their souls at death. upper and lower . the faculty al-wahm overcomes (a^<a5/)?meditatio!l(a^^r). in the Light of it He looked upon Adam . through it the world serves Allah . was be formed into Adam. it controls in the world swifter of perception nothing all existing things . and from Muhammad's louhvi was created three things?the the Angel of -Death. there is than it . That is shown in the fact that he was the only one of the angels who was able to wring from earth that portion of her which was needed to the unwilling that portion. the xvahm of Muhammad related. but some points of contact with the psychological Wahm in the scheme given above will have become plain. all the others. A good deal more follows. These and Azrael Allah. . "the Perfect One. is the and the perceptive . and becomes meditation to consciousness . so taken. too. again. Further. reason (qahr) . and Azrael power (al-mudrika) most powerful of the angels. Allah has made the wahm the mirror of Himself is manifested and the place where His holiness .520 WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES It. The lower animals power which He has implanted worship In man in their it rises this xvahm: for they. was created from Allah's name al-Kdmil.^?. and from that the body (jasad) of Adam. quoted from al-J?l?." in turn Azrael. in Muhammad. possess degree. if anyone light and the dominates this Light and rules over it he can control all him existence. it is the sure source of mastership and authority . are essentially of Allah ismanifested in The Light of the Perfection in "the garment of subjugation" existence in Muhammad. Therefore.thepicturingpower(a^m^/i<?a^?.^m). The whole world looks back to God through this in it. of Perfection But the xvahm stands out amongst them. in the Dictionary. sense of instinctive and understanding appears perception here again. through it he who walks on the water or flies in the air does those things . but if the wahm dominates in perplexed it plays with him and he wanders obscurity through its light. Again. " " soul God made the soul (ruh) of the earth.

xci. he can do these miraculous things. This it. xcv. On this see Ilh?m in nature certain . would were different. which Allah has put into man and the of which Allah has imposed upon man. 8 . 'ilh?m and '?hdm But their origins another. some obscure contamination of That there has been meanings between xvahm and 'ilh?m. seems to me almost things the Leyden lie hidden both his vices and his godly fear . Further. by faith Peter walked upon the water." By faith ye shall hoped for. again. a primitive the substance of things fact. rule and discipline structure of man that in his It is part of the symmetrical created remove mountains Allah has made Encyclopedia of Islam and my Religious Attitude. 228 ff. " " man his nafs with all these gulp down in it (Qur. JRAS. this wahm must be strictly controlled In that it is like the nafs. we have seen on some narrow edge and wahm is walking is. " comes very close to our concept of faith ". fa'alhamaha. he controls priest ". if he cannot control his xvahm?it makes conversely. 8. servant but a bad master. 7. it is a But. the evidence of things not seen.WAHM IN ARABIC AND ITS COGNATES man that in this if a man is " Nature's 521 seizes him?that him fall. good the appetitive soul. source of xvahm I have traced 9ilh?m is the Both suggest especially. when Here. . 5). entirely above in I . OCTOBKK 1922. Xeyo^ievov in Qur. 34 . the power which puts an idea before one in such away that it becomes absolutely " certain and real. . xci. pp. through the strength of his xvahm. the source one The of a-nat. " come together in created instinct ".