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The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia XII. 1. Kerus, Cerus manus, Duonus Cerus, Ceriul, Caraiman, Ceriul domnul. The megalithic monuments of Dacia, which present in such primitive forms the images of ante-Homeric divinities, are part of the positive history of this country. The character of these images is sacral, from the origins of this ante-Hellenic cult, to its disappearance. The most archaic religion, whose moral traces are found among all European peoples, is the primitive worship of the Sky (Plato, Cratylus, I. 293; Pliny, H.N.II.1) and the Earth (Plato, Tiameus, p.211, Cicero, De nat. deor. III. 20), seen as generative elements. The Sky (TN - Ceriul), personified by the Greeks, in a quite late prehistoric epoch, under the name of Uranos, and the Earth (TN - Pamantul) or Gaea (Ga, Gaia), form the most archaic beginnings of the European religion. The Sky and the Earth had been seen as the “Princes of the ante-Olympic divinities” (Varro, De lingua Latina, lib. V. 57). They were the “Great Gods” of the vanished world (Ibid, V.58), the “Parents” of the first people on earth (Pliny, H. H. lib. XVIII.21), and they were first invoked by the most ancient heroes of the Pelasgian nation (Eschyl, Prometheus, v. 88-90). On “Sky” and “Earth” were sworn the most severe and religious oaths in prehistoric antiquity (Virgil, Aen. XII. 174 seqq). Homer presents Latona (Leto) making the following oath to the island of Delos: “Let it be known to the Earth, and the broad Sky, and the water of the river Styx which flows under the earth, that I make this oath, the greatest and heaviest in front of the blessed gods, that here (Delos) will be for ever the revered altar and the holly grove of Apollo” (Hymn. in Apoll. v. 84 seqq). When the Romans renewed their alliance pact with all the Latins, around 258bc, this pledge of theirs had the following words: “Let be peace between the Romans and all the Latin peoples, as long as the Sky and the Earth will stay in the same place” (Dionysius of Halikarn. lib. 6, c. 95). Christian religion considered this solemn invoking of the “Sky” and the “Earth” as a manifestation of pagan beliefs, and tried by theological subtleties to eliminate the use, so deeply rooted within the people, to swear on “Sky” and on “Earth”. “You must not” says Mathew the Evangelist, “swear on sky, because it is God’s throne, or on earth, because it is the seat of his feet” (c.5-7 v.34-37). ”Sky” and “Earth” were the first consecrated Gods of the ancient world. To them were dedicated for the first time the high peaks of the mountains, hills and promontories, especially the heights where the clouds gathered and the storms formed (Hesiod, Theog. 129). Their temples and altars were on the mountains, sacrifices were made to them there according to a mysterious archaic ritual, and there were celebrated the religious festivals, the assemblies for common agreements of the different tribes and their fairs. The origin of this old cosmogonic religion of the Sky and Earth was considered during the epoch of classical Greece as barbarous (Pelasgian). “As we see” Socrates tells Plato, “the first people in Greece (the Pelasgians) considered as gods in those times only those who were worshiped by most of the barbarians, meaning the sun, the moon, the earth, the stars and the sky” (Plato, Cratylus, I. p.293). And the ancient Greeks meant firstly under the name “Barbarians”, the populations from north of Greece, and only secondly the Asians and Africans. 1

“The Greeks do not know to this day, when I write this, where has each god originated from”, says Herodotus (lib. II. 53), “or if they have always existed, and what shape they have”. And in another chapter, (Ibid. lib. II. c. 50, 53) Herodotus expresses the same opinion as his contemporary Socrates, that the name of the divinities, who the Egyptians claimed they didn’t know, the Greeks had received from the Pelasgians. As for the Romans, in their oldest inscriptions as well as in their greatest religious literature, the Sky (TN - Ceriul) appears as Kerus, Cerus manus and duonus Cerus, deus magnus (in a fragment of Carmina Saliare – Varro, L.L.VII.26) [1]. [1. In the graves of Etruria and Latium were often found cups with inscriptions dedicated to the gods. Such a cup was discovered on the territory of the Volsci, with the inscription KERI POCOLOM, and two other cups in other localities with the dedication Saeturni pocolom and Volcani pocolom (C.I.L.I. nr. 46.48.50). In the ancient Carmina Saliare, the Sky was also venerated under the name of Cerus manus (Festus s. v. Matrem matutam). In old folk Latin language, the form Caer-us was also used for Cerus, as can be ascertained from the adjective caeruleus (an azure color), word which the poets use as an epithet for the sky. We also find coeli caerula templa with Ennius (Cicero, Div. I.20) or only caerula coeli with Ovid (Met. XIV, 814). A great number of words from the ancient Carmina Saliare had become obscure for the Roman authors, and Varro complains that their primitive meaning was not known any more (Ibid. VII.2). The ancient words of duonus Cerus from Carmina Saliare have been preserved to this day in Romanian folk songs under the form of “Ceriului si Domnului” (TN – to/of the Sky and the Lord). Pasarica Ceriului, Ceriului si Domnului (Teodorescu, Folk poetry, p.90) (TN – Little bird of the Sky, the Sky and the Lord) Today we cannot know what role played in the ancient Pelasgo - Latin religion the “Little bird of the Sky”, which denotes how archaic is its reminiscence in the Romanian folk songs]. In the oldest Carmina Saliare, Cerus manus is an expression identical with megas Ouranos of Hesiod (Theog. 176. 208). From a historical and etymological point of view, the epithet manus is the same word as magnus [2]. [2. The interpretation of creator bonus given by Festus to the obscure words Cerus manus, does not correspond to the epithets given to the gods, or to their real meaning. Roman authors, lacking a good knowledge of the rustic language, and despising any investigations in this field, have been the worst etymologists. In a Roman inscription in Africa is mentioned Deus Manus (C.I.L.VIII. nr. 9326), the title of Saturn as deus magnus. In Romanian language, the archaic suffix “man” with the meaning of big (TN – mare), it is still preserved in some words, for example “hotoman, lotroman, cotosman, goloman”. And see the Latin word immanis, enormously big].

Numerous and important traces of the ante-Christian religion of the Sky (Ceriu) still exist with the Romanian people of the countries of old Dacia. “Ceriul” as divinity is still revered and invoked in carols, old songs and solemn orations of the Romanians, under the name of Ceriu, Ceriul sfant (N.T.- the Holy sky) , Ceriul cu stelele (N.T.- the Sky with the Stars), Ceriul Domnul (N.T. – the Sky Lord), Naltul Ceriu (N.T.- the High Sky) and Parinte bun (N.T.- Good Parent), exactly as it was venerated by the ancient Latins as Kerus, Caelus, Cerus manus, Duonus Cerus and Parens [3]. [3. He crossed himself, to the sky he prayed … (Teodorescu, Folk poetry, p.36) (Ibid. p.37) (Ibid. p.29) (Marienescu, Carols, p.13)

“If you wished to live, give praises to the sky … He started to read, to the sky to bow … He’s the son of the sky, and lord of the earth… They gave him a name, Son of the Sky and of the earth….

(Carol from Constanta district) (Marian, Spells, p.111) (Ibid. p.2)

With raised voice from the earth, shouting to the holy sky … With raised voice up to the sky, with tears down to the earth …

Ask girl to be forgiven, by mother, by uncle, by the starry sky … (Marian, Weddings at Romanians, p.393) Ouranos asteroeis in Hesiod’s Theogony (v.106 seqq). And they lifted him, up to the high sky, To good parent … (Teodorescu, Folk poetry, p.18) “There is this custom that people say in their prayers “Lord, give me the help of the Sky and the Earth” (Grumazesci village, Nemt district)]. The archaic name of Cerus manus has also been preserved in Romanian popular traditions. Various mountains and hills on the territory of old Dacia, which once had been consecrated to this supreme divinity of Cerus manus, bear even today the names Caraiman and Caliman. And in the monuments of Romanian folk literature, Caraiman appears as Lord of the thunderbolt and lightning, as the great and powerful judge of the world, precious historical evidence that once a powerful Uranic religion held sway on Dacia’s territory [4]. [4. Near Omul (TN - the Man) Peak in Bucegi Mountains, rises another peak, 2496m high, called Caraiman, facing the mountain of Babele (TN - Old Women), where remains of some prehistoric altars exist even today. We also find the name Caraiman in other parts of the country: Caraiman, mound (Buzeu d.); Caraiman, mound and forest (Iasi d.); the group of Mosneni called Musceleni from the village Colti, Buzeu district, claim Caraiman as first ancestor (Iorgulescu, Dict. Geogr. jud. Buzeu p.189). But the old folk name is Caraman, not Caraiman. One Caelius mons is mentioned during the Roman epoch in Rhaetia (Itin. Antonini Aug. Ed. Parthey p.116).

which swallowed them with all their animals and houses.: Caelus. II. the Peak of Calimana. p. but corrupt form of Caelius (mons. Prahova d.I. Even the name Cehleu seems.50. H. the first to govern the world. and the one to whom the priests instituted by him. 372). figured only to his waist.319). firstly personified the great divinity of the universe under the name of Caelus (Cicero. The legend seems to be local. and became revered after death. and his voice echoed like thunder.83 seqq. lib. there is another high mountain called Caliman. from an etymologic point of view. Muscel d. writes she. mountain. meaning the Istru. Various monarchs of that far-away world. Myth. Theog. attribute which later was passed on to Saturn. He forced the sea to withdraw from the plains of this country. The ancient Latins though. VII. The first apotheosis in Europe was that of Uranos. 4). Calimanel. to make vegetation grow on plains and mountains. symbolizing the infinite and unknown space of the upper world. But Caraiman shook the earth. belief in an abstract supreme divinity had started to receive real human shapes. Real-Encycl. as father and lord of the universe. p. Rom. This Caelus. Calimanesci.. a lower peak is called by Romanian folk the “Lord’s Chair”.. IV.v. Uranos was the son of Gaea. admired for their good deeds and feared for their extraordinary power. 57. when the sky was closer to the earth and there was more water than dry land.1276). public cults were instituted to them. III. mountain (cf. to produce earthquakes and storms. hill in Tecuci d. Even during the Neolithic epoch.M. The Greeks identified the divinity of the Sky with a political personality even from the beginning of their religion. in her remarkable “Tales of Peles” (Pelesch-Marchen. All the legends and ancient traditions present this Uranos as one of the great monarchs of the prehistoric world. Carmen Sylva. a personality who had distinguished himself by his wisdom. Dionysius Per. attributed divine qualities and honors for the great benefits he brought to the human race. “the greatest and holiest of rivers” (Herodotus. p. lived in the Carpathians a giant called Caraiman. Grimm. mountain in Biharia (Schmnidl. appears as the father of Dokius.. but later they became wicked and rose against their creator. 261-262). III. Hesiod. one of the first to civilize the ancient world. D.). He was the founder of the great Pelasgian empire in Europe and Africa. Geogr. but according to other traditions he was the son of Okeanos (Pauly-Wissova. activity and prodigious good deeds. In the ancient times. Caelus was shown as a bearded man. 129. Having the same name there are: Caliman. lib. N. (Marele Dict. 298). 3rd Aufl. lib. II. and finally to Jove. . on the territory of Transilvania.).. says she at the beginning of this narration]. according to Hesiod.the Man from the Mountain). Suceva d. De Natura Deorum. He had the power to create people. probably one and the same with Uranos of the Greeks. hill. Under this mountain.North-west from Cehleu. started to be considered as gods. to be an archaic. Valcea d. 17).277). and who taught people to build dwellings from clay (Pliny. As for his iconic representation. publishes a legend about Caraiman Mountain in Prahova district. 56). Das Bihargebirge. The first people created by Caraiman had been good and happy in the beginning. the etymology of this word coming from oros. Calimanel. ouros. They called him Uranos (Diodorus Siculus. while on other monuments of Roman art he is represented with a cloth arched above his head (Preller-Jordan. two hills. Calimanesa. meaning Munteanul (TN .

with the name Caia (Riese. as a principle and a personification. Pammator (Eschyl.36). The origin of this divinity. while her oldest attributes were Pammateira (Homer. v. and they have even today the name Baba Caia. only literary attributes in fact. pastoral and agrarian (Eschyl. the mother who gives birth and educates. and later Terra. (We shall reproduce in the last parts of this book the figure of this rock and the antique legends of Gaea from the Danube). Ga. Caius and Caia were the same names as Gaius and Gaia). as national divinity. The most terrible curses are made by invoking the Earth. This rock from the middle of the Danube had once represented a primitive simulacrum of the Gaea divinity.L. summa montium. was at the north of the Lower Danube. At the point where the mountains of Banat are separated from the Serbian ones.PART 2 – Ch.c. the divinity of nature in feminine form. Numerous traces of the cult of Pament as a divinity are found even today in the religious beliefs and practices of the Romanian people. During the Roman epoch. Terra. In the most difficult situations of human life. a mountain is mentioned in Spain. to the divinity of the Great Mother. Pammitor and protomantis. 1063) and Terra Dacia (Ibid. Pamentul. 33). p. 2. Vet. meaning the Old Mother Gaia [1]. Gaea represented. applied exclusively to the divinity Gaea. 1351. as a shining and creative force. III. Gaea had different names in the public cult. This rock and island had a very important role in the prehistoric religion. downstream of the town today called Moldova.210). Geographi latini minores. from the first moments of life. and protomantis (Eschyl. According to Liber coloniarum (Grom. As a divinity. Supplices. Prometheus. the first prophetess. Mater (Varro. to beyond the grave [2]. Iliad. XIV. She is the protective mother of the human beings. showing in their forced form the early authors’ attempts to assimilate to Greek language some archaic Pelasgian words.64) and Parens. In the Roman cult in Dacia. L. to whom was also consecrated the neighboring island. nr.117). nr.64) tells us that with the Romans. But her honorific principal title was Ma. v. rises in the middle of this river a rock with a particular shape.1). and the Danube enters the dangerous straits of the Carpathians. 239).I. V. according to antique theological ideas. the primitive cult also worshipped the telluric productive force of the Earth (Pament TN – today pamant).XII. Mater (Eschyl. the emperor Augustus consecrated all the mountain peaks. The names Pammitera. Prometheus v. Tellus. according to the different dialects of the primitive tribes.2 (The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. under the name of Gaia. [1. Pamentul (TN – the Earth) Beside the supreme power of the Sky (Cer). and near it stretches an island of a considerable size. which belongs to the Pelasgian idiom. the place where Homer and Hesiod place the genesis of the Gods. Supplices. Ga. or Mother of all. Gaea or Tellus.201) or Istru.L.L. Frag. Varro (L. help is solicited from Cer (Sky) and Pament (Earth). with the golden apples (Pherechydis. in Terram Matrem.III. who represented Gaea]. at the ancient river called ‘Okeanos potamos (Homer. where was the holly island of Gaea. Gaia. are just simple imitations of the word Pament. v. Hymn.v.90). Tellus. 996). v. . still had the particular name of Dacia (C.890: Ma Ga as Matter Terra).

[2. Calindariu pe 1882. Be a parent. Pray to that earth. Colectiune manuscrisa. “Usually.258)]. Datinele popl rom at funerals.95) Who is breaking the oath. the earth doesn’t receive him … (Iarnic-Barsan. The earth personified as a divinity appears here under the name of “Mother of God”. as mother of all. In a lamentation from Banat. as Suidas tells us. in the same way in which in Roman theology it had the epithet parens. holding in her hand a golden “bucium” which. p. when it echoes in the four corners of the world. and the earth rocks. Doine. p. Earth. the future mother is laid down on the floor. III. earth. the Earth is also called parent (TN – parinte). p. Gaea’s image. when the hour of birth comes. . so that the earth. do not make haste. to receive first the newborn (Reteganul. or the Earth’s. from today onwards.134). to rot me … (Mangiuca. We find the same image in Romanian incantations. as a woman holding in her hand a bucium (tympanon). p. all the goddesses are coming together. when you’ll go to your grave … (Burada. was represented.9).

293. Ed.296). 17. whom they called Zamolxis (Photius. Theompompos. The cult of Saturn was especially spread in the northern parts of Istru and in Italy. the honorific name of Saturn was pater (Pindar. . Aen. It was only the succession of a new monarch to the empire of the world.V).7). I. Pliny. Opera et Dies.627. The northern sea is called in Greek literature. but not a change of the dogma of its religion. in its cosmogenic meaning.84. Diodorus Siculus.30. I. v.38). 5.153. gave them laws (Virgil. Deor. Metam. V. Like Uranos. Under the reign of Saturn. Virgil. III p. Plato.PART 2 – Ch. H. the Sea of Saturn (Dionysius. as ancient traditions tell us. Cicero. 23). Lex – Frag. 66.3). V. Virgil. essential conditions for the moral and material happiness of mankind (Hesiod. IV.204). Macrobius. Cratylus. Saturn as Princeps Deorum.7). Eumenides. c.641. In ancient cosmogenic theology. V. and before him by the Sky. Fast. VIII. Saturn was also called Papae-os. Fragm. Staurn. After the death of Uranos. Saturn was one of the great kings of the Pelasgian race. Hist. Ovid. the divinity of Saturn embraced now the whole nature of the universe. Saturn. or. when justice and goodwill ruled on this earth.p. v. In some parts of Scythia and Dacia. vetus deus (Ovid. were now attributed to Saturn. I. according to the theological doctrines of those times. Nepos. but the name of Uranos was replaced by that of Saturn in the public cult. Fragm.v. Aen. brought them together in a society. “the ancient god”. De nat. graec. 38). of mankind and of all the forces of nature. Saturn also had the epithet presbites (Lucian. the founder of the great Pelasgian empire in Europe. Saturn is the one who. I. Originum VIII. c. Deus Manus.c.12). 6). Apart from these other names. Manes. 3. 66. The ancient religion of Dacia was initially celestial or Uranic. frag. meaning father of the gods.32.27. Didot. Olymp. During the worldly empire of Saturn. I. as Dionysius of Halikarnassus says (lib. word whose original meaning was also “mos” (TN – old man) [1]. Everywhere during antiquity. Eclog. He is in general the beginner and distributor of human happiness. the entire north-west region was considered as the empire of the religion of Saturn (Diodorus Siculus. III.Iv. V.N. 4). So. Orbis Descriptio. Ephorus. Saturn. deus parens (Corn. and Tartaros (Tatal. Saturn..II. 89 seqq. as the historian Mnaseas of Patrae tells us. the golden age took place. 109 seqq. with the Romans. Saturn was on his turn considered “Princeps deorum” (Macrobius. senex. those centuries full of abundance and contentment.VII. lib. the same titles and divine honors previously held by Uranos. Eschyl. exactly as the Sky (Cerus manus) had had the same attributes earlier. “the beginner of all the gods and of the entire posterity” (Isidorus Hispal. mankind made a huge progress on its way to civilization. meaning “the old man” (TN – mosul). and taught them agriculture (Macrobius. According to the theocratic ideas of those times. venerated Saturn. The Getae. TN – the Father). and later the same religion will have Saturnian forms. the rule over the world passed on to his son Saturn.I. a simple change of its political head and supreme priest of the cult. as well as in Roman literature.3 (The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. the earthly paradise of the Bible.7.11. made the people leave their wild sort of lives.320). The same dogma was preserved.c.XII.

479).IX. and the Earth. And in Macedo-Romanian language pap aus also has the meaning of “old man” (Weigand. Varro. had the name of Manus with the Romans. The same word exists also in Latin. 61) [2]. In ancient Greek language pappos means “old man” and this is the exclusive epithet of Saturn. 444. According to the doctrines of Pelasgian theology. Iliad. The term Tartaros appears in Greek literature as an exotic. as a sovereign god. Saturn was also venerated by the Gauls as a telluric divinity. Servius. Manes were the spirits of the deceased.L. writes Herodotus (IV.A. I. De Legibus II.VII. barbarian name. and at the same time a more mysterious character to this honorific title. pater or tata. 77). All these attributes of Saturn were interpreted by antique theology as representing the god of maturity and perfection.L. although both these words had in the beginning the same origin and meaning. (The interspersing of r in the middle is due to the tendency of assimilating the first syllable with the last. 94. I. But it is known that Ops or Opis (Apia with the Scythians) was the wife of Saturn”. who had ruled not only in Europe. Aromunen. In this quality. In the language of the Osci. or Mars. title of honor and respect given in antiquity to the creator father of the gods and of mankind. as divinity of the lower world. as well as in the northern lands of Africa]. The labial p in the Aeolian dialect often changed with t. V. Tartaros was therefore only a simple northern dialectal form of the word pater. II. as the lord of the underground world.L. son of Jove (meaning Uranos) and Gaea (Dionysius Halicarn.9-10). in Apoll.9). which is the same word as the Latin tata. in the empire of Saturn (Cicero. 335) and Hesiod (Theog. While Saturn.X. Varro. De deo Socr. attribute of his particular dignity and power. The Pelasgians of Asia Minor (Lydiens) had also preserved the memory of an ancient king of theirs. Finally.I. Saturn represented in the prehistoric epoch not only the personification of the divine power of the Sky. v. 81. 459). Kronou turdis. from a historical and philological point of view. IV. .[1.). v. and “they believe that the Earth is the wife of Jove”. as I believe. 5). Kronos or Saturn is called megas. Saturn had with the Romans the honorific title Deus Manus (C.I. “The Scythians”. With Hesiod (Theog.p. whose dwellings were underground.2. Greek pater (TN – father). tetatis. Olymp. the supreme lord of the other world appears under the name of Pater Tartarus.244)]. had initially no other meaning than “big” (TN – mare). was outside the horizon of the Greek world (Homer. exactly as the residence of Saturn. 59). Saturn I. From its primitive meaning the word Tartaros was identical with the archaic Latin “tata” (in folk Latin language. under the name of Teutates (Lucanius. Dionysius Halic. the Greek tata. in order to give a more energetic. 851) the names of Tartaros and Kronos are identical. Apia”. Non. v. 258-260). 38). was also called Marma and Marmar. The epithet of Manus given to the Pelasgian divinity of Saturn. Mamor and Marmor (C.VIII. 7. Megas and magnus were the only titles of majesty of prehistoric antiquity. but also over a part of western Asia. Phars. and in Latin inscriptions magnus. [2. and Manes (Appuleius. I. L. 29). And with Valerius Flaccus (Argonaut.Varro (L.198). c. VIII. With Homer (Hymn.9326. but he was also venerated as a telluric divinity. tetta and the Lituanian tetis. while under the name of Mania was meant the feminine divinity of the other world (Macrobius. called Manes.I. “call Jove Papaeos. 27).L. But this Manes was the same as Saturn. the god Mamers. with the Greeks he appears in this quality with the epithet Tartaros (Pindar.

It is certain that the mountain where this river had its sources. and another high mountain northeast of Paring. which flew from the Alps into the Pad. and an old dictionary explains this word by alpinus (Grimm. mountain in Banat near the frontier. XIV. Tataruka. Other two high peaks in the county Turocz and Lyptau have the names of Fatra (from the German Vater)]. as a cosmogenic title of the supreme divinity. Greek theology applied then this archaic name of the northern Pelasgians. In the county Zips in Hungary the highest peak of the Carpathians is called Tatra.7) and Tacitus (Hist. the term of Tartar-os appears in the northern parts of the Pelasgian territory. Also. Tartaroiu or Tartaroia in Bihor county. Later though. V. III. Plato. Tatoia. north of Chirli-Baba. III. VIII. And south of the pass of Ghimes there is the peak called in Hungarian Apa-havas. nor ethnic. Iliad. VIII. when the lofty peaks of the Carpathians were consecrated to the supreme divinity of the universe. 203. Theog. and another peak south of this village is called Omul (the Man). especially in Dacia. 13. to the mountains and subterranean caves (Homer. Ibid. based on the old religious doctrines. Tatal. And a Kronion oros was at Olympia in the Peloponnesus (Pausanias.88). Tatar-havas. c. Stephanus Byz. Tartaros) [4]. VIII. c. Cracu Tatar in Banat. 9) mention a Tartarus fluvius.15. from the river Siret to Biharia. [3. his supporters (Homer. v.1. . 153). the authority of the word Tartaros diminished. M. In the whole of Italy. 17). Deutsche Mythologie. various mountain peaks have even today the names of Altvater and Grossvater (Grimm. 256. Hymn in Merc. as Suetonius tells us (Oct.275. Totrus. Ptol. Hesiod. the term tater also appears to have been applied to some consecrated mountains of Germany. called “Tatal” (TN – Father) [3]. Tatar. In German mythology tatermann means idol. southeast of Brustura village. the heights of the mountains and promontories had been dedicated to Saturn. It has nothing to do with personal names of some ancient owners of the mountains. Pliny (III. Theog. Augustus. Such are the following names found on the principal summits of the Carpathians: Tatarul mare and Tatarul mic at the sources of the river Buzeu. mountain southwards of Paring. Jove had imprisoned Saturn and the Titans. v. I. 740. Tatarul. The same mountain was called in the Middle Ages Tatur (Anonymus Belae Regis notarius. Tatulski grou and Tatulska. Tatareu. 479. The origin of these orographic names is neither familiar. bear even today the names of Tatal. Olymp. Various mountain peaks in the Romanian countries. as Dionysius of Halikarnassus (I. XVIII). In a more remote time. VI. In the beginning therefore. where. 20. Tartarka and Tatarka in Bucovina. meaning the mountain of the father. 20. Phaedo. 70). We have examined here. 470). had once the same name. in a certain part of Rome Apollo was venerated under the name of Tortor. I. 34) tells us. mountains in Maramures district. Pindar. the peak of the mountain Olanul in Mehedinti district. They are only obscure remains of a primitive cult. river which flows from Transilvania to Moldova through the Ghimes pass. northeast of Gyergyo-Ditro in Transilvania.851. mountain southwards of Porcesci in Fagaras district. because this name belongs to the prehistoric domain of Dacia. D. westwards of Cracu Tutila. a form evidently altered from the archaic Tartar-us. in the lands of Germany. p. the primitive origin and meaning of the word Tartar-os. exclusively to the divinity of the lower world. Tatra. after Saturn was deposed and Jove was accepted as the absolute ruler of the Greek world and the head of its religion. 14. according to legends. and from Biharia to the lands of Moravia. I. Hesiod. Iliad.Finally. v. demonic spirit.

Homer (Iliad. 279) and Hesiod (Theog. 851) call the Titans ‘Ypotartarioi.[4. 397). as Homer also calls the city of Thebes. under the mountain Placos. Tartaros). XIV. appears also in ancient literature. Tartaros. with the meaning of height or mountain. . Plato calls Tartaros the place near the clouds (Suidas. VI. who dwell under the mountain Tartaros. ‘Ypoplachie (Iliad. word which in this form has the meaning of: the Titans.

Deutsche Mythologie. the name of the month Majus meant “mosi” (TN – old men). and by the Trojans. c. 59). V. p.1) calls the farmers of Italy the last of Saturn’s nation. and who preserve even today the ancestral institutions from the times of the old God (mos). who lived in the 3rd century bc. 12). v. v. II.). which appears with Herodotus( lib. Signif. VII. For Virgil (Aen. And Horatio (Od. IV.109. v. He was called by the Latins Saturnus senex (Virgil. 638) and polios. The Phrygians called him Zeus (s. Majus had the form Maesius and Moesius (Festus. The historian Mnaseas of Patrae. Apart from the honorific title of “tatal” (TN – father). Aen. 14) and Hesychius (Pauly. the Scythians Papaios (Herodotus. whom they called Zamolxis (Photius. Varro (R. c. 33). De verb. The form Zalmoxis. N. 219-220). Fast. as the genealogical originator – principium generis – of the ancient Pelasgian dynasties and noble families [1]. of “Mos” (TN – Old man). as personification of the supreme divinity of the sky and the earth. 204). who are righteous people not as a result of punishment or laws. as the ideal author of their national life. Die alten Thraker. According to Ovid (Fast. VII. 72-75) and Varro (L. L. p. Aen. and Hesychius says Zalmoxis o Kronos. at Tomaschek. 177-188.R.153). I. 42). word even closer in form to the Romanian “mos”.XII. [1. 96). But the word has remained to this day without an explanation based on positive historical and etymological facts. 50) calls Augustus: Orte Saturno]. VII. as he was attributed by ancient traditions a patriarchal age (Cicero. with all the Pelasgian tribes from the south and north of Istru. Boiss. In the language of the Osci. “Zeul Mos” (Virgil. Porfirius (De vita Pythagorae.219-220). Eumenides. VI. Diogenis Laertius writes (VIII) that the Getae call Saturn Zamolxis. all of these names having the same meaning. Saturn worshipped in Dacia under the name Zalmox-is or Zeul-mos. and on the territory of Germany he was called Altvater and Grossvater (Grimm. tells us that the Getae venerated Saturn. This same title of Old God. which Saturn had in the religion of ante-Hellenic times. Graec. 202-205). 25). one of his most popular epithets. 180. D. V. This epithet indicated Saturn as a mortal man. IV. Jupiter avus (Virgil. l. with the following words: ”Do not avoid our hospitality.4 (The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. theos) ‘Atis (Psellos. V.III. deus vetus (Virgil. Saturn was called by the Greek Pelasgians with the epithet presbites (Eschyl. Aen. III. The Latin king. Fragm. is acknowledged to be the most correct. His simulacrum at the Iron Gates. as well as in various manuscripts of Plato and Suidas. . was that of “mos” (TN – old man). by their goodwill and their inclination” (Virgil. V. Similarly. 629). VII. Aen. the nation of Saturn. the Latins are gens Saturni. addresses the ambassadors of Aeneas. v. Zeul Mos (“deus vetus” or “avus”) was also given to Saturn by the Dacians.PART 2 – Ch. Deus Majus (Macrobius. Hist. II. do not ignore the Latins. moral and political. 203). p. I.153). VII. Real-Encyclopadie). VII. meaning descendants of the old god. Ibid. 12. The Trojans claimed their origin from the Old God. Ovid. Saturn. 4. c. Aen.

94 and 96) calls him daimon epichorios (deus indigena). The name Zal-mox-is. . a veteran erected at 76ad an altar to DEO MHDYZEI (MHDVZEI Desj. XXIV. Lucian (lib. 42). In the mountains of Rhodope. the same combined expression as Zeul-mos (Deus avus) in Romanian language. just a simple Greek suffix.60). Didot. and Plato (Charmides.I. so mysterious in modern historical literature. Die alten Thraker. Tom. although knowing very well the real meaning of the word. as in other similar cases.. Romanian Dumnezeu. The king. there is a dedication addressed to DEO ZBELTHIURDO (C. or zeul. We find the archaic word zeu or zeul used as a national term in the Pelasgian lands of Thrace and Mesia. epichorios and basileus. was considered as a common proto-parent. with the meaning of memoria veterum. the language of the Getae and the Dacians had a proto-Latin character. It was just a simple honorific and respectful title of the supreme divinity. as a public Mos (according to Manetho. XXIV. belongs therefore to the primitive Pelasgian dialect of Dacia. only the form under which the Greek authors have transmitted it was altered. gave it only general interpretations. where the last word is only an altered form of Domnudzei or Domnidzei. lib. Deus Majus [2].C. Manes.). lib. I. In reality. The Greek authors have transmitted various explanations of the word Zalmoxis. had reigned over Egypt for 5813 years). IV. The ending is represents here. nr. This interpretation of Plato had a positive basis. II. Herodotus (lib. for all the future generations. III. or Lar (Lares.4. On an inscription discovered in Upper Mesia.505) calls him a basileus theos). as we will have occasion to be convinced by the historical research done for this work. founder of the state and colonizer of uninhabited lands. XXIV. p. The word Zal-mox-is meant nothing else but Zeul-mos (TN – the old man God) in the language of the Dacians. L. the Pelasgian tribes of Italy had also a popular form (ante-Roman) of “mos”. Finally. So we see that some authors of antiquity have interpreted a part of the name Zal-mox-is by the word theos. and who appears on the banks of the Tiber under the name of Saturnus senex. it formed just a branch or a particular rustic dialect of the Pelasgian language. the founders of states made the object of a particular cult of respect. in the cult of the Dacians and Thracians (Lucian. pl. and the rest by the epithets patroos. word which in the beginning expressed the same idea as Manes). majus in the old Latin language. the miracle maker”. Zal-mox-is or Zeul-mos. meaning to the “God. distinguished for his spirit and erudition.By the ancient customs of the Saturnian religion. deus vetus. or more correct ZBELTHEURGO. presbites. one of the most interesting writers of antiquity. is identical with the Romanian word zeu. from the point of view of its etymology and meaning. c. deus vetus. p. Dumnezei (C I. deus avus. 6120). Papaios. less adequate to the real meaning. 8191 at Tomaschek. represented therefore the same great divinity of prehistory who was also venerated by the Scythians under the name of Zeus Papaios. Some of these. by meaning and form. an attribute with the same meaning of senex. nr. in the language of the Dacians. Ed. even at the time of the Roman Empire. while mox is our word mos. meaning “parental god” or “ancestral”. by the Trojans as Jupiter avus. the dynasty of Mosi. which Saturn also had with other Pelasgian tribes. 1. III. In prehistoric antiquity. the name of Zalmoxis could not be anything else but a simple hieratic epithet of Saturn. Zal. close to Scopia. Majus (or Maesius). the maesius and moesius of the Osci. 4). MHDIZEI Ren. as results from their writings. calls Zalmoxis patroos theos. L.

a temple of Saturn in the straits of the mountains. Aen. 321). to ask for whatever they needed]. VIII. Zal-mox-is travels through Egypt. near the Iron Gates. “As the authors tell us”. Saturn was honored during archaic times with human sacrifices. 236). sculpted in rock. Fast. 95). Latin religious traditions said. 42). in an attitude as if he climbed uphill. in ancient times was the city called Saturnia. The same character is also attributed by the Greek authors to Zal-moxis. during the Christian era. and had spent some time in a subterranean dwelling (lib. By its position at the most important point of the Carpathians and the Danube. the traveler notices even today the bust of a human figure. this figure shows a mysterious man with his sheepskin coat on his back. . had his altars. out of which 8 had been destroyed in later times. Herodotus had heard the same about Zal-mox-is. after ousting Saturn from old Olympus. in the sky. which served as natural gates of the lands beyond. by the ideas and the religious practices of ancient times. L. Saturn. had once disappeared from the sight of the people (Macrobius. a gate at the back of the temple of Saturn”. The folk legends call this megalithic figure “Mos”. of a huge size. I saw and examined myself. in the summer of 1899. Saturn or Zeul-mos of Dacia. the simulacrum of Saturn. Sat. By the name it bears. I. this simulacrum seems to have had in antiquity a particular significance. It represented the great divinity of the country. generally called “Babe”. out of which still exist three old buildings. the name of Sf. Finally. hewn in rock by the hand of prehistoric man. The same historical traditions about both Zal-mox-is and Saturn have existed in both Greece and Italy during antiquity. the ancient representatives of the Pelasgian race. c. called in Dacian times Zalmox-is or Zeul-Mos. under whose special tutelage were the straits of the Iron Gates. and Saturn appears in all historical traditions as also reigning at the same time over Egypt and over a large part of Libya. – Saint Peter). on the coast called Sfantul Petru (TN. this human representation on this fine promontory of the Danube. I. I. together with the Titans. Hesiod calls Saturn an “astute”. and at the same time tell us that a long time ago a group of 9 human figures existed here. (Tradition heard in the village Gura-Vaii. Petru was given to the hill on which this simulacrum stands. 7). and finally. At the most important point in the southern range of the Carpathians. This had been one of the rules of the religious institutions of Pelasgian times. as Herodotus writes. TN – today here is the site of the great hydro-electric dam on the Danube). simulacra and annual sacrifices in the mountains. that this man-god (andropos-daimon) had disappeared suddenly. sent one of them every five years with a mission to Zal-mox-is. the sanctuaries and simulacra of Saturn had to dominate the passes of the mountains. Seen from any side. V. on the territory of which this simulacrum stands. Saturn is a deus in statu abscondito. IV. un latens deus (Virgil. In particular the Greek theogonies tell us that Jove. and this explains why. imprisoned him in a vast subterranean space. 7). and the Getae.[2. in front of the eyes of the Thracians (Getae). virorum victimis (Macrobius. writes Varro (L. As god of the sky and the heights. Sat. “on the site where today is the mountain Capitol. a gate once called Saturnia and today Pandana. Ovid. this figure sculpted in rock near the Cataracts of the Danube presents one of the most important prehistoric monuments of the country. during the building works of the national road which passes under this hill towards Verciorova. called “Tartaros”.

the great protector of Dacia. who protected the sailors from accidents on water. “Virful Mosului” (TN – the Peak of the Old man). The archaic figure on the coast of the hill. once so religious. the earth and the waters. Saturn alone was the one who had ruled over the sky. which represented Zeul-mos. so dangerous for the navigation with oars and sails. to this great representative of prehistoric religion and civilization. It was he who calmed the storms. the dangerous Cataracts of the Danube. . represented also in antiquity the protective divinity of the sailors who navigated through this strait. Earlier than the gods of the Greek Olympus. obscure reminiscences that once these heights had been consecrated to the cult of Saturn. Petru. who calmed the waves. have existed without doubt in other parts of the Carpathians too.Near the Iron Gates of the Carpathians there existed in antiquity. that barrier of rocks which rise from the depths of its bed and produce a formidable speeding of the current and violent eddies. The age of this monument from the Iron Gates and the Cataracts of the Danube. “Piscul Mosului”. to the times antedating the Argonauts. called today Sf. according to the legends about which we will speak later. Such primitive simulacra. goes back. Various hills and mountain peaks from the territory of our countries have even today the significant names of “Mos”. and still do.

Agamemnon was also honored with the name of Zeus (Lykophron. which in the beginning had been attributed to Uranos and Saturn. but they simply called them Theous.v. as known by history to this day. During Graeco-Roman antiquity. with its forms of Dis. towards whom Jove turns his eyes from Troy (Homer. XII. Thesaurus.233). Amanus.59). 10).M. as well as the ritual. XIII. The Pelasgians. to whom Saturn was assimilated. 349. Saturn. we find at the Pelasgians of Cappadocia another religious reminiscence from their European country. Apart from the archaic cult of Zeus Dacie. as well as the Latin Jupiter (diu’piter. Pauly. Zeus Dodonaios Pelasgichos from Epirus (Homer.6). Zeus Peloros (Batonis Sinopensis. But much more famous and ancient was the cult of the “too good and too great god” of the Abi and the Agavi. while Aeneas was named Jupiter (Preller-Jordan. they worshipped in Cappadocia the great God from the north of the Istru. lib.321). Geographica (Ed. to whose hecatombs came all the gods (Homer. Fragm. VII. p. c.1124) and so was Hercules (Aelianis. Pindar. from the north of Thrace. 2. Real-Encyclopadie. Saturn appears to have been also worshipped as Zeus Dachie. over Hellespont and Phrygia. near the mountains called Taurus.33.PART 2 – Ch. Graec. deus pater). as Herodotus tells us. Aethiopia). divus pater. were later replaced in the public cult with the expressions of Zeus and Jupiter (Macrobius. settled in the lands of Cappadocia in Asia Minor. worshipped on the mountain Alban. Zeus Papaios of the Scythians (Herodotus. were only simple appellations (Stephani. the Hellenic Jove of the theomachy. We find authentic traces of the extended cult of the great divinity of Dacia. .I. 1). The most famous cult of the great “Pelasgian god”. v. H.423.5). These Abi and Agavi. X. descended from the heights of the Carpathians. the divinity of light and atmospheric phenomena. Even around the beginning of the Christian era. These colonies of mountain shepherds. Didot). I. of prosperity and abundance.5 (The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. the Greek Zeus. zei. as supreme divinity of Dacia.106.v. IV. Iliad. XvII. Aen. Real-Encyclopadie. and near the sources of the Euphrates. took also with them the sacred memory of the supreme divinity venerated in their country. From the historical point of view of the beliefs. the most just of all men.XII. was at Dodona in the Epirus. the historic representative of the tilling of the earth. In fact though. gods (lib. 52). One characteristic belief of all the Pelasgian tribes was that their national God listens and understands better their prayers and needs. who had usurped the throne of Saturn.v. Deus (Eolian) and Sdeus (Beotian). XIII. belonged to the large family of the pious Hyperboreans. Saturn as Zeus Dachie and Dokius Caeli filius. or ‘Omoloios from Thessaly and Beotia (Suidas). 5. 94. Alex. Jupiter avus of the Trojans (Virgil.40). A. II. I.v.592). Hist. Anti-Taurus. c. v. Pyth. but the great God of the Pelasgian nation. had in the beginning no particular names for their divinities. II. as personifications of the divinity of the sky and the earth. R. until late in the historical epoch. IV. Iliad. called by them Zeus Dachie. various pastoral Pelasgian tribes emigrated from the Lower Danube. Pauly.219-220) and Jupiter Latiaris. These names of theos and deus. Iliad. by their sweet mores and their dwellings at the north of the Istru. lib. v. Even from the most obscure times of prehistory. did not represent the god of the third generation. XVI. and after passing over Thrace. and this Zeus Dacie had with them a particular pontificate (Strabo.

Dagusa (Ptolemy. VIII. X.They said. Domana. had still kept as inheritance the cult and institutions of the religion of Zeus Dacie. I. (Stesimbrotus. The inhabitants of Crete represented their great Zeus surrounded by the seven stars of Ursa Major. Scardus.4). 19. II p.6. Hist. de Grecs. Rimnena or Romnena (Strabo.c.10). But primitive traces of the religion. III. exactly as Scythes. lib. Geogr. Geogr. V. as we can ascertain from the writings of antiquity. XXXIV. their idiom also had a very pronounced Pelasgian character. A river is called Apsorrhus (Ptolemy. 1. 3. VII. Didot. I. H. while the emperor Claudius founded in Cappadocia a Roman colony in the city named Archelais (Pliny. Gauraena. 4). Geogr. removed from the Carpathians during the times of power and expansion of the Pelasgian race. Dascusa. had been the first to teach the people to build edifices from clay (Pliny. 4). III. the large and fertile island of the Mediterranean. according to what Pausanias tells us (lib. Orsa. lib. the sons of Saturn. a hieratical symbolic expression of their worship of the supreme divinity of the Pelasgians from the north of Istru.1). p.8). lib. they also venerated the great divinity of the Earth. exactly as the inhabitants of Delos and Delphi worshipped with a special fervor Apollo the Hyperborean. By his genealogy and by his civilizing role. Vol. Pausanias.XII. The authors of antiquity considered that under Ursa Major dwelt the Getae and the Scythians. Scordisci. Dokius is a simple eponym. of the Greek theogonies. 3. VI. The Romans treated them as friends and allies. Campae. cult and institutions attest. Aen. that the sacred image of Diana. 23. L.7-8) that he dwells in a barbarian land. contemporary of Pericles. as Gellius tells us. under the constellation of Ursa. lib. apa) and a mountain Scordicus (Ptolemy. who had invented the bow and arrows (Ibid.N. XII. 57. eccles. on the shores of the Black Sea. Diodorus Siculus tells us that they were called Dactyli. 2.187). that his country of origin was Scythia. diminutive for water. whose powerful centre had once been in the Carpathians of Dacia. the Dacians are the ones who dwell under the constellation of Ursa Major (Coleti. the son of Jove. p. Dacora (Sozomenis. and the Corybanti as descendents of Saturn – Frag. Apart from their religious beliefs and traditions. lib.Didot.Paulinus. And with St. This Zeus Dachie appears also with the name of Dokius filius Caeli in the ancient traditions of the Pelasgians. VII. mountain tribes identical with the Corybanti (Strabo. The most ancient inhabitants of this island were Pelasgian of origin. Graec. Finally. Morthula. lib. so much venerated in Taurica (Crimea).263. indicates by his name. gave them all the freedoms they asked for.c. 57.6). N. The cult of Zeus Dacie was also dominant even from the most obscure times. seqq).. the “Great Mother”. H. was in their possession. he was a genial representative of the Pelasgian race of Dacia. 16.169). XXXI. Hist. P. Part of the localities occupied by these Pelasgians of Cappadocia.7. where Dicia was only a geographical variant of the name Dacia (C.Virgil.I. V. lib. mountain of Illyria). meaning Dactuli. Their particular weapons were the bow and arrows (Plato.II.v. until late in the historical epoch (Duruy. lib. XII. writes (Trist. Lib. appear not only on the territory of Cappadocia. in Crete. Hist. had the names of: Cerasus. and they were the first people in those parts who extracted metals from the earth and processed them. Corne. . It is the same religious tradition which dominated in Cappadocia and in Crete. 6. These are very eloquent testimonies about their Pelasgo-Latin character. V. The poet Ovid. Illyricum sacrum.9). who. this Dokius filius Caeli was identical with Saturn. even the right to have a king of their own (Diodorus Siculus. 203).57 – exactly as the Latins called themselves Saturni gens . 11). V. Romanian “apsora”. people in Upper Pannonia. These tribes of shepherds and mine workers. lib. H. as their traditions.17). considers the Dactyli as the sons of Zeus. the son of the Sky. 2. Geographica.3. where live the Getae and the Scythians. 3). VII. Strabo. under the name of Ma (Strabo. lib. p. beliefs.19. Ed. VII. called also Apollo Dicaeus (Pliny. lib. Tom.81). in his sad elegies from Tomis. Corna. Ed. H.

according to what Grigorie de Tours tells us (II. L. in the north-east parts of Thessaly. On an inscription from Numidia it is mentioned a Homvllivs Satvrninvs miles legionis III Aug (C. [1. both Greek and Roman. and Minutius Felix. 131) [1]. 1643). tell us that all the writers of antiquity. to receive the Christian religion. 29-31. near the valley Tempe. p. who knew deeply the pagan folk beliefs (Apolog. In folk Romanian language. wishing to convince her husband. a name which presents a special importance for the history of the primitive times of Dacia. is named “Omi” (Grimm. We find the same divinities. I. 6. But not only in Thessaly. borrowed from the Pelasgians and worshipped by the Germans. Tertullianus.M. 96). In the public cult and the folk traditions of antiquity. Nr. and the names you give to these gods are “men” (TN – omeni) and not “gods”. Tuisto and Mannus (Omi). 10). According to the Greek writers (Ephorus.. Only Pausanias connected it with the mountain Homolos of Thessaly). 1875). in wood. a high mountain. Saturn honored in the archaic cult with the name ‘Omolos (Omul). as Strabo says. Saturn had also the epithet of ‘Omolos. or Tatal and Omul. Around the end of the 5th century. D. I. In the oldest German poems the supreme god of the German tribes.I. his contemporary (Octavio. graec. The divinity Omi was also called Mann in German language.PART 2 – Ch. mentioned even today in an archaic Romanian folk poem]. We find the same name in the northern parts of Europe. or in metals. ancient Greek and Roman literature understood Saturn. on one of its highest peaks had once existed a simulacrum of this Homol-os. Deutsche Mythologie. called Saturn “homo”. L. the high divinity of the physical and moral world was called Zeus ‘Omoloios (Suidas – The epithet of Homoloios given to Jove was not understood by the authors of antiquity.I. queen Clotilda of the Francs. 13).26. a province inhabited in the beginning by barbarians. addressed him. 256). but in Beotia also. on another inscription from the Provincia proconsularis we find a woman called Homvlia Satvrnina (C. In ante-historical times the Pelasgians had formed a quite extended ethnic stratum in Germany.6 (The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. Grimm explains this Mannus as “homo”. this word could have no other meaning but that of Tatal (TN – the Father). king Clodovic I. the following words: “The gods you venerate are figures sculpted in stone. Certainly. . meaning that even here the barbarian names of Homvllivs and Homvlia were interpreted in the Latin language with Satvrninus and Stavrnina. the most fertile and rich in springs. Nr. Lactantius. I. was called from immemorial times ‘Omolos. which represented an ante-Homeric divinity.I. The German mythographers and historians could not find to this day a justified etymological and historical explanation of the word Tuisto. Hist. Frag. which formed a Pelasgian territory par excellence. and Grimm. which has conserved to this day a real wealth of archaic Pelasgian words. Tutu (TN – read Tutsu) means Tata. VIII.XII. We find the same proof with the epigraphic monuments. Doubtless. VIII. Wodan or Guodan. It is a positive fact that under this mysterious name of ‘Omolos.

In Romanian folk traditions has been preserved to this day the memory of the name “Omul”. we can draw here the following conclusion: The word ‘Omolos appears in Pelasgian antiquity as a general name. this figure from Gaul had at his waist an archaic axe. on the territory of ancient Troy. because Saturn. called by Greek authors drepanon (Hesiod. which at Romans was entirely consecrated to Saturn. And as distinctive attribute of his worldly power. Fragm.7. c. These figures of the public cult. 162). In his right hand he had. I. or arpe (Ibid. the month of December. Sat. whose principal feast days were the Saturnalia (Batonis Sinopensis. 18): Antandros means “in front of Andros”. covered on his head and forehead with a cloak which covers his whole body. On the basis of this positive data. which Hesiod describes as “angular” and “gigantic”. XI. an instrument for cutting. sometimes wearing sandals on his feet (after a bronze figurine from the Louvre museum) and bent down by the weight of his great age. as divinity of the universe was also venerated as the god of light (Macrobius. as attribute of him.97).Also. Finally. for example baietandru. Andros. I. p. or of the “feast of the Man” (TN – sarbatoarea Omului). The ancient Greeks called the icon of a man. Sat. Namely. this genealogical poem was a sort of “Enumeratio deorum”. Fast. The meaning is the same. as an old man with a white beard. On its face are represented the sun and the moon. 179). bears even today at the Romanian people the name of Andrea or Indrea (Marian. origin and deeds of the various divine generations. copilandru – TN: older boy. It contained in successive order the name. Martial. given to the first simulacra sculpted on the rocks of the mountains. 6). Saturn was represented with a Pelasgian rustic figure. 627.4). or in other words it is “the month of the Man” (TN – luna Omului). but we cannot know for sure if the origin of the word andros is Greek or Pelasgian (in the Romanian language Andru appears today only as a suffix. andrias. emphasize the fact that the Pelasgian religion was the first to introduce in Europe the rudimentary images of the gods in human forms. V. in the form of a short legend in verse. island south-east of Eubea. [2. to which a particular holy power is attributed when recited. I. once called Ant-andros. Mela gives the same explanation (I. The meaning of this name is “in front of the Man (Om)”. presents Saturn in the shape of a menhir or a conical stone. Holly days at the Romanians. in the ancient traditions of Thessaly had been preserved a particular memory about a “Gigangic Man” (TN – Om). with hair reaching to his shoulders (intonsus avus). One of the most important megalithic monuments of Gaul. the remains of an ancient folk theogony called “The big reckoning” were preserved. Pelasgian city under the mountain Ida. as well as the name of “Omul” given them. or a large hammer. . I. or “in front of the Man (Om)”]. In Greek-Roman antiquity. 22). which represented in human forms the supreme divinity of the religion. as symbol of agriculture (Macrobius. This archaic name of ‘Omolos was later replaced in some parts of Greece and Asia Minor with the term andros [2]. I. By its contents. and especially the statues and columns. Antandros. older child). as well as that of his rustic emblem. This characteristic emblem of the old god was called falx by the Romans and was assimilated to the sickle. Theog. Ovid. The origin of this iconic representation of Saturn goes back to prehistoric times. which Saturn had in the ancient religion. his head covered with a sort of veil.

p. identical with Jupiter Ruminus of the Latins. Omul mare. From the Father high up in the sky. [3. With 9 altars. He is the first to build a big church of wood. emblem of the power of the empire. The hatchet was a primitive weapon. A big Man emerged. Egypte et Chaldee. with 9 little altars … (G. A big splinter was cut. II.This folk poem begins by presenting Saturn under the name Omul Mare (TN – the Big Man). the father of rains and atmospheric changes. in front of the consuls. has in Romanian traditions a “big hatchet” or a “hammer” at his waist [3]. The Roman pontiffs also had a hatchet as historical insignia (Preller. A big cloud rised up. whose history has vanished. p. Banat) . high. The god Ramman of the Assyrians. A big forest emerged. with a big hatchet. Catana. And from the big Man. with a big piece of wood. it represented the insignia of power. a divinity of Pelasgian origin. dictators. the scepter of that time. [4. exactly as he had been venerated once as ‘Omolos by the Thessalians. the most sacred temple of Pelasgian traditions. which were born in front of the ancient kings. supporting the sky with his head. but which appears to have been much more primitive than the White Monastery from the island of the Black Sea [4]. R. He appears as the first founder of religion. also had a hatchet in their middle. As symbolic attributes of his worldly power and reign. and during the republic. And from the big piece of wood. was also shown sitting on a mountain. etc. praetors.662)]. From the big cloud. with 3 or with 9 altars. and holding an axe in his hand (Maspero. and a big church was made.135). also called Dumnezeu. M. This “Big Man” (TN – Om mare) of Romanian traditions is descended from the “Father from the Sky” (TN – Tatal din Ceriu). The Roman fasces. Valea Dienei.

in Galia Transpadana (Ed. cf. Mehedinti district.Around our place. 458). 27-28). About the other names and legends of this powerful monarch of prehistoric times.16.Sevastos. or the son of Om. and it is said at the death bed of a sick person. and if he recited if fluently. the sick will get well. “The big reckoning” firstly glorifies the big Man. mountain in Arges district. p. Archaic simulacra with the name of “Omul” seem to have once also existed in the upper parts of Italy. NW of the village Bala-de-sus. Pinder.81) These archaic Pelasgian theogonies seem to have served as model and also as principal sources for the poem of Hesiod. celebrates the divine triumph of Jesus over the Jews. says G.251. Such names. mountain on the territory of the village Brosceni. Even Jesus is called “the son of Om” (Mathew. Anonymus of Ravenna and the geographer Guido mention the locality called “Omula” near the Alps. Catana. The prophet Daniel (c. SE of the rural village Caneni. Dorohoi district. human being) represented in antiquity a high divine power. While the main goal of Hesiod’s Theogony is the victory of Jove over Saturn and the Titans. as we still find today. Suceva district. the glory. Delul Omului (TN – the Hill of the Man). the highest point of the Bucegi mountains. with 9 altars … (Haverna village. To make a big monastery. are the following: Virful Omului (TN – the Peak of Man). c. about his country and his political deeds. There was a big Man. Omul de petra (TN – the Man of stone). old in days”. p. because we must know the character of the ancient simulacra of Dacia. with 9 doors. On the territory of ancient Dacia. as Jove also had the epithet of “Homoloios”. The word “Om” (TN – Man. this folk prayer is also called “The big reckoning”. various mountain peaks have once been consecrated to the Omul divinity. and in the second part of this poem. we shall talk later. in the history of the Pelasgian empire .13) says that he saw in his visions “the son of Om”. to cut a big piece of wood. it is believed that the sick man will die. There exists also another remarkable resemblance.7. he went to the big forest With a big axe. Tales. Virful Omului. We talked in this chapter about Saturn as divinity. who came on the clouds of the sky and took the reign. and the kingdom from “the one. If the person who recites it stumbles or makes a mistake. under the influences of the Christian cult.

which is the culminant point of the massif of Bucegi. This mountain. Saturn as Zeus aristos megistos euruopa.PART 2 – Ch. one to Cerus manus. The great simulacrum of Saturn as Zeus aristos megistos euruopa. by the human figure which is about twenty meters in front of it …. In prehistoric antiquity this was the holy mountain of the Pelasgian pastoral tribes. (From a photo taken by Prof. of a formidable size. Sculpted in a rock. Between the two is seen a conglomerate of sandstone. and both were once consecrated to the supreme divinities of the Pelasgian race. in the year 1900). [1. usually covered in clouds. rises a gigantic column. as Strabo writes – VII. 3. by all its characteristics.XII. which forms a band (the forehead and cheeks)…] . Le Marton writes about the position and geological constitution of this rock: It represents a steep slope on the south side of the peak called Omul. the image of the supreme divinity of the Pelasgian times [1]. This titanic figure from the mountains of ancient Dacia. Em. Le Marton from composed of three parts. On the highest point of Omul mountain. the upper part (above the forehead) is the remainder of a huge calcareous block. also called “Omul” (TN – the Man). show. It can be seen that the rock…. 7. 5) The two highest peaks of this mountain bear even today the names of Caraiman and Omul. The most important mountain in the southern range of the Carpathians is Bucegi. a human representation sculpted in live rock. aigiochos. the other to Saturn. aigiochos. similar to the lower part (from the mouth down).7 (The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. and on another peak in its proximity there still exists today the most important simulacrum of the prehistoric world. of a truly formidable size. His colossal simulacrum on Omul mountain in the Carpathians. (This is the same mountain which the Dacians considered as holy. on the peak of Omul mountain. which is set apart by its majestic height and by the expansion of its horizon. was once very famous. for which the extensive plains from the north of Istru were as important as the valleys and crests of the Carpathians. once called of the Hyperboreans. megas Ouranos.The rock …. the highest point on the SE arch of the Carpathians.

this is how much superior I am than the gods and men”.470 seqq). These words. Their great feasts of Saturnalia were called Peloria. to all the lands of Hellada. who fertilized the fields. Bring a gold chain and tie it on Uranos (with the meaning of mountain). but all of you must listen to me. then I will instantly pull you up. but when I will decide to grab the chain. graec. and then they will know that I am the most powerful of all gods. which Homer had certainly extracted from the ancient ballads of the nomad minstrels. which fed many people”. at the same time with the Pelasgian tribes. on the territory of the holy Hyperboreans. The great god of Homer’s Iliad (VIII. no matter how hard you will try. But if you gods wished so. or in other words. p. and this Peloros was considered by the Tessalians as identical with Saturn. the renown and legends of this sacred mountain also descended with them. as I want to tell you what is in my heart. to whom the most imposing heights of the mountains were everywhere consecrated. The Olympus and Uranos of Homer are the holy mountains of theogony. “at the ends of the earth. De Thessalia. RealEncyclopadie. wanting to give the other Olympians an idea about the immensity of his physical power. The religion of Uranos and Gaea. which exudes a sovereign expression of dignity and an immense power. 113).p. XIV. The colossal figure from the Carpathians of Dacia.v. and the earth and the sea. but the ancient Olympus from near Okeanos Potamos or Istru. the Gigant or the big Man (Om). addresses them like this: “Listen to me all. you will not be able to drag from Uranos to the plain. there. had also the epithet Peloros. with their names. try your luck. as it had developed in the principal and powerful centre from the Lower Istru. in Fragm.v.129. could represent only the great national god of the Pelasgian tribes.According to the religious ideas of the Pelasgians. 4. VIII. Ourea macra (Hesiodus. the god of thunder. emigrated southwards from the Carpathians.592). the great God of this race was shown intentionally in gigantic forms. Because of this. Hist. Iliad. Over my word nobody should pass. and. and throw them in the dark and remote Tartaros. where Uranos. where the “Origin of the gods” was (Homer. their legends about the origin of the gods. where the Iron Gates are. where the people resembled the gods. At the time of the migrations of Pelasgian tribes from the Carpathians towards the southern lands. . frag. the supreme divinity of the Pelasgian religion. the entire system of the Pelasgian doctrines.199-205). Iliad. Pauly. The Olympus of the Iliad is not the Olympus of Thessaly. or the Danaians. gods and goddesses. the same had their beliefs.349. and where these Titans warred with one another for the mastery of the world. then let all gods and goddesses get a hold on it. the one who shook the earth. Theog.v. they will return beaten and shamed to Olympus. refer in fact to the holy mountains about which we are talking here. because if I found out that one or other of the gods went in secret to help the Trojans. lightning and rain. so that by the enormous size of the simulacrum it could express at the same time the power and majesty of this divinity. Asia Minor and down to Egypt. where there is a very deep abyss underground.19-27). neither goddess. As the civilization and the sweet mores of the Pelasgians had an enormous influence on the Greek people. and I will tie the chain on the peak of Olympus and everything will stay airborne. of Saturn and Rhea. so that you would be convinced. or I will catch them. the valleys and the mountains. your highest master and god.v. of the Sun and the Moon. meaning feasts of the “gigantic Om” or the “big Om” (Batonis Sinopensis. Gaea and Saturn had their residence (Homer. and their forms of the cult. IV. and the Copper Threshold. nor god.

Juno. The Antiochians call to this day this head Charonion”. This “God with the wide face” gave to king Tros of Troy. is his wide face. accept that the radical of opa is reduced to oph (opos). as for example wide streets. wide space. Iliad. During the primitive times of history. The authors of antiquity were doubtful about the true meaning of the epithet euruopa. symmetry and speed. 10). in one of his hymns. Achilles. wide river bed. He then wrote something on the head and he put and end this way to the epidemic. This Charonion represented in reality Zeus charaios (Preller. This was a gigantic head encircled with a crown. [2. were in the north of Thrace. And the race of horses from Moldova was renowned up to the 18th century for their body. With Eschyl (Suppl. the divine winged horse. most great. 77). V. called “immortal horses” by some authors (Iliad. Myth. So far we’ve considered this colossus from the Carpathians of Dacia only from the point of view of the religious ideas of prehistoric times. and in modern literature we still cannot find a satisfying explanation. addressing a prayer to Zeus (Dodonaios) Pelasgichos on Troy’s plain. wide forehead. some with latioculus. as Homer tells us.146). sound. has two remarkable particularities. V. Finally we have to add that Homer uses the adjective euru almost everywhere. the king of Syria. gr). Theog. Pegasus.I. the wide face. 233 – 241). V. v. the “God most good. 265-267). the Scythians were in antiquity the most famous riders. One of these distinctive particularities of the colossus on Omul. latum habens oculum (Stephanus Thes.]. 205): “During the reign of Antiochus Epiphanus. 1831 p. meaning the “Head of God”. near the sources (meaning cataracts) of the river Oceanos or Istru (Hesiod. tells them “Jove orders you to come as fast as you can on mount Ida and after you arrived there. which prove that this simulacrum had been considered in the Homeric antiquity the most sacred and ancient image of the supreme divinity. with which the powerful divinity of the Pelasgian world was invoked [2]. The ancients have placed also in the northern hemisphere the Pegasus constellation. most ritual epithets. We have now to examine this simulacrum from the point of view of its symbolic characters and its special history. [3. As it is known. face. agility and resistance (Cantemir. extremely imposing of Jove. attributed to the great ante-Homeric God. by the expression euruopa was meant the shape of the divine figure. some horses of the most excellent race. the Greek writer Ioannis Malalae tells the following in his Chronography (Bonnae. to look at his face”.293) [3]. and with a wide face” (Zana ariston megiston euruopa). calls the supreme god of the physical and moral world of his times. late-cernens. eye. etc.About a similar huge figure. but have interpreted incorrectly this epithet. was born. The hunting horse of Adrian was called Borysthenes (Dio Cassius. . Homer. Gr. translating Zeus euruopa with late-sonans. according to legends. v. facing the city and that valley. lib.v. I. voice.1059). This majestic figure which dominates even today the most important height of the Carpathians. calls him at the same time the Pelasgian God with the wide face and who dwells far away (Homer. p. a man who was learned in religious mysteries. sculpted in a rock near Antiochia. So with Homer. and only in strict material sense. the horses most renowned for their shape. Some authors derive this epithet from oph (opos) = phona. LXIX. According to the ideas of antique theology though. Descriptio Moldaviae. Jove also has an immense face. others with late-videns. ordered them to sculpt a rock in the mountain which dominated the city.32)]. as the high divinity of the sky and earth was presented and worshipped by the Beotians. being an epidemic in Antiochia and many people dieing. addressing Apollo and Iris (Iliad. Others on the contrary. a certain Leios. XV. These are the most ancient.

or from the “black country” (Ibid. v. 884. Odyss. writes Hesiod. is from the point of view of rhapsodic geography. and makes the people enjoy in festivities the fruits of their labor. 365. 439). from the most remote “corner” of the earth (Ibid. In the battle with the Titans. he distributes his bounty to the honest and just men.v. I. And the same name is used by Hesiod (Theog. and here she found the son of wide-faced Saturn. 514). and burns with his lightning the insolents and malefactors (Hesiod. It is to be noted that Homer calls here the highest peak of Olympus mountain. De mundo. 689-694). v. XXI. sitting separately from the other gods. 497-499) [4]. Jove throws his lightning from Uranos and Olympos at the same time. as Domn (TN – ruler) of lightning and thunderbolts. XIV. gives prosperity to the cities. near the Ocean (or Istru) with its deep whirlpools (Ibid. Odyss. DACIA. where Jove convokes them especially for this purpose (Iliad. [5. VIII. both with Homer and Hesiod. 3. I. and the great sovereign of the world [5].69). identical with Caraiman. 4. the vast forest was set alight all around. 299. 77). head. 1857). Hesiod. but not the infinite space above the earth. the other gods dwell on the valleys of Olympos (Iliad. which appears personified in Romanian legends under the name of Caraiman. Finally. Zeus euruopa is the god whose residence is on the sacred Olympos of Uranic times. v. on the highest point of Olympos. the creator of “the first people”. XX. which was in close proximity of Olympos. Theogony. expresses only the notion of mountain (Aristotle. departing in early morning.v.Papinius Statius (Opera quae extant. On a coin from the time of Antoninus Pius. But the assemblies of the gods take place on Olympos. Homer. Zeus euruopa is the god of justice (Hesiod. I. Because of this lightning. 391). from where Jove followed the Trojan war (Iliad. Ouranos and ‘Olympos appear as two heights of the same mountain chain. Lipsiae. Vol.119). VII. blesses the sheep flocks. Both with Homer (Iliad.119). c. climbed on the great Uranos. v. IV. This megas Ouranos.201).6). 5). ieron oros of Strabo. the dwellings of the great God are on a physical terrestrial height. and on Uranos (Iliad. in Hesiod’s Theogony (v. In Homer’s Iliad. v. 27. This is an important text for the history of those obscure times. v. And here megas Ouranos. makes the women give birth to children like their parents. and on Olympos. on her way to Olympus. which without doubt had a religioushistorical importance. [4. Only the palace of Zeus is on majestic Olympos.The following words of Homer are especially memorable. is shown holding in her right hand a group of mountains (Eckhel. on which Jove was seated. choruna. v. Iliad.229 seqq. as they refer to Zeus euruopa: “Thetis (Achilles’ mother). I. VIII. Similarly. who lived for a long time at the court of Domitian. . which has many peaks” (Iliad. meaning top. Opera et Dies. the imposing mountain of Dacia.514. 195. as divinity. v. usually covered in snow]. abundance to the earth. increases the bees. calls often Dacia only as verticem and montem. consecrated to Cerus manus. XX. XI. which Thetis climbs first. 378. Theog. XIV. acorn to the oaks. Doctrina numorum. Olympos was a mountain in the northern region. And the poet P. 62) for the highest point of Olympus]. he avenges the wrongdoings. Homer also calls Choruna the peak of Mount Ida. 267. and in Romanian folk incantations. 157). 197) and Hesiod (Theog. 281). they were the holy mountains of Dacia.

the figure of a gigantic shield appears in very regular and well preserved forms. v. ran with it to the Greeks’ camp and urged them to war against the Trojans (Ibid. and all the sacred images of antiquity were characterized by an infinite variety of symbolic attributes. 447). in collusion with Juno. as the Giants are often confused with the Titans). V. 35-38) transmitted this legend. each of it valuing one hundred oxen (II. Similar symbolic signs were shown also on the sacred image of the supreme divinity in ante-Homeric theogony. 593-594. . Near the right shoulder of the God. as results from another place in the Iliad. 229). This shield is one of the most principal and archaic attributes of the supreme divinity of the heroic times. 308). Homer’s Iliad describes this shield as priceless. 733. Fragm. In the memorable war fought by the Acheans (Greeks) with the Trojans. v. that the sky and earth were terrified. so worshipped. But. and which will never disappear. and to this particularity seem to refer Homer’s words. and so unique in its way? We think yes! Homer places the origin of all the gods. Theog. v. a martial terror. Opera et Dies. took this shield without Jove’s knowledge. v. XI.I use this term. saying that Vulcan had split with his copper hatchet Jove’s head (Zeus). the great God of the Pelasgian world has also the epithet of aigiochos. so that it gave victory to all those in whose camp it was. 124).Another very apparent particularity presented by the archaic type of the great God of Dacia. which the times could not age. v. v. rock. 11. Hesiod. the “Terrible war tumult” and the Gorgon’s head. only later this word came to signify the calcareous. known and worshipped in Greek lands. v. that time could not age it and it will never disappear. or. from which Minerva had emerged with such clamor. very finely woven. religious beliefs were clothed in symbolism. so that the terrified Acheans will retire to their ships (Homer. telling him to shake it on the war theatre. With Homer. belongs to the antique symbolism. According to ancient traditions. This was the miraculous shield which inspired on one side the courage in battle. VII. But Minerva. On the calm and intelligent forehead of this god. According to the old Pelasgo-Hellenic legends. meaning “the one who holds the shield” (Homer. can be seen the natural or artificial traces which represent a split in the head. the sinister and terrible monster (Ibid. On it were represented the “Quarrel”. XVII. at Istru. 483. and lent him this shield. the noun marmaros had only the simple meaning of stone. in Minervam). the “Bravery”. During the first times of history. mind) was born from the head of Jove. 375. Minerva (from the root men. v. 13.738 seqq). v. 735. as Homer says (Hymn. the shield of great Zeus was of stone or of rock (Ibid. presents another important characteristic symbol. 25. V. From it hung one hundred tassels of gold. mens. In the oldest monuments of Greek literature. on the upper part of the skull. This shield of the powerful God was surrounded all around by religious terrors. The simulacrum of Zeus euruopa from the great Gate of the Carpathians. Iliad. Jove first appeared in battle with this shield during the wars with the Titans and the Gigants (TN. can it be that the origin of this allegorical legend about Minerva’s birth from Zeus’ head was that figure. hard and shiny type of the marble). II. the earth echoed and the Pontos clouded its purple waves. II. We ask now. The poet Pindar (Olymp. on the other. Jove sent Apollo to help the Trojans. Iliad. This shield was made and given to Jove by Vulcan (Ibid. so archaic. in the northern parts of Thrace. XV. 226 seqq). at ‘Ocheanos potamos. V. 920.

according to the side protected by different divinities. From the important extracts from the sacred books of Roman paganism. to the sacred figure.Jove’s shield. from north of the Lower Istru. Sebazius. or the coalition of the Acheans. on the sacred territory of the ancient religion. King Numa. 924). was born from the head of Zeus aigiochos. Minerva. 202. the Lord of thunder and lightning. 23). a simulacrum consecrated by an ancient religion. they do not talk about an abstract divine power. a supernatural power. as results from Homer (Ibid. Science was Minerva’s attribute. In the memorable war on the shores of Hellespont. Religious beliefs were tightly connected to certain legendary simulacra until late in historical times. The peaks of this mountain shook and the earth sank under the God’s weight. when addressing his prayers to Jove from Dodona). to come down from his high residence to Rome. that Minerva was born from the head of Zeus aigiochos. We find the same tradition also in Roman theology. wanted. the father of all ante-Hellenic divinities in antique theogonies. . from which Minerva emerged (Olymp. Savus augustus – according to V. of Zeus aigiochos from the ancient Olympos of theogony. transmitted to us by Cicero. 36). ‘Ocheanos potamos. asked the all powerful God. Iliad. or in the Acheans’ camp. v. in the holy grove near Aventin. The shield (aegis) of great Zeus from the north of the Istru. Homer tells us (Hymn in MInerv. Theog. 920. Maxim. had at the same time an extremely important role in the state life of the Pelasgians. Silius Italicus). this shield appears either in the Trojans’ lines. Macrobius. We’ve established therefore from legends. the empire of Priam. The great national god listened to his prayer and descended from his height to Rome. Sabadius. while for Pindar Coryphe is Jove’s head itself. was born from Jove and Coryphe. V. 499). which the ancients considered at the same time as “the greatest river” of the world. in the region of the Istru. (Achilles was doing the same thing. Sabus. I. v. following the counsel of his wife Egeria. Hesiod. Sebadius. saevus Jupiter (or Sabazius Jupiter. simulacra to which the people attributed in its imagination. VII. It appears as the symbol of their nation’s existence and political independence. and these words refer incontestably to the principal simulacrum of ante-Hellenic religion. north of Thrace. v. I. When Homer and Hesiod describe the majestic figure of Zeus euruopa aigiochos etc. but about a real image. and tell him by what sort of rites and ceremonies will the Romans be able to abate his divine anger in the future. as well as from the characteristics presented by the important simulacrum reproduced above. Minerva. he. According to what the legends tell us. and it appears figured in the same way on the great simulacrum from the Carpathians of Dacia. the goddess revered by the Pelasgo-Greek world. that the new state founded on the shores of the Tiber should possess a protective shield of the great God.738). Lib. The memory of this sacred shield of the great God had been preserved by the Pelasgian tribes that had migrated to Italy. and the traditions place her birth in the Carpathians of Dacia. III. the first king to organize the public cult of the Romans. is the “holy” Istru. because of traditional reasons which today we can not know anymore. Deor. and Homer calls Coryphe the highest peak of ancient Olympos (Iliad. usually covered in snow. the daughter of the Ocean (De nat. a circumstance also confirmed by Prometheus’ legend. about which we shall talk later. until the times of Numa. was worn on the shoulders. so expressive from all the points of view.

IX. which he called ancile. and the mystery with his protective shield. According to Herodotus. v. the great divinity of the Pelasgians told Numa the ritual sacrifices through which his people could. III. given by the powerful god of the Pelasgian nation himself. and promised at the same time that the next day he will give him a sure sign for the safety of the Roman state. 1. c. Herodotus did not know well the northern dialect of the Pelasgians. 460).. [7. and when Numa.Didot. Similarly. where their ethnic traces still appear during historical times under the name of Arrechi [7]. 3. 7. Lib. [6. had their dwellings. VII. was from Aricia. according to Varro (L. and he gave the care of these holy things to the college of priests called Salii (Ovid. lib. And the next day. Strabo mentions (XI. the most antique religious traditions had been preserved by the inhabitants of Aricia. who. according to what traditions tell. lib. We witness here just a religious reminiscence from the ancient country of the Pelasgian tribes from the Lower Danube. This form of this name is without any doubt altered. was called by some Gebeleizis (Herodotus. at the front of his people had lifted his hands in prayer to the supreme divinity. II. knew how to procure for his people such a holy guaranty. he disposed to have a number of similar shields made. I. and Pliny (VI. 2. The legends attribute especially to her the idea of inviting the great Pelasgian God to Rome. Inarime (Aen. 275 seqq. The nymph Egeria. and later on the territory of Dacia. As results from this religious tradition. before entering Italy. According to Strabo (V. In Latium. The Roman ancile had. 11) the ‘Arrechoi among the populations settled near the Meotic lake. c. Dionysos Halikar. the new Pelasgian state had felt a definite need to put itself under the protective shield of the great national divinity. the great God of the Getae. famous for their piety. . Zalmoxis. remembering that the fate of the Roman empire is connected to this shield. From a historical point of view. when the sun appeared on the horizon in all its glory. Virgil calls the territory of the Arimi. This Pelasgian tribe of the Aricians. 12). Numa lifted the shield and brought sacrifices of thanks to the God. under the name of ‘Inariachion (Ed. 1) the Arrechi. and Numa. The northern arm or mouth of the Danube appears with Apollonius Rhodius under the name of ‘Arechos. 18). they have the shape of an oval disc]. a man learned in all the divine and human sciences (Livy. so that the wicked men and enemies could not steal the divine shield. abate or appease the divine anger.Here. the origin of this belief was in the lands of the Lower Istru [6]. “in” being in both cases just a simple preposition of the Pelasgo-Getic dialect from the Lower Danube ]. 71). 43). close to the mouths of the Danube. it was suddenly seen how the sky opened and a shield fell slowly through the air. the shape of the Thracian shields. was the wife and inspiration of Numa in his entire work of religious organization. Fast. in times of need. and “barbarian” and “Scythian” religious institutions truly existed there. and on a bronze coin of the emperor Antonius Pius. Then. near the Meotic Lake. to send him the promised gift. the temple of Diana of Aricia had its origin connected to Diana Taurica. and in some codices of Ptolemy. as can be deduced from different Scythian words which he transmitted to us erroneously. 716). L. XCIV). p.

meaning the “Head of God”. I. and definitely a composed word. were placed on lecterns (Preller-Jordan. head (Pauly. until the time when the Roman armies introduced here the official religion of the empire.806). 99). and when a sizable part of the Latin tribes had not yet migrated to Italy. p. Myth. In some lands of Greece. After Caelus or Uranos. This simulacrum represented in fact the face of a famous prehistoric personality. as it was shown by the enormous simulacrum from the south-eastern arch of the Carpathians. the images of the gods. I. The age of this monument harks back to the great times of the ethnic and political development of the Pelasgians. I. which represented only the heads or busts of the gods. head (Preller. Saturn. I. from chara. Phars. p. Preller. Real-Encyclopadie. and how vast was the secular power of that person. called capita deorum (TN – head = cap). Myth. whose figure was eternized on that rock on the Omul mountain. the God and idealized ruler of the peoples of Pelasgian race. The Trojans also showed the image of Jupiter fulgurator or Jupiter avus.77). at the time of the great funeral repasts. only by the figure of his head. when fate had not yet started to turn sour for the Eastern Pelasgians. R. 535-536). was not an abstract personification of the divinity. By its colossal size. In Italy. And in Rome. as attests the terracotta specimen found by Schliemann in his dig at Troy (Ilios p. this simulacrum expresses also how happy and how glorious were those times.The oldest images of the supreme divinity showed usually only his head. The Boetians gave him also the epithet charaios. . Gr. aigiochos. great Zeus was also worshipped under the name of chephale. Saturn was the great divinity worshipped on the territory of Dacia. from the Omul mountain. Gebeleizis is only a secondary name of Zalmoxis. The last part corresponds to Zes = Zeus and very probably Gebeleizis expresses only the same idea as chephale-Zis = chiphale-Dis or chephale-Dios.596. Gr. The titanic figure of Zeus aristos megistos euruopa. M. Jupiter Latiaris was also called Latiale caput (Lucanis. 149).

and which was the origin of his images. had been made of clay.H. take in hand a stone or a stick. There is a surprising similarity between the simulacrum of Zeus Dachie (figured above) and the bust of Jove at the Vatican. The oldest Roman simulacrum of Jove was called Jupiter Lapis (Cf.PART 2 – Ch. 8. the Romans started to imitate the archaic Pelasgian forms in the iconic representation of their divinities. But which was the primitive type of the Roman Jove. which adorned the big temples of Italy and of the conquered provinces. 12) [1]. present in everything the characters of the archaic Pelasgian style.8 (The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. Arges district)]. . called in Latin theology Jupiter Optimus Maximus. etc” (A. Even from the times of the republic. threw it away (Festus s. The figures of the Lari and the Penati. consecrated by Tarquinius the Old. lib. the Romans had the principle to consider and worship as sacred only the figures consecrated by ancient national traditions and legends. The person making an oath hold a stone in his hand. Hercules. Cicero. 157tells us only that the image of Jove from the Capitol.Marinescu. VII. discovered at Otricoli (figured here). and the rough simulacrum of the Great Mother from Pessinus prove this. Apollo and Diana (Iana). and after pronouncing the sacramental formula. Generally. by one so-called Vulca or Vulga of Veii). [1. no author can say. megistos. “When the peasants take some vow or make a pledge.XII. XXXV. The same rite is still noticed today in some parts of Romania. The most beautiful statues of Saturn. N. Fam. euruopa) and of Jupiter of Otricoli. (Pliny . The figure of Zeus Dachie (aristos. Galasesci village. Lapidem).

[2. Licinius Lucullus took from an island of the Black Sea one of the most archaic figures of Apollo. and his silver locks. showed Jove of Olympia. which was mentioned there until the 5th century. 6). 21 are addressed to Jupiter Optimus Maximus. lib. 22. 13). III. which was consequently placed on the Capitol and called Apollo Capitolinus].358. 972). I. 637). with shorn hair and curls on the forehead. V. 7). I. The Romans though followed the archaic Latin traditions. But. Orestes and Pylades steal from Crimea the sacred figure of Diana Taurica. This is understood even from the epigraphic monuments of the Roman administration. The Greeks.Duruy. that the Greek Jove (Zeus ‘Ellanios s. 794. we cannot know for sure. I. Olymp. the most sacred images and objects were considered to have been those from the regions of the Lower Danube and the Black Sea. II. fallen from the sky. 528-530). 24. (Jupiter tonitrualis on the column of Trajan presents the same type – Frohner. Even during prehistoric antiquity. .86m. with a more oriental type. Hist. 49 – and also a bronze statuette discovered in Hungary and conserved at the British Museum . one to Mars and two others to Mars associated with Cocidius (cascus deus=vetus deus). Pausanias. 5. V. comes to the Hyperboreans to steal the holy golden apples (Apoll. Even in the time of Hadrian. hirsute hair. according to Pausanias (III. Bibl. 16.d.On this Jove-of-stone were made the most fearful oaths and were consecrated the international peace or alliance treaties. and take it to Athens (Euripides. with bushy beard. Ibid.Grecs. consecrated to her by the nymph Taygeta. it seems that the barbarian rustic figure of Jove of Otricoli was following the colossal type of Zeus aristos megistos euruopa from the Dacian Carpathians. p. sent by Eurystheus. By examining very attentively the general character of the forms. T. A fact is fully established though. the daughter of Atlas (Pindar. representing Jove with abundant. Still Hercules. Homer says: “The son of Saturn (Jove) said. d. with the beard cut on the jaws and pointed outwards (Duruy. the consul M. Orestes took the holy image of Diana Taurica firstly to Aricia in Italy (Pauly. where it formed an auxiliary troupe with the name Cohors I Aelia Dacorum. 27). Speaking about the great God of the Trojan times. From the 23 votive inscriptions of these Dacian soldiers. The Roman traditions had been tightly connected to the Pelasgian God from near the Istru even from the times of Numa [2]. 1. soon after the conquest of Dacia. They adopted for their supreme divinity a Pelasgian barbarian figure. in Britain. In the year of Rome 682. 11. or the country of the holy and blessed Hyperboreans. and signaled his approval with his black eyebrows. the king of Mycenae. Iph. a significant part of the population of the province was transferred far away. what shape and what size this simulacrum of old-Latin times had. on the contrary. II. Band p. Hercules. RealEncyclopadie. 79) or to Sparta. moved. a colossal statue of 13. v. Grecs. near vallum Hadriani. Panellenios) was distinguished from the Pelasgian Jove by entirely different characters. until the times of Phidias. and the various details presented by these two monuments. Jupiter Optimus Maximus was therefore a parental divinity very popular with the Dacians. And according to other tradition. Hist. This was the figure of the supreme divinity worshipped by the Pelasgians. comes to the country of Istria to ask from Diana the deer with the golden horns. Jupiter Optimus Maximus was the national god of Dacia. with a plain dress and a half bare chest. and great Olympos shook (Iliad. which fell down from the immortal head. with locks falling on the shoulders. pl. The Argonauts get together in order to steal the holy golden fleece consecrated to Mars.

And if this epithet of Latiaris. So. of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. as represented by the rock on the peak Omul. The bust of Jove of Otricoli presents in all the features of its physiognomy. David. A profound horizontal line. which was modeled after the colossal column which rises on Bucegi Mountain. but Jupiter of the Proto-Latins. Univ. is characterized by abundant hair. but a northern barbarian figure. so famous in the prehistoric world. with its forms Latius. falling on the shoulders in long locks. v. The French archaeologist E. In cult. close to the imposing simulacrum of Zeus euruopa.As type and ideal of divine majesty. Dict. Latioris. a noble but severe ethnic type from the parts of the Lower Danube. it did not designate the Jupiter of the Latins. the consecrated figure of Zeus euruopa. appears to correspond more to euruopa. deor.. 233). from the narrow limits of the lower Tiber. A similar case is presented by the statue of the titan Atlas. settled in the eastern regions of Europe before their partial migration to Italy. from the Naples museum. About this column. or in other words Jupiter of Otricoli is the topical god of Dacia [3]. XVI. Jove of Otricoli is just a simple imitation of the archaic figure of Zeus euruopa. who has studied and described the bust of Jove from the Vatican. Gr. De nat. II. from an archaeological point of view. separates in two the forehead. There exists another very characteristic analogy between these two simulacra. which produces a suggestive eminence of the upper part of the cranium. Iliad. 25). Even the epithet Latiaris. [3. as we also see expressed on the ancient coins of Dacia (see the figure of the Dacian king on the coin shown in Chapter VI.Jupiter). has noted a remarkable artistic irregularity at this figure. The same particular arrangement of the hair is also presented by the bust of Otricoli. The learned archaeologist thinks that the artist wanted to represent in the upper part of the forehead the gestation of Minerva (Larousse. Lib. the great God of the Pelasgian race (Cicero. . says he. Jupiter Optimus Maximus of the Latins was the same divinity as Zeus aristos megistos euruopa. while above the forehead the hair resembled the mane of a lion. to whom Homer addresses his hymn (Hymn. in Jovem) and Achilles his prayers on the battlefield of Troy (Ibid. 4). not the Italo-Latin type. we shall speak in the following chapters. Latius or Latioris had everywhere an ethnographic character. The bust of Jove of Otricoli appears therefore to have been modeled from a type of simulacrum which presented on the forehead of the God the traces of the conception of Minerva].

of viticulture. 591). In this quality. lib. I. I. Ovid. Lib. R. lib. II. 10. VIII. out of whom the first. Mater oreia. XXIX c. 4). G. I. Rhea. or better said interpreted. 9. R. megale theos (Pausanias. [1. 4). 49. 19). Terra Mater (Macrobius. III. lib.57). 58). VI. In this quality. also called Opis by the Romans. p. c. X. in old Pelasgian language. and thea pammator ‘Reie (C. ‘Reia. Rhea. Livy. I. While in ante-Homeric religion Saturn was considered the personification of the supreme being of the sky. the sad image with the covered head. c. Aen. nr. with the term Basilea (Diodorus Siculus. 612). 59). Augustin. Livy. VI. VIII. the springs.9 (The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. 423. the rivers (Pausanias. of the flocks. De legibus lib. his wife. 2670). Gr.I. being older. who had settled during the Neolithic epoch on the plains of the Nile. the word “Raiu” with the meaning of “emperor” has been still preserved in some heroic Romanian songs. Lucretius. N. v. valleys and springs. 3. Geogr. v. From the Greek name of Basilea and the Pelasgian name of Rea. lib. 590 seqq). I. 10). L. and Apia by the Pelasgian Scythians (Herodotus. VIII. N. II. Sat.10). inherited from the ancient Pelasgians. 2). 44. was generally considered as the goddess of agriculture (Macrobius. Civ. and Maja (Macrobius. Deum Mater (Ovid. The same word under the form of Ra (king) is found in the hieratical terminology of the Egyptians. had received the name of the Great Mother].219. 3) and the caves (Ibid. 12. II. Rhea was especially worshipped though as the “Mother of the mountains”. XXIX. L. Sat. Mater ton theon (Ibid. The cult of the Great Mother or Rhea was especially honored in prehistoric antiquity on the Mount Ida near Troy.). was just a simple appellative. Ops (or Opis). The . Varro . 4. II. D. I. queen (Ops Regina. nr. 31. 24. The legendary figure of Niobe from Sipyl Mountain. I. 686. R. c. X. where she was called Mater Idaea (Cicero. 31. Dionysius Halik. C. Gr. Tellus or Terra. Lucretius.XII. In its masculine form. VIII. 12) [1]. lib. Her honorific titles on the territory of ancient Hellada were: Megale Mater ton theon (Diodorus Siculus. II. 607). Sat. Her primitive simulacra existed on the peaks of the mountains even from immemorial times. from the mountain of Lebanon. v. 9. 2670. 32. 6012c). or Mater idaia (Strabo. 2670). to the Great Mother or Rhea were consecrated especially the heights of the mountains. 409. lib. III. as the protective divinity of the shepherds. II. lib. lib. Fast. Metam. Myth. C I.N. L. represented in a newer form the divinity of the earth which gave birth to everything. ‘Rea. ‘Ree. I. Ovid. Myth. The Romans called Rhea in their public cult Magna deum Mater (Lucretius. with the meaning of “regina”. The name Rhea. 285.785.10. lib. 269). I. c. the tradition noted by Diodorus Siculus had made up two sisters. Rhea had the name of Mater turrita (Virgil. IV. and as having founded the cities and the citadels. v. nr. and as Mater ferarum. Macrobius. I. Mater montium (Diodorus Siculus. In Greek legends the name Rhea is sometimes replaced. represented in reality only the ancient simulacra of the divinity of the Great Mother (Preller. 12). while in the official Roman cult with the appellative “regina” (C. Gaea. lib. lib. the figure turned to stone of Ariadna from the island of Naxos.PART 2 – Ch. as reigning over the forests. Ma (Stephanus Byz. Preller. V. the mistress of the wild animals (Lucretius. II. v. Rhea. 103-104. X. lib. lib. VI. c. V. the last name having the meaning of grandmother or old woman (TN – mosa). v.404). Fast. IV.

40. “The Mother”.Phrygians and the Trojans who dwelt near Mount Ida worshipped. Another mountain from the upper region of this river. Pessinuntica and Cybele after the different locations of her sanctuaries. and the origin of this term in our countries predates incontestably the Roman domination. Rhea or Cybele. V. is called even today Motru or Gura-Motrului (TN – the mouth of Motru . [2. as Hertha for the Svevi. al Romaniei). Roman. As Apia for the Scythians. When Eneas moved Troy on the plain of Italy. had been preponderant even from the most remote ante-historical times [2]. and when king Atalus gave them the ancient figure of the goddess. upon consulting the oracles of the Sibylline books. XVI. The sanctuaries and temples of this goddess had. to look for Mother. read. which had been in the hands of the Phrygians from the most obscure antiquity. to bring the famous simulacrum of the Great Mother from Mount Ida. were discovered various Neolithic bas-reliefs representing a feminine divinity (Cartailhac. Motru is even today the name of a significant river in the western parts of Romania. Dindymene. 259). and whom they called the Great Mother and Idaea. Phrygia is the cradle of the Roman heroes”. The term of Matron or Matroum. important archaeological traces about the cult of this divinity in a very remote epoch. the goddess herself almost followed the ships which transported there the sacred things. Matroum (Pliny. the name of Matroon. H. lib. and the wealthy citadel of Troy. What sort of mother they missed and where to look for her. exactly as the image of Diana from the Tauric peninsula was in the possession of the Pelasgians of Cappadocia. 2). Lat. for whom they made orgies. sculpted in the same type as the following figure. 12). have also the name of Motru. The tradition had been lost. he told her the following: “Go! You will always be ours. 9). X. the mountain Cybele. writes Ovid (Fast. in Gorj district. meaning sacred place. France prehist. or the Great Mother. N. and two other hills from its lower part. Motru is the name of a monastery situated near this river. was a first class divinity. and as Mater deum for the Aestyi from near the Baltic Sea (Tacitus. Later though. 50. lib. during Greco-Roman antiquity. assimilated to Gaea. The Sibylline books. the cult of the telluric divinity.Frundzescu. considered as archaic even during the times of Pausanias (lib. Germ. In the northern parts of Istru and the Black Sea. and to receive her with clean hands when she will arrive”. Dictionar top. who was on Mount Ida. the priests. whose origin was reduced to the most ancient times of the Roman state. the senate decided to consult the oracle of Apollo of Delphi and from there they received the answer to bring the Mother. Also. when Rome became powerful and lifted its head over the subjugated world. I invite you. as indicated also by the name of the river].242). C. contained an archaic tradition regarding the holy simulacrum of Rhea or the Great mother. 3. as it is told. As divinity of mountains and agriculture. Rhea or the Great Mother was one of the most worshipped and popular figures in the religion of the Pelasgian tribes migrated to Italy. appears on the former territory of Dacia under the very old folk form of Motru. v. 20. They show without doubt the simulacrum of the Great Mother. were found in the north-eastern parts of Gaul. according to their tales. With this purpose in mind. P. as Strabo tells us (Geogr. . On the territory of Dacia especially. especially Rhea. The Romans sent a delegation to Asia Minor. 45). But the fathers of Rome did not know how to interpret this mysterious oracle. this verse: “The Mother is not here. which enjoyed a certain celebrity during Romanian history. IV. they did not know. the fine mountain Ida with its springs. She was especially considered as the “Mother” who “gave birth to the Latin people”. Another monastery. dedicated to the religious cult of the great divinity called the Mother of gods. In the sepulchral caverns from near the river Marne (Matrona during the Roman epoch) in France. built as a fortress on the hill located at the confluence of the rivers Motru and Jiu. loved the mountain Dindymos.

according to Greek traditions.668 tells us: Gura-Motrului. imported from the barbarian lands (Plato. dedicated to the Great Mother (C. The Great geographical dictionary of Romania. exactly like the magnificent temple of Apollo at the mouths of the Danube [4]. Mane was the honorific title of Saturn. and with iron gates…. On the territory of ancient Hellada. dedicated to the Mother of gods. like a fortress. Suidas has preserved a precious historical note about the beginning of the cult of the Great Mother in Attica and especially in Athens. or Mamu (Frundzescu. and after fencing it. II. in the parts of today Oltenia.). L. “called Metragurtes. in the wonderful region of Olt.130) shows on the territory of Dacia. but the remains of the palaces here and the building of this monastery after the archaic custom. Cratylus. either Motru. “A man”. proof that near this colonnade there existed in Roman times a commercial market and a renowned temple consecrated to the great divinity of the shepherds and agriculture. But soon after this an epidemic followed. there existed various Matroum. p. and filled in with earth the said gully.293. the origin of the Matrou and the cult of the Mother of gods with the Athenians. At the place where today the tower of Severin rises on some ancient ruins. the most important temple of the Mother of gods seems to have been that from Gura-Motrului [3]. the personification of the earth. 1582). a flourishing religious cult of the benevolent Pelasgian divinity. writes he. fine monastery in Mehedinti district… situated at the foot of the hill from the confluence of the river Motru with the river Jiu.These are precious historical reminders of the fact that once. as a fortress on a hilltop. [4. These sanctuaries were called here by the pastoral and rustic population. erected a statue to Metragurtes. which is surrounded by a wall. III.In this monastery. and the oracle rebuked them and told them to propitiate the soul of the deceased. sacerdos tunicis muliebribus]. But among all these sacred places. on the territory of Filiasi village. The Athenians threw him in a gully and killed him. initiated there the women in the cult of the Mother of gods. a circular temple of the Great mother. . al Romaniei). but an ethnic name. from the locality of origin of this priest of the Great Mother [5]. pl. We also find the same remains of temples and ancient sanctuaries. This was. as these inhabitants tell. Timaeus. they consecrated it to the Mother of gods. [3. and two other places are called Silistea from Manesci and Silistea from Manoica (M. The Column of Trajan (Froener. Various heights of the Carpathians bear this name]. The name Metragurtes is not a personal name. I. p. Vol. in a picturesque position. traveling through Attica. Geogr. the Mother of gods. We also find important traces about the antique cult of Rhea. in this fine and fertile valley of Motru. and Manesa appears as a folk name given to the Great Mother divinity. There are ruins of some old and fine palaces around this monastery…. nr. I. the cult of the divinity of Earth had always the character of a foreign religion. a portico for travelers and merchants. Dict. had been built during Roman domination. in the neighborhood of the monastery Gura-Motrului. in both its fir forests and its limitless meadows. The old history of this monastery has been lost. This Matrou was later used for the depositing and conservation of the laws”. 211). III. So they erected on the site where they had killed Metragurtes a curia (house of assembly). tell us that the sanctuary from GuraMotrului had once a great renown and an expansive cult. Motru is here the name of a hill. where can also be observed two priests of the goddess. Dictionar top.

one of the heroes of the Pelasgian race from Istru]. Cecrops. Arrianus. or the personified Earth. carols. c. 1). or the Mother of gods. or sometimes sitting on a chariot pulled by lions. De deorum imagine. Rhea. the ends of which cover both shoulders. tell us that the religion of the great Mother. had the name Scythes (Pauly. 12). Her clothes were adorned with precious stones and various metals (Albericus. still preserved in the folk traditions (legends. Periplus. and this evokes the costume and affluence of the wealthy Agathyrses. Exactly as the cult of Apollo extended towards Delphi. RealEncyclopadie. But a locality with the name of Metra-gora never existed. through the shepherds from north of the Istru. either on a throne. IX. as we shall later see. 10) that he consecrated there an altar to Saturn and Rhea. Delos and Troy. especially those of the pious Hyperboreans. Rhea). as emblem of power. is usually represented sitting. On antique monuments. while in the lower part of the throne were figured some lions (Pausanias. lib. as well as numerous traces of the cult and the simulacra of this divinity through the Carpathians of Dacia. was once the principal religion of this country. as attested by the first part of the word. either on the territory of Greece. . One of the Dactyli. of Gaea. and especially an attribute of one who reigned over all the animals of the earth. ancient priests of the Great Mother. Generally the goddess appears in the same characteristic costume which the Romanian women from the district of Romanati wear even today. Various traces from the religion of the Mother of gods. as the ancient Greeks formed the ethnic names of Gabalites from Gabala and Abderites from Abdera (Stephanos Byz. holding in one hand a tympanon (TN bucium). This form of Metragurtes supposes a locality with the name of Metra-gora. p. through the prophets and preachers of this solar cult.[5. It belongs to a barbarian region and specifically Pelasgian. She wears on her head a polos or modius. the divinity of Earth.55). 3. also called chrisophoroi. from which a veil falls down.5. or of Asia Minor. represented the Mother of gods sitting on the throne. The famous statue which Phidias. in the same way the religion of the Great Mother was also imported in Greece through the ambulant priests from the barbarian lands. the first king of Attica. incantations). about whom Macrobius tells us (Sat. who sent their gifts in wheat sheaves towards the southern parts. I. the most illustrious sculptor of Greece. as a matron or queen (regina.). was. I. had made for the Matrou of Athens.

Marele Dictionar). chariot (TN – car) and tympanon (TN – bucium) of Rhea are mentioned even today in Romanian folk incantations: …the Mother of God. which once existed. p.126-137) The Mother of God met them From her gold chariot she told them…. Incantations. on golden chair sat. all the goddesses shall get together… (Marianu. Baba (TN – Old women). [6. The gold chair (throne). proudly declared: Do not wail. s. (Teodorescu. in my left hand has placed… (Marianu. Folk poetry. The primitive meaning of the word “baba” in Romanian language is “grandmother” (Hasdeu. and partly still do in the Carpathians of our countries.10. as a living ornament. near the entries and altars of the churches of Romania. p. p. 100-102) And the Mother of God….”bucium” of real gold In my right hand has placed. as I will give you. golden “bucium”. Bugle of gold. Spells. generally bear the name of Babe.To Rhea or the Great Mother was also consecrated the fir tree (pinus). a tree which we see even today figured.391)] The primitive simulacra of the Great Mother. The origin of this name is very old. primitive sacred symbol of a disappeared pastoral-mountainous religion [6]. In four corners of the world it shall echo. . from the gate of the sky… On silver ladder descended. in your right hand.

Saturn. Preller-Jordan. Dict. In the modern Greek dialect of Thasos island. This word. but with the meaning of “venerated” (Iliad. 57. Manesa and Papusa (the feminine form of Papaeus. Mosul and Popau (Papaeus). exactly as Saturn. I. “babu”. X. Thoon and Thoosa (Homer. had a national religious character. I. 279).5). III. V. In the Greek legends which Diodorus Siculus communicates to us. otherwise synonymous with megale mater. Valcea district. and the genealogical originator of the Pelasgian tribes. Isis. Dei. or the Great Mother. D’etym. a locality was named Baba. Saint Augustin (De Civ. similarly a very considerable number of crests. 11. We still find in the ancient cult of the Latin and Etruscan tribes. means “grandmother” (Cihac.Ibid. c. R. In Phrygia or in Pisidia. III. p. by its primitive character identical with the Great Mother (Macrobius. in Macedonian Romanian pap and pap aus). Epigr. And on an inscription from Croatia we read a dedication addressed DIBVS MAIORIVUS. and finally Babyle (Babyle) was a locality on the territory of the Odrysii in Thrace (Pauly-Wissowa. v. old woman. Manea. Tartaroia. initially applied to the statues of the divinity of the Earth. babu is a title of respect which the nephews and nieces give to the uncle). Tatae. Plautus (Stichus.3) gives all these expressions under the form of Babae. Tatra. V. Baba or Babae was the name of a city in Mauritania Tingitana. 172) presents her under the name of Populonia mater. Sat. Krauss. Iliad. was called “Mos” (avus. Tartar(os). as a title of respect. II. In the Italian language this word appears in the masculine form of “babbo”. M. 8).This word also existed in Latin rustic language. traces of worship of a divinity of an old woman called Juna Populonia. which were erected as religious ensigns on the graves of the persons of distinction (Homer. as well as baba of the Slavs of the Balkan peninsula. under the name of Tatal.383). caves and natural pyramids of the Carpathians were dedicated once to the cult of the Great Mother. as Terra Mater and Dea montium. . Matra. some of the funerary mounds.721. exactly like tata (TN – father) and papa (mos). In Braila and Buzeu districts. Virgil (Aen. under the name of Tatoia. The origin of the name is archaic. In modern Greek language baba. Papae. Rhea. 2) mentions “baba Vinerea” (TN – old woman Friday) of the pagans (aviam Venerem). Homer gives Juno the epithet presba too. which during the time of Augustus had received the rights of Roman colony. [7. were later applied to the funerary mounds. Rhea was also named presbitata (lib. the daughter of Rhea also had the epithet of ancient . which has been preserved in inscriptions. Mama. popina means “grandmother” or “baba”. westwards from Amasia. 71).4). 7. The Great Mother as divinity of the earth was worshipped in our countries also under the archaic name of Popina. worshipped as the father of gods. III). and on an inscription from Dacia she is mentioned as a national sovereign goddess having the name Juno Regina Populonia Dea patria]. Sitte und Brauch d. where the epithet “majores” is only an official interpretation of the folk name of “babe” or “mose”. VII. I. Real-Encyclopadie). V. This name. from the ethnic word Babanos. Sud-Slaven. The name “babe” (TN – old women) had also been attributed in antiquity to other national Pelasgian divinities. bear the generic name of popina. with the meaning of tata (In Romania. Babeni village. presbytes) [7]. situated on valleys and plains. As the most majestic heights of the Carpathians were once consecrated to the supreme divinity of the sky. Odyss. 7. one Baba-nomon was in Pontus. Compare the personal names Olympos and Olympusa (Apollod. the supreme feminine divinity. Daco-roum. 152. 11. III. v. The same word appears also in the antique geographical nomenclature. senex. was considered as the Great Mother of the gods and of the human genus.

PART 2 – Ch.XII.10
(The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. 10. Rhea or the Great Mother venerated under the name of Dacia, Terra Dacia and Dacia Augusta. Rhea or the Great Mother officially appears, on the historical monuments of the Roman epoch, as an ancient ethnic divinity of Dacia. In the beginning she had been worshipped there, and also in other Pelasgian lands, under the name of Rhea. In the mountainous parts of ancient Dacia, some villages called Rea and Reieni exist even today, names which attest that the heights from the vicinity of these villages had once been consecrated to Rhea, the supreme telluric divinity of the Pelasgian world [1]. [1. Rea, village in the valley of Hateg, on the territory of ancient Roman Sarmizegetusa. There are three known villages called Reieni, all situated in mountainous regions: one in Mehedinti district, near Ponoare, another in Banat, SE of Caransebes, and the third in Biharia, near Crisul-negru, west of Tartaroia mountain]. But in later times Rhea appears venerated at north of the Lower Danube under the name of Dachia, Dacia and Terra Dacia, as a national divinity, as the personification of the earth of this country. Following primitive Pelasgian ideas, Rhea or the Great Mother, considered as a national divinity, benevolent and protective, had various geographical epithets with the various Pelasgian tribes, after the cities, the lands and the mountains where her most renowned sanctuaries and simulacra were located. She was worshipped in Phrygia under the name of thea Phrygia or Phrygia Mater (Arnobius, lib. II. 73; C. I. L. II. nr. 179; Strabo, lib. X. e. 12), and on the territory of Troy she was venerated as Mater Iliaca (Prudent, c. Symm. I. 629, at Goehler, De Matris magnae cultu. p.31). She also had the epithet of Plachiana mater, after the Pelasgian city Placia near the Hellespont, in Mysia (Pausanias, lib. V. 13. 4) and Pessinountia, after the big city Pessinus of Phrygia (Strabo, lib. X. 3. 13). Under the name of Dacia, Rhea or the Great Mother appears worshipped at north of the Lower Istru during the times of Roman domination. On one of the Roman inscriptions discovered at Deva, she is mentioned as a divinity with the name of TERRA DACIA, and her place of honor is immediately after Jupiter Optimus Maximus and before Genius Populi Romani (C.I.L.III nr. 1351). We also know about another important inscription from the time of M. Antoninus Pius, relevant to the cult of the Great Mother under the name of “Dacia”: On the day of 4 April, the tribune of the legion XIII Gemina, inaugurated at Apulum (Alba – Julia) an altar or sanctuary dedicated to the national religion of Dacia. Leading the divinities was Jupiter Optimus Maximus, then the commonly mentioned Dii et deae immortales, and finally DACIA (C. I. L. III. nr. 1063). This entire inscription refers to the particular cult of the divinities worshipped in Dacia. Jupiter Optimus Maximus of this inscription is Zeus aristos megistos of Dacia. And the epithet of “immortales” is a characteristic title of the Homeric divinities, or eastern Pelasgian.

That this divinity called “Dacia” and “Terra Dacia”, represented Rhea or Magna Mater in the public cult, can be ascertained also by the fact that the sanctuary at Alba, dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus and to the goddess Dacia, was consecrated on the 4th of April, which, according to the Julian Faste (C. I. L. I. p.390) corresponds to the first day of the great feast days of the Mother of gods, with prayers, processions and games which lasted for seven days. In regard to the iconic representation of the Great Mother called “Dacia” or “Terra Dacia”, she appears figured on a coin of the emperor Trajan (112ad), wearing the national Dacian cap on her head. Her seat is a rock. She holds in her right hand ears of wheat and in her left hand an imperial scepter decorated on top with the figure of a vulture (aquila) (Cf. Juvenal, Sat. X. 43; Suetonius, Galba, 1; This was not a military ensign, as mistakenly supposed by Eckhel – VI. 428 – the ensigns of the legions had another form and arrangement. The specimens from Trajan’s Column prove this). Near her there are two children, one of whom offers her ears of wheat, while the other offers a grape, attributes of the Great Mother as goddess of agriculture and viticulture, indicating at the same time the fertility of the soil of Dacia (Eckhel, Doctrina numorum. Vol. VI. p.428; Boliac, Buciumul, An I, p.112-113). This coin is very important, as we see the divinity DACIA represented even during the time of Trajan in official form, with political honors and telluric attributes, enthroned on the Carpathians with the imperial scepter in hand as Terra Mater (Macrobius, Sat. I. 12; Preller-Jordan, R. M. I. 399), as a protective divinity of this country, and as “Mother” of its inhabitants, who, under the form of the two children (Dacia superior et inferior) bring her the first produce of their crops. It is very probable that during the last fierce war between the Romans and the Dacians, at the assault of Sarmizegetusa, the divinity DACIA had been invoked by the Romans. Various consecrations of Roman public monuments in honor of this divinity, her figuring on the coins of the empire in an imposing attitude and with sovereign telluric attributes, appear as an official confirmation of a solemn occasion when this divinity had been invoked. In the wars which they fought with enemy peoples, the Romans, following an ancient religious custom before the principal assault on their capitals and fortresses, invoked during a certain religious ceremony the protective divinities of the enemy fortress and people, with the following consecrated formula: “If there is a god, or a goddess, under whose guardianship the citadel and the people (the name of the respective locality is said) is, but especially you, who have received under your protection this city and this people, I pray to you, I worship you, and I ask forgiveness from you, so that you shall abandon this people and this city (again the topical name), you shall leave their places, their temples, their religious ceremonies and their city, and you shall leave them, you shall inspire fear in their souls, terror and oblivion, and after you’ve deserted them and left them without help, you shall come to Rome, to me and mine; I pray that our places, temples, and religious ceremonies will please you more, and that our city will be more grateful to you, so that we might know and understand that you are now my leaders, the leaders of the Roman people, and of my soldiers (Macrobius, Sat. III. 9), and if you shall do so, I swear that I shall raise temples for you and I shall decree games in your honor”. After this prayer the victims were immolated, then the dictator or emperor recited a new formula, with which he cursed all the enemy cities and armies, ending with the following words “So I ask you Tellus Mater”, touching the ground with his hand, “and you Jupiter”, lifting his hands skywards. As Macrobius tells us (Sat. III. 9), in the old Annals of Rome were mentioned a number of enemy cities and armies of the Gauls, Spaniards, Africans, Maurs and other nations, against whom these formulae of invoking and cursing had been used.

On this coin the legend DACIA AVGVST is around the central figure, and underneath is the legend PROVINCIA S.C. On other coins it is DACIA AVGVSTA or AVGVSTI (Koeleseri, Auraria RomanoDacica, p.13; Griselini, Geschichte d. Temesw. Banats, II. Tab. VI). On the reverse of another coin, minted in Dacia during the time of the emperor Filip the Arab, the divinity DACIA, protector of the province, is represented with her head covered with the national Dacian cap. The goddess holds in her right hand the curved Dacian sword, as symbol of her warring power. (The Great Mother was considered as a warring divinity also by the Pelasgians of Cappadocia – Strabo, XII. 2. 3 – and by the Trojans – Virgil, Aen. X. 252). On the same side of the figure can be seen a military standard thrust into the ground, with the number V of the Macedonian legion, and at ground level a vulture with a ring (crown?) in its beak, looking towards the face of the goddess, symbolizing probably a characteristic attribute of her as supreme mountainous divinity, and as Mater ferarum. In her left hand she holds another military standard with the number XIII of the Gemina legion, and on the lower part of the coin there is a walking lion, the classical and indispensable attribute of the Mother of gods. Underneath is the year II of the Dacian era, which corresponds to the year 1001 of Rome, or 248 of the Christian era.

The divinity “Dacia” (After Boliac, Buciumul, 1863, p.184) This coin is even more significant, because it shows the national divinity of Dacia as guardian of the two Roman legions, as mentioned in the solemn invoking formula. The cult of the Great Mother under the name of “Dacia” at north of the Lower Istru was not a creation of the Roman administration. It was much older. We do not find in Roman epigraphy and in any other religious cult of the Roman provinces, for example, Pannonia, Dalmatia, Mesia, Thrace, Greece, or even Italy, any other example of personification of the respective Province as a divinity. Finally, we must still add that on the back side of a coin, probably from the time of Domitian, the divinity was represented as a sad woman, sitting near a trophy, and having the inscription of DAKIA (Eckhel, Doctrina numorum veterum, II. p.4). As Saturn was called Dokius Caeli filius in ancient legends, similarly his sister and wife Rhea appears worshipped in the public cult of the Province under the name of Dachia, Dacia, Terra Dacia and Dacia Augusta. She was one of the most important topical divinities of Eastern Europe.

III. The Romanian legends about the turning to ice and to stone of Baba Dochia in the mountains. the great feast days of the Earth divinity were celebrated in the first days of March. who from an excess of moral virtue did not want to get married (Diodorus Siculus. of Ariadna. herds of oxen. and not around the beginning of April. Marianu. exactly as the Romans celebrated the Matronale. Ornitologia.11 (The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. or the Mountains of Dochia. with a less mythical character. I. according to a tradition. “Dochia sits in Cehleu” (Answers to the Historical questionnaire.2796. at the beginning of spring. and is represented as a very beautiful virgin. and of Venus from the mountain of Lebanon. are considered by the people to represent “Baba Dochia” (Answers to the historical questionnaire. 11. was turned to ice and then to stone. De deorum imagine.XII. (Preller. cows and horses. Almost all these primitive feminine images. p. According to neo-Phrygian traditions. or still exist today. 242). Sarbatorile la Romani. Rhea or the Great Mother. appears in Romanian legends and folk songs as “Dochia” and “Dochiana”. This is evident proof that in the ancient religion of the Pelasgian tribes from the Istru. Gr. lib. Dictionarul I. who climbed too early to the mountain with her sheep. Descriptio Moldoviae. dressed in fine clothes. but she refuses to wed “until the white spring comes. The figure of Dochia or the Great Mother appears under a different form. In these semi-religious folk songs. who never grows old. 12). are in essence identical. c. in Romanian carols. 58).25). Rhea or the Great Mother with the name Dochia and Dochiana in Romanian legends. she is celebrated even today under the name of “Dochiana”. Many woo her.269. as results from the description of Prince Cantemir. was on the high tower rising near the majestic peak of Cehleu Mountain. ist. Rhea or Cybele had been a virgin of extraordinary beauty.PART 2 – Ch. The mountains which separate the country of Moldova from the country of Ardel are called even today by the folk people the Mountains of Cehleu. In Romanian legends she is seen especially as an old woman. Her family wealth consists of flocks of sheep. I. or feminine Saturnale. Hasdeu. 1854. from the village Calugareni. This simulacrum. The first days of March (1-12) are called by the Romanian people “the days of Baba Dochia” or “the days of Babe” (Marianu. 2279. IV. on which shone jewels and precious metals (Albericus.94). and originate in the same epoch. Neamtu district). during the “Martias Calendas” (Festus. with the legends about the statues of Niobe. si pop. sculpted in live rock around the Carpathians. II. Albina Carpatilor. 423). . worshipped by the Pelasgian tribes from the north of the lower Danube under the name of Dachia and “Dacia”. III. where her ancient simulacra existed. 1872. p. p. 11). The colossal figure of Baba Dochia from the Carpathians of Moldova had a special celebrity until the 18th century (Cantemir. called “Baba Dochia”. on the peaks or the coasts of the mountains. She was represented in ancient paintings sitting in a chariot. Myth. when the flowers are in bloom”. The same reminiscences about Rhea or Cybele had been also preserved by the Pelasgian populations of Asia Minor.24. p. because. all of which represented in fact just some archaic simulacra of the Great Mother.

[1. The fathers of the church. called Dochia at Istru and maybe even in some parts of Asia Minor. Magna Mater was also worshipped as “Dea Migale”. I. Folk poetry. p. There is no contrast between these two types of folk traditions regarding the Baba Dochia turned to stone. In the Romanian carols is celebrated the youth. consecrated this day to a supposed martyr from Lebanon.390). as a “proud lady” with “white arms” (Homer has applied this epithet to Juno in his Iliad. Finally. with the name of Eudocia. especially to her apotheosis [1]. white arms were a distinctive trait of the Great Mother). In the religion of the Roman people. The authors of Martyrologium romanum present the emperor Trajan. I.13-14). in which are celebrated in such a beautiful way the benefits of agriculture. Rhea. the conqueror of Dacia. while the legends refer to the second part of her life. Carols. C. L. extraordinary beauty and chastity of the Great Mother.She appears in Romanian carols under the name of “Nina Dochiana”. She has vineyards and is the daughter of “Badita Migdale” (Sbiera. a word which the Roman authors derived from megale. without making any sense.316). Dochia or Dochiana of the Romanian folk legends and carols has nothing to do with the so-called Christian martyr Eudocia. p. and the beautiful Dochiana. p. as a persecutor of Eudocia]. nor legends in these countries. Praenest. in order to give a Christian character to the pagan feast day of the 1st of March. It is interesting even the legendary history of this Eudocia. . appears as “Beautiful Dochiana”. epithet of the Great Mother (Fast. the goddess of earth’s fertility. and has at the same time the honorific title of “Mother” (Alecsandri. in the carols called “well-wishes with the plough”. who had neither cult.

In other places it is dressed in folk costume. in the shape of a man. or “Caloiene. and. a woman and a child. threw in the Tiber from Sublicius Pons 24 dolls or reed simulacra which they called Argaei.VII. this was the day when the small child Caloian died. with leather peasant sandals and fur cap (Noua Revista Romana. After this ceremony also finishes. And in the village Seimenii-mari from Constanta district they make three dolls called Scaloieni. groups of boys and girls. which they adorn with ribbons. When there is a big draught in spring. L. with colored pieces of fabric and with flowers. the other feminine. Romanians have even today an important religious custom from the cult of the Great Mother.94). In other localities two dolls are made. invoking it in their lamentations with the words: “Caloiane. II. The populations of Pelasgian origin of Asia Minor had the same legends and the same religious custom. called “Caloian” (Scaloian. In others.12 (The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia) XII. body of Deciana”.302). unable to return. meaning clay figures (Festus. p. or “Caloiana Iana. wail. light candles and make it float on the Danube or some other water or river. represents young Caloian. called “the alms of Caloian”. who looks everywhere for her beloved son. the girls go again to the grave of Caloian. I.XII. one of masculine sex. It was a big folk celebration at the beginning of spring. they say. The feminine doll is called in lamentations “Scaloiana Iana.95. p. cry. which still existed during the Roman antiquity. lament again over it. In some places only girls take part in this procession. Deciana and Caloian.L. This doll. place it in a reed coffin. Dochia or Dochiana also appears in the traditions of the Romanian people as the sad Mother. body of Deciana”. Both are called Scaloieni. representing the “Father of the Sun” and the “Mother of rain”. and after the feast and alms they make a big “hora” (TN – dance in a circle) and dance until night. p.48. the Romanian girls make a big doll from yellow clay. These young vestals take then and bury the doll (or dolls) in a place near water. II. this festivity had the name of Caianus (C. 12. and on Tuesday. body of Dician” (Noua Revista Romana.17.that Tutulati were called in Rome those who during the sacrifices covered their head with a pointed cap). Sarbatorile. called “Caloian” or “Scaloian”. Cybele and Attis. 44 . The origin of this religious belief and custom from the Lower Danube harks back to the ancient Pelasgian times. L. which represent a man. Marian.390). head of tutuiana”. when the Vestals. (Varro tells us . I. 791. there is a big feast.PART 2 – Ch. and they put on its head a piece of an eggshell as a cap. Sibylla Erythrea or Dacica. from the different partitions (tribes) of the village. 1900. in the presence of the priests and magistrates. 1900. II. According to the folk traditions. the young people pay local musicians. p. Calian). . V. Fast. It is usually celebrated on the third Thursday after Easter. exhume it. had died there. Ovid. nobody works. meaning child of Deciana. one girl represents the priest. new alms. who had lost his way in some woods. in the third week after Easter. The third day after this ceremony. In that day.VII. Ian. Varro. 625). and after the burial they give alms. body of Dician”. the girls place this clay figure in a coffin. for the prosperity of vegetation and agriculture. some of them even with tears. another the deacon. III. With the Romans. p. or “Scaloiene Scaloian. It began at 28 March (INITIUM CAIANI) and ended at the Ides of May.

there existed in Asia Minor too. Even from the most remote times Gaea. and on another hand. the cult of Cybele was imported on the territory of Asia Minor from other Pelasgian lands. in the traditions of Asia Minor. called Attis. As Attis is the son of Calaus in the neo-Phrygian legends. the origin of which goes back also to the Pelasgian populations of Asia Minor. had wandered with her from Nysa to the Hyperboreans (Diodorus Siculus. The difference is only that. which they then buried with lamentations and funerary honors. But which was the origin of the name Cybele.504). D. But the origin of this name was completely different (Daremberg. fired with love for beautiful Cybele. which placed the country of Cybele at the Hyperboreans. the Phrygians made the image of the youth. in other words.9). Finally. v. the people consulted the oracle regarding the means by which to repel these calamities. the oracle had ordered the Phrygians to bury the body of Attis and to worship the Great Mother. 36. young Attis. the son of Calaus. and the name Nana of his mother appears in Romanian carols as Nina Dochiana. in order to be protected from epidemics and drought. p. economic and religious ties. Under the shade of the groves and under the cover of the rocks. 3). 3886.69 . Cicero. Or. and this custom they practice constantly to our days”. III. 5. I. 59. moral-religious. Divin. Diodorus Siculus writes regarding this (III. This Attis was. was worshiped too as a prophetic divinity (Hesiod. the art of divination and the primitive medical sciences (Heim. has remained a historical enigma to this day. Apollo. Attis.1679: “ those mountains of Cybele…have probably existed only in the imagination of those who wanted to explain first the name of Cybele”). The oracle told them to bury the body of Attis and to worship Cybele as a divinity. meaning Caloiana (Goehler. at north of the Lower Istru. IX. that the Mother of gods was so called after the mountain Cybele from Phrygia. the earth suffering of drought. until the Roman epoch. while the Romanian legend has preserved its primitive character. VII. called by them Cybele.4). whose love was sought by the Great Mother. I. But because of the passing of time from the body of Attis nothing had remained. According to Diodorus. there still existed in Greco-Roman antiquity another tradition. lib. the son of Calaus. Strabo tells us in his Geography (XII. according to the legends of Asia Minor. is identical with young Caloian from the religious legends and customs of the Romanian people. the priests and priestesses of the Great Mother practiced in those extremely religious times.7): “In Phrygia. The tradition is the same. p. Lipsiae.C. 79. . he appears in Phrygian legends as a young shepherd extraordinarily handsome. 59. 5. G. similarly the Great Mother or Cybele appears in Greek inscriptions with the epithet of Koilana. According to this tradition. Eum. I. Eschyl. 270). Theog. or the Mother of gods. considered as a benevolent goddess. 2. This is an important document for the origin of the cult of Cybele or the Great Mother in Asia Minor. the custom of celebrating the burial of Attis.While at north of the Lower Danube Caloian was the pampered son of “Deciana”. calls Gaea the first prophetess). the son of a Phrygian called Calaus (Pausanias. and his mother’s name was Nana (Arnobius. adv. appears as the favorite of Cybele or the Great Mother. And similarly. 17. Incantamenta magica. Dictionnaire des antiquites. p.6). when the earth suffered from drought. G. 1892. or the Great Mother. the son of Calaus of the Phrygians. where she was worshipped. connected to Asia Minor through many ethnic. especially from the region of the Lower Danube. happening once an epidemic. 463. influenced by the Greek erotic spirit. or Cybele.

p. had lived ten human life spans. Another height in the vicinity is called Caliman (Kerus manus) and still in this region. 12. who brings help and solace to the sick. the great god of the Pelasgian light. which means prophetess (this also resulting from the epithet of the great Mother of Sipilena). where the remains of an ancient citadel and several mounds can still be seen (Lahovari. she lived in later times. The name Cybele. gr. I. p. meaning the priestess of Apollo. but according to others she had lived one hundred and twenty years (Phlegontis Tralliani. X. is called Jiblea (=Siblea). The traditions also told about this Sibyl.610). Friedlieb. that she had had a legendary life. Institt. She had lived. Suidas. as Suidas also declares. we find also the “Peak of Sibila” and the “Valley of Sibila”. Hist. among the mountains. by its form and also by its meaning. 12. was also mentioned in some hymns in Apollo’s honor. Oracula Sibyllina. Dictionar topographic. she was born in the village Marmissos. But in fact it is proto-Latin. while two others are called the Big Tibles and the Small Tibles. . X. Finally. III. This word has been preserved to this day as an obscure topographical name in some mountainous regions of the Carpathians. In the northern parts of Transylvania. According to what Pausanias tells us (lib. bears also the name of “Sibille” (Frundzescu. where traces of ancient. According to others. and had prophesied the fall of Troy (Apollodorus Erythreaeus. The Sibyls were inspired by a deep mystical religious feeling. before the great war between Europe and Asia. an archaic Pelasgian word. as the guardian of life and health. Sibylla. Arges. and this character was lacking to the Greek spirit.98).436). Dict. as some say. In prehistoric antiquity. 6. TN . But none of these prophetic women originated in Greek lands. p. at the renowned temple and oracle.69). As Suidas tells us. an old memory of the sanctuaries of the Mother of gods. jud. Here the Sibyl called Erythrea (Rosiana. Geogr. is Latin. Fragm. 1). not less than one thousand years. p. according to what Pausanias writes (lib. near the town Gergittion (Gergitha).the Reddish one) had practiced her divinatory art. the highest mountain is called even today Tibles (TN – read Tziblesh). the first Sibyls were at Delphi. on the territory which had been once under Trojan rule. close to Cozia monastery. is identical with the term Sibyl. the Mother of gods appears even today under the name of “Maica Domnului” (TN – Mother of God). in Gorj district. 2). In some of these hymns she is called the sister. wife or daughter of Apollo. where once her oracles were consulted. Sybilla Erythrea. founded there. when the art of divination had such an important role in public and private life.In folk Romanian incantations. by the Hyperborean shepherds from north of the Lower Ister. vanished monasteries can still be found. at Lactantius. Another mountain on the territory of Romania. between the old district of Maramures and Nasaud. The name Sibylla. there were a number of famous Sibyls and they were known to classical times by the names of the various lands where they had originated. a village on the Olt valley.

North of the town Halmagiu. Marmessos and the river Aidoneus had existed on the territory of ancient Ilion.. a holy domain of the great Pelasgian divinities. Here is the country of Sibylla Erythrea. presented by Pausanias. cetophago genitore. Marpessos with Pausanias). which constitutes the central point of Zarand district. and on the eastern side of this village. flows northwards and into the river Crisul Repede (TN – the Fast Cris) [1]. Various authors of antiquity have considered Sibylla Erythrea as originated from the Ida mountain near Troy. or Moma (Mater iera with Pausanias). The Greek form ‘Aidoneus derives from ‘Aides. the traces of a material prosperity and a moral civilization very advanced for the ante-historical times. mihi patria rubra Marpessus. as we saw. of Pausanias’ s Greek text): Inter utrumque sequor medium divasque hominesque. the river Iad (TN – Hell). The country of this glorious Sibyl was a completely different one. amnisque Aidoneus. who pronounced their oracles in moments of divine inspiration or ecstasy. to confirm that the villages Erythrae. But we can’t find a single authentic document in the entire geographical literature of ancient times. there exists. is evidently. . Aidoneus was also an epithet of Pluto]. and never remembered them afterwards. which stretches along the river Crisul Negru (TN – the Black Cris). This fragment presents a particular historical interest regarding the country and nationality of Sibylla Erythrea. only a simple Greek translation from the ancient Pelasgian language. Mermessos with Stephanos Byzanthinos. there exists even today the village called Marmesci (Marmissos with Suidas. according to all the geographical data transmitted to us by the authors of antiquity. Aidoneus of Pausanias. Nympha immortali sata. in the mountains rich in gold of the Arimaspes and Agathyrses. The river Iad springs from the mountain The Peak of the Glade. [1. and is used for the transportation of the log rafts when its waters are big. The Sibyls. enclosed among hills and mountains. a significant Romanian village called Rosia (TN – today Rosia Montana). In the same region.And in another hymn she tells us about her origin in the following verses: (TN – I give here only the Latin translation by Dindorfius. Ida meae matri patria est. iad. They were noted down by certain writers from the colleges of priests of the respective sanctuaries. from the point of view of the confused meaning of its first verses. The fragment from the hymn of Sibylla Erythrea. In close proximity with this village begins a fine mountain range called Mama. The prehistoric Sibyls from Delphi never pronounced their oracles in the Greek language. We find especially in the region of the Carpathians between Transylvania and Hungary. matri quae sacra. on the right bank of Crisul Negru. never wrote their pronouncements. the lower world. The entire chain of the Carpathians was once.

Rhodia and Sicelana. Mama. Iad and Boti. four principal geographic data regarding the country of Sibylla Erythrea. Gergithia corresponds to Gurguiata. Even today a hill. Libyssa comes from the village Lapusa. and two other heights on the upper part of the river Iad. XXVII. between the Curcubeta and Zanoga mountains. names given after lands and localities from the same region where we have also the names Marmesci. Sicelana from the locality Sicula [2]. was born on the territory of the Rosieni. called Batti. a hilltop on the south-western part of the village Reieni. in his historic-literary lexicon. TN – the Red one). Samia from the villages Soim or Soimus. where later a town was founded. had extracted from various authors of antiquity a few precious notes about the historical individuality and the country of this illustrious Sibyl. Libussa. in the lands once renowned for their gold mines. XXVII). called Erythrae (Rosia. As he tells us. Petra Boghi. The country of Sibylla Erythrea ( Rosiana ) Suidas also tells us that Sibylla Erythrea was also called by some Sardana. called Ruda. who occupied such a significant place in the history of the ancient world. The origin of Sibylla Erythrea in the northern lands of Istru is also confirmed by another important series of geographical data. this genial woman. which is immediately near this village. Leucana from the valley Leuca. Leucana. and where three important rivers are even today called Cris (Chriseios). Sardana corresponds to Zarandana.We have therefore in Pausanias’ fragment. bear the name of Botea and Bodea (Specialkarte. and all these are on the territory of the northern Pelasgians. 18. Gergithia. f. after the name of Zarand district. bears the name of “Botiascu”. in which is Marmesci village. Rosia. Samia. This note is very important. . Rhodia from the gold mines of Zarand. 19. Fortunately Suidas.

VIII. situated in the proximity of Moma mountain. eastward from the sources of the river Iad. This mistake alone can definitely prove to us that the Hymn of Sibylla Erythrea had been translated from a proto-Latin rustic language. and her mother was Hodisiana of origin. The old Sibyl of Mermessos (Marmesci) was also known in the Pelasgian lands of Asia Minor under the names of Lampousa. The geographical origin of Sibylla Erythrea is wholly established. f. about which Herodotus also writes (lib. calls the Sybil’s father Aristo-crates (a big eater). that the father of the Sibyl was a man who ate bread.[2. On the basis of these geographical and genealogical data. and Suidas calls her Hydale and Hydole. and in the hamlets on the valley of Iad. it is certain that we have here a corrupt form of Hodisiana. XXVI. The Sibyl indicated by these words that he was a farmer. 1887. On the western side of the village Rosia. . meaning. Sibylla Rosiana or Erythrea had received various geographical names. And as others tell. Here we have again a topical personal name. There is a surprising similarity between the name of Sarbis and the name of the village Sarbesci. by an ignorant writer. marine monsters. When Suidas tells us with some precaution. Suidas. was born in the village Rosia. the most glorious of those who bore the name of Sibyl. on a coast of Britea mountain. tells us. localities situated in the districts Zarand . Another village situated south-east of Marmesci is called Sarb]. crossing once the Bosphorus to Europe. spreading their rule to the Ionic Sea. Sarbis and Taraxandra (Suidas). and which evidently corresponds to the Greco-Latin form of Sibylla or Sibulla. When the fragment communicated by Pausanias tells us that the mother of Sibylla Erythrea was Idogena. there is the village called today Hodis (Hoghis). or Hodigena. Pausanias calls the mother of Sibylla Erythrea. what we have now to also examine. but with a different interpretation. in which we find grouped together all the geographical data of antiquity related to the country of Sibylla Erythrea. had once important commercial and religious ties with the southern lands. Still in this region. the father of Sibylla Erythrea was chetophagos. Idogenes. we can state here as an absolute historical truth. spent some time in the village Marmesci. while a significant hill near Rosia is called “Dampu Hodisanului” (Ibid. 18. 18. is the data referring to the genealogy of Sibylla Erythrea. the father of Sibylla Erythrea was called Crinagoras. after the various places where she had spent a longer time of her long and unsettled life of inspired woman.61) a name which we don’t find in any other place. The original text expresses certainly a completely different idea. XXVII). another Greek author who seemingly had in front of him the same archaic text of the hymn. near the Moma or Mama mountain (where a renowned sanctuary of the Great Mother probably existed). According to what the Greek translation. meaning an eater of chiti. “pane”. The primitive meaning of these words was incontestably altered. So. that the village Marmiss-os and Gertittion are within the limits of the territory over which the Trojans had once ruled. 20) that the Trojans. “chita” in the peasant dialect of the Romanians of Transylvania and Hungary. These are the same words. as in antiquity the two large social classes were the farmers and the shepherds. as well as on the basis of the great ethnic and religious movement started from north to south in those Pelasgian times. p. This whole region. this data refers in fact to the time of the great Trojan empire. Stana de vale.Bihor. continues Suidas. A high mountain near the river Iad bears even today the name of Cernagura (Specialkarte. XXVII). had subjected all the Thracians. there is the woody place called Sivla (Buteanu. communicated by Pausanias. that Sibylla Erythrea. She was the daughter of a farmer. It is the same word in different Greek forms. on the beautiful valley of Holod.

had burnt together with the Capitolium. . and that it was very unfortunate that all the books had not been bought. 7).We return now to the Greek fragment from the hymn of the Sibyl. an “immortal woman”. I am an immortal woman. and those she took to Rome at the time of the consuls. astonished by the resolution of this woman. was not from Italy (Livy. were characterized by a great religiosity. and only one was left. They did not represent the old Pelasgian doctrines any more. In what language these books were written. [4. in large part not authentic. she also wrote about palpitations and different songs. Here Sibylla calls herself. But when she saw that she was despised. told them to keep them with great care. hoping that she will receive much for them. that those books had been sent by divinity. According to what Pliny writes (XIII. known in the whole of Greece. The Getae were those who. They conformed to the traditional principles of the old Pelasgian theology. as Suidas tells us. 8. The augurs. examining the rest of the books. and from the respect shown always for them by the Romans. These books of the Sibyl. 12)]. whose primitive redaction was going back to ante-Homeric times. written in Greek. at the times of Tarquinius. and they had an immense influence on the state life of the Roman people [4]. basing his information on various biographical sources. after which she left and was never seen again [3]. Pseud. no author tells us. Marmesci. in the times of Sulla. 23)]. 27). After this disaster. as Herodotus tells us (lib. VI. They advised Tarquinius to pay the whole price to the woman. To Sibylla Erythrea was attributed in antiquity a famous collection of predictions. [3. which we can translate as such: I was born among men and goddesses. consulted the augurs about the remaining books (according to him Sibylla had brought to Rome nine books. the third book of the Sibyl. denotes that special knowledge was required for their interpretation (Livy. She expresses here one of the fundamental principles of the Pelasgian religion from the Lower Danube. I. my father ate bread (was a farmer). Apart from oracles. considered themselves immortal. hoping to find another copy of her oracles. out of which she had burnt six). Tacitus (Ann. But their search was without result. she burned two of the books brought with her. 1. The fact that the Romans had instituted a special college of priests for their conservation and consultation. bought by king Tarquinius Superbus. the sacred place of the Mother (great). And the same author tells us in another place. the Romans searched in every part of the empire for the country of Sibylla Erythrea. IV. Sibylla Erythrea was therefore considered identical with the Sibyl called Cumana (Marc. And Dionysius of Halicarnasus adds (lib. after giving them the remaining books. and my country is Rosia. IV. 93). But all the historical sources confirm the fact that the Sibyl who brought to Rome the Pelasgians’ books of the divine revelation. Plaut. lib. as results also from traditions. and the river Iad. After my mother I am Hodisiana. I. with all her religious certainty. This was not a simple personal conviction of the Sibyl. which the Romans bought at a high price. 62) that king Tarquinius. lib. 7). X. that Sibylla Erythrea wrote in heroic verses three books about Divination. from certain signs. Then this woman. The later sibylline books were only simple compilations from various oracles. 8. II. Cap. or according to what others say. declared to Tarquinius that they had reached the conclusion. These verses also contain another entirely characteristic particularity.

near Halmagiu. Aurinia or Albruna (= Alburna) is one and the same holy Sibyl from the lands rich in gold of Dacia. Sibylla known to Roman history was only a pilgrim in Italy. Holy moon shall beat you. town or village ever existed. Tacitus tells us (Germania. who was called Phrygiana. meaning from Marmescii from Halmagiu. The various geographical names attributed to the same Sibyl. They refer to the country. Friday and Wednesday. for the sins of man”. R. or in other words to the lands from where this legendary Sibyl came. Libyca. E. 5. the central point of the district of Zarand. in the following folk verses. in Italy too. Albruna). etc]. [5. or from Ida. given to this holy woman. with incense in hand. Some historical sources call her Amalthea Marpesia. but also in the Pelasgian lands of ancient Germany. was Albunea (Lactantius. referred therefore to Sibylla Erythrea from Marmesci. . So. We find a memory about this renowned “old mother” (TN–maica = mother = nun) and her teachings. c. But on the territory of Italy no locality. Delphica. communicated directly from the lands of Cris: “Don’t work on Sunday.In ancient traditions. as Lactantius writes. This happened especially to Sibylla Erythrea. P. Wackernagel rectifies it to Albruna (Pauly-Wissowa. had as a consequence the fact that the later Greek and Roman authors have arbitrarily multiplied their number. R. R. Aen. vicus Pirustarum in Roman official language [6]. 34) [5]. as she is called by Tibullis (Eleg. Some wanted to derive the name Albunea from Aquae Albulae on the plain of Latium. The name of this noble and astute Sibyl shone in prehistoric times not only at Delphi and in Latium. c. She is a little with white book underarm. 6) is only a simple Greek ethnic form of the name of the town Halmagiu. but the sanctuary dedicated to Sibylla Albunea was located in the highest mountains of Tiber (Pauly-Wissowa. De falsa religione c. to which we could reduce with certainty the origin of this name. Stephanus. Aquae Albulae)]. Both these names have an evident geographical character. Sibylla Erythrea was also called Amalthea and Albunea. Sicula. The name Albunea. v. called in Roman epoch Alburnus major. VII. Marpesia. in a remote time (olim). Albunea. who was venerated as a divinity also at Tiber. under the name of Albunea [7]. a prophetess called Aurinia was venerated as a divinity. Cumana. And in other traditions she is called Albunea (Alburnea). Thesaurus I. Sibylla Albunea with a book in her hand. who had come to Italy from other lands. Amalthea (Plato. The simulacrum discovered in the bed of the river Anio. there had been confusion about the country of Sibylla Erythrea or Rosiana. Virgil. part of which was the village Rosia of today. Lactantius. [6. A second name under which Sibylla Erythrea was known in the Rome countryside. 6.II. Amalthea Marpesia.8) that in Germany. Phaed. meaning from Alburnus or Rosia near Abrud. one of the attributes of the “old nun” is also a “white book underarm”]. derives incontestably from the locality rich in gold mines of Dacia. Let’s search for the old mother. who kept praying from the book. 67-68). as she herself says in the fragment communicated by Pausanias. represented. It is important to stress that in the verses above. Amalthea. [7. near which was the village Marmesci. De falsa religione.315.

55). talking about this Sibyl (H. And according to other tradition. she traveled from country to country. and the emigrated Trojans. 35). and. admired and respected everywhere for her wisdom. These received him with hospitality. A whole group of northern prophets were known in antiquity. But she appears especially rich in gold and precious stones. or Cruseni (in Romanic form). very hospitable. in the service of the Great Mother (Ovid. leaving Troy. lib. in a stone box. deposited in an underground vault. Eneas. convinced in the superiority of her spirit. 7). and spiritual qualities. 33). and that she had a sort of holy communion with the heavenly powers (Lactantius. we meet with a curious coincidence: Sibylla Erythrea was originated in the lands of the Crisuri (TN – rivers). after the religious custom of those times. and the virgins Arge and Opis. In various Romanian manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries. the Pelasgian oracle of Dodona. and spiritual visions. was an illustrious representative of the wisdom and religion of the Hyperboreans. X. c. there was another old Roman tradition about Sibylla Erythrea. This Sibyl from Rosia appears in the history of those remote times as a traveling prophetess. 49).22). worshipped as divinities. Pliny. and also Sibylla Erythrea. as well as by her severe religious principles not influenced by the Greek spirit. Finally. She is the wisest woman of the ancient world. to a “barbarian” people called Crusaei (Ibid. lib. her universal knowledge and her holy life. “The people of Ellada call me a woman from “another country” says she in her oracles [8]. like Abaris the Hyperborean. Delos and Dodona. which are also only simple copies or translations from other older manuscripts. cap. under the temple of Jupiter optimus maximus). Sibylla Erythrea. art. she becomes queen (Lactantius calls her also the most distinguished and noble of all the Sibyls). was that of Cruseni. celebrated in the religious songs of the Delians and Ionians (Herodotus. belong to the same category of holy women gone south from Hyperborean lands. Sibyla Erythrea had not been the only one to represent the northern oracles in southern lands. Eneas stayed with them for a whole winter. Inspired by a great religious fervor. 239-240) and the powerful Pelasgian god (her books were very carefully preserved in the Capitolium. asking in what part of the world should he. or Pelasgians from north of the Istru. Fast. consulted. c. says that there was something divine in her. by her biographical data. after which he left towards Italy. She was a pilgrim at Delphi. 47. Sibylla Erythrea was the one who advised them to go to the western countries (Dionysius of Halicarnasus. in these traditions about the westward migration of the Trojans. while the name of a people from barbarian Thrace. changed her abode from one sanctuary to another. I. IV. like the Hyperborean shepherds. this Sibyl is mentioned under the name of “Savila”. leaving Troy in order to find another country in the great Pelasgian world. [8. I. She travels even to Palestine. nobility. in the service of the priests from the respective oracles. ‘Abaris). N. who founded the oracle of Delphi (Pausanias. Eneas. IV. So.Finally. lib. VII. placing her talent. settle. a pilgrim on the shores of Asia Minor and Latium. De ira Dei. . came firstly to Thrace. and also like the anonymous founders of Apollo’s oracle of Delos. who wrote a whole book of oracles known under the name of “Scythicae” (Suidas. lib. v. she tests the wisdom of king Solomon. Latona (Leto) and Ilithyia. 5. For her generosity.

based on astronomical principles. Chrestomatie. draught.13. V. many kings will be troubled. I.6. the valleys and streams will fill with water…at Ram will be fine and the crop of the earth will be on that side…and if earthquake.71-72). Literatura. have existed with the Romanian people until the last centuries under the name of books for earthquakes and Gromovnice. XXVI. contained explanations and predictions for extraordinary events. So. In a Romanian manuscript Bible from the 17th century. and the boyars will die in wars…and it will be great fear on the western side. each having a different shape and light. XXIV.21. And crops will be all over the earth and in that place where the earth will shake. earthquakes. p. Savila explains this dream.27. thunder. The country of Sibylla is characterized in this manuscript as very rich in precious metals and stones.7. about the diamonds of the Agathyrses of Transylvania. XXI. or books for thunder. as results from Titus Livy. p. for omens.37). IV. as it is told). Even from the most remote times. We reproduce from this manuscript the extract published by Gaster (Romanian folk literature.62. The lightning and thunder were especially considered as a manifestation of divine will. the Romanian books distinguish between the day and night lightning. Principatus Transilvaniae. They hail from the times of ante-Christian religion.4. p. when divination was incorporated in the public cult. cases of pestilence. The whole system of this science. in manuscript and print. Herodotus (IV. winter will be hard. violent changes in atmosphere. XXV. According to Sbornicul of the Romanian Academy of 1799: “The sign of Leo: if thunder in Leo’s number. was presented in some sacred books called libri fulgurales or tonitruales.338): “She becomes queen. saying that those nine suns meant nine peoples which shall rule the world”. and gold and precious stones.44. very powerful…and if lightening or thunder at night…the springs and the streams will dry out”. etc (lib. according to old Pelasgian ideas. hard winters. XXVII.174). that other kings from the ends of the earth sent for her advice…that she gave to the church of Sion many precious objects. that “Savila was so wise.23. in a manuscript from 1760 it is said about this Sibyl that: “she was from the end of the earth. meaning Unguresca (TN – Hungarian country). and that she went back to her country with great honor” (Gaster. her boyars from tera Ugorescu see nine suns rising in the sky. We will quote here some examples from these Romanian books regarding lightning and earthquakes. . and clothes.10. 10). One night. Reg. this Sibyl is also talked about. regarding future events. In this regard are important the words of Ammianus (XXII. 104) and Fridvalszky (Mineralogia M.According to one of these manuscripts her country is tera “Ugorescu”. 8). The origin of these books goes back to a very remote epoch. XXXVI.326.10. Such books. Exactly like the ancient books of the Romans (borrowed from the Etruscans. there existed with the Pelasgian populations a very developed doctrine about lightning and thunder. They are written in the same style as the sibylline books. lightning. doctrine based on a long observation of phenomena and events. and a great man will arise. II. VII. where is the precious gold called sufir”. death among men and spoilt wheat…and on the western side (TN – side = lature) grief among men…and if thunder or lightning at noon. which the Romans had borrowed from the northern Pelasgians or Turseni (Etruscans). p. The old Sibylline books of the Romans. III. much rain and famine…. In Hebrew traditions this divine “Savila” is called “the queen of Saba” (Cart.

were of Hyperborean origin. “great fear in the western side”. who used for the description of the Roman Feasts the ancient religious books of the pontiffs. Under the rule of pious Numa. according to what the ancient Annals of the Roman pontiffs said. all the gods attended their funeral feasts. which had terrified Rome’s people. they had founded the first oracles in Hellada. 285 seqq). lightning and earthquakes. to ask the divinity how could he avoid the certain disasters announced by this omen. The dominant characteristic of the Hyperboreans was to know the future. “the valleys and streams will fill with water”. they were the agents of the divine voice in antiquity]. Ovid (Fast. III. while lature (TN – side) seems to infer here Latium. terrible lightning happened. describes this omen in words which show a big similarity with the text of the Romanian Gromovnic: “much rain”. their astronomical calendars and treatises. Therefore the primitive concept of the Romanian (Greek and Slav) books about thunder. We have to mention here too. . but only as a somewhat more important national city from the western regions. Asia Minor and Libya. goes back incontestably to some very remote times.We have to note here that Ram mentioned in this fragment is not presented as the illustrious capital of a great empire from west to east (TN – Rome in Romanian folk speech). They were the holy people of the ancient world. that the so-called Libri Etrusci (Etruscan Books). so that the king was constrained by the instructions given him by his wife Egeria.

contemplated attentively. 32. and in the middle of it rises a significant group of isolated rocky outcrops with unusual shapes. and especially the similarity between them. 1. Their shapes. behind Caraiman mountain. Such altars cut in live rock were found by Pausanias also in Attica and in the Peloponnesus during the time of the Antonines (Descriptio Graeciae. one of these formless figures. the remote time has destroyed them. once represented the simulacra of some mountain divinities. Here each rock seems that it represented once a certain figure. We dedicate this chapter to some extremely antique altars on Caraiman mountain.10m. Each altar is formed from a single block of stone and all three present the same characteristic shape of the altars of the Mycenaean epoch. The upper part.30m and of the third is 2. of the western (second) altar is 3.50m and of the eastern (third) one is 3. is square at the first and third altars. The height of the great altar (ara maxima) is 3. The cyclopean altars on Caraiman Mountain. The diameter of the pedestal of the great altar is 3. that here was once a sacred site consecrated to a prehistoric religion. Deae veteres. which present a mysterious aspect. on the coast that leads to “Omul” peak. nor bas-reliefs. and round or more elliptical at the second. indicate in a quite clear way that these figures are not the result of the dissolving action of water and even less of the glaciers from the Pliocene or Quaternary epochs. E. The only figures of this miraculous temple of antiquity. These altars can’t be considered from any point of view as a consequence of a simple erosion. are three altars of gigantic dimensions. grouped together in the shape of a triangle [1]. Nevertheless. The Romanian people call these enigmatic outcrops “Babe” (TN – Old women). Pauly-Wissowa.80m. The space occupied by these three altars is 11m long. called in Roman theology at the time of the empire Deae majores. 7. spreads a beautiful meadow. where the sanctuaries and altars.1669)]. today disfigured.20m. and even if they had once some hieratical signs.PREHISTORIC DACIA PART 2 – Ch. or the sacrificial table. R. II. seems to have once been the gigantic simulacrum of a feminine divinity. more or less regular. or towards the simulacrum of Zeus aigiochos. They have neither inscriptions. a traditional name which attests that some of these primitive monuments. Time has destroyed though almost all the primitive shapes of these mysterious figures. 31. where the statues of the divinities and the seats reserved for the people were formed by the natural masses of the rocks. 32. [1. (The height of this point above sea level is 2148m). of the second is 2. their remains seem to tell us that man’s hand had contributed surely to these curious shapes. 3. . Between Prahova and Ialomita valleys. which have still preserved their almost primitive shapes. p. Here can be seen even today the gigantic remains of a sacred prehistoric site.50m. I. I. a place of common assembly for the ancient pastoral and agricultural tribes. And in truth.XIII IEROI BOMOI. because nature could not give these stones shapes so unusual.

The sacrificial animals were brought to the foot of the altar. erected. were slaughtered. according to Philochorus. 38. by Hercules or other heroes. After a photo from 1899. Zeus patroos or Jupiter avus (Eschyl. VIII. 13. The inhabitants of Arcadia. 48). 8). Women and girls could approach only to the foot of the altar. the prayers and the sacrifices. right to the top (Ibid.The cyclopean altars on Caraiman mountain (Romania) View from NE. and two columns on which stood two gilded eagles (aquilae) rose in front of the altar towards the east (Pausanias. . where an earth tumulus served as altar to Zeus Lychaios. here were celebrated their great festivities. and the thighs were burnt on top of the altar. Cecrops was the first to dedicate an altar to Saturn and Rhea (Macrobius. here persecuted people looked for refuge and protection. here was the place of assembly regarding the common affairs of the tribes. This altar had in his time a base periphery of 38. Sat. as Homer tells us (Iliad. on both its sides. 10). Fragm. of ashes and the burnt remains of the victims. lib. 6). lib.78m high. or the branches of oaks and beeches. Nr. two centuries after his time. since Neolythic times.53m and was 6. but only the men were allowed to climb to the top (we find the same religious ideas even today with the Romanian people: “the woman is not allowed to enter the altar”). I. there was a sacred place and an altar consecrated to the supreme divinity of the Trojan times. In prehistoric antiquity the altars consecrated to divinities were placed on the same heights consecrated to them. 169). covered only by the high vault of the sky. revered their supreme divinity on top of Lycaeu mountain. Near these altars. On the territory of Attica. v. On the highest peak of mount Ida. This altar was formed. At the feet of these altars were made the most solemn oaths. as traditions said. VIII. the fundamental acts of the cult were celebrated. But the most famous altar consecrated to great Zeus was at Olympia in the Peloponnesus. named Gargaron. V. as Pausanias describes it. Two stairs formed of the ashes of the victims rose from near the foot of the altar. emigrated there from the northern parts of the Lower Danube.

Finally. was at Zeus’ right side (Preller. Ops. one consecrated to Zeus.172). XL. She represented the earth as throne of the Olympic gods. III. honored mostly Vesta of all gods. without equal in the Pelasgian world. whose upper part is round. appear to have existed in lands once occupied by Pelasgians. 1). tells us the names of the divinities revered by the Latin farmers. 34. L. In his treatise De Re Rustica (I. Aen. the Sky and the Earth. but not the urban ones. meaning from the Urano-Saturnian times. King Ianus. . and was called Ara maxima. From a historical and etymological point of view. Myth. was without doubt consecrated to the Sun and the Moon (Apollo and Diana). VIII. as they had diminished. and Rhea. I. The same author also tells us in his treatise about the Latin language (L. as were Vedius. All these prehistoric altars mentioned by the authors of antiquity. Flora. believing that the Earth was Zeus’ wife. 38. Great parents). Saturn. The Scythians. Vesta was considered as the same divinity as Gaea or Rhea. from whom all the produce of agriculture come. 11). VI. and after these they worshipped Apollo and Celestial Venus. Vedius. Moon. the Earth and the Sky. 59). 74). and Flora. was (and still is) on the same crest of Bucegi mountain. so I shall firstly invoke the Sky and the Earth. one of the most erudite and active Roman writers. certainly because its enormous size (Virgil. 1) that Saturn’s altar had been consecrated by Hercules and was on mount Capitolium. as common and stable hearth of the universe. but I shall address those who rule especially the farmers.The oldest altar In Italy was dedicated to Saturn. Hercules and Mars. In the second place I shall invoke the Sun and the Moon. Varro. These divinities represented under different sacred names. who represented the Great mother of gods. according to what Herodotus writes (lib. writes Macrobius (Sat. the most revered divinities in Pelasgian religion after the Sky and the Earth. whose course the farmers follow when they saw and reap. In antique theology. lib. the goddess of fecundity. were almost identical.271). or Saturn. 7). etc. Apollo’s place of honor according to antique religious ideas. Gaea or the Earth. IV. Vediovis or Vejovis represented Vetus deus. The prehistoric religion of Dacia. erected on top of the Hem mountain two altars. we can suppose in all probability that the great altar on Caraiman mountain was consecrated to the supreme divinities of the Pelasgian times. had erected an altar to him. Jupiter and Saturn. 22). 1854. as goddess of earth fertility. We are facing now the important historical matter of who were the divinities to whom these grandiose altars on Caraiman mountain were consecrated. On another hand Dionysius of Halikarnassus writes (I. were dedicated to the divinities Ops. p. wanting to elevate again Saturn’s name and dues. had been shaped to answer the needs of the pastoral and agricultural tribes. Gr. to receive sacrifices and be worshipped as a god. Sun.178bc). and who are called Parentes magni (TN – Parinti mari. “mos”. Another renowned prehistoric altar also extant in Latium had been consecrated to Hercules in the middle of a forest. V. the other to the Sun (Livy. And in truth their origin was Pelasgian. I shall firstly invoke the twelve gods “consentes”. a Sabine by origin. The second altar on Caraiman mountain. On the basis of these historical documents. and doubtless it needed to also have an altar close by. in the expedition against the Dentheletians (people near the frontier with Mesia – Ptolemy. we also mention here that king Filip III of Macedonia (d. In the old Pelasgian religion. Jupiter (Saturnus) and Tellus. I. as Zeus aristos megistos. Jupiter. that the altars consecrated at Rome by king Tatius. he makes the following invocation: because the gods help the people who work. ruler of the universe. The simulacrum of Saturn. and the second altar has the same position relative to Ara maxima of Saturn. then Zeus (Saturn) and Gaea. “Vij” in Transylvania means old man.

Supposing that each of these six altars had been dedicated from the beginning to two divinities each. Romanian incantations. 9409). The height which dominates these three altars has the name of “Dorul” (2008m) or the “Peak of Dor” (TN – Varful Dorului / dor = longing. IV. was one of the national divinities most revered by the Getae and the Scythians (Virgil. where a powerful ethnic Pelasgian stratum existed since the most remote times. 619. At the same time. 156) in Apollo’s temple in the island from near the city of Buto in Egypt. which contain important elements from prehistoric times. De Re rustica. Prahova district) (From a photo from the year 1900). about which we can’t be sure today.80m and a length of 4.11m. p. still mention a “great church with three altars” (Alecsandri. c. Argon. but only to the dor. Folk poetry. as results from different historical data. we find its explanation in the religious history of the Dacian people. Lupascu. also formed by the natural rocks of the earth [2]. lib. On the same crest of Bucegi mountain. 653).As for the destination of the third altar. I. V. the Ides of Marte were consecrated. p.32)]. Mars (Marte) or Gradivus pater. 35. we will have in these monuments the authentic traces of the cult of twelve pastoral and agricultural divinities. Lib. or the Peak with Dor. S-SW of Caraiman mountain (Romania.46). Medicina babelor.272. nr. I. was based on a certain religious principle. C. “Dorus pater” is the name of an archaic divinity. of the sky. The upper part or the sacrificial table of this altar has a width of 2. p. to the dor and the son. Fast. v. III. VIII. on its southern part. III. and she represented the beginning of spring. Herodotus. Valerius Flaccus. Carols. And the feminine divinity closest to Mars was in Latin traditions Anna (Feriae. 59. or domnul ceriului (TN – ruler of the sky). identical with Flora of the Romans and Celestial Venus of the Scythians. we find today an obscure mention about cultores Doripatri (C. yearning). Three altars are mentioned by Herodotus (III. This name is not a poetical expression. To this divinity called Anna. another group of three prehistoric altars still exists. L. of the earth…(Marienescu. The cyclopean altar on the mountain Dorul Peak. which still echoes today in one Romanian carol: “I don’t sing to the king. Ovid. [2. p. Aen. On one of the inscriptions of Roman Africa. Today only one among this new trio of altars still shows a somewhat regular square shape. Three altars were dedicated by the Heraclids in the Peloponnesus.388. Mars was venerated by the Italic tribes as god of war and of agriculture (Catonis. 62). 141). The number of three altars. . I. This is the same divinity venerated in the Roman Carmina Saliarae as duonus Cerus. c. L.

There are four stars in all” (Catasterismi. lib. 124). 117. II. 1795. 36). only after he declared himself priest before the gods” (Astronomicon. After the great war with the Titans. Odyssey (V. Sky and the water of the river Styx”. Exactly as the simulacrum of Zeus euruopa is cut in live rock on the top of Omul mountain. V. also had their altars there (Hesiod. the great oath of the gods was “on Earth. v. v. similarly the altars of the divinities revered on Caraiman mountain are formed from the natural rocks of the earth. Ara). Then Jove formed this altar from stars. Ed. v. and did not know if higher powers than his existed. This altar had been made by the Cyclops. who made up the great celestial counsel (Consentes). writes he. 84) tell. Jove had never before seen such hostile assaults. believing that this is a sign of good faith. because.In Olympia Hercules had similarly consecrated in six altars for twelve principal divinities (Herodorus. This altar has two stars in its upper part and two other at its base. or drinking assemblies. Even Jove feared and doubted that he will be able to do what he had to do. Therefore. was. He saw the Earth raising. and the farmers of Italy worshipped the same number of gods and goddesses. at the time when the angry Earth rose in arms against the Sky the enormous Gigants. graec. then they touch the altar with the hand. Eratosthenes. as Homer’s Iliad (XV.413 seqq. “ Beyond the Centaurus”. This was the principal altar consecrated to the divinities of the Earth and the Sky. and after they won. They belong to religious principles much more severe. Gaea. and believed that the entire nature had turned upside-down. the gods made on this altar their first religious ceremonies and their pact when they decided to start the terrible war with the Titans. V. also writes: “Near this altar the gods swore the oath. the figure of this altar was made eternal with a constellation on the sky called in Latin literature Ara and Altare. Schaubach. v. I. and near this altar they sacrifice at festivities. the most distinguished of the Alexandrine learned men. c. more superior gods. much more archaic then were presented in Homer’s epoch. when Jove went to war against Saturn. . The general character of these altars is theogonic. 29 in Fragm. 36). This altar is used by humans at their common feasts. following the example of the gods. introduced too the custom to make sacrifices before starting to achieve something” (Poeticon Astronomicon. generations with different faces and bodies of different natures. Then the humans.340 seqq). 39). they put this altar on the sky. so that even the stars ran away from these enormous masses that reached up towards them. created from the clefts of their mother. II. lib. Hist. binding themselves to one another. or the earth. The poet Marcus Manilius calls this constellation templum mundi. “there is the “Temple of the world” and there the “Altar” is seen glowing. victorious after the completion of the religious ceremonies. 184) and Apollo’s hymn (v. The grammarian Hyginis writes about this memorable altar of the gods the following: “According to what it is said. according to the ancient Pelasgian doctrines. One of these divine altars had in ante-Hellenic times a special religious and historical celebrity. it is without doubt that the divinities who had their principal terrestrial residence on the old Olympos of theogony. Theog. Then even the gods themselves looked for other. mountains rising all the time on top of other mountains. Near this sacred altar the gods themselves performed some religious acts and swore a loyalty oath to each other in extraordinary cases. Fragm. ara victrix and ara maxima. which even now glows as the greatest altar…At the feet of this altar the Gigants fell sacrificed and Jove took in his right hand the violent lightning as weapon. the common mother of the gods and men.

Scut. v. I. After these victories over the Dacians. Epigr. 50). So. that the gods had sworn their great oath on it. IV. to the sky (ceriu) he climbed. don’t get drunk…. by his own indulgence (Thebaid. Folk. the patricians. 97 seqq)]. Motii. 557). for the gods and the people (Ibid. p. Finally. which was on the mountain called “Ceriu” (TN – Sky). where the gods had made their oath near the great altar to fight together against the Titans. where they had made an oath together. and that was therefore on the old. We also find an obscure mention about the sacred altars. VIII. and had also brought to Rome the national food of the ancient Olympian divinities.1238). 204). had apparently taken from the pastoral tribes of this mountain. 3. Ibid. and always modest. Uranic Olympos.199) The same mountains. 78. Sylvae. Epigr. identical with Caraiman – Omul of today. v. near Brasov: High on the mountains. v. and brought with him only the glory to have defeated the world of the Hyperboreans” (Ibid. We will come back to these ballads when we will speak about the Romanian traditions regarding Saturn.169). v. At the large stone table. (Francu. Domitian threw a magnificent feast in Rome. the holy mountain on which the Dacians had sworn their oath before starting the war with the Romans. With this occasion. IX. under the name of Ceridel. Domitian. soldiers and the simple people. for all the social classes. 107. [3. there was also an assembly place. he refused the triumphs which he deserved.The sacred altar of the gods about which Hyginis and Eratosthenes tell us that it had been made by the Cyclops. and also the tradition about the common feasts or drinking parties. consecrated as we saw to the divinities of the Sky and Earth [3]. XXIV. appear In other ballads published by Tocilescu (Mater. and where the ancient Gigants had assaulted the Olympian gods. calls Domitian’s triumph over the Dacians “triumph over the Hyperboreans” and in another place “triumph over the Gigants”. and for giving it afterwards back to them. 3. appears at Statius and Martial as the famous mountain from the country of the Hyperboreans (see the following chapter). 102). Another contemporary poet. who only after long and hard battles had taken the holy mountain of Dacia (Statius. Herc. ieroi bomoi.19-20. 136. according to Martial. Epigr. Cerdel and the mountains Sterii Delului (Gr. . III. the same Martial. agora. Theog.v. Ibid. three times he bathed his sweaty horse in the snow of the Getae. of the great Olympic divinities. Homer also mentions the feasts and common drinking of the gods on Olympos and Uranos (Iliad. Among the oaks he sat. Ibid. 601. In an archaic Romanian ballad has been preserved to this day the memory of this altar or the “large stone table”. VIII.80-81). Sylvae. is the same as the great altar on Caraiman mountain. 50). stone column). This author tells us also that on the snowy Olympos from the ends of the earth. Drink the giants (Novacii). as Eratosthenes calls them. in the writings of Hesiod (Opera et Dies.108. stela. I. The Roman poet Papinius Statius mentions often the sacred mountain of Dacia and praises the emperor Domitian for driving out the Dacians from the top of this mountain. which the giants had near this altar. the renowned Martial (Epigr. Lib. I. I. called in Greek traditions ambrosia. VIII. v. in another epigram of his celebrates this way Domitian’s victories: “Three times did he cross the treacherous horns (the legendary arms) of the Sarmatic Ister. Lib. the entire Rome tasted from the divine ambrosia (Ibid.

these enormous stone tables from Caraiman mountain. decorated even today with the remains of some disfigured statues. [4. Cesar Boliac writes about it: “…upstream from Cozia. is also presented by that particular site of the fine terrace of Caraiman mountain. gigantic form.These agorae of the ancient Pelasgian times were usually decorated with the statues and altars of divinities. Often surrounded with enormous blocks of stone.2). feasts. The same aspect of a prehistoric agora. whose principal monument is here. called Babe. upstream of Jiblea village. one can count three such altars” (Trompeta Carpatilor. p. I have seen it twice. but in a primitive. 1871. they served as places of assembly for the tribes and their most important festivities. public games and fairs. . appear in everything as the sacred altars of ancient theogony [4]. and with sacrificial altars. which is definitely a Dacian altar. at the stone called the table of Traian. We conclude: By the geographical significance that the south-eastern corner of the Carpathians had in the history of the Pelasgian migration. of which one can see very often in the Carpathians – only from Sinaia over the mountain to the Cave. nr. 939. in the straits of the Carpathians. but especially by the extended cult of Zeus aigiochos. with stone chairs and porticoes for the people. but today can not be distinguished any more the primitive shape of this ancient altar]. Another prehistoric altar cut in live rock appears to have been the so-called “Table (TN – masa) of Traian” (Troian) from the left bank of Olt.

Theog.27). 634 seqq). of the known world. IV. the branches of the trees are of gold and of gold also are the fruit that covers them” (Metam. This Atlas. rises a gigantic rock column. Atlas was Saturn’s brother and both were the sons of Uranus and Gaea. . namely to support the sky with his head and tireless arms (Hesiod. III. and near this column. who were part of the big family of the Hyperboreans. The titan Atlas especially was a powerful and wealthy king who ruled over the people of the Atlantes. this legendary column of the sky was located in the extreme parts. This Atlas is one of the great figures of the Saturnian times. this column had in prehistoric antiquity a particular religious celebrity with all the Pelasgian tribes which had emigrated from the Carpathians towards Hellada. The geographical position of Atlas Mountain according to the heroic legends. in the country of the Hyperboreans. v. two other rocky peaks. on the high and vast mountain called Atlas.PREHISTORIC DACIA PART 2 – Ch. This column was considered in the southern legends as the miraculous column of the earth.XIV KION OURANOU. We will examine firstly the old Hellenic traditions regarding the geographical position of this column and we will present then the legends and the important role which this column had in the ante-Homeric religious beliefs. rise their tops into the sky. Asia Minor and Egypt. 517). which supported the starry vault of the sky. between Prahova district and the county of Brasov. v. which dominates the entire south-eastern corner of the Carpathians. after the total victory of this new monarch. According to the old Greek geographical traditions. lib. or the northern pole of the universe. Near the simulacrum of Zeus aigiochos from the highest peak of Bucegi Mountain (2508m). had taken part in the Titans’ war against Jove. born from the womb of the earth in the shape of powerful monoliths. of a reddish golden color (Ibid. On his trees leaves grow glowing with gold. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans XIV. 57. As the old historical sources used by Diodorus Siculus said (lib. or northern. from which cause. Exactly like the figure of Zeus aigiochos. brother of Saturn. And the poet Ovid presents this shepherd king from the times of the theogony with the following words: ”Thousands of flocks and cattle herds wander on his plains.lib. was condemned to one of the most difficult labors known in the legendary history of antiquity. His country is not pressed on either side by his neighbors’ boundaries. 60). It was said about this Atlas that he had flocks of fine sheep.IV. 1.

traveling across Libya. 11). had presented these apples to Juno. who had one hundred heads. But these apples. In this work of his. the king of Mycenae. Lib. 5. Jove. had written an important work about the traditions and legends of the heroic times. and this dragon used many and different kinds of voices. in the country of the Hyperboreans. So he freed Prometheus from his chains. as some say. where he killed with his arrows the eagle (also born from Echidna and Typhon). today Omul Peak in the south-eastern corner of the Carpathians. born from the union of Echidna and Typhon. once . the ancient logographers and historians. who had lived around 145bc.The Sky Column (chion ouranou) from ancient Atlas. on the occasion of his wedding. and Prometheus advised him that. we find the following geographical data regarding the region over which the titan Atlas had once ruled: Eurystheus. and went to the Caucasus mountain. Hercules. from there he crossed with his ship to the facing continent. View from E-NE (From a 1899 photograph) The grammarian Apollodorus of Athens. reached the External Sea. which he had extracted from the cyclic poets. II. had asked Hercules to accomplish also an eleventh labor and to bring him the golden apples from the Hesperides. but at the Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans (Bibl. were not in Libya (or the lands of Africa). of a great value for the history of ante-Homeric times. who picked at Prometheus’ liver. and they were guarded there by an immortal dragon. writes Apollodorus. Apollodorus tells us.

Preller. 3. 281. lib.174)]. Gr. . But no other mountain with the name of Atlas ever existed in any part of the ancient world.arrived at Atlas. was sent by king Polydectes from the island of Seriphos to bring him the head of Gorgona Medusa. Myth. remembering an old prediction that a son of Jove will steal his golden apples. II. Bibl. This legend is the following: Perseus. 2)]. Hercules asked Atlas to support the sky for only a few moments. in Atlas’ stead. p.44). cut Medusa’s head. X. took three apples and returned to Hercules. was instantly transformed into a mountain. contemporary with the gods of Olympus. so that he could put a cushion on his head. he put again the sky on Atlas’ shoulders. while he. Theog. IV.III. 274. Cicero. 4. Strabo.2. put it in his bag and went away. Pindar. but using a ruse. big as he was. but to send Atlas to bring them. Atlas. A similar legend exists with the Romanian people: that the figure from “Omul” mountain represents a shepherd whom God punished for his lack of piety by changing him into a strong rock (Muller. But Atlas. 50). as otherwise neither his false brave deeds. his head becoming the top of a high peak (Ovid. Perseus arrived to the sources of the river Okeanos (the cataracts of Istru). [2. took the pole of the sky on his shoulders in Atlas’ stead. [1. 11. To the indigenous populations of NW Africa the name Atlas was totally unknown. except in the country of the Hyperboreans. Namely.13. a king from the country of the pious Hyperboreans. the pole of the sky (Apollodorus. II.96). Pyth. taught him by Prometheus. in the country of the Hyperboreans. II. This name was given to that mountainous range only in the Greek literary writings (Pliny. Perseus took then out of the bag the ugly head of Medusa and Atlas. Hercules obeyed Prometheus’ advice. Siebenburgische Sagen. a pastoral and agricultural people. Hesiod. full of virtues. told him harshly to be off immediately. while Hercules grabbed the apples and went away. which had the magic power to turn mortals into stone. while his body an immense mountain range [2]. Metam. the mythical hero from Argos. v. XVI. 41) [1].14-17). others in Italy.II. religious and just. some placed it in Mauritania in Africa. and Atlas went to the gardens of the Hesperides. Later though.8. and asked for his hospitality for one night. was turned into a huge mountain. the son of Jove and the nymph Danae. The Hyperboreans. 1854. were an extended Pelasgian population living at the north of Istru and the Black Sea (Pindar affirmed that the Hyperboreans lived near the sources. V. 1. 627 seqq. De nat. p. who considered themselves born from the glorious race of the titans (Boeckhius. He stopped at king Atlas on his way back. where the three legendary gorgons lived (Apollodorus. and finally some in Arcadia in the Peloponnesus. deor. continuing to support on his head the northern pole or the axis of the sky. Hercules promised firstly to do that. (This scene is represented on a bas-relief from the temple of Jove at Olympia). Pindari opera. or cataracts. will protect him from his wrath. Atlas put down the apples and took the sky. Hercules. This is the oldest tradition. about the country of the titan Atlas. while Hercules will continue to support the sky in his place. Because of this. The Greek writers had lost very early the exact knowledge about the geographical position of the Atlas mountain. II. he was not to go in person for the apples. 5. supported on his shoulders. saying that he himself will take to Eurystheus the apples. the inhabitants of a very fertile and blessed country. and the most accredited at the same time. of the Istru –Olymp. this powerful ruler of the people of the Atlantes. But now Atlas did not want to take back on his shoulders the pole of the sky. nor his father Jove. in the country of the Hyperboreans.

whose primitive meaning was without doubt “washed gold” and the place where gold is washed (Lat.557. identical with Alutus fluvius of the Romans and with the river Olt of today (Germ. from the country of the Hyperboreans. alluo. sent by Jove to Africa with order to Aeneas to leave without delay for Italy. Studien zur Geographie d. by the royal gypsies called rudari”. St. was still used in the times of Pliny (H. The term alutatium. IV. p. or the northern extremity of the axis around which the sky vault rotates. helped by his sandals’ wings. Gooss. 349 seqq). p. Sulzer also speaks about the gold found in the river Olt (Geschichte d. beaten by winds and rain. lib. Fagaras mountains are also called in Transylvania the mountains of Olt. Daciens I. Apart from the river Olt. 21. 736) and by Virgil in his Aeneid.10. III. [4. In another poem of his (Georg. The important chain of the Southern Carpathians. Alt) [4]. which represented. we also talked about Atlas as an important mountain from the same region. Topolog. Carols. XXXIII.133) [5]. The name Olt had and still has with the Romanian people the same archaic meaning as both mountain and river at the same time. His shoulders are covered by masses of snow. the name Atlas had another special geographical meaning. by name and legends. Paulinus in his poem dedicated to the bishop Niceta from Dacia at 398ad. Atlas is the name of a significant river. 152-153)]. Hermes sees the cap and the precipitous slopes of hard Atlas.127). p. With Herodotus. which once harbored the pastoral Pelasgian tribes – starting from Barsa country to the sources of Motru – bears even today the name of the mountains of Olt and the mountains of the Olteni (Teodorescu.518. in the districts Valcea and Dolj)] . these last two works having been written on the basis of the geographical data of the sacred literature.37): “Gold is extracted from the sand of the rivers Olt. by Hesiod (Theog. But in Greek antiquity. flew over countries and seas. His head is crowned with fir trees and always surrounded by black clouds. Virgil also mentions near the Istru the long shape of the Rhodope mountains range (Carpathians). IV. politica si geografica a Terei romanesci. Trajanischen Daciens. Dio Cassius. p. lib. the ancient titan. also considers that the Dacians lived under the northern pole]. 6). who supports the sky with his head. which flows from the heights of old Hem (Carpathians) and into the Lower Istru (Herodotus. Mercury (Hermes). From here derives also the legend that in Atlas’ kingdom even the leaves on the trees were of gold. 49. transalp. The name Alutus (Greek ‘Atlas) presents itself as an old Pelasgian word. 2) by the gold miners who washed gold in Dalmatia. Marienescu. The washing of gold from the sands of Olt was in use in the Romanian Country until almost 1848. Folk poetry from Banat. Tunusli says (Ist. v. In folk poems from Banat “the Peak of Olt” is the highest mountain towards Transylvania (Hodos. to wash). Folk poetry. Virgil tells us. [5. LXVII. And Atlas mountain is also located in the northern regions of Europe by Ovid (Metam. So far we talked about Atlas as of one of the great personalities of the prehistoric times. with the meaning of gold found on the surface of the earth. [3. p. Arges and Dambovita. 130-131). “In this travel of his through the air.The fundamental idea in Atlas’ legends is that this shepherd-king of the ancient world supported with his head and arms the pole. and rivers of water rush forth from the old one’s face. as of a powerful king rich in flocks and wealthy in gold. while his terrible beard is full of ice” [3]. there are also in Romania three hills called Olt. which arches back around the central axis of the sky. N.

and then. With Eschyl (Prometheus. XII. This lack of geographical knowledge regarding the regions from the north of Istru is stated by Herodotus. called in Greek literature Ouranos. namely: which is the origin of the name “the Sky Column” of the colossal pyramid from the top of the Omul mountain. when the miraculous simulacrum of Saturn as Zeus euruopa aigiochos from the mountains of Olt was considered to be the titan Atlas. And Homer mentions in his Odyssey (I. there were three stone columns on Atlas mountain. today Caraiman (Cerus manus). This colossal figure turned to stone. when he talked about Jupiter nubilus from the axis of the Hyperboreans. But Hesiodus tells us (Theog. the peak called Omul was and still is considered as only one of the peaks of Caraiman mountain – Frunzescu. 656 seqq) “he was changed into a mountain. the big face of the old man from which rivers of water rush forth. the highest peak of Atlas mountain showed the petrified figure of this powerful representative of the race of the titans. growing in all directions. 650) referred to the same figure. Only that it seems that beyond the Istru there is a deserted and infinite land]. Dict. It is the grandiose simulacrum of Zeus aigiochos. According to old Hellenic traditions. the highest and strongest. when the old traditions about the holy places from the north of Istru had been lost in the southern regions. can still be seen on the highest peak of Omul mountain. [6. and this author also adds that Prometheus had been chained on the middle column.Finally. without saying anything though about their number. 521-522) that Atlas supports the sky with his head and tireless arms. dominating from above the figure of Zeus aigiochos (from the point of view of its geological formation. 53-54) “the long columns” on the Atlas mountain. his bones became rocky crags. “As great as Atlas was” writes Ovid (Metam. this majestic monument of the Pelasgian world bears the name “the column of the sky and earth”. turned into stone. was considered as the principal column. So. now is the top of the highest mountain. crowned with fir trees and surrounded by clouds. he reached an immense size”. top. VI). out of which one. Lib. The name “the Sky Column” was doubtless in the beginning only an expression of the sacred geography. v. what sort of people dwell. the legendary history of Atlas presents also an archaeological character. in the following words: ”northwards from Thrace. nobody can precisely tell. We are presented now with the last geographical matter from the history of the legends of the titan Atlas. v. extensive hills. These legends of Atlas belong to the second period of prehistory. formed by an entire mountain peak. megas ouranos. grandiose column. “which separate the sky from the earth”. p. which supported the starry vault of the sky. Virgil also mentions Atlas’ head. Three columns with particular shapes. his shoulders and arms. according to the old legends of the Theogony. what had before been his head. column which had been consecrated to the supreme divinity of the sky. but this time with different names and legends [6]. It is the same monument of the ante-Homeric times. IV. V. v. 349). which had once represented some sacred symbols. And the words of the Roman poet Statius (Thebaid. His beard and locks now became forests. from the most sacred mountain of the ancient times. described with such realism by Atlas’ legends. still exists today near the column which rises on the top of Omul mountain. his shoulders covered by masses of snow. but a real. . and his terrible beard full of ice. It designated not an imaginary miraculous column. v.

Pr.c.According to traditions and the positive archaeological data which we have. Aen. Didot. Atlas was considered in the old legends as the highest mountain of the known world (Ovid.58-63): “From prehistoric times. on the road from Sparta to Arcadia there were seven columns. but in the country of the Hyperboreans. 1767. Mineralogia M. p. VI. . mentions that. The religious songs from Dobrogea still mention these sheep: ewes with yellowish fleece. Hist. similarly was renowned. Piatra Craiului and Bucegi were the principal heights of the Dacian Carpathians (Fridvalszky. gr. Ed. consecrated firstly to Saturn. exactly as it was said about old Atlas. Escursiuni.. herds of cattle and horses…There were shepherds who owned hundreds and even thousands of horses. corresponds to the southern chain of the Carpathians. 16). Mineralogia M. as the scholiast of Dionysius Periegetus tells us (Fragm. that the majestic Atlas mountain which supported the northern pole of the sky. the pastoral mountain of the Hyperboreans. about the legends of which we shall speak in the following chapters [7]. According to all these different geographical indications of antiquity. Babes writes (Din plaiul Pelesului.20). the race of sheep with fine. Virgil. Transilvaniae. III. reddish or smoky”. that massif on which there are also the simulacrum of Zeus aigiochos. tsigaia is white. an extended Pelasgian population from north of Thrace or the Lower Istru. p. others who had flocks of ten to twenty thousands of sheep…The predominant races of sheep in our country are tsurcana or barsana and tsigaia…. on the peaks of the mountains and the highest tops of the Carpathians. were. 1767. 115. as well as the monuments mentioned in the legends of Atlas. about which it was said that represented the simulacra of the seven planets (lib. as for color. 20. that the mountains Clabucet.6). in The description of Greece. black. to our very days.Tsigaia sheep are of the type with curly and fine fleece. from the Bucegi massif. with golden fleece. The same truth is confirmed today by the names and geographical descriptions. 482). based on older texts. the cyclopean altars. were only simple wooden or stone columns. erected according to the ancient rite. p. were brought to pasture countless flocks of sheep. was not in Libya or NW Africa. Even in the second century b. Especially the apex of old Atlas presents itself as identical in everything with the majestic peak called Omul. The same was believed in the 18th century. with silken fleece. the first religious monuments which humanity had erected in honor of the celestial divinities. known in Romanian history under the name of the mountains of Olt. And Pausanias. the god who represented the great divinity of the immense sky. the grammarian Apollodorus of Athens had established. the immense Atlas mountain. Principatus Transilvaniae.11)]. [7. III. 9). short and curly fleece from the mountains of Fagaras and Barsa (Fridvalszky. Met. The peaks of Omul are usually covered in clouds and mists today also. the gigantic columns of Hercules. IV. p. And also regarding the great flocks and herds which grazed once this group of mountains. and the three columns of stone. the snow is permanent (Turcu. 640. and under the cover of the rocks.. so famous once in the ancient world. So. As in antiquity the countless flocks of the titan Atlas had become famous for their golden fleece.

In one of the best tragedies of Eschyl. Mechone. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. to choose the leanest part for the gods. In this way Prometheus wanted to trick Jove. And on the other side he put only the bones. had opposed this plan (Prometheus vinctus. the custom was introduced to humans to burn only the bones on the altars of gods. in order to decide the honors and duties reserved to each party. Although Jove had observed immediately the trickery. deeply angry that the gods had been shortchanged in their honors. He then slaughtered the victim and made two heaps. Prometheus. according to Hesiod. which he covered with the skin of the ox. The first cause of the discord was. the following: While the gods and the people had held a common assembly at Mecone. 228 seqq). Now Jove. we must look for the ancient locality Mecone here. to rule over gods and men. which he brought and presented to the mortals [2]. according to the old legends of theogony.2 (KION OURANOU. Prometheus chained on the Sky Column in Dacia. On one side he put all the meat with the good intestines and fat. Jove had become powerful over gods and men through his reigning position. and he was supported by the humans. stole from the eternal fire of Jove a few sparks. The representative of the discontented world was the wise titan Prometheus. shiny fat. On the principal column of Atlas mountain. without being concerned at all with the lot of the poor mortals. that Jove had wished to extinguish the whole human genus and create another. It was considered by some Greek authors as identical with Sycion or Sicyon in the Peloponnesus (Strabo. the same mountain and the same column which dominate the whole SE corner of the Carpathians. . situated close to “Omul” mountain have even today the name Moeciu]. 6l 25).XIV. he gave all good things to gods only. with his titanic skills. Prometheus fetched for sacrifice a big ox and proposed to divide it [1]. and even more. Prometheus’ legend presents one of the most sublime images of the nascent civilization of the Pelasgian people. was. VII. Since that time. [1.PART 2 – Ch. or in Scythia. We note that two villages in Transylvania. v. forbade the use of fire to the humans. which he cunningly covered with white. the most superior mind of the Pelasgian world. Prometheus. as he already had no good intentions towards them. but Prometheus was powerful through his wisdom. says Hesiod. But Prometheus. a grave misunderstanding took place. superior by the force of his thinking. the father of civilization and the friend of mankind. But because the events of theogony and particularly the tragic episode of Prometheus happened at the north of Istru. After Jove defeated old Saturn and took his place in all the divine and political honors. inculpates Jove like this: that as soon as he ascended his father’s throne. Great jealousy and quarrel issued because of this in the counsel of gods between Prometheus and Jove. according to these legends. and that only himself. he intentionally chose the bad part in order to have a good reason to revenge himself on the mortals. chained Prometheus. an obscure locality. 2. between the mortal men and the new autocrat.

Where great historical. the mother of Atlas and Prometheus had been a daughter of Oceanos (ancient Istru) named Clymene. Theog. could not see everything. Jove accepting. the brave son of Alcmene. Prometheus was a brother of Atlas and both of them sons of the titan Iapet. which he covered with the other skin. this divine element. v. 507. burned with anger. “supports the vast sky at the ends of the earth with his head and tireless arms. But seeing that he had been deceived. being unable to boil it. seeing from afar how the flames of the fire burned on the hearths of the humans. put the intestines on the altar. Homer. believing that each part represented the remains of one bull. and from the NW corner of the Black Sea. Even with Herodotus. From a historical point of view. then. covered it with one of the skins. ancient Scythia stretched along the Lower Istru and ended in the regions of today Olt. He ordered Vulcan to chain him on the high and solitary stony peak of Atlas mountain from the ends of the earth. So he went to the place where Jove’s fire was. being constrained to do this by a double necessity. And the historian Herodorus. and because of this waste the poor could not make sacrifices. Jove. took a few sparks. thought how to give back to mankind the fire which it had lost because of him. so that they would have no use for the meat of the victims. And he sent against him a vulture with wide wings. leaving the rest for their personal use. who lived at the borders of the known world together with Saturn (Ibid. What had happened could not be undone. because it grew back overnight. According to Hesiod. decided to punish him for this daring deed. religious or political events were concerned. Prometheus killed two bulls. 517 seqq). who tied and chained astute Prometheus with thick. the great step towards the civilizing of the human genus had been made. v. 509-510. always inventive. According to what he says. because of this gift. And Jove. He then suggested to Jove to choose one part or the other for burning. “Atlas”. after which he put all the bones together. who lived before Herodotus. Prometheus’ legends present a special interest for the origins of European civilization at the north of Lower Istru. . who. on the middle column. and for the progress of this civilization towards the southern regions. the old Greek authors usually understood under this geographical name of Scythia the lands from the north of Istru. put them inside the plant called ferula and brought them to the mortals]. gathering together the rest of the meat from both victims. or from the country of the Scythians. the ancients used to sacrifice to gods in great ceremonies. Iliad. which was never wholly consumed. Prometheus obtained from Jove the favor that the mortals might be allowed to burn but a part of the victims’ meat. The humans started to enjoy the benefits of the fire. who continuously picked at his liver. Hercules. This fate was decided for him by wise Jove. unbreakable chains. v. According to Hesiod. VIII. So. writes Hesiod (Theog. the goddess with fine feet. Hyginus also tells this legend but with some more details (Poeticon astronomicon. chose the bones. But Prometheus. 6). killed this bird and freed Prometheus from his anguish”. II. tells us that Prometheus was a king of Scythia (fragm.[2. 479). although a god. and because he did not want his rival Prometheus to earn a higher consideration in the eyes of the mortals than the gods had. 23). he took the fire from the mortals. in which they burned whole carcasses.

and no way to live. Finally. v. the copper. the system of numbers. which attests that the chaining of Prometheus on the principal column of Atlas mountain refers to the gigantic column which dominates the whole SE corner of the Carpathians. whom the Greek poets name by right Epimetheus (mindless). II. In antique legends Prometheus appears also as the creator of a new human genus. . knew in advance what was going to happen. shaped from the same matter the first ancestors of our human genus. then. I found the way to combine letters. “did not know how to build brick houses. they saw in vain. but with different success. which had passed from the Carpathians to Hellada and from Hellada to Egypt. they had no sure sign. and after they suffered a misfortune. Apollodorus tells us. when the fruit ripens. being a lesser master. discovered the sails so that the ships would be able to navigate on the sea…Moreover. with which to protect themselves against all illnesses. 470 ): According to what legends tell us. especially the northern legend about the creation of man from water and clay. they did not know how to work the wood. 81) [3]. I. or summer. and. 7. and I made them wise and I gave them the power of thought. after all mankind had perished and the earth had dried again. and not another. until I taught them to know the rise and setting of the stars. the mortals have learnt from Prometheus” (Prometheus vinctus. summarizing all this in a few words: know that all the arts. In the beginning the things which they saw. Stephanus Byzanthinus writes that at the time of Deucalion’s flood. It is impossible to know today the true historical meaning of this legend about the creation of man from water and clay. says Prometheus. These people. and men died for lack of remedies. Met. exactly like animals. The origin of this belief harks back to very ancient times. he says. calling all the winds. but lived without any sort of knowledge. exposed to sunlight. but a great many other good things. which Eschyl enumerates like this: “Men”. 443 seqq). Prometheus had put more divine spirit in the clay of the men created by him with a lot of care. But the second author of the human genus. I first yoked the cattle. could not avoid dangers. had no cure. hidden inside the dark womb of the caves. only moaned and lamented. Jove ordered Prometheus and Minerva to form clay idols. I invented the most useful sciences. [3. gave them souls and life]. and how things can be memorized. the silver and the gold. to be used for transport…and still I. could not predict things and what was going to happen. as ants. two twin brothers. is much more archaic than the final redaction of Moses’ books. we have another monument of an extreme archaeological importance. but dwelt in underground places. and they. had chosen clay of an inferior quality and had not inspired any divine essence into it. shaped men from water and earth and gave them the fire. 1. I taught them different ways to prophesy…Finally. and what they heard they did not hear. These men”. It is the same legend which had migrated from north to south. gave man not only the benefit of fire. I. Prometheus. v. Iapet’s sons. the iron. either for the beginning of winter or of spring. which is a thing more difficult to remember. Ovid.According to legends. We find a more complete version of this legend with the poet Claudianus (Eutropium. being created by a better master. Prometheus. this is the mother of all sciences. which he’d stolen from Jove and which he’d brought to them hidden in the plant named ferula (Bibl. who could affirm to have discovered before me the things useful to mankind which are hidden under the earth. the most genial figure of prehistoric world. until I first taught them how to make useful medicines. when someone fell sick. continues Prometheus. “had in the beginning the mind of a child. The times of Prometheus are much more ancient than the release of the Jewish people from their slavery in Egypt. so they were ready to meet the events which could harm them. For a very long time they confused all things. as the phantoms of some dreams are confused. and which later was introduced by Moses in the holy books of the Hebrews.

rise their heads. a worker in clay. According to another tradition (Hyginus. has been consecrated even from the most obscure antiquity. [4. He builds on ancient Olympus the gods’ palaces and the fine porticoes of gilded stone (Iliad. which grew back each night. sent by powerful Jove against Prometheus. Serpentarius represented Carnubutas. like Jove’s scepter. there is also the group of stars called Serpentarius. lib. Columella. This monumental figure is the mythological vulture. v. who had invented the pipe. 70) and an architect. Origine de tous les cultes. 607. Apollo had buried this arrow on the mountain of the Hyperboreans. II). according to traditions. of Vulcan. Poeticon astronomicon. 9. which is a masterpiece deserving eternal admiration. and which once dominated the religious sentiments of the whole world. 3). 68). according to others. Aquila Promethei. Ed. p. The colossal simulacrum of Zeus euruopa. XX. . 43). “sent the vulture against Prometheus. chest. two other rocks. says he. together with the first fruit produced at that time. II. II). [5. 11). who had killed Triptolemos (Hyginus. who crafts the most exquisite metal objects. from Earth (Terra) and Tartaros. the king of the Getae. etc. this was the arrow with which Apollo had killed the Cyclops who had manufactured Jove’s thunderbolts. According to some authors of old. called by Greek authors aetos and in Roman literature Aquila (Cicero. Op 60. and part of the wings of a gigantic vulture. Basileae. This sacred vulture of prehistoric times is not the only sculpture left to us from this divine artist. according to some. That’s why the arrow had been put among the stars]. but he is at the same time a divine master craftsman universal. Poet. R. 31. This vulture was born. 44. to devour his liver. or two archaic monoliths which once had certain religious functions. communicates some of the legendary history of this famous vulture: “Jove”. The grammarian Hyginus. and Polyzeus demonstrates that it was made by Vulcan and that Jove gave it life”. 13). as I mentioned above. Tome VI. from the vicinity of this column. So we have before us a sculpture from the most obscure times of ante-Hellenic civilization. was also put among constellations with the name of Sagitta. from Typhon and Echidna. Vulcan worked for nine years near the river Oceanos (Istru). a sculptor (Hesiod. to which the legends of antiquity had attributed the role of torturer of Prometheus. Vulcan appears in old traditions not only as a celestial metalworker. The position of this constellation is near another group of stars which have the name of Prometheus or Ingeniculus [4]. According to Homer’s Iliad (XVIII. But most of authors insist that this vulture was made by Vulcan. II. 402). tortor Promethei (Dupuis. facing the principal column. in his Astronomical Poem (lib. De nat. Near the constellation of the Vulture. The arrow with which Hercules had killed the vulture who devoured Prometheus’ liver.Near this majestic column on Omul Peak. was known also to the ancient authors. a constellation in the northern hemisphere. Achilles’ weapons. deor. neck. a religious emblem which was considered. To this divine vulture. a son of Vulcan. Although this archaic figure from the high peak of the Carpathians has been exposed for millennia to the harshest of elements. attests the grandiose concept and the style of the same peerless master [5]. V. And according to Pausanias (II. was named Ardalus]. as the handicraft of the most genial master of the ancient world. Astr. lib. Hercules’ shield. 467-8 and Atlas. it awakens admiration even today for its extremely elegant shapes. One of these mysterious rocks presents a megalithic sculpture which represents the head. I. R. The figure of a gigantic stone vulture near the column on which wise Prometheus had suffered according to traditions. but the winds had taken it back to him. pl. II.

394). without being troubled by its rays. Din plaiul Pelesului. The primitive meaning of this megalithic vulture (aquila). 30) that this vulture is the only bird that flies towards the sun (TN – sore). [6. XII. This vulture is called in Transylvania sorlita. fulvus Jovis ales (Virgil. Vulcan to those prehistoric. Phidias belongs to the historic times. Eratosthenes says (Catasterismi. This figure. meaning the vulture of the sky [6]. and on the eastern side of this altar rose two columns (chiones). De Leg. c. Jovis ales de plaga aetheria (Ibid. or Istru. miranda visa figura (Cicero. it was only a sacred symbol of the divine majesty and power. hieratically represented near the column consecrated to the Sky (Caelius). Vulcan to the region near Oceanos potamos. Nuntia fulva Jovis. the finest and most remarkable for its violent character is the so-called golden vulture.72)]. Aen. Phidias belongs to Hellada. from which the goddess of wisdom Minerva emerged. which was that Vulcan had been the master craftsman who had made the great sacred head of Zeus. which is very significant. I. The vultures of Bucegi mountains are renowned for their big size and their daring (Babes. was without doubt completely different.When the poet Pindar tells us in one of his odes that Vulcan broke with his hatchet Jove’s head. there was on Lycaeu mountain in Arcadia. on which stood two very ancient vultures. According to Pausanias. 2). aquila fulva. called in the poetic literature of antiquity chrisaietos (aietos). 1. a grandiose earth altar in the shape of a tumulus. expressed in the beginning only a simple religious idea. on which were inscribed the symbolic traces of Athena’s creation. from where the entire Peloponnesus could be seen. V. I. This is the same vulture that in the ancient religion had been consecrated to the supreme divinity of Zeus. or cehleu (caelius). as the ancients said. he tells us through these verses only a part of the folk tradition. it is the aquila of ancient Olympus (Olympus aetherius). Vulcan is a divine creator in his art. “born from the Earth”. Phidias is a famous imitator. v. dedicated to Zeus Lychaios. 247). Of all the species of vultures which today dominate the lofty peaks of the Carpathians. . p. Both these figures are monuments of national art of the northern Pelasgians.

Behold also the rocks of Prometheus. Finally. 14. Behold that famous mountain of legends.3 . and to these words you could still add that he. Lib. he was even tougher than these tough rocks. IX. you will say: Yes. could in truth also form the human genus. chained Prometheus suffered on the famous column on Atlas mountain. which barely move. Soon you will see all these with your own eyes.XIV. In one of his finest epigrams dedicated to a Roman soldier who was going to Dacia. 46) that Prometheus’ rocks and the fabulous mountain (of Atlas) were in Dacia. he says so: “Marceline. When you will contemplate these rocks in which echo the great pains of the ancient man. soldier. And Pindar tells us that the Hyperboreans were the people who dwelt near the sources (cataracts) of Istru (Olymp. who could endure such torments. III. the Latin poet Martialis tells us even clearer (Epigr. 17).According to Hesiod’s theogony. v. you go now to take on your shoulders the northern sky of the Hyperboreans and the stars of the Getic pole. Apollodorus locates Atlas mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans. PART 2 – Ch.

In the historical summary of Florus. in our case. as seventy or eighty years later the poet Virgil similarly called Rhodope not only the mountains of Thrace. the second legend about Prometheus’ suffering. the geographical knowledge started to make an immense progress.M(inerviae) / p(iae) f(idelis) v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) fu(it) / ad Alutum / flumen secus / mont(em) Caucasi” (Henzen. gives us the task to also analyze from a geographical point of view. crossed. Prometheus nailed on the Caucasus mountain in Dacia. Shortly after that. following the same strong policy of punishing and weakening the barbarians by making military incursions in their lands. Mommsen. This is also confirmed by a remarkable Roman inscription (in Koln museum) from the time of the emperor Trajan. the grammarian Apollodorus tells us: “Prometheus. the mountains of Rhodope and of Caucasus. the bishop Eustathius of Thessalonika. This mountain is in Scythia. Froehner. . I. Each Roman expedition was at the same time also a geographical reconnaissance. And regarding this. on which according to legends Prometheus was crucified. ordered Vulcan to nail his body on the Caucasus mountain. made on the basis of old legends and geographical sources. c. La Colonne Trajane. lib. does not figure on the geographical tables” (v. 28. that Prometheus’ Caucasus was not the Caucasus of Asia. The chaining and torture of Prometheus formed in antiquity the object of a significant number of poems. Dacia’s Carpathians appear also under the name Caucasus in various other historical and geographical descriptions. 351). nr. a mountain from the territory of ancient Scythia.(KION OURANOU. under the name Rhodope was to be understood the entire complicated system of mountains of ancient Thrace. the ex-consul Piso. p. 16). or the southern range of Dacia’s Carpathians. v. Once the sovereignty of the world passed into the hands of the Romans. together with the Hem or today Balkans. of great value for the geography of Dacia in ante-Roman times is: “Matronis / Aufanib(us) / C(aius) / Jul(ius) / Mansue / tus M(iles) l(egionis) I. 5939. but also the mountains of Scythia from the north of Istru (Georg. or from the eastern parts of the Black Sea. Gesch. So we have here a very precious statement. 1). And. 173). the SE region of the Carpathians appears in different historical and geographical monuments under the name of “Caucasus”. Prometheus was nailed on the Caucasus mountain in Scythia. secretly stole fire from Jove and hid it in the plant called ferula. 3. The first Roman general who reached the Danube was Marcus Livius Drus (Florus. III. after shaping men from water and earth. where the group of the Carpathians near the Olt river is called Caucasus. III. II. One of the most distinguished and learned men of the 12th century. The text of this inscription. I. as soon as the Roman legions reached the Istru. We have here therefore a new question from the geography of antiquity: which is the Caucasus about which the second legend of Prometheus speaks? This Caucasus of Scythia on which Prometheus was chained or nailed. according to the historian Florus (lib. III. 663). The Caucasus from Prometheus’ legends was not at all identical with the range of mountains which stretches between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. So. where Prometheus stayed nailed for a number of years (Bibl. tells us the following in the Commentaries written by him on Dionysius Periegetus: “But the ancient authors affirm that that Caucasus. was a geographical mystery even for the most distinguished authors of old. But Jove sensing this. And Florus meant doubtlessly under the name of Caucasus. nr. Lib. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. The fact that this memorable scene from the history of ante-Homeric civilization took place on the territory of Dacia. 7. descriptions and explanations. According to various Greek authors from a later time than the time of Hesiod. 5). the epoch of Roman domination in the eastern parts of Europe elucidates it completely. Rom. 5.

XIV. plus Ovid’s and Strabo’s. where. descends to the Pontos. 28). Caucasus. is therefore from the point of view of prehistoric geography. VII). or the Hungarian mountains” (Schlozer. the Carpathians also appear under the name Caucasus in the oldest Russian chronicle. Prometheus’ Caucasus. the Roman geographer Julius Honorius had composed.In the 5th century ad. touches also the courses of Istru. stretches along the lands of Scythia. Hasdeu says in Istoria critica. “there are the Danube. beginning with the most remote time. p.22). attributed to the monk Nestor. Russische Annalen. writes he (De reb. Finally. born around 1056ad. 1864). PART 2 – Ch. Caucasus by the river Olt (Alutum flumen) [1]. starts at the Indian Sea. turns towards north. the mountain Hypanis. on the eastern part of the Black Sea. We find another precious geographical statement with Jornandis. at the point where the river divides and flows in two directions. C. We note that a mountain near Olt. Gottingen. “In the northern part of Pontos”. which makes them nine. in which he mentions two mountain ranges with the name of Caucasus. and Caucasus mountains. II. a small treaty on cosmography (Cosmographia.4 . p. [1. 1802. that the Carpathians were named Caucasus. (Honorius mentions near the Caucasus of Europe. one and the same with the southern range of the Carpathians. gathering its heights. II. then. and in the inscription from Koln. or the legendary Caucasus of Scythia. until the Middle Ages”]. the other on the territory of Asia. is called today the Upanas Peak – Charta Romaniei meridionale. forming a round corner. who was probably born in Mesia. c. he writes. the historian of the Getae. one on the territory of Europe close to the Hem mountain.285: “It is therefore a fact mentioned by seven undeniable sources. Nistru (Dnestr). which corresponds to the SE Carpathians of Dacia. Get. based on older sources. called by Apollodorus Atlas from the country of the Hyperboreans. goes then into Syria. towards SE of Samboteni village.

flowed. 142. the ironsmiths. the itinerary proposed by Prometheus to the nymph Io presents a special importance. But I counsel you not approach them. where the torrents gather. pharaggos and pharaggi. they are violent men and do not gladly receive strangers. in the country of the iron (Prometheus vinctus. comes on Pharang. After you will leave this isthmus. From the constant use which Eschyl makes in his tragedy of the term Pharang. the grandiose massif on the western side of the river Olt. born in the 6th century bc. results that we have in this case not a generic word. and by Apollodorus Caucasus. It results from this new legend communicated by Eschyl that the rocky cliffs on which the great hero of the ante-Homeric civilization was put in irons. Prometheus. passing over the peaks of the mountain which reaches to the stars. daughter of king Inachus of Argos. were on the western side of the Black Sea. on some rocky crags. then you will come to the Cimmerian isthmus. who hate men…They will show you the way with goodwill. Close to this mountain called Pharang-. you will cross untilled fields and will come to the shepherd Scythians (nomads). because it is dangerous. v. you will cross into the continent of Asia” (Prometheus. the highest mountain. take the road southwards and you will arrive to the land of the many Amazons. persecuted by Juno because she was loved by Jove. but a particular topical name. to learn how much more she will have to suffer and wander because of the persecution of the powerful queen goddess. various forms of the nominative pharagxi (Eschyl. who spend their lives in carts well fitted with iron. who was also the first prophet of his times. “taking the road from here towards east. near ancient Oceanos the crucified Prometheus. you will have to cross the mouths of the Meotic lake. famous for the wildness of its rocky cliffs and its solitary valleys. Prometheus. 15. on the territory of mountainous Scythia.(KION OURANOU. 284-285). according to the same author. had taken place Prometheus’ torture. armed with far reaching arrows. 618. v. . was chained in Scythia. After this deed. meaning mountain or rocky cliff with broken faces and deep ravines. Prometheus chained on the rocks of Pharanx (Parang) mountain in Dacia. but instead to turn towards the rocks beaten by the waves of the sea. From there then. of whom you should beware. which in his poem are called pharagga. According to Eschyl of Greece. and to continue your way on dry land. and you will achieve an everlasting fame for this crossing. but don’t cross it. on which according to Eschyl’s legend. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. and well covered. v. It also results from this legend that the tragic scene of Prometheus had taken place on the same mountain chain which is called by Hesiod Atlas. from where then the river takes their violence downstream. in a wild mountainous region. from there you will reach the violent river called rightfully that. The young priestess Io. near the narrow mouths of the Meotic lake. the straits of the Meotic lake will be called Bospor. lib. the great and divine river of the ancient world called Oceanos potamos or the Istru of historical times (Ibid. 2). 4. Parang. then. leaving behind the lands of Europe. on the remote territory of the ancient world (Herodotus. V. 9). The only difference is that the prehistoric Golgotha is presented by Eschyl as having been another group of mountains. 1015). And in regard to the particular geographical position of this Pharang-. superb men. gathering your courage. v. until you reach the Caucasus. Prometheus indicates to the girl the following itinerary: “Firstly”. On the left dwell the Chalybi. 707 seqq). rushing from the tops of this mountain. says he to order to indicate the rocks and mountain on which Prometheus was crucified. the most powerful genius of the Pelasgian times.

the most dangerous in Romanian traditions is the Olt. Rom. that Eschyl (Prometheus v. All we know today are. XLIX. say folk legends. angry and bloodied. It is the ancient Atlas of the Hyperboreans. Teodorescu. Eschyl also mentions a significant river which flows from the mountains. and famous for the violence of its course (Ibid. at least one man must drown in the Olt and. when a day goes without the river receiving its sacrifice. Until the times of the reign of prince Bibescu. Mandrescu. It is the “savage” river. p. but we don’t know at what time the iron foundry had started there. Gorj. it comes swollen. synonymous with the German Huttenarbeiter. p. 717). especially Scythia from near the Lower Danube.56). 715). Literatura. 320. Dambovita and Ramnicul-sarat. with violent whirlpools.In Eschyl’s legends the shepherd Scythians. An. 721). and who dominated the mountains and the untilled fields on the northern parts of Istru. Close to Pharang. It is the same mountain about which also talks the Roman inscription from Brambach: Ad Alutum flumen secus montem Caucasi (see above). bodies of outlaws and halters of dark bays (Alecsandri. are the famous Hyperborean shepherds. v. III. Muscel. the “accursed” river. 4820. Between the mountain Pharang. The region of the Carpathian Mountains was in prehistoric times the classical country of mines. this word is of Pelasgian origin. it starts howling and men should avoid entering it. even at Slatina. p. When it rains in the mountains. the Amazons boasted that they were” the daughters of the god Mars” and that they “were from the nation of the Scythians” . according to our geographical descriptions. Margot writes (O viatorie. because it asks for a man’s head (Sezatoarea. but not the Asian Caucasus.and the Black Sea. the mountain whose peaks reach to the stars (Ibid.119). 719). 323. These Amazons belonged to the barbarian lands. workers in metal factories. it was still believed that it was impossible to build a bridge over this river. v. v.159 and Doinele. But the original meaning of the word Chalibes was undoubtedly the same as the Romanian Colibasi. says Prometheus to the nymph Io. Various villages on the territory of Romania. v. but the Caucasus from the western side of the Black Sea. in the districts Mehedinti. A locality at the foot of Parang mountain is called even today Baia-de-fer (TN – Iron Mine). flourished and ended. Their country of origin was Scythia. v. it brings uprooted trees. Eschyl says in another tragedy of his (Septem adversus Thebas. in Eschyl’s geography. [1. p. who had once trodden the whole known world. In Eschyl’s geography the mountain called Caucasus appears also near this violent river (Prometheus. dwellers in huts (TN– colibe)[1]. “And after passing over the peaks of the mountain that reaches to the stars”. and it is a very remarkable fact from a historical point of view. Homer mentions them only as an ancient tradition. the almost vanished traces of an ancient factory (Marele Dict. After Caucasus.mountain were the renowned Chalybi (Ibid. By form and meaning.. about which Virgil says that it bears on its shoulders the axis. Folk poetry. superb men and well armed. LIV. the ironsmiths of prehistoric times. have the name of Colibasi. Buc. “…you will arrive to the land of the many Amazons”. 729) that the Chalybi were people who had migrated from Scythia to the southern lands]. Each day. The mountains of Parang were once renowned for their wealth in metals. Folk poetry. 1859. According to the traditions collected by the Roman historian Trog Pompeius. Geogr. especially made to support the flaming stars (Aen. IV.101). the most important point from the western side of the Black Sea was. 301-402) calls the western part of the Black Sea “Mama ferului” (TN – Mother of the iron). Baia de fer). p. Of all the rivers of the Carpathians which flow into the Lower Danube. muddy.

c. Phil.XIV. lib. or a Dacian type cap (Jahn. their physiognomy presents a national Pelasgian character. sachs. By name. Berichte d. collapsed cliffs and waves formed of gigantic boulders. Argon. PART 2 – Ch.5 . 352) they spoke the Thracian language. bas-reliefs. Cl. schopeloi. meaning Getic (Valerius Flaccus. near the mouths of the Danube. [2. statues and vase paintings. like some inform columns. Wissenschaften. XI. On old monuments of Greek art. Under the peak called Carja (2520m). 4). 659-660) gives the Amazons also the geographical epithet of Threiciae. and according to Hecateus (Fragm. III. 1850). bows and the war hatchet. I. 142) some craggy rocks. Virgil (Aen. II. each ten 10m high. Finally. 602).(Justinis. position and description. v. Prometheus’ Pharang.-Hist. 27). whose principal residence according to Pindar (Olymp. Apart from Mars. v. they are armed with shields. Gesellschaft d.appears therefore as a mountain from the western parts of the river Olt. the Amazons especially worshipped the goddess Diana. Parang mountain is especially characterized by vast precipices. Eschyl also mentions (v. was in Istria. IV. They wear a helmet on their head. it entirely corresponds to the mountain Parang of today [2]. on Pharanx mountain]. the Geto -Thracian divinity. two spikes rise from these ruins of rocks.

p. Geogr. II. v. v. v. 5. Mycenes. II. in the statuary art of the Romans. called Peloponnesus.(KION OURANOU. 6. It was represented with the same shape on the religious monuments of Hellada and Egypt.99m and base width of the longer sides =10. 33. had once been Pelasgian par excellence. 2). “city with wide streets” (Ibid. The southern part of Hellada. as well as on various specimens of ceramic paintings of the Greek and Etruscan epochs.80). This citadel was surrounded by cyclopean walls (Pausanias.81). Its oldest name had been Pelasgia (Strabo. p. Geogr.80m wide (Schliemann. 5 seqq). The oldest reproduction of this column is found on the cyclopean walls which encircled once the famous acropolis of Mycenae in the Peloponnesus. V. The acropolis of Mycenae was situated on a high rocky outcrop in the shape of an irregular triangle (Schliemann. The Sky Column from the south-eastern corner of the Carpathians. Homer calls Argos the region where “horses are bred” (Iliad. the shape of a stunted. the most monumental being the underground so-called “Treasure of Atreus”. as sacred emblem of the acropolis of Mycenae. some of which still subsist today.50m high. Each face of this column represented then the shape of a trapeze and each face has once been decorated with certain figures. (The SE and NW sides are wider. . 180 and XI. 2. the hegemony over Argos and the entire of the Peloponnesus was taken over by Mycenae. 94). had in the most remote times of prehistory. and about which we shall speak in the next chapters. v. During the times of the Trojan War. also surrounded with walls. disciplined and opulent. 569). II. although only just. III. which even today hides its top into the clouds. some of which can be made out even today. king in Mycenae was Agamemnon and his power extended over all of Greece (Pausanias. Mycenes. Because the plains of this province were swampy in ancient times and were of little use for the sheep economy. 10). the Pelasgians settled here were especially employed with keeping and rearing horses. According to legends. II. Homer calls Mycenae “a beautifully built city” (Iliad. 4). which under the reign of the Pelopides had attained a bigger power and development. 10. lib. This column has been considered in ante-Homeric times as the most sacred religious symbol of the entire Pelasgian world. 2. lib.72m. 75 and XV. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. but less significant. VIII. 16. are: height = 9. v. V. The dimensions of this column. 4). lib. c. Later though. 52). v. p. and still has partly today. lib. four angled pyramid. between the mountains of Arcadia and the Aegean Sea. lib. “Mycenae rich in gold” (Ibid. a vast plain which stretched on the eastern side of this peninsula. the oldest inhabitants of Argos had been Pelasgians (Ibid. the SW and NE narrower). There existed in Argos in the beginning two states and two principal cities as regal residences. VII. On the south-western side of the citadel was the lower city of Mycenae. as we ourselves have measured it in 1900 when we climbed the peak of Bucegi in order to study from a historical point of view this important monument of ancient world. One of the most important provinces of the Peloponnesus in antiquity has been Argos. 46) and attributes the same epithet of “rich in gold” to its inhabitants. 287.92. Argos and Mycenae (Strabo. The Sky Column from the Carpathians. although on the site of this city a number of edifices built in cyclopean style still exist (Ibid. These impressive buildings tell us that Mycenae had once harbored an immense population. 30). IV. and 4.

The first settling of the Pelasgians in Mycenae took place during the Neolithic epoch. 265). the city rich in gold. Dacia. p.133. 354. 15). 144. p. 1.Euripides calls Mycenae “Handicraft of the Cyclopes” (Iphigenia in Aul. v. Mycenes. Grece primitive. to the same civilization of the Pelasgians from the regions of the Carpathians [1]. “Fortress of the Cyclopes” (Ibid. 1246-1247). v. II. He calls the Peloponnesus “Pelasgia. Iphig. There is only one difference: the technique of the clay vases of Mycenae and Tirynth is inferior to that of Dacia. seems to have been the most powerful constituted state in continental Greece during the first four or five centuries before the Dorian invasion. 192. and “cyclopean walls of stone” (Ibid. These discoveries offered us the means to be able to define this civilization. and this new phase in the history of the progress of humankind. or in other words the prehistoric epoch of the metals. XXXIV. p. p. p. its ornamentation (Ibid. 243) and their clay idols (Ibid. Aul. “the capital of which was Mycenae. IV. and have given us such a good idea about the development of the art and industry. and from the Greek civilization proper. [1. 1159). has received the name of Mycenaean civilization. The Pelasgians of the cyclopean times of Mycenae belong in everything to the same family. At no other site the digs have brought to light so many riches from this remote epoch. 191. for which forms only a preface …. chisels and arrows (Schliemann. The great divinities of the inhabitants of Argos were those of the Dacians: Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Livy. to distinguish it from the civilization of Egypt and Asia. 1498-1499) and mentions the “beloved women of Mycenae who occupy first place on the chairs of the Pelasgians of Argos (Ibid. and Apollo (Iliad.” (Grece primitive.300. The material and moral culture of these Pelasgians during the Neolithic epoch presents from every point of view the same ethnic character. Of all the discoveries made in the last 30 years. Mycenes.877).1500-1501). Aul.61. v. 288). . 127. Mycenes. “Cyclopean Mycenae” (Ibid. as those of Mycenae. The ruins of the enclosure and of the buildings of Mycenae are the most important of all those attributed to the heroic epoch in Hellada. During the times of the Trojan War. The monuments of this civilization are especially represented in the ruins of Mycenae. none were to have such an echo as the discoveries made at the acropolis of Mycenae. Reinach. the same evolution in the way of industry and art.113). much older than the Greece of Homer. with an enterprising and domineering spirit. As for the physical type of the aristocracy of Mycenae. 24) or Zeus pater. my country” (Ibid. Tocilescu. their archaic pottery. present the same types and the same northern conception of art and industry as do those found on the territory of Dacia. Orestes. which has been unknown up to our times. 116. 181. 371 and 418). discovered under the ruins of their cyclopean edifices. Herc. Fur. 130. 119. 107. p. 134. it is a type which in its characteristic traits is entirely different from the Greek figures from historical times]. The stone implements. Perrot. especially from Dacia. 137. an entirely particular civilization begins and flourishes in the lands which constitute the eastern basin of the Mediterranean. p. from which does not derive. it appears as a powerful and serious race. discoveries which reveal a long forgotten world. L’origine des Aryens. 127) of these southern Pelasgians. Iph. 167. 371. as the civilization of the Pelasgians from the north of Thrace. Egypt and even of the post-Homeric epoch. a culture which by its origin and development is totally different from the civilizations of Assyria. endowed with great intelligence. p. Electra. v. v. Mycenes. writes Perrot. judging by the gold masks discovered in the graves of the acropolis (Schliemann. “The state”. v. This is attested in the poem by the rank given to Agamemnon as leader of the alliance against Troy.

Finally. Hist. Olymp. chased by the Furies for having killed his mother Clitemnestra. 10. 13). III. 61). Between these two persons is figured Menelaus as a young man. the titan from the country of the Hyperboreans (Hyginus. “is to die not in Argos. Hal. En engraving on an Etruscan mirror shows Helen dressed in a rich Pelasgian costume. younger brother of Agamemnon. after being freed from the Furies. Dionys. but certainly not to Arcadia in the Peloponnesus. near the temple in Leuce island from the mouths of the Danube. the legendary king of Argos. nor much rain. 12. where there is neither snow. ran to Macedonia and died in Arcadia. Odyss. . 83). It is probable that the legend about the death of Orestes in Orestion of Arcadia referred in the beginning to the town Orestia from Ardel (Transilvania). “Your fate”. 152). the king of Mycenae. or Orestis and Orestias (Frag. Helen. Pelasg. Aeneas. allied with the other princes of Hellada against the Trojans]. had been in the lands from the north of Istru. IV. then to the Pelasgians of Scythia. Pelops. Between Argos and Mycenae and the countries from the north of Istru had existed continuous family and religious connections from the most ancient of times. but the immortal gods will send you to the plain of Elysium at the ends of the earth…. 27). Ancient traditions tell us that Orestes. sitting on a throne and stretching her hand towards Agamemnon. v. 19. Eurystheus. not only because of their occupations and the character of their civilization. had been born. III. 49). Menelaus. takes refuge in the mountains from the north of Istru. after the death of Menelaus. 1. 10. leaving Troy. Proteus says towards Menelaus. nor winter. In the traditions of the Pelasgians of the Peloponnesus. p. from the black Earth” (Pausanias. as the country of residence of their protective divinities. the beautiful heroine of the Trojan times. as the poet Asius who has lived around 700bc writes. persecuted by the caste of the priests of Argos. came to purify himself and recover his health to the sacred altar from Scythia (Lucanis. 776) [2]. which according to some was a mountain in Arcadia (Apollod. VIII. the founder of the dynasty of Mycenae. graec. This powerful king of Mycenae therefore. the king of Sparta. The young priestess Io. We find this geographical confusion also in the legends of Atlas. the son of Agamemnon. as having some right to certain sacred things from the north of the Lower Danube. Hist. and where the Ocean (Istru) always sends its gentle zephyrs to reanimate the people” (Homer. were considered as the original lands of their sacred history. IV. then to those of Asia. lib. I. XIII. the queen of the Amazons. retires in his old age to the sacred ancestral places at the north of Istru. Phars. Strabo. 510.where the people lead an easy life. “on the high mountains. married with Achilles. the places from the north of Istru. Orestes. from there she goes to the Amazons. 3). I. given her by Mars. And we can suppose that Eurystheus sent Hercules to those same lands for the girdle of Hippolyta. 1. considered himself probably on the basis of an ancient genealogy. venerated at the same time for its riches. but also by their historical traditions and religious beliefs. appears retired. in the locality called after him Orestion. whom she receives in her kingdom in Leuce island. Gr. to bring him the sacred golden apples from the country of the Hyperboreans.The national origin of the Pelasgians of the Peloponnesus and especially of those from Mycenae. lib. holding in his right hand a phial. as the legends say (Pausanias. We have to note that under the name of “Arcadia” often figures at the antique authors a territory from the north of the Lower Danube. He also sent Hercules to Istria. from the country of the pious and blessed Hyperboreans. v. III. and in his left hand a lance (Duruy. went from Thrace to Arcadia (Dionys. I. 4). the great hero of ancient times. d. and from there to her people in Egypt. fab. 561 seqq). after the sacred deer with the golden horns (Pindar. was a nephew of Atlas. where the horses graze. sent Hercules. [2. VII. 1.

It is a sort of bas-relief on which three altars are represented on the lower part. two at the front and one at the back. A Doric column rises from the big altar at the back and on each side of it a lion is figured. 59) We are here in front of a monument of religious sculpture ante-dating the epoch of Homer. preoccupied more with his findings than with archaeological research has believed that on this bas-relief only one altar had been represented). on the right. (After Duruy. Grecs. (The artist wanted to indicate by these three top slabs the number of the altars. but from this latter only part of the pedestal is visible (Schliemann. p.00m high and 0. a huge basalt slab in the shape of a trapeze. 3.87). d. like the real three cyclopean altars cut in live rocks are). The emblem of Mycenae. The bas-relief which decorates the main gate of the acropolis. but so far no satisfying conclusion founded on positive data. Mycenes. . I.60m thick. Above the main gate of the acropolis of Mycenae. has been reached. two small ones at the front and a big one at the back. Hist. which also seem to have been placed in the shape of a triangle.A special interest for the origin of the Pelasgians of Argos and the evolution of the Mycenaean civilization is presented by the religious emblem which decorates the cyclopean walls of Mycenae. with the front legs propped on the slabs topping the altars. and corresponding at least in part with the original idea. facing outwards. p. Various archaeologists have tried to interpret the obscure meaning of this monumental sculpture masterpiece. is enclosed in its cyclopean walls (Schliemann.

p. . which can not be supported either by texts. Pl. that palace which once crowned the top of the rock on which was built the acropolis of Mycenae (Grece primitive. But which is this meaning? Various conjectures have been made: some believe that the column alludes to the cult by which the Persians worshipped the sun. writes Schliemann (Mycenes. p. some think that it represents Apollo Agyieus. another distinguished modern archaeologist confesses that the difficulties start with the interpretation of certain details of this emblem. and finally. 800-801. (After Perrot et Chipiez. Grece primitive. 875). I share this latter opinion”. or by some analogous archaeological finding. “that this figure has a symbolic meaning. he reckons that this column is only a representation in miniature of the palace of the kings of Mycenae. Perrot. others see in this column a symbol of the sacred fire. the guardian of the gates. XIV) “It is considered generally”. Finally.The emblem of Mycenae. All these are simple suppositions. All the archaeologists who studied the ante-Homeric civilization generally admit that the sacred emblem from the cyclopean walls of Mycenae represented something exotic in the lands of Hellada.87).

represented in the same style as on the Mycenaean slab. and this point has been missed by all the archaeologists. His intention was not to execute an original work. . not because he lacked a suitable stone. and above it a few black points. or as a trapeze. looking outwards. cannot but be surprised by the great similarity between the outside shape of this column and the trapeze-slab which decorates the cyclopean walls of Mycenae. The main Column on Omul Peak (Carpathians) View from SE (After a photograph from 1900) Whoever contemplates from close. but to reproduce as faithfully as possible the shape of a real sacred figure. Other ancient marks can also be seen on the left side of the column. or even from afar.When we wish to interpret the narrative meaning of the monumental bas-relief we are met with this first matter: why the artist of Mycenae has figured this slab in the shape of a trapeze. We can suppose therefore that this bas-relief almost effaced from the column of the Carpathians. had once represented the shape of a gigantic Doric column. On the lower part there is the figure of an altar. but because this was a hieratical necessity. show that he was imitating a prototype. the grandiose shape of the column which rises on Omul Peak. The artist of Mycenae has shaped this slab as a stunted pyramid. continue upwards. Our eyes are first attracted by two lines almost parallel which start from the base. with the appearance of a figure which once had represented the head of a man or an animal. and under these points some curved lines rising upwards. near the ground level. Even the relative huge proportions which the artist gave to the stone slab and the figures represented on it. in which to use his imagination. and above these lines can be observed two horizontal lines in the shape of a capital.

on which can still be recognized marks almost effaced of a bas-relief representing a Doric column. Froehner. Euripides. . v. Aul. We have now to find out how the ancients interpreted this cyclopean emblem of Mycenae. La Colonne Trajane. He also calls Mycenae the Cyclops’ altars (Ibid.The Sky Column on Omul Peak in the Carpathians. v. S-SW face. and in another place cyclopean and celestial walls (Ibid. Grece primitive. The artist had wanted to express by this composition that the sacred sky column was in charge of supporting the walls of the acropolis of Mycenae]. 147-149). who treated especially the prehistoric legends and ethnography of Argos. an altar. as well as from the point of view of the figures. 152). v.479. On the left is the vulture of Prometheus. Electra. These expressions of celestial walls and cyclopean altars used by Euripides to designate Mycenae. Iphig. 1138). Pl. 1088). formed by two horizontal slabs and four transverse beams (Perrot et Chipiez. are without doubt only an allusion to the emblem which characterized the Pelasgian walls of the acropolis [3]. (TN – or possibly the head of a lion and a human head). p. calls the acropolis of Mycenae celestial cyclopean stone walls (Troades. [3. Above the column represented on the relief of Mycenae can also be observed a representation of the walls of prehistoric citadels. We have talked so far about the resemblance between these two monuments from the point of view of the lines which form the outside contour. and above it a human head with long hair. (After a photograph from 1899).

one bigger than the other. It designated the mountains rich in gold which surrounded this column. by which the artist wanted to express that here were represented the cyclopean altars of the Olympian gods. According to Euripides. did not represent Apollo Agyieus. . in other words. One of these engraved stones. coming from one of the most competent authors. according to ancient legends. the middle column has disappeared. the other in Mycenae. one in Crete. the rock which stood on ancient Olympus between the sky and the earth. the Sky column and the cyclopean altars from the ancient country of the dynasty of Mycenae and of its inhabitants. On this engraved stone the heads of the lions. relating to the traditions of Mycenae. the country of the Hyperboreans. or the sacred fire of the Persians. which were in fact on the same mountain. symbol of consecration. which was part of its gigantic walls. There are two griffons figured on it instead of the two lions. They guarded the gold of the Arimaspians. This was of course an allegorical expression. which meant that the mother country was also sending gifts of gold to the sanctuaries of Hellada. exactly like those of the griffons. and propped with their front legs on the bigger altar at the back. and above these altars a star with twelve rays. but the Uranic column or the Sky column from ancient Atlas in the country of the Hyperboreans. and on the occasions of his great feasts Apollo the Hyperborean traveled to the southern countries astride a griffon. altars which had been placed among constellations. and at the same time the cyclopean altars of the Olympian gods. are turned backwards. On two other engraved stones discovered. not far from the figure of Zeus aigiochos. The walls of the Pelasgian cities and citadels had always been considered as sacred.We have therefore a positive text. Or. one larger than the other. discovered in one of the oldest graves of Mycenae. The country of the griffons was. tied with gold threads to the column consecrated to the sky. those who have built the cyclopean walls of Mycenae wanted to represent in this emblem the most sacred ancestral symbols. or the palace of the Atreides. The religious character of this emblem is also confirmed by some glyptic specimens from the Mycenaean epoch. The relief of Mycenae represented in the first place a religious symbol. One of the specimens shows two altars. was tied all around with gold chains. shows a column in the middle and two altars in front of it. text which makes it clear that the slab-trapeze.

The archaeological study of this important monument from the Carpathians forces us to open at this point another parenthesis. Grece primitive. It is the “ara maxima” of theogony. The figure looks towards left. Duruy. It is the same characteristic type also appearing on some painted vases. I. p. in the shape of thick ropes bent in zig-zags ]. p. and from the head descend three long hair locks.211. representing the cyclopean altars (Crete) ( Perrot et Chipiez. 35). Mycenes. The funerary columns of Mycenae had also the shape of a trapeze. discovered in the cyclopean houses of Mycenae (Schliemann. Pl. Engraved stone. near which the Olympian gods had made their pact in their difficult war with the Titans. and which represented the sky column [4]. 20) [4. 217. Grecs. On both sides of this altar one lion is figured with only one head among them. twisted by the archaic custom. and on its both sides are shown the gold chains of the Olympus rock. Grece primitive. . On one of these funerary stelae a column is figured in the middle. Hist. d. 11. Perrot. can still be distinguished the almost vanished marks which represented a huge human head in profile.It is an unnatural representation. consecrated by a certain tradition.935. On the other engraved stone the artist has represented only one big altar. It has a very curious physiognomy. certainly executed as such only in order to put even more in evidence the mystical shape of the trapeze. Stone engraved in Mycenaean style. XVI. The upper part of the profile has a remarkable preeminence compared to the lower part. Mycenae. Above the two almost parallel lines which we see impressed with such expression on this column.

In the second image one can see very clearly the two heads. supporting on his shoulders the immense weight of the sky. . guarded the golden apples which Atlas had taken. with bent knees. intent on biting Atlas. the lion’s head on the left. In front of Prometheus is Atlas. Various specimens of ceramic painting present the legendary pillar of the sky in the shape of a Ionic or Doric column. One of these paintings represents the ordeal of Prometheus on Atlas mountain. and the human’s head on the right). Certainly the artist wanted to represent the dragon from the garden of the Hesperides. according to legends.(TN – I enlarged the particular area of the rock about which Densusianu is talking. The hero of human wisdom has his hands and legs tied to a Doric column. This human figure. having in everything the same characteristic type as that from the monument of Dacia. which rises up on its tail. was also well known to Greek antiquity. The vulture tears up his chest. On the left there is shown a large irritated serpent. and near this column a human figure in profile. which still adorns the column of the Carpathians. which. first without retouching it. under the shape of a huge boulder.

Prometheus’ physiognomy and his long locks present a curious resemblance with the human head whose marks can still be observed on the column of Bucegi. LXXXVI) This entire scene which presents the ordeal of the two famous titans. figured in at attitude as of singing. I. Folk poetry. I. or another bird symbolizing the sky. This smallish bird. pl. Vasenbilder. is supported at its base by another stronger column. The ordeal of Atlas and Prometheus. LXIII). In Romanian carols is mentioned even today a bird which dwells in heaven. p. (Gerhard. It is the Phoenix of the ancients. LXV A. Ibid. which we often find represented in antique paintings. We find another interpretation of the human figure from the column of Dacia on a chalice discovered in Etruria in the digs from Camposcala (Lenormant. pl. admired by God and angels for its sweet melodious songs (Teodorescu. Taf. Auserles. XXIX B. and the figure of chained Prometheus. . smaller than the vulture. mon. Painting on a vase. indicates in any case that Prometheus is tied on the sky column. The artist wanted to express through this new motif that the figure of Atlas. either on top of some column.89). there is figured a bird of a gentle nature. ceramograph. Scene supported by the gigantic column of the Universe. were represented on the gigantic column of the world. which supports on his shoulders the weight of the sky. On top of this column on which Prometheus is tied up. LXXI). Elite d. XXIX A. or in other scenes with the Olympian gods (Lenormant.

temple. one of his daughters. Corinth. Arcadia). during the time of the building of its cyclopean walls. At his back is represented a Ionic column. Another daughter of Atlas. to the cult of Dacia.The decoration from this antique chalice shows the birth of Minerva from Jove’s head. this emblem had at the same time the character of a national tradition. They were accompanied by priests and prophets descended from the old families. The protective divinities of the old metropolis were invited to take part in this new settlement and these colonists were always animated by the wish to represent everything in their new country after the model of their city of birth: acropolis. Sparta. It had been considered as the most sacred monument of the ancient world. but it had also to accept the decisions of the mother country in some political matters. In the great war with the Trojans. that some considered that it represented Prometheus in chains. is the mother of Auson and Latinus. sitting on a throne (high backed chair). 575). but also from other regions of Hellada. or the name of a village which belonged to it. Only one symbol had remained enigmatic. Elis. From there they also took the images of the gods of their race. whose faint marks are still seen on the column from Carpathians. The titanic figure. Calypso. Mycenae played the principal and decisive role. appeared so effaced even during the historical times of Greece. The great Zeus is shown in profile. as expressed figuratively by its emblem. But the religious and political administration was concentrated in those times in the same hands. Atlas. Apart from its religious symbolism. Electra. the shepherd king of Libya and Egypt (Pauly-Wissowa. Italy and Africa. The great priests were at the same time the kings. So. symbol of the divine throne. They took the fire from the hearth of their mother-city. This column from the Omul Peak had been therefore very well known to the artists of Greco-Roman antiquity. not only from the Peloponnesus (Mycenae. The colony took often the name of the mother-city. is the mother of Dardanos. R. Asia Minor. the Pelasgian shepherds who had come to the southern lands from the Carpathians [5]. and finally. The god is crowned with laurels. Atlas appears in ancient traditions as the ancestor of several famous dynasties and families from the southern Pelasgian regions. while others saw in it Zeus. the city of Mycenae appears as a colony founded by people from the north of Istru.2122)]. We can therefore suppose that Mycenae in ante-Homeric times was subordinated not only to the religious hierarchy from the north of the Danube. from a religious point of view.. E. his daughter Pasiphae is the mother of Ammon. It attested the origin of the dynasty and of the tribes which had once founded the powerful capital of Argos. subordinate. Curtius writes about the conditions in which the ancient colonies of Hellada were formed and governed (Bouche-Leclercq. executed by an artist from Italy after a Greek model. We return now to the emblem from the cyclopean walls of Mycenae. These colonists took their country with them everywhere they went. Histoire grecque. . From this monument of the cyclopean times. the city of Mycenae appears to have been. the patriarch of the Trojans. plazas and streets. traditional model of hieratic painting. [5. the sovereign of Olympus. twisted hair locks fall on his shoulders. p. His physiognomy presents the same type as that of the archaic profile from the monument of the Carpathians. and four long. I.

The cause was the following: the inhabitants of Mycenae.The Pelasgians of Hellada and Thrace. by the Cyclops. who after his return from Troy had been killed by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegistus. Electra. VII. History though. And Pausanias also writes (lib. encouraged by their ancient glory. it vanished the entire family of the descendents of Pelops. It vanished. the Mycenaeans alone among all the inhabitants of the Argolid had sent troupes to help the Spartans. Some withdrew at Cleonae (between Corinth and Argos). 3. Let the country of the Cyclopes (ga Kyclopia) lament with me. It succumbed because of the envy of the gods and because of the hostile and murderous feeling which overcame the community of Argos. “during the 78th Olympiad (468bc) a war erupted between the inhabitants of Argos and Mycenae. country of the Pelasgians (o Pelasgia). Troy was destroyed. especially seeing that the Spartans were in no situation to give help to Mycenae. XI. where they were besieged. others ran to Cerynia in Arcadia and almost half of them withdrew to Macedonia. the citadel was assaulted. The citizens were taken into captivity and Mycenae was razed to the ground. but finally they weakened and because the Spartans could not send them any help. . fought the Pelasgians of Asia Minor for the rule of the seas which separated Europe from Asia. 23. had reserved to Mycenae the same sad fate. which had nothing in common with those of the Argiens. this divine nemesis. they gathered a large army from Argos and other allied cities and sent it against Mycenae. So the Argiens. 25. A part of its citizens was taken in captivity and another part was forced to emigrate. they resented Mycenae because. the inhabitants of Mycenae were defeated through famine and forced to leave the city and the citadel. v. The inhabitants of Mycenae were defeated and withdrew inside the walls. Finally. They deserve this lamentation for the family which once commanded the armies of Greece has been extinguished. and they pretended at the same time that the direction and administration of the Nemeian games belonged to them. They governed themselves by their own laws and institutions. proud of the ancient glory of their country. As Diodorus Siculus writes (lib. V. which had given birth to famous men. The Mycenaeans also had a quarrel with the Argiens for the temple of Juno and for the religious ceremonies of that temple. the Argiens feared that the Mycenaeans will contest their hegemony. The fall and destruction of Mycenae had happened during the time of Euripides. Because the Argiens could not conquer Mycenae because of its walls which were very strong. So. as they had their own wars and calamities. the daughter of king Agamemnon. 947 seqq). They resisted for a while. Oh! piteous race of the mortals. 6) on this matter: After the Persians were chased out of Greece. in contrast to the other cities from the province of the Argolid. laments like this: “Oh. and boasted glorious deeds. condemned to suffering. while the Argiens had decided to send help to the Spartans at Thermopyle only with the condition of receiving part of the supreme command. was destroyed and has been deserted to our own days”. as it is fit for you. believed that the time had come. 65). which in ancient times had enjoyed a great prosperity. let her undo her tresses and mourn the unhappiness of the house of the Atreides. This city. vanished the glory which had crowned the head of this blessed house. I begin to lament you and with my white nails I scratch my bleeding face and I beat my head. like some earthquakes. built as it is told. He alludes to this fate of Mycenae in one of his fine tragedies (Orestes. envious of Mycenae and having wanted for a long time to destroy this city. allied with the Pelasgians from the north of Istru. beautiful queen of the other world. As for the Argiens. Mycenae and Tirynth were destroyed by the Argiens. refused to accept the hegemony of Argos. you can see how fate brings suddenly upon us misfortunes over misfortunes ….

201. 5). 26. king of Mycenae. but certainly not Sipylos of Phrygia. Dambovita and Arges). Dasculos. V. The Olympus of Euripides is the Olympus from near Oceanos potamos. had played therefore an immense role in the traditions and beliefs of the Pelasgians of Argos. 5. a son of Tantalos. mentions a Scythian with the name of Teutaros. 45). II. II. a friend and guest of the gods on Olympus. and maybe still exist today. to which it had been given his name. as the same name appears in Romania in the form Andreiu and also Udrea (three villages called Udresci exist in the districts of Prahova. Preotesa. v. or from the country of the Hyperboreans at north of Istru. there is a remarkable resemblance between the names of the ancient princely persons from Argos and the names of some Romanian families from the vicinity of Bucegi. Representatives of the ancient Pelasgian families from Argos appear to have been the following: Perseus. 83). Theog. It had been the sacred symbol of the country from where the dynasty of Mycenae drew its origin and this symbol had been figured on its cyclopean walls. tied all around with gold chains. Atreus. and Sthenelos. The name Pelops seems though to correspond more to the form Pelescu or Peles. king in Argos. 2).Oh! if I could go to that rock which rises between sky and earth. The origin of the Mycenaean dynasty having been near the mountains of Bucegi can also be confirmed by the ancient kinship of families. who lived before Herodotus. mythical king in Argos. v. Between ancient Argos and the region of south-eastern Carpathians there exists a surprising identity of family names. had been represented on the funerary stelae of the Mycenaean aristocracy and on the engraved stones which served as seals and amulets [7]. The historian Herodorus. the Olympus Atlantiacus of Calpurnius (IV. Andreiu. II. 5). [7. Plesa. to that piece of land at that Olympus. Tantalos. the founder of Mycenae (Pausanias. As we see. 13. the father of Pelops. IV. the great hero of Hellada. a son of his. identical with the column of the Carpathians. Proetos. according to Ovid (Pont. [6. 11) and Mela (III. 969-977) [6]. where. Stanciu. He had been married to one of the daughters of Atlas (Dione or Tagyete). crying. v. its original form has certainly been Andreius. He had been king in Sipylos (Apollodorus. 16. 4). who had taught Hercules the art of the bow and arrows (Fragm. Inachos. Inescu. and this resemblance acquires a historical value when we keep in mind that the origin of the Pelasgians from Argos goes back (by monuments and traditions) to the north of Istru and to the same group of mountains. the pillars or hinges of the universe]. 6). XIV. who gave birth to the ancestors of my people” (Ibid. the father of the gods (Homer. Turia. 15. 119). Pliny (H. the ancient father Tantalus. 5). Staniloiu and Tatar. Hesiod. This rock from ancient Olympus at the ends of the world. Orestes. and call from there. the following ancient families: Persoiu. The name Tatar appears as very ancient in the northern parts of Istru. Iliad. under the reign of whom Tirynth was surrounded with cyclopean walls (Pausanias. a son of Pelops. 10. Pelops. Andreiu was one of the famous Pelasgian families which had settled in Hellada. were the cardines mundi. a son of the river Oceanos (prehistoric Istru). II. In the Romanian villages from the feet of Bucegi mountain in Transilvania. . according to official acts from the beginning of the past century. The name Atreus. His reign had extended over the entire Peloponnesus. 246. still existed. 1. N. venerated as a demi-god even by Hercules (Pausanias.

34. Pausanias writes (II. 6) that a certain Andreiu (‘Andreus) had been the founder of Orchomenos. the daughter of king Inachos. which stretches to the foot of Bucegi mountain. in Prahova district a village has the name Mocesci. 16. Firmin-Didot. the daughter of Inachos. Carmina. p. and in Braila district we have Mucheni village]. Ed.6 . Pelasgian city in Beotia. 601. in Ramnicul-Sarat district two other villages are called Mucesci. 4) that the city was given its name after Mycene. 3). In Fagaras county. PART 2 – Ch. exists the family name of Mucia. was a niece or granddaughter of the Ocean or Istru (Homer. which in prehistoric times had reached the same prosperity as Mycenae. and according to the cyclical poets.Pausanias tells us (IX. As for the name Mycenae or Mucena. Mycena.XIV.

III. as well as from the particularities of the folk Latin language which has developed there. Ch. had settled in Ethiopia even in very remote times. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. called by the Greek authors Macrobii (lib. Arim or Ariman and Harmakhis or Armakhis (Pierret. names the origin of which goes back to ante-Roman times. which corresponds to the Romanian ethnic name of “Oltean”. who departing from their places in very large numbers. 2). lib. The colonization and reign of the Pelasgians in North Africa begins in times extremely remote. 1. lib. or in the province called “Africa” at the time of the Romans. 9). appear by their name. c. 191). the most numerous people of Libya (Mela. with their ships. IV. lib. In the sacred texts of the Egyptians. a form derived from Alutus. 12). Agis. a tribe with the name of Dochi. De pallio. CLXV. Other pastoral tribes which had gone forth from the Carpathians and the Lower Danube. they were called Getuli” (Origines. Le Pantheon egyptien. But the Pelasgians of Egypt had played a special role in the civilization of Africa. p. 3.(KION OURANOU. which began at the shores of the Atlantic ocean and stretched towards south of Mauritania. had occupied the Syrtes of Libya. 1896-97). Letem. which presents only an Egyptian form of the ethnic Greek work ‘Arimaspeios and ‘Arimaspos. Numidia and Cyrenaica.50-53). Getulii. The Sky Column from the Carpathians as symbol of the Egyptian trinity. LXXV. 118). Ch. about whom it was said that they lived longer and happier than any other people in the world (Mela. Suidas also mentions that ‘Arimanios was the god of the Egyptians (see ‘Arima). Punica. and near them another population with Pelasgian mores and beliefs. which in turn was only a simple variant of the name ‘Arimaios and ‘Arimfaios. c. Carthage itself was Pelasgian in the beginning. But the population from the territory subjected to Carthage was not Phoenician. Herodotus mentions the Pelasgian colonies in Africa. later though this city fell under the rule of a commercial colony from Tyre (Silius Italicus. Under this name were known in Europe the Hyperboreans. a great shepherd. v. 6. Commentarii in Dionysium. The episcope Isidor of Sevilla writes about them: “It is said that Getulii were Getae. Paris. . nephew of Atlas from the country of the Hyperboreans (according to some old traditions Ammon’s mother was Pasiphae. Troy and Latium. 95). as can be ascertained from the big progress made by the Roman civilization in those parts. IX. who. This Ammon was. as they said. the daughter of Atlas – Plutarch. 1-3). as traditions tell us. Paris 1882. Rema and Armah (Drouin. meaning Ramlen. lib. were originated from the nation of the Trojans (lib. He is also named Remrem (Ibid. morts. Ammon has also the name of Altaika (Pierret. Eustathius. 215). I. Other African tribes had European mores and traditions too. whose character is Pelasgian (Morgan. It had remained Pelasgian. Among the Ethiopian kings some have until late the name of Ramhai. Recherches sur les origins de l’Egypte. Egypt in particular is characterized by a Neolithic European civilization. long lived. In the western parts of the river Triton. c. Pliny the Old mentions in the upper parts of the Nile. a “man rich in sheep” (Tertullian. that Atlas who appears at the same time as the ancestor of a number of famous dynasties and families of Hellada. Ammon was one of the most ancient kings of Libya and Egypt. XV. 1. 5). and because they had come from the territory of the Getae. in Ethiopia. as well as by their traditions and ethnic character. existed an agricultural population called Maxyes. p. as a population migrated there from the south-east parts of Europe. from the region of Olt. 35. 3). Greek ‘Atlas.444). Le livre d. Les listes royals Ethiopiennes. VI. p.

the sun rose from the great divine river Nun (Oceanos) and set also in it (Ibid. CXX. Their sacred mountains. religious. The most ancient kings of Egypt mentioned by the sacred archives of the temples had been Vulcan. where the wheat grew 7 ells high. has a Pelasgian name. Ibid. nor Egyptian. and finally. morts. Ch. These Thebans. Crossing over the river Nun. XVII. 87. XII. Saturn had reigned over Libya and Sicily and had colonized those lands (Polemonis Iliensis. in the somber shadows of the night (Ibid. the Egyptian souls stood firstly in front of the gods. and at night it disappeared in the straits of the mountains called Dait. 1. I. graec. together with other tribes from Hellada and the islands of the archipelago. CXXV) at the place called “the region of truth” (Ibid. the ancient seat of the Egyptian dynasty and the metropolis of the cult of Ammon. CXXV 12-13). CXXX. the straw 4 ells and the ear 3 ells. to be judged by them (Ibid. 9). the souls of the Osiric faithful crossed the river Nun in the boat of the sun. LV. XVII. 3-4). CXIX. There the souls of the dead of Egypt migrated. etc). LXXV. whose names were neither Greek. 61). Ch. and they formed their political centers wherever they settled. One of their religious symbols was the bird par excellence of the high mountains. the country of their ancestors. They took with them their national institutions. 50. Ch. 1. LXVII.526-531). the brother of Atlas. the country of eternal life. In that part of the world were for the ancient Pelasgians of Egypt “the divine region”. promoted with such religious conviction. XVII. 2). identical with Oceanos potamos or prehistoric Istru. morts. And after the Egyptian deceased were . As the papyri tell us. had reigned over Sicily. 5). where there was also an iron enclosure called Rosta and Rostau (Ibid. Ch. Ch. Ch. which the Hyperboreans. and later on the Getae and the Dacians. VI. CXXVI 4-5. their ancient religious monuments. from the Oceanos potamos or Istru. III. along the shores of Lebanon. the children of Saturn). saw and harvest (Ibid. laborious and warlike at the same time. LXXV 1. aetos).19). Mars. CIX. Ch. “father of the gods” (Ibid. 13. Ch. in order to continue with a new and blessed life (Pierret. 19). 1. 9. There was the great divine river. wherever they settled. Italy and had extended his empire over all the western regions. gr. Ch. But the sacred country of the Egyptian Pelasgian religion was still that particular one from the ends of the earth. 148). Saturn (Osiris and Isis. 1. 1. Hist. Rosteiu means in Romanian language iron bars. Fragmenta Hist. establishing garrisons everywhere. the images of their protective gods. ChXII. morts. LXIX. Ch. and from Asia Minor continued little by little down. to plough. p. Fragmenta in Mullerus. p. 18. Exactly like in the Pelasgian legends of Greece. as Diodorus Siculus writes. Typhon. their divinities and priests. the son of Vulcan. the Pelasgian shepherds and farmers were masters during those remote times. Le livre d. I. Ch. And Diodorus Siculus tells us that Saturn. 95. 19. p. 18. these being the great personalities of Pelasgian history in Europe. During the day the disc of the sun sailed on the river Nun in its divine boat (Maspero. 2). to this divine country (Pierret. 2. said that they were the most ancient among all the mortals (lib. Libya. Ch. CXI. exactly like the souls of the Pelasgian heroes of Hellada did. Tom. Disciplined people. Ch. II. I. Hercules and Apollo (Manethonis Sebennytae. worshipped as gods. they reached the expansive plains of the Nile. there was the place of abundance. Even during the Neolithic epoch. Fragm. Le livre d. countless tribes of Pelasgians departed with their large flocks from the Carpathians towards Hellada and Asia Minor. 2. the sky columns were there. the vulture (aquila. 2). 102 in Gragm. According to ancient Egyptian beliefs the divine region of the wheat was there (Pierret. There was the place of rebirth. the oldest and biggest city of Egypt and of the whole world. 5.Thebes.18). Egypte et Chaldee. which flew from west towards east. XV. the center of a prosperity without equal in history. called Nun. to till the earth. LXXII. Le livre d. in citadels and in fortified places (lib. III. Ch. an established ancestral religion. or interwoven iron or wooden rods used as grilles for windows.

Crete and Eleusis. to the palace of Pluto. 18. II. To them belonged the initiation of the mysteries of Samothrace. in order to excite even more the imagination of those initiated. 21). the sky was lifted up on one. 15. It was the institution of the great mysteries of the Hyperboreans for the purification and expiation of the crimes done during lifetime. where the earth produced all sort of fruit and the plain is full of flowers. These isolated pillars have the shape of an Y and. through which the disc of the sun passed in the evening with its boat. 3). XV. Egypte et Chaldee. VI. went to sleep there. in philosophical discussions and assist to theatre or music representations. The tablets said finally that Hercules and Dionysos or Osiris had been also initiated there in those mysteries. according to Egyptian beliefs. tom. Pierret. 15. 1. a particular religious significance. p. They were usually celebrated at night and in subterranean places. It was said that the souls of the deceased went firstly to a subterranean dwelling. and Ra-Harmakhis also slept there. There the judges examined in detail the life of each. Nut. where is neither harsh winter. so that on the following day would reappear on the horizon (Ibid. identical with Oceanos potamos of the Greeks. CXLIX 4-5. 79). Ch. which contained a detailed description of this institution. flew the great river called Nun. purified and their heart hold the balance of the scales. The virgins Opis and Hecaerge. Another mountain peak was on the eastern part of the river Nun. joining with his mother Nut (Ibid. but a temperate air. Ch. the sky was supported by four pillars (columns). 7). The Pelasgians were the initiators and organization of the first mysteries known in antiquity. . (In legends of the Romanian people. After the gate opened. Ch. Ch. the country of eternity (Ibid. and in its eastern side were the spirits and people called Harmakhis (Ibid. According to ancient Egyptian beliefs. XV. 1. Along this mountain chain on which the sky was supported. The pillars of the sky were there (Ibid. Le livre des morts. but connected one to the other by an uninterrupted mountain chain. are often seen covered by a horizontal line with the ends bent downwards. 21. warmed by the sweet rays of the sun. sent by the Hyperboreans with gifts to Delos. All these pillars were at the northern part of the divine region. Ch. p. mysteries whose purpose was the belief in life after death and the necessity to expiate one’s sins through penitence. Ch. Ch. 332). they passed into the divine lower region which the Egyptian papyri call the place of rebirth (Ibid. Didot. XV. 2. XV. or better said. 16) which was also called Manu (Maspero. had taken there also two copper tablets. XV.examined. Ch. placed on a single peak or on four. 36. CIX 4-6. in Manu mountain. nor excessive heat. 8 ells tall. These mysteries were based on the cult of the subterranean divinities (chtonic. 16). lower) and the purification was made in the name of these divinities. where the souls enjoy themselves in feasts and play. Egypte et Chaldee. by four forked pillars (Maspero. From the chain of mountains which stretched along the north of the river Nun. and those who had done good in life were given a place in the region of the pious.16-17).It was on the western part of the river Nun and still in this part was the gate called Ser (Fer). XVII. One of these peaks was the “Mountain of life” (Pierret. 561-562). three or four pillars). XV. the lady of the sky. The entryway which led to this palace was shut with an iron grille. CIX. XV. 44). LVIII. Le livre des morts. LV. Plato mentions the institution of the great Hyperborean mysteries from the north of Istru in Axiochus (Ed. This region was inhabited by the spirits and the people called Mani (ancestors). various heights had. These Egyptian beliefs were based on an ancient Pelasgian doctrine. the souls went firstly before the judges Minos and Rhadamanthis in the “Field of Truth”. as they support the sky. XVII. p. 90.18.

who symbolized the rising sun. one which stretches southwards and the other northwards. where “Omul mare” (TN – the big man) had made a “big church”]. Set to the . 1185). The word belongs without doubt to the Pelasgian language. Ammon. Cher. the father of the gods and author of mankind. p. He supported with his arms the sky. [2. The earth personified by Seb. But the day of creation arrived. Livre d. Le livre des morts. The new god Shu sneaked between the two. R. the god Shu. p.1854). lifted her above his head. CIX. l.Between the “Eastern Mountain” and the river Nun was the territory called in the Egyptian papyri Khar. Doubtless the northern region is healthier. her legs and arms fell on both sides to the earth. in the “Great Reckoning” of the Romanian people. has lifted the sky above the earth and fixed it in place with his two hands (Pierret. the pastures which feed the animals. had been a shepherd who had built a temple. He has separated the sky from the earth. By genealogy and meaning. According to Romanian legends. synonymous with Omul. the head towards west. who embraced each other. 3). were supported by the great god Ammon – Ra.4:I. morts. He was the sovereign of the sky and lord of the earth. This Ammon-Ra had two kingdoms. Idem. In Egypt his principal residence was at Thebes. Osiris or Horus belonged to the south pillar. supports the earth on his head (Hasdeu. p. The name Ammon or Hammon (with aspiration) can not be explained in Egyptian language (PaulyWissowa. While the starry body of the goddess lengthened in space. according to Egyptian theogony. the dark water. r. Hymne a Ammon-Ra. 1. and being healthier is at the same time more fertile” (R. The columns of the sky. see Ammon. he reigned over two regions or worlds. He lifted the sky upwards and pushed the earth downwards (Pierret. The same role of supporting the columns of the sky had been later attributed to the god called Shu. the thighs towards east. Ch. Nuit (or Rhea) were. 96). As for the geographical meaning of the words “two regions” or “the south region and the north region” from the Egyptian papyri. I. but under a different form. 1). I. 23. as we have seen. master of the waters and mountains. It corresponds to the name of the archaic divinity called in Greek ‘Omolos and both these versions of Ammon and ‘Omolos derive from the original Pelasgian forms of Homo and Omul [2]. Ch. II. Varro said the following: “Eratosthenes made two parts from the earth globe.8). He created the animals. was in the northern part of the river Nun in Paur. 18. Deus of the Latins and Dzeu of the Romanians. the angel-titan Andreiu. a son of Ammon. The preservation of each pillar was entrusted to certain folk Egyptian divinities. XVII. p. [1. It is the same tradition which we also find.20-21. E. p. Le Pantheon egyptien. and the nutritious plants for man (Grebant. and this region was inhabited by the spirits and the people called Harmakhis (Pierret. Ker. Grebaut. p. having more in view their natural character. according to the oldest Egyptian dogma. Hymne a Ammon-Ra. where he was revered by gods. only a pair of lovers lost in Nun. 1873. writes Pausanias (IV. Le Pantheon egyptien. Kherau. was the same divinity as Zeus of the Greeks. and grabbing Nut with both his hands. Rom. Paris. 2)]. The Egyptian papyri tell us that Shu supports the pillars of the sky. Dict. CXXXVI. but his divine residence. They were the four pillars of the firmament. 1. III) [1]. Sibu (or Saturn) and the sky personified by Nut. 89. the goddess above the god.

in large part amateurs. The symbol of the Egyptian trinity presents the same contours as the exterior shape of the north-western face of the column from the Carpathians. ice and shepherds. which the Egyptian theology had adopted as symbol of the divine region and eternal life. the Egyptian theology had similarly adopted the religious symbol of the creation. But the creator struck him with immobility in that moment and Sibu remained as petrified in the position in which he had been (Maspero. traces spared for millennia by the action of the wind. or eastern pillar of the sky. . represented by the gigantic column of the sky from the Carpathians. have hammered the entire lower area. What other figures might have been once represented on this face of the column from the Carpathians we cannot know. The Transilvanian society called “Karpathenverein” has built here in the past years a refuge cabin for tourists. and Sapdi. It seems that an evil spirit persecutes all the great historical monuments of humankind. Egypte et Chaldee. can be made out even today. This side of the column from Omul Peak. and that in mountains exist even today countless remains of important prehistoric monuments. As the divine region or of the gods was.128-129). towards left. while the lower line marks also the shape of the woman’s breast. p. with her head to the west and the thighs to the east. Even more: there is an absolute identity between the two. Finally. but these men. to the east. in the middle. in the northern parts of the world. or forgetting that once the peaks of the mountains had been the most sacred places of humankind. using the lower part of this column as a support wall.north. Not only this. They therefore have destroyed for even the few traces of bas-reliefs which might have also existed on this side of the column. exactly as the Pelasgians of Mycenae had also done. was only a faithful copy of the north face of the column which exists even today on Omul Peak on the Carpathians. whose attribute was the head of the ram. on the same face of the column. The image with which the ancient Egyptian theology symbolized the principal. a figure represented in the same style in which the Egyptian symbol presents Nut. when we examine the figures which we see shown on these archaic monuments. across the river Nun or Istru. We also find here the same particularities of the line which forms the upper contour. Sibu tried to fight Shu and the Egyptian paintings show him in the position of a man who is waking up. with her back up and face down. the marks almost vanished of the bust of the divinity Chnum. but with great difficulty. starting from the roof downwards. half turning in his bed in order to get up. the author of zodiacal light. rain. according to Egyptian traditions and beliefs. has suffered an irreparable damage on its lower part. the lady of the sky. In the upper part of the column from Omul Peak can be seen even today the contours of a woman’s naked body. Toth to the west. not knowing.

p. whose arms and legs touch the surface of the earth on opposite sides. On both sides of him are figured the four pillars of the universe. In the middle the god Shu supports with his hands Nut. later identified with Ammon. symbolizing the earth. Egypte et Chaldee p. Turin museum (Maspero. (From Pierret. Painting on a sarcophagus from Boutehamon. and is worshipped by two Egyptian souls. the divinity of the sky. Down. Le Pantheon egyptien. in the figure of the ram headed god Chnum. In the middle the god Shu separates the sky from the earth. On both sides can be seen the divinities entrusted with the preservation of the column.129) .22) The Sky Column figured in hieratic Egyptian style. Sibu (Saturn). In the upper part is the feminine divinity of the sky Nut (Rhea).The Sky Column as religious symbol on the coffins of Egyptian mummies.

and over continental western Asia. X.47). v. v. towards the plains of the Nile. behind which is seen part of the refuge cabin built by the Direction of Romanian Hospitals. The same historical fact is evidenced also by the papyri found in the mummies’ coffins. adopted by Egyptian theology as symbol of the divine region. meaning that they drew their origin from the gods – Iliad. XIX. like they had reigned also over Hellada and over the western parts of Asia. which had put there the first foundation of civilization. Very probably these ante-historic Semites had been brought into Egypt by Pelasgians to serve as slaves to their great irrigation and reclamation works. p. (From a 1900 photo ). 429. for opening new roads and for their cyclopean buildings. the feminine Egyptian divinity of the sky. But they shared the same fate of those of Hellada. These pharaonic Egyptians considered that the first inhabitants of the plains of the Nile had been the gods who had reigned over Egypt in prehistoric times (Homer calls the Pelasgians “divine”. These signs of enslavement are expressed even in the prayers addressed by the souls of the Egyptian mummies to their supreme divinities residing at the north of Istru. At right is the second column from Omul Peak. which at the time when it settled in Egypt had been neither pastoral nor agricultural. rose later to the rule over the ancient Pelasgian stratum. for the tilling of the fields. which had made from the swampy plains of Egypt an agricultural country. 177). The Pelasgians had reigned over Egypt during the primitive times of history (Maspero. The NW face. At the bottom part is seen the roof of the refuge cabin built by the Carpathian Society of Transilvania. and whose the principal country and residence had been at the north of Istru (Nun). Egypte et Chaldee. The symbol of the Egyptian trinity tells us therefore that a strong migration had taken place in very remote times from the Carpathians over Hellada. In the upper part can still be distinguished the contours which represented Nut. over the islands of the Aegean Sea. another race of men brought there probably from the upper regions of the Nile. Odyss. . It was the pharaonic population. for the canals which crisscross the entire Egypt.The Sky Column on Omul Peak (Carpathians). or the sculpted rock representing the Aquila of the sky or the Aquila of Prometheus. A new element.

but which it had largely modified and to which it had given forms suitable to its African character. to be allowed in the other world to till the earth. VI. so their slaves directed and managed all the private and public affairs. The war started and it lasted quite some time until the Argiens managed with great difficulty to defeat them. According to Herodotus (IV. CXX. the Scythians were met by an army of their slaves.To these men-gods. They withdrew to Tirynth. morts. The new race had adopted under the Pelasgian empire the elements of an ancient advanced civilization. became a mythological region. For this new element in the history of Egypt. After several battles without success. had adopted the political and social institutions and the religious principles of their masters. address the Egyptian mummies their prayers. which they ruled for 28 years. which they occupied by waging war on it. 3. Ch. These Egyptians. with a social and political character. the ancient domain of the Pelasgian race. 2. Returning back to their country after this long interval. meaning slaves (Ibid. When the African race took the reign. And the Column from the Carpathians symbolized for these Osiric Egyptians the territory of the terrestrial paradise [3]. [3. formed by the priestly caste of the ruling Pelasgians. When the children of those killed in war grew up. Later though. Herodotus writes (lib. VI. Ch. to harvest. brought them back to submission and obedience]. descendents of Sem and Cham. VI. a prophet called Cleander came to the slaves and advised them to fight again against their former masters. They are called in their Osiric prayers Ro – bi. to sow. and taking the whips. Ch. The great number of slaves was also a dangerous custom of the Pelasgians of other regions. chasing the Cimmerians. the ancient history of Egypt changed. the Scythians threw away the lances and bows. 2). was left without men capable to bear weapons. 3). who had once ruled over the south and north regions (Africa and Europe). the geographical region of the north. 83) that the city of Argos. 1-3). XII. 1. to plough. the slaves were chased out of Argos. the Scythians of Europe. The slaves of Scythia had also tried to take the place of their Pelasgian masters. considered themselves happy to work as slaves for their gods. . to floods the rivers over the dry earth and to transport sand from west to east (Pierret. Ch. which their slaves respected. following the war with Cleomenes. 2. Ch. which opposed them. CIV. even in the life destined to eternal rest. the king of Sparta (519-490). in order to subject a race of men destined to a perpetual servitude. irrupted into Asia and occupied the empire of Media. Le livre d. It had been a severe religion.

from whom Ausones draw their name. They paid tribute to the Quazi and the Sarmatians and spoke the Pannonic language. 72). Part of the Romanians from Satu-Mare (TN – Big-Village) are called even today Oseni [1]. The Ausones had formed in prehistoric antiquity the preponderant population of Italy. The Sky Column from the Carpathians as symbol of eternal life in Etruscan religion. As results from the description of Priscus. had to travel northwards more than eight days. 1829. With Hesiod also. (Hesiod claims though in his Theogony . 78) the following. ad in star civitatis amplissimae (De Get. according to Tacitus (cap. They dwelt in the region where his palace was. who though. p. Priscus’ Ausones. 1017). in upper Pannonia. east of Tisa.7 (KION OURANOU. ancestor of the Ausoni. but in the upper parts of today Hungary (TN – in 1900. Orig. Eustathius. or the ancient Pelasgian dialect from the middle Danube. Auson (Nausinoos) was a son of Calypso (Theog. tells us. II. others in forests. are therefore only a part of the ancient Pelasgian tribe from near the Northern Carpathians. after crossing the Danube. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. over several rivers and swampy places. 206). calls the subjects of this barbarian king “Ausones”.190. and in truth. and Jornandes “vicum. A part of the population of Dacia appears under the name of Ausones until the 5th century ad. Another branch of this population lived. Tacitus mentions in Descriptio Germaniae (cap. The Byzantine historian Priscus. “Ausonia” denoted the entire Italy (Virgil. and this Auson had been the son of Atlas and Calypso. which was on the plains of today Hungary. Italian. They were characterized by the ancient authors as a strong and warlike race. who dwelt behind the Marcomans and the Quazi. v. the Itinerary of the emperor Antoninus (Ed. I. 7. that Calypso was a daughter of the divine river Oceanos. 2.PART 2 – Ch. close to the Roman army which defended the line of the Danube. 28). . The ambassadors of Theodosius. called by Tacitus Osi. beyond the Danube. pl. the author of the work about the names of the tribes. 50) had been the daughter. The titan Atlas. [1. not the wife of the titan Atlas. the king of the Hyperboreans. in order to reach Attila’s residence. In Italic traditions the titan Atlas. the archbishop of Thessalonika. v. had been the first to reign in Rome. in particular of the Latins and the Romans. the Oseni of today. In reality a part of the county of Satu-Mare is called even today “tera Oasului” (TN – the country of Oas) and its Romanian inhabitants are called Oseni. Auson. but she hailed anyway from the same country in both versions).359. Parthey. v. based on older sources: “According to what some say. some on plains. In this region must have lived therefore the inhabitants who spoke a rustic Roman language and whom Priscus names Ausones. this residence was not in Banat. Especially in poetic literature the name of Ausones was applied to all the inhabitants of Italy. 43) an important tribe called Osi. Roman (Ovid. Pontica. Today part of Romania) at Satu-Mare. passing over extensive plains.XIV. according to Homer (Odyss. which was in a locality which Priscus names “sat foarte mare” (TN – very big village). Bonnae. c. Lib. 263) mentions between Acinquum (Buda) and Sabaria (Stein am Anger) a locality called Osonibus (nom. sent by the emperor Theodosius the Young on a mission to Attila’s residence. wrote in the twelve century (Commentarii in Dionysium. on valleys and on mountain peaks. IV. 34). 349) and the word “Auson” was synonymous with Latin. Osones)]. as Stephanos Byzanthinos. appears also as ancestor of the Ausones. Aen. spoke a rustic Roman language and lived there among the Huns and Goths (Excerpta de legationibus – Ed.

u. 5). as a great grandson of Atlas (Virgil. Doubtless. p. Magazin. VIII. lib. Epit. is that from the museum of Neapole. 30. and the country of Evander had been. a daughter of Atlas. Hist. IV. The most famous statue of Roman art. this image had a genealogical character. And according to another tradition. According to Plato (Axiochus – Ed. c. c. VII. In antiquity also existed a similar tradition about the origin of the Latins. 24). I. II. but also the branches of the trees were of gold. Latinus. Didot. And according to Diodorus Siculus (lib. an important village from “tera Barsei” (TN – country of Barsa) is called even today Uzon. He appears in the same way also on an Etruscan mirror from Vulci (Daremberg. 2. Evander and his companions had settled in Italy coming from a country which enjoyed an old religious and political organization.710). III. Evander. 1361) and finally. Uzoni. This Evander. 43). by marrying the most distinguished heroes and even gods. So. which showed the titan Atlas with the globe on his back. had been a son of Hercules and a Hyperborean maid (lib. who had founded near the Tiber a town called Pallantium. he is shown on another vase from Apulia supporting the sky. because of which it was said that the entire firmament rests on Atlas (Pliny. ant. Dict. Nat. and were at the same time the originators of several families. as historical traditions said. 6. from which Rome later developed. And there existed in Italy still another tradition. writes Diodorus Siculus (lib. the eponymous king of the Latins. had sons who for their virtues were called heroes and gods. 57. Atlas. 12). All three are ethnic names. founder of several southern Pelasgian families. which connected the beginnings of Rome with the settling there of a Pelasgian tribe coming from Atlas mountain. lib. II. p. figured in the shape of a globe (Ibid. Lexikon der gr. that Atlas in whose kingdom not only the fruit. Asia Minor.A Romanian principality in Maramures still had the name Ozon in the 14th century (Kurz. the territory of the titan Atlas from the country of the Hyperboreans appears as the original country of several tribes and a number of important princely families from Hellada. in which Atlas had dwelt and reigned. 27. 6. Fast. according to the same tradition. appears according to ancient genealogies. had possessed very exact knowledge of astrology and had been the first to regard the universe as a globe. Atlas. laws and various useful industries (Livy. The idea to represent the sky or the universe in the shape of a globe is very ancient. v. Tom. had several daughters. Africa and Italy. lib. commonly referred to under the name of Farnese. 5).rom. Ozoni. 561). II. at the centre of which was the Earth. and an advanced civilization. 31-33). II. As Dionysius of Halikarnasus writes. Mythologie. As for the mythological representation of the titan Atlas. whose empire was near Oceanos (potamos). had founded temples there. had transported to Italy several pastoral divinities (Ovid. p. VII. is shown sitting on a throne. the Hyperboreans had been the first to consider the universe as a sphere. c. c. I. and both were the sons of Calypso (Apollodorus. On a fragment of a vase discovered in Apulia. Hist.710). lib. I. 279). the lord of the blessed country of the Hyperboreans. king Atlas. I. According to the ancient ethnic genealogies. therefore not Arcadia from the Peloponnesus (Dionysius Halik. Arcadia. 134-140). 3. Aen. king Latinus had been a brother of Auson. I. in complete regal paraphernalia (Roscher. had introduced holy days. d. . 60). who. II. The artist had wished to represent one of the most glorious ancestors of some Ausonic family of Apulia. See Atlas). whose original form has certainly been Osoni.

He supports himself with the right knee on a rocky crag.127). The column from the Carpathians was a sacred symbol. while he props himself on the ground with his left knee (Duruy. which had been considered from the most remote times as the rock of the titan Atlas on which the sky leans. with both his hands. published by the Duchess of Devonshire. 7). The statue of the titan Atlas from the museum of Neapole was not an original work. IV. 11. d. Another analogous figure of Atlas is reproduced in the magnificent edition of the Aeneid. Hist. Somnium Scipionis. p. Macrobius. supported on his right knee bent to the ground (Maspero. cardines mundi (Pliny. II. the sky column in the shape of a stunted pyramid. who supported on his head the sky in the shape of a concave semi-sphere. But what gives to the Neapole statue a special historical value. as the northern pole of the sky. Egypte et Chaldee. p. N. II.Here Atlas appears crushed by the weight of his load. Rom.264. while the Egyptian theology had adopted as symbol of the trinity the NW face of this pillar of the world. While the S and SW faces of the column had served more as subjects for the ceramic paintings. H. after the pyramid from near the Lower Istru. was the most famous religious monument of the Pelasgian world. His head is pushed down under the globe and he has a tortured expression on his face. as the axle of the Hyperboreans. The idea that this figure might represent Sisyphus is wrong). In it the powerful titan supports on his back. from the imagination of the Italian artist. which distinguishes it from other analogous representations. the Roman artist had figured the titan Atlas supporting the sphere of the universe after the eastern face of this legendary pyramid. is that this sculpture work is modeled after an original type. . 26. With tired eyes he still looks towards the course of the constellations. In the same way was also symbolized in Egyptian art the god Shu.

says Martial. see Tarquinia). when the Roman legions had to sustain a long and tough war in order to conquer the holy mountain of the Dacians. Behold the rock of Prometheus. Apart from the historical traditions and apart from the mythological legends regarding the titan Atlas. which barely move. wrote about the sky axle from the country of the Hyperboreans and with the torment of Prometheus on that rock (see above). The inhabitants of Tarquinia originated. Statius and Martial. when the legends of Atlas had become once again popular in Italy. called Gigantes and Hyperboreans. The Etruscans were considered during the Roman epoch. there existed also in Italy an archaic religious belief regarding the sky column from the Carpathians. etc”. in the lands of the Hyperboreans (Stephanus Byz. as Hierocles tells us. One of the oldest necropolis of Etruria was in the mountains of Axia (today Castel d’Asso). The tombs of the necropolis of Axia are dug in live rock. the birth place of Tarquinius the Old and the metropolis of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria. those Hyperboreans where the griffons guarded their great gold treasures. “to take on your shoulders the northern sky of the Hyperboreans and the stars of the Getic pole. between the exterior contours of these two monuments. On the column from the Carpathians can still be seen even the marks which seem to have once figured the arms lifted up in order to support on the back the shape of the globe which represents the vault of the sky. as the representatives of ancient Pelasgian theological doctrines. Marcelline. to the smallest detail. They had learned priests and a literature rich in rituals. Probably this memorable statue was sculpted during the time of the emperor Domitian. “You go now.There is an identity we can say absolute. when the most distinguished poets of that epoch. on the territory of the ancient city Tarquinia. to which the Roman people showed a particular respect. behold also the famous mountain of legends. and the following religious symbol is figured on the frontispiece which decorates a number of these tombs: . soldier”.

represents on its lower part the sky column. where the supreme judgment took place. in the country of the just. where the sky was supported on the earth. . This religious symbol of the future life and of the divine region tells us therefore that the ancient Etruscan religion was the same as the religion of the Pelasgians from the Istru. in the same shape as on the hieroglyphic monuments of Egypt. 17). which prehistoric archaeology could not explain so far. 81) that the town of Pisa in Etruria had been founded by Pelops or by the Teutani. where was the Atlantean Olympus. As we shall see later. long lived Hyperboreans.This mystical sign. a horizontal line with the ends bent downwards. were near the Istru]. or Titani (TN – titans). in the shape of a stunted pyramid (trapeze). speaking about the birds which served as augurs. The Etruscan discipline had had its beginnings in some mountainous lands outside of Italy. it is important the tradition communicated also by Pliny (III. [1. where was the place of happiness. the region of the pious [1]. having figured above it the sky. the dwellings of the ancient Teutani. This symbol expressed in particular the same religious belief that the souls of the deceased went to the residence of the gods (at the Oceanos potamos). Argos and Egypt. tells us that in Etruscan discipline were mentioned several types of birds which nobody had seen. In regard to the ancient dwellings of the Etruscans. c. Pliny (lib. X.

[1. lacking a religious or mythological meaning. One is a painting on a ceramic vase. I. accompanied by his sister Bia / Violence. tired and shattered. On the left side of the rock is seen a woman dressed with a tunic and a hemi-diploidion. We find the Sky Column from the Carpathians represented on two antique monuments of Sicily. In protest Prometheus covers his head with his right hand. pl. These explanations are not acceptable. It shows in the middle an enormous pillar of rock. By this she tells Vulcan what Jove had ordered. in a special chapter referring to the monuments of the prehistoric metallurgy). which meant the height of the snow covering the top of this mountain. turns to go to his smithy. having an almost spherical shape. and Cratos communicates Jove’s order to Vulcan). A huge covered krater. (We shall talk about this krater later. lead Prometheus to the place of his ordeal. near the Etna mountain. Vulcan. the master smith. XXIII) sees in this painting Vulcan among the Cyclopes. who leads Prometheus to be chained on the sky column. On the right side of this rock is figured an old man with a white beard. With her right hand she makes an imperative gesture towards Vulcan. while with her left hand she touches the belts which move the bellows of the smithy. the personification of legal order. . The artist had wanted to express at the same time that this scene took place on the peak of a high mountain from the north region.8 (KION OURANOU. the other is a funerary stela. The decoration of the vase from Sicily has a mythological character. Some have believed that this scene represents a subject from the Lemnian mysteries.XIV. So he drew an undulated line of white dots at about half the height of the figures. There is neither Cyclope in this composition. clothed with a mantle and holding in his left hand the mace of the messenger. showing him the rock. making with his left hand a sign of immediate obedience [1]. (According to Eschyl – Prom. understanding the order he is receiving. The Sky Column from the Carpathians as symbol of immortality for the Pelasgians of Sicily. whose forms are entirely identical with the W-NW face of the column from Omul Peak. sitting on a stone. It is the god Hermes (Mercury). symbolic personalities of theogony. 12 – the giant Cratos / Power. Lenormant (Elite des monuments ceramographiques. Hermes stretches out his right hand over the head of Prometheus and pronounces a sacred formula. is placed above this rock figured on the Sicilian vase. She is the goddess Themis. 8. He holds in his left hand an object which looks like the half split stalk of a plant (ferula). We shall talk here about both these relics of great importance for the history of the Sky Column from the ancient country of the Hyperboreans. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. to chain and nail on this rock the astute Prometheus. Near Hermes is seen the titan Prometheus. nor is the rock figured in the conical shape of the Etna volcano]. V.PART 2 – Ch.

On the vase from Sicily the smithy of Vulcan is indicated as being close to the rock to which Prometheus is led. v. to have him make fine. the illustrious master craftsman. Thetis. presents in everything the contours of the W-NW face of the column from the Carpathians. According to Homer (Iliad. but obscure matter of the sacred geography of the Pelasgian epoch. . the decoration from the Sicilian vase is important because the rock figured on it presents in everything the contours of the W-NW face of the sky column from the Carpathians. 140 seqq). Achilles’ mother. and this rock. But this painting brings to light at the same time another big. to Vulcan.From a historical point of view. the smithy of Vulcan was on ancient Olympus. shiny weapons for my son”. XVIII. we say it again. addresses the following words to her sisters: “I am going to the great Olympus.

p. important monuments consecrated to the principal divinity of the Sky even during the times predating Troy. whose group we see in the following picture. as Diodorus Siculus tells us (lib. we see three columns represented on the upper part. Olympus atlantiacus at Calpurnius (IV. 26. Phenicie – Cypre. was that mountain on which were the legendary columns of the sky. 64). today Omul Peak of Bucegi Mountains. 83). according to Hesiod. Tirynth and Thebes of Egypt. lib. H. and above these columns there is a triangle and a celestial symbol. Each of these columns had represented in antiquity a particular figure. 10. the side ones shorter. 11. II.309). The three columns of the Sky as religious symbol on a funerary stela from Lilybeu in Sicily. apart from the columns. lib. called cardines mundi by the Roman authors. (From Perrot et Chipiez. On a funerary stela discovered recently on the territory of the ancient town Lilybeu in Sicily (today the town Marsala).We have here therefore an important document from the Italo-Greek antiquity. where there are. had been founded by the Carthagenese. had resettled here the rest of the inhabitants of Motya. the other monuments famous in the history of theogony. The town Lilybeu. a document which gives us an absolute certitude that the prehistoric Olympus of the theogony. They are the three columns from the “Omul Peak”. the Olympus from the ends of the earth. . 522). the tyrant of Syracuse. Mycenae. As I have already mentioned. on which the sky was supported in the country of the Hyperboreans (Pliny. three gigantic columns rise on this majestic peak of the Carpathians. IV. c. v. each had a certain symbolic meaning. 4). These three columns. XXII. Atlas from the country of the Hyperboreans. played an important role also in the religious beliefs of the Pelasgians of Sicily. the figure of Zeus aigiochos and the cyclopean altars. the middle one higher. who after the war with Dionysius. N. These three columns figured on the upper part of the stela from Lilybeu represent the three columns of the sky from the Theogony of Hesiod (v. near the Lower Istru. a town which had enjoyed a great prosperity.

lib. The Pelasgians of Sicily. 161 seqq). 11-13). It was the same belief. leading a happy and eternal life (Pausanias. Pushed by other Pelasgian tribes. Ajax. as we see. then Sicilia). II. Adler. But after the invasion of the Umbrians. Here the legends and the ancient paintings show us Achilles. III. IV. near the Ocean with deep eddies (Opera et Dies. 10. 4). Helena and Agamemnon. Menelaus. H. 19. It was the doctrine of the Hyperboreans. 1). Brasov). v. (From a photograph by L. lib. they crossed the sea to Sicily (Dionysius Halik. 1). I. from where. Leuce island from the mouths of the Danube (Pliny. they moved again their dwellings to lower Italy. III. exactly as the Pelasgians of Greece and Italy. N. they were forced to move and lived for some time in Latium (Ibid. from where those who had led virtuous lives passed into the region of the pious (Plato. Antilochus. One of these blessed islands was. pushed again by new currents coming from the upper parts of Italy. p. called also Sicani and Siculi. Ed. Patroclus. seen in a group. 22). in Brutium and Lucania (Ibid. The Pelasgians of Sicily had. that the souls of the deceased went for the supreme judgment to a certain place of their country. 9. lib. Opera. III.The three Columns of the Sky on Omul Peak (Carpathians). appear in Greek and Roman traditions as the earliest inhabitants of Italy. as we know. Didot. This same belief is expressed also by Hesiod when he says that the souls of the heroes fallen in the wars of Thebes and Troy had been taken to the blessed islands from the ends of the earth. lib. Tom. 27. . They had dwelt firstly in Umbria and around Ariminium (Pliny. a belief in a survival in another blessed terrestrial region. as expressed in the tablets sent by them to Delos. 19. 1: “eadem Leuce et Macaron appellata”). lib. Telamon. 561). III. which got this name from their name (first Sicania. Lib.

4. the first inhabitants of which had probably been only a fragment of the Dacian tribe called by Ptolemy Caucoenses. brought together from all the corners of the world. XXVI. or Agathyrnum). 4. A fortified little town with the name Aegitharsus existed also near Lilybeu (Ptolemy. III. to Sicily (Apollodorus. 30). 40) foreigners and adventurers. Ed. They had preserved until late a spirit of independence. as the Greek authors tell us. men who deserved death. Rom. Sicily. who lived from kidnapping and robbery. they had separated and gone onwards with their flocks. where. Valerius Laevin was forced in 210bc to transport 4000 inhabitants of Agathyrson to Italy. lib. This is proved by their national and religious symbol.The migration of these Pelasgians to Sicily had taken place therefore on the continental road of Italy. Bibl. I. An ancient town on the north shore of Sicily was called during the Roman epoch Agathyrson (Agathyrsa. from the Alps towards south. c. so much so that the consul M. The Pelasgians from all the countries had a particular cult for their original country from near the Istru. And on the south shore of Sicily had been founded even in remote prehistoric times a town called Cauconia (Ptolemy. due to an immense agglomeration of tribes and maybe also following some political events. 6. 3). from the Carpathians. 3). Romanian Olteni. lib. which meant that its inhabitants were from the nation or from the country of the Agathyrses. lib. The titan Typhon. They did not acknowledge either the laws. . ran. lib. Finally. or the authority of others. Didot. a name which presents a curious resemblance with the form of Alutani. the columns of the sky from the Carpathians. Near the famous Agathyrson from the north shore of Sicily there also existed another flourishing Pelasgian town called on its coins Alontinoi (British Mus. there still existed a prehistoric tradition about a migration from the lower Istru to this island of the Mediterranean. Livy calls them (Rer. 5). defeated by Jove. But they were coming from the great center of the Pelasgian world. III.

C. the ancients tried to reproduce in their writings the personal and geographical names of the Barbarians. and in the analogous form of Byrsam with Virgil (Aen. and a town on the plains of Hungary on this side of Tisa is called Kardszag. Carthage though. in the accusative.PART 2 – Ch. Phenicie-Chypre. It springs in the mountains near Bucegi. and the inhabitants of this region are called Barsani. p. This religious symbol of Carthage represented something real. XVII. XV. 1886. XXXIV. The ancient inhabitants of Carthage had the same religious doctrine about the immortality and the migration of the souls to another happier terrestrial region. The sky column as symbol of the future life is represented also on the funerary monuments of Carthage during the Punic times. was not only an isolated Pelasgian settlement in North Africa. (Other similar stelae can be seen at Perrot et Chipiez. Barsa or Birsa is the name of a significant river in the history of the Romanian people. p. So said the traditions about them (Isidorus Hispalensis. LXXXVIII). I. which takes after this river the name of tera Barsei (TN – country of Barsa). They had migrated there from the lands of the Getae. Numidia. IX. The Sky Column from the Carpathians on the funerary monuments of Carthage. The city of Carthage had been a Pelasgian colony before falling into the hands of the Phoenicians (Silius Italicus. . were between Mauritania. with Strabo (lib. 3. Three village on the territory of Romania have even today the name of Cartojani or Cartogiani (in Vlasca district). I. LXXIV. This name appears as Byrsan. in the Pelasgian style from the Carpathians (Hampel. Nisard. This name belongs to the Pelasgian idiom from the lower Istru. The numerous population of Libya had been formed from very remote times by the Getuli. 14). Barsa or Byrsan. 460).458. lib. In the middle is figured Prometheus holding at his chest the clay figure of the man created by him. and more correctly Byrsan [1]. whose dwellings. [1. A bronzkor emlekei Magyarhonban. and on both sides of the column are represented the rising sun and the setting sun. Ed. Even the name of Carthage (Carthagena) belongs by its form to the ethnic Pelasgian group from the lower Danube. 2. p.444). 118). 9. according to the ancient geographers. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. 366-367) and Livy (lib. so that they would correspond to the original form on one hand and to the grammatical laws of the language in which they wrote on the other]. crosses a large part of the expansive plain of Brasov. On its upper part is shown a column in the shape of a stunted pyramid. v. One of these old monuments is a funerary stela discovered in the ruins of the city destroyed by the Romans. 62).XIV. Cyrenaica and the northern edges of the great desert. so we have no reason to suppose that they could have once been commercial colonies founded by the Carthagenese. Punica.9 (KION OURANOU. Even beginning with the times of Eschyl. Originum. None of these localities is situated near any navigable river. lib. The ancient name of the citadel was Byrsa.

showing on the upper part the Sky Column in the shape of a stunted pyramid. 79) . Histoire de l’art.Funerary stela from Carthage. (From Perrot et Chipiez. Another funerary stela from Carthage shows the emblem of the divine region as follows: Funerary stela from Carthage. (From Perrot et Chipiez. Tome III. Histoire de l’art. p. Tome III. p. 53) This stunted pyramid presents in its forms a very characteristic similarity with the shape of the principal column from the Carpathians and also with the emblem of Mycenae.

Sicily. Varro wrote (Pliny. See also the sun boat figured in the Egyptian paintings and drawings at Maspero. 5). each having on top a globe of copper. 77. The Sky Column in the shape of a slightly conical pillar. was represented also on the Etruscan tombs from Axia. and the symbol of immortality of all the Pelasgians was the one and the same column of the sky from near the Istru. from the heights which in Roman theology had the name of Cardines mundi. of Barsan. Two grand columns mark the origins of the Romanian people. Histoire de l’art. see Perrot et Chipiez. Etruria. meaning from the country of Barsa. where the souls of the deceased migrated. 197. de l’art. majestic symbol of the national and religious unity of all the Pelasgians.T. XIV. p. 19. exactly as shown on the funerary monuments of Egypt and Axia. Even the name of Porsenna seems to be only a form corrupted by the ancient authors. and sacrificed after the Greek rite. 196.111)]. Bursan or Borsan. It is the shape of a Pelasgian column. with a quasi-Doric capital. four at the corners and one at the middle. near the town Clusium. The only difference is that on the symbol of Carthage the handles of the sky are bent upwards. 645. 118). The divine region. 639. 5. in order to purify and renew themselves. a territory which around 1200ad had the name of terra Borza. We find the globe as symbol of the universe also on the funerary columns of Etruria. as on a national god. as Diodorus Siculus tells us (IV. and the boat of the moon at p. Out of these two famous monuments of antiquity. 161. showing therefore the sky as a divine boat. of a stunted pyramid on which the sky is supported. Carthage and we can say of the Pelasgian tribes of Asia Minor as well [3]. was the mysterious region of the Hyperboreans from the Carpathians. Similar versions of this symbol of the sky are represented on the rocks from Iasili-Kaia/Cappadocia and on the monument from Eflatunbunar/ Lycaonia. Burza. Hist.IV. One is the Sky Column from the SE arch or the Carpathians and the other is the Column from the forum of Trajan. is also figured on a rock tomb in the prehistoric necropolis of Ayazinn in ancient Phrygia (Perrot et Chipiez. Tome V. [3. 93. Egypte et Chaldee. were set five pyramids. The ancient Carthagenese venerated Saturn. XXXVI. 7) that on the Mausoleum of Porsenna. lib. The principle of immortality dominated the religion of the Hyperboreans from Istru. as presented by Silius Italicus (I. [2. supported by a lion on both sides. Egypt. 66. We add that Hannibal. 731). swore on Mars. as we have seen.We see here an ancient religious symbol and not a human shape rudimentary sculpted. the religion of the Pelasgians from Greece. on which is figured the disc of the sun as “dux et moderator luminum” [2]. . Bursza]. 139. symbolized by a horizontal line with bent ends. which indicates that these tribes had dwelt in the region of the Carpathians near the lower Danube before their migration to Italy. The Sky Column. Bursa. meaning of the Pelasgians from the eastern parts of Europe. the most glorious is without doubt the column which dominates even today the Carpathians. p.

where the gods and men got together in order to discuss and establish the rights and responsibilities of each part. he brought and slaughtered the sacrificial bulls. During his reign had happened that the river called Aetos had flooded and had covered the plains with water. We could suppose that the name ‘Aetos might refer to the river called today Oituz in Moldova. In his wrath Jove withdrew the use of fire from the humans. v. 543 he calls Prometheus “the most illustrious among all the kings”.10 (KION OURANOU. Graec. One of these versions is represented by the poems of Hesiod .XIV. according to this author. The titan Prometheus. had diverted the river into the sea and had freed Prometheus [1]. Dies et Opera. all of which preserved various episodes consecrated to the history of this great genius of the Pelasgain times. but Hercules had come. 521 seqq. The legend of Prometheus was known to Greek antiquity in several versions. p. v. Now Jove’s ire fell on Prometheus and his creatures. that the gods ended up with the bones. And because Prometheus could not give his subjects what they needed in order to live. so that they won’t be able to boil their food. The gods saw they had been tricked by this unequal distribution of the victims. while the men took the meat and the intestines. The first version. which had moved so much the antiquity. but he made the two parts so well. According to Hesiod (Theog. The titan. At the common assembly from Mecone. v. 50 seqq). The legend of Prometheus in Romanian heroic songs.PART 2 – Ch. [1. a daughter of Oceanos (Istru). This Herodorus had composed two important works. stealing a few sparks of the celestial fire. always inventive. Hist.. But the plain of Moldova where the river Oituz flows is too small for its flooding to have such destructive consequences. a strong echo in these parts. 507 seq) Atlas and Prometheus had been the sons of Iapet and Clymene. who had lived before Herodotus. they had chained him. But Prometheus. According to the tradition found in his work (Fragm. v. 10. as the great priest of the religious ceremonies. The second legend about the chaining of Prometheus is transmitted by the Greek historian Herodorus of Heraclea. one about the deeds of Hercules and the other about the expedition of the Argonauts. Ed Didot. He distributed the meat of the victims between the gods and men. 34). things good to eat (Theog. tricked Jove for a second time. Prometheus appears as a “rex sacrificulus”. If Prometheus. Prometheus had been a king from Scythia. was tied on the middle column of the sky. He chose. The traditions about the suffering of this blameless friend of humankind must have been preserved for a long time in the memory of the generations from near the Carpathians and Istru. 23 in Frag. if the tragic scene. . II. without doubt. had diminished the rights and honors which the gods believed the humans owed them during their sacrifices. Jove’s rival in wisdom. and all the worldly evils and miseries were sent against the men (hidden in Pandora’s box). and in Theog. which springs in Transilvania and flows into Trotus. has been a hero from the parts of Dacia. then this must have had. the friend of mankind. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. has really taken place in these countries.

I. We do not know the cause of their discontent. not on a mountain peak. De reb. where is tough for the brave one. Badea of the Romanian songs is also a man rich in gold. Badus aner in ancient Greek language had two meanings. to bring him back to the shore of the world of the living]. Materialuri folkloristice. it is the river whose sources. but on the column of the chimney. aquila) and that the original form of the name which this river had in the ancient Greek legends had been ‘Altos. which by their contents refer to obscure epochs. Horatio mentions (Odae. represented in a certain cycle of heroic Romanian songs. the prehistoric hero of this ordeal. p. should be dried out (Tocilescu. are often mentioned battles with the Turks (Turci) and Francs (Franci). lib. as we shall see later. Poesii pop. These inhabitants of the lower parts of the Danube get hold of the hero and tie him up. p. the Trojans. Falciu district. Bibicescu. din Transilvania. 18. until Marcul Vitezul (TN – the brave). Materialuri. The Athenians called promethees the makers of pots. This fact is very important. (TN – At this point in the original text. comes along and frees him. or from the name of a tribe migrated there from Thrace. As in the legend of Hesiod. Materialuri folkloristice. Francu. Against him rise seven hundred men of Braila. 512). Frang) must be understood the Phrygians (Phryges)]. In Romanian carols and folk songs the Olt is the river which. whose invasions at the Danube began only in the 14th century. similarly it is said about the Romanian hero that he was a butcher of the Turks and “haham” of the Hebrews (one who cuts the meat by the Judaic rite). Texte. has the name of Badiu. near the long road – the ancient road which passed through the vast deserted areas of Scythia towards Asia. called by Greek and Roman authors Teuchroi. the more essential fragments of the heroic cycle about Badiu are presented at length. and that he had with him fifty butchers. Get.231. events and personalities. The departure of Marcul Vitezul to free his brother hero.237. 5) [3]. 72). extracted from the ballad communicated by the teacher of the village Vutcani. 1245-46. 511. 538-540 and Tocilescu. We find even today these two ancient legends of Hesiod and Herodorus. has in the Romanian folk songs a very archaic and really epic character. (According to other fragments the princely courts of Badea were in Bucuresci – Tocilescu. all great boyars and Turks [2]. the old Pelasgian god of wars and battles. In heroic songs of old of the Romanian people. either from their king Teucer. Alexici. could not convince Charon. about whom the Getae said that had been born in their country (Jornandis. eight thousand Carabineni from Bugeac. 387. 35) that Prometheus. [2. Teucri. I. Motii. C. II. Partea I. the little brother of Badiu.It is more probable that the name of this river of Scythia had been altered in order to get a Greek significance in relation to the legend of Prometheus (‘aetos. I. thrown by Jove into hell. Prometheus appears as a great priest who sacrificed. Marcul Vitezul represents Mars (Marte) in Romanian heroic songs. . meaning Oltul. and from Teodorescu. These Turks are not the Osmans. p. near the blaze of the fire. And under the name of Franci (sing. Badiu. when in flood. but are. Badea and Badu. [3. despite all his gold. hearths and any object of clay. The courts of the Romanian hero were across the river Prut. who at the same time appear as former friends of the hero. But the Turks despise his gold and go on torturing him. p. 136)]. covers the plains with water on vast areas. according to the poetical ideas of the people. Poesii pop. the prehistoric Turks. of wise man and wealthy man. In the Romanian version Prometheus.

329. This had been the second reason for which Prometheus drew upon him Jove’s hate and anger. Bugnariu. dug deep into the ground”. The titan Prometheus. Musa Somesiana. face upwards. Negoescu. and after a long interval of time you will again come out into the light and then the winged dog of Jove. 8. stealing a few sparks from the celestial fire. 5). Ibid. p. writes Diodorus Siculus. Balade. 60. Revista pentru istoria. after which Jove sent upon him the hungry aquila. 1225. a “smart” man. O calatorie in Dobrogea. XI. p. damp and poisoned. Catana.36. or according to other versions “in steel manacles and iron chains. CXLIV.XIV. Strabo. 83. Tocilescu. Densusianu Aron. v. The second version. Here he lies “prostrated. 9). and 4 stades high. back to daylight. 520 seqq). 1869. “In the middle of the Caucasus”. or in a deep rocky bosom.151. the Romanian hero is called Corbea the brave. Daul. p. which he had hidden in the stalk of the plant called ferula. as the folk texts tell us. Materialuri folkloristice. III. Poesii pop. Pompiliu. wanting to lighten the lot of unhappy mankind. An. 1. is also represented in the Romanian epic poetry. as Hesiod tells us. Poesii pop. the nest of the vulture and the marks of the chains and the manacles with which he had been chained”. p.Lord. 87. In this series of epic songs. Vol. 1016 seqq). and here the inhabitants of the neighborhood show the cavern of Prometheus. Balade. after a long time.38-43. lib. The Romanian hero is shut up and chained in a “damned cave. v. the mountains shook”. Corbea the blameless. or in a “stone prison. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. with hands in shackles and feet in stocks”. or better said a piece of a rock (petra). I. from where he was brought. had tricked Jove for the second time. XVII. p. will avidly rip pieces off your body and will eat your black liver” (Prometheus vinctus. Fabularum lib. a man with a titanic voice. Mythol. 179. lib. Bibicescu. He was. 399. Balade.17. p. who ordered Vulcan to chain him on the middle column of the sky. Colinzi. locked on his chest with 5 liters of silver”. Jove. Balade romane. to rip his body apart and devour his liver. 2. p. Mercury addresses the following words to Prometheus: “Firstly the father of gods will shatter with his thunders and lightning this corner of Pharang. who “when he spoke. Vol.PART 2 – Ch. din Transilvania. with a circumference of 10 stades. This second version about the suffering of Prometheus. 9 fathoms deep into the ground”. p. 423. or according to other versions. Theog. II. II.517-536. Balade populare.. The legend of Prometheus in Romanian heroic songs. lib. the origin of his wisdom and energy (Hyginus. 149. “there is a rock. and was afterwards tortured by the terrible vulture of Jove. according to which this benefactor of humankind had been firstly shut up in a cave on the peak of Mount Caucasus (Diodorus Siculus. the bloodthirsty aquila. XV. Tocilescu. 147. Fulgentius. Marza. Burada. 5. “son of a Domn (TN . or Pharang. There still existed in antiquity a very popular second legend about the ordeal of Prometheus. had brought on the earth and had lighted again the fire on the hearths of the mortals.11 (KION OURANOU. Marianu. one of the great boyars.201. An. 11.82. King)”. who was firstly thrown into a cave.30). VII. Revista critica literara. 1. And in Eschyl’s poem. p. Poesii pop. etc (Teodorescu. p. Badea. and your body will hide in a womb of rock. the new monarch of the world. chained on the sly column or on some other rock. . the site of his passions (Hesiod. after which he sent the gigantic vulture born of Typhon and Echidna to devour his liver. III. to devour his heart.

. the mountains shook and great trees overturned. The Romanian hero is tortured in his poisoned cave. a dreadful serpent. but by an infernal shesnake. for 27 and a half years. mixed with the clouds. the hero is tortured at the beginning not by the vulture. a winged horse. 7 fathoms deep underground. p. accuses the Romanian hero for stealing from him a crazy horse. or a hero from across the Olt. Balade pop. or that he will send upon him an old vulture to torture him. but nobody hears him. thin but fiery and with a wise mind”. according to which Prometheus had been chained on Atlas or Caucas). although he is innocent. so that in his wake the stones flashed and red furrow turned. where the venomous snakes squeeze him and suck his blood. or by the emperor of Tarigrad (Constantinople). tortured and forgotten by everybody. during which the hero is incarcerated. and according to other versions he is either from Muntenia. like the titan Prometheus. The country of the Romanian hero is the country of Moldova. the Lord of the country.The causes of his imprisonment are two. stealing from Jove the celestial fire. only the ravens brought him food. and when neighing. According to antique legends. Stefan. not tried. that Prometheus. He tells her also that he had found for him two best men. which when running. 17). in a stone stable. or for 32 years according to other versions. with three pieces of wood from the forest”. or from his ribs. “an old woman. The Romanian hero had hidden this horse. On the one hand is his aspiration to reign. thrown by Stefan Voda. which ate only live coals. two giant vultures. 534) as a rival of Jove for the rule of the world. The second cause for which the hero suffers in his cave is a very characteristic symbolic representation of the fire which had been stolen. but with another metaphor. red as fire. had hidden it in the stalk of the plant called ferula. so red that the sun paled before it. or according to other versions on the shore of the Danube. a horse which ate only live coals. because he had betrothed her son with a maid from Slatina. time in which. who also appears in Hesiod’s legend (Theog. or in the stone underground prison. where then she reared her young. which with his flesh will sate their hunger and which his blood will drink. v. an old widow. and the evening breeze blew. which incubated in his bosom. the mother of the hero. which blew sparks off his nostrils. hewn only by axe and hatchet. on the plain of Baragan and the road of Rusalim (Jerusalem). which took heart when the summer wind blew. in a poisoned cave. as the most tortured man in the world. The cave or stone prison in which he is shut up is high up on the water of Nistru. biting either form his flesh. In the folk Romanian texts the hero appears like in the Greek legends. red and sprightly. and forgotten by everybody. with Madam Carpina from the forest Cocala or Cocana. in the prison of Sanfius. His torments are such. But the pitiless Lord ironically answers her that he will forgive her son “high up on the shore of Olt. that “he screams so loudly. presents herself in front of the Lord of the country and ardently beseeches him to free her son from prison. only his sweet mother” (Catana. as he tells us. it can be heard across the sea. and drinking his blood. It is the same idea which we find at the ancient authors. 9 fathoms deep under the ground. (The forests or mountains called Slatina and Cocana seem here to be reminiscences of the ancient legends. Prometheus sustained his ordeal for 30 years and the same number of years is mentioned also in the Romanian legend. After this long interval of time. it was an enchanted horse. In Romanian traditions. or he is jailed in the prison of Opris. or in the prison at Zarlat across the Carpathians. which coiled her tail around his body and heart. where he lies as a great sinner.

the Romanian tradition presents the same episode from the battle of the ancient titans. When Aeneas tells queen Dido about the desperate battle of the fatal night. The element of fire in particular. But the legend of Prometheus has reached us only in a fragmented form. p. or a great king on the throne of Tarigrad (Tocilescu. p. on his wake the stones flash and a red furrow appears. The ancient cyclic poet Lesches mentions in “Little Iliad” a legendary Pelasgian hero called Coroeb(os). Materialuri folk. A hero with the name of Corbea was also known to Homeric antiquity. Tom. Poesii pop. who had participated to the Trojan war. As we see. that even the Argonauts on the Black Sea heard them (Argon. as allied of Priam. chained and tortured on the Caucasus. so red that even the sun darkens. ardent woman. present the same characteristic verses about Prometheus’ suffering. His mother is an old. VII. 397 – Vulcan had been lame since birth. He escapes from prison. vol. 152). I. so that “when she will be weak. is often mentioned and symbolized in this cycle of Romanian songs. II.400. Lib. They express the feelings of sadness of the people for the undeserved punishment of a hero. Prometheus had been one of the most popular figures of the heroic times of humankind. 1873. but with a wise mind. hidden in the stalk of the plant called ferula. 116). This is a precious reminiscence from some very remote times. which we cannot understand today. which we also find in the poem of Apollonius Rhodius about the Argonauts. Valcea of the Romanian folk texts is the famous smith Vulcan. Finally. p. He tells us that the lamentations of Prometheus. 424). the same development of events do the legend of Eschyl and Diodorus. (According to Homer – Iliad. I. The guardian of the prison of the Romanian hero is one so-called Valcea (Tocilescu. echoed and propagated through the air to such a distance. and its happiness for his victory. only a small part has reached us. or from the deep cave. Revista. She “fiercely” beseeches the Lord of the country to free her son from prison. III. but which had left deep marks in the soul of the people: that Prometheus had fetched to the unhappy humans the sparks of the celestial fire. Materialuri folk. he says the following: . in the lands so-called of the Hyperboreans. as a mysterious and beneficial power.These ancient epic songs from the Danube. due to his cleverness. II. The horse of the hero. he eats only live coals. 1257 seqq). An. an enchanted horse. although today altered in form. From the great treasury of epic songs which once resounded at the north of Istru. the Romanian hero triumphs over the anger and power of the wicked Lord. 192). XVIII. vol. We find the same legend also with Virgil. 2. thin. These are ancient accents echoing in these traditional songs. The Romanian hero cripples Valcea. and in the end becomes Lord of the country. He appears in the same way in the Romanian songs. some Romanian songs celebrate also the triumph of the hero. is red as the fire. v. to bring her an ember. where Corbea warms himself (Marianu. This is another echo of some deeds. by saying that under the canopy of the forest is seen the light of a big fire. to kindle a fire in the hearth” (Tocilescu. to whom the ancient traditions had attributed the sad task of chaining and nailing the greatest benefactor of humankind. when Troy had fallen in the hands of the Greeks. leaving him with only one leg). after long and terrible suffering. I. Finally.

having no place to rest. The hero Coroebos seems to have had the same Hyperborean origin. Prometheus and the flood of Deucalion. alighted on the giants. and the birds of the sky. A series of epic songs had therefore existed in Homeric antiquity about a famous Pelasgian hero called Coroebos. justissimus unus (Aen. the oldest man bearing arms. had put a foot on a mountain and another foot on another mountain. The people call this place “where the giant fell” and it is found in Valcea district. 426). Another version. the fury of battle and the screams rising to the sky. In the ancient Greek traditions Prometheus was also connected with the flood which had covered in a remote epoch the entire land of Greece. We find even today in Romania traces of this Prometheic legend. It is the so-called flood of Deucalion. which covered with water most of Greece. IV. so that all the people died. Virgil calls Rhipeus. The names of the heroes Rhipeus and Hypanis. [1. At the same time arrived also our allies Rhipeus and Epytus. like a furrow across the water. II. 341). Jove. v. identical in essence with the former tells us: “The giants have perished at the time of the flood. In fear of drowning they climbed up on the mountain peaks. apart from those who had escaped on the nearest highest mountains. Prahova district)]. as Apollodorus writes (I. Dymas and young Coroebus. although the Greek mythographers could not imagine that this hero from near the Rhipaei mountains was the same legendary personality of Prometheus of Scythia [1]. and as they were hungry they pecked their flesh until they finished them” (Upper Drajna village. by leaving the Caucasus had become king in Thessaly) to build an ark in which to put all the necessary things for living. Rhipaei were the mountains of the Hyperboreans or today Carpathians. An old painting from the walls of Delphi showed. The river makes even now a big wave at that spot. Immediately after that Jove let loose the torrential rains of the sky. Axion and Agenor (lib. as if the water flew over a fence. Prometheus taught his son Deucalion (who. as Virgil tells us. deciding to extinguish the entire copper (bronze) genus of men. he fell in the waters of Olt. Among those fallen in battle was also seen young Coroeb(os). I throw myself in the middle of the fight and flames. III. And Hypanis is according to Strabo the name of the river Nistru. who had not heard the prophecies of his bride. .“Inspired by gods. Olt district). burning with a mad love for Cassandra. 5. 7. 1). “It is told about a jidov (giant. upstream of Ramnic” (Ibanesci village. 93). lib. an epithet characteristic for the Hyperboreans and the Getae (Mela. II. In the moonlight gather around me Hypanis. He had come to Troy exactly in these fatal days. 27. who had run to Troy. the son of Mygdon. inspired by divinity (Aen. and over him Priam. but as the birds of the sky landed on him. the destruction of Troy and the departure of the Greek fleet towards home. and as son-in-law he brought now help to Priam and the Phrygians. unlucky he. titan) that. Herodotus. appear only as simple personal geographical names. X. lib. as allies of Priam. on each side of Olt. 2). as Pausanias tells us. everywhere where I am called by sad Erinnys. which had filled the air with their numbers. sending God a flood to finish them.

PART 2 – Ch.XIV.12
(KION OURANOU. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. 12. Prometheus as theos pyrphoros, Mithras genitor luminis, Deus Arimanius. Prometheus had been venerated as a god even in very remote prehistoric times (Eschyl, Prom vinctus, 92). The ancient Pelasgian theology had eternized, through dogma and mysteries, the legendary merits and suffering of this Christ of the ancient world. We find traces of the cult of Prometheus as a god also on the territory of old Hellada. Sophocles presents Prometheus under the name theos pyrphoros, the god who fetched the fire (Oed. Col. v. 55-56). And Pausanias writes: “In the Academy of Athens there is an altar consecrated to Prometheus. On this altar, at the feast of the god, the people light their torches, and with them they race through the entire city. If, during this emulation race, someone’s torch goes out, he must cede his victory to the one behind him” (lib. I. 30. 2). But the cult of Prometheus under the name of Mithras, Mithras genitor luminis, deus invictus Mithras, appears to have been widespread in the ancient Pelasgian lands from near the Istru, which during Roman domination were known under the name of Dacia, Pannonia and Noric (Corpus Inscriptionum latinarum, Vol. III. Illyricum; Cf. ibid. p. 1164 see Mithras; Archaeologisch-dpigraphische Mittheilungen, II. 33; VI. 98.101; VII.200-225; Fabri, De Mithrae Dei Solis invicti apud Romanos cultu, Elberfeldae, 1883; Lajard, Introduction a l’etude du culte public et des mysteres de Mithra, Paris, 1847; Lajard, Recherches sur le culte public…de Mithra, Paris, 1867; Tocilescu, Monumente epigrafice si sculpturale ale museului national din Bucuresci, I. p. 83-88; Kuzsinszly, Az Aquincumi Mithraeum, in Arch. Ertesito. U. F. VIII (1888) p. 385-392; Bojnicic, Denkmaler des Mithras-Cultus in Kroatien, in Kroatische Revue, I. p. 139152; Kiralyi, Dacia Provincia Augusti. II. 134-151). The origin and history of the cult of Mithra in those parts have still remained an enigma to this day. On the figurative monuments from the Roman epoch, the god Mithra is shown as a youth of an extraordinary beauty, sacrificing a bull in a cave. On these sacrificial tablets the god appears dressed in the national Dacian costume, with a somewhat longish shirt, girdled around the waist and having on his shoulders a fluttering mantle, which reaches lower than his knees. The god wears on his head the national Dacian cap, with the pointed, rounded top, bent forward, and on his shoulders fall his long tresses of hair, as per Pelasgian custom, or a fine curly hair. He vigorously grabs with his left hand one horn of the bull, or his muzzle, lifting its head; with his left knee he pushes its back down to the ground, and with his right hand he stabs the animal in the throat, while at the same time turning his eyes towards the sky [1]. [1. In various archaeological descriptions published about the Mithraic monuments of Dacia, Pannonia, Noric, Italy and Gaul, is often mentioned, but in an entirely superficial way, the Phrygian cap (Phrygia tiara, die phrygische Mutze) of the god and his half-Asian costume (asiatische Tracht in ihrer griechischen Stilisierung). But the Dacian cap, as it appears on the figurative monuments of Trajan’s epoch, differs from the Phrygian cap and the tiara of the Persians, by having a very characteristic shape]. On both sides of the god are figured two adolescent youths dressed in the same Dacian national costume; one holding in his hand a torch with its lighted end upwards, the other with its lighted end downwards. Probably these Cautopates represented the rising and the setting sun, or Phosphoros and Hesperos. Both the god and the youths figured on these bas-reliefs present some Pelasgian heroic and noble types. Nothing Asian is to be seen, either in the expression of the figures, or in their costumes.

Apart from the figures of the god and the Cautopats we also see represented on these Mithraic monuments various other characteristic scenes from the life of the god, various topographical images, attributes and symbolic signs, out of which some are mentioned in the ancient legends of Prometheus, others in the Romanian legends. Of these symbolic accessories and ornaments, we shall mention here the most remarkable, important for the origin and history of the cult of Mithra. On a bas-relief from Rome, the god Mithra is shown blowing with his mouth in order to light the fire on an altar, while he is surrounded on both sides by snakes, one of which rears up to bite him on the ribs (Lajard, pl. LXXI). On another bas-relief from Ostia are figured, above the cave in which Mithra sacrifices, six altars, situated on a wide and woody summit (Lajard, pl.LXXIX. 2). We have here a topographical indication that the scene of the sacrifice takes place near the cyclopean altars, or the altars of theogony (see Ch.XIII). A particular importance though is presented by another bas-relief, discovered in the ruins of the temple of Mithra from Sarmizegetusa. Here two groups of altars are figured near the head of the god two, one on the right and the other on the left. Each group is composed of three altars (Arch.-epigr. Mitth. VII. p. 207. Six altars have been also discovered in the sanctuary of the god Mithra at Deutsch-Altenburg, CIL. III. 4414). The first altar is bigger, the others gradually smaller. They are the two groups of cyclopean altars about which we talked previously. Another analogous sculpture is in the museum Battyani at Alba-Iulia. Here seven altars are figured above the cave and near each altar there is a wooden post topped with a Dacian cap (Lajard, pl. LXXIX. 1). This is another symbolic expression of the fact that the seven altars were on the summit of a Dacian mountain. Another geographical indication about the region where the memorable scenes from the life of Mithra take place is expressed by the mythological figure of an important river divinity. Here the god of the river appears stretched on the ground (Lajard, pl. LXXVIII), and having a long and fluid beard, parting in two in the middle (Arch.-epigr. Mitth. II. p. 119). It is without doubt the representation of the Istru, the great and divine river, about which the ancient geographical traditions said that it parted in two branches near the mountains of Dacia (Jornandis, De Get. Orig. c. 7). The sacred tablets of the god Mithra also had, as we see, a topographical character. Apart from the cave of sacrifice, they also represented the sacred ground on which Mithra’s deeds had taken place. On the figurative monuments of the Roman epoch the god Mithra is shown having various attributes. Some of these attributes reminded the devotees various episodes from the life of the god, while others symbolized his particular virtues or qualities. Of all these emblems, the raven is one of the most characteristic and traditional symbols presented by the Mithraic monuments. On one of these sculptures a raven is figured entering into the cave through a hole or a break in the rock (Lajard, pl. LXXV). The same raven is shown on another Mithraic monument in an entirely domestic attitude. Entering into the cave through the hole or break in the rock, it bends its head and calls to Mithra, who sacrifices the bull (Idem. Pl. LXXXVII). This conveys a message.

On another Mithraic monument from the villa Torlonia, a winged horse is figured near the bust of the sun (Idem, pl. LXXXII), horse also mentioned in the folk Romanian songs (Densusianu Aron, Revista critica literara, III. 63). The country of the winged horses was, according to ancient legends, Scythia, especially the regions from near the Istru (Pliny, I. X. 70.1; Hesiod, Theog. v. 282-283). Other figures show the god Mithra with a key in each hand (Lajard, pl. LXXI). These are “the keys of heaven”, also mentioned by the Mithraic Romanian carols. Mithra appears on these monuments as the god “claviger” with the keys, he has the role of Ianus, who opens and closes the sky, the clouds, the earth and the sea (Ovid. Fast. I. v. 116 seqq). A marble statue discovered at Ostia shows the god Mithra as theos pyrphoros, holding in his left hand the stalk of a plant which smolders (Lajard, pl. LXX). It is narthes, or ferula, in which Prometheus had fetched the sparks of the celestial fire to the humans [2]. [2. On some bas-reliefs, especially on those of Dacia, the cave of the god Mithra is surrounded with a laurel or olive crown. It is the symbol of victory, or of his release from his chains, also mentioned by Apollodorus (II. 5. 11. 12). Among the accessories figured in Mithra’s cave can also be seen a boat with a man in it, emerging from the waves of some water (Lajard, pl. XCIV). It seems to be the ark of Deucalion, built on the counsel of Prometheus]. During the Roman epoch the mysteries of Mithra had seven grades of initiation called: Corax, Gryphus, Miles, Leo, Perses, Heliodromus and finally Pater patratus, which constituted the highest of the Mithraic hierarchy [3]. [3. In the Epistle 107 to Laetas, Hieronymus mentions the sanctuary of Mithra at Rome, which had been destroyed in the year 376 or 377. (TN - a quotation in Latin follows, which includes the seven grades of initiation). The enigmatic Helios Dromo, Heliodromus in Greek form, is only a simple corrupt form of the invocation “Ilion si-a nost Domn” (TN - see Ch. VI. 1]. It seems though that in the beginning these names had been only some popular epithets of the god Mithra. Corax, or the raven (corvus, Rom. corb), appears figured on almost all the Mithraic bas-reliefs. In Romanian folk songs the hero, who represents Prometheus in the cave or prison, is usually called Corbea. In the Romanian legends the ravens bring food to this imprisoned martyr (Burada, O calatorie in Dobrogea, p. 153), or, according to other versions, a raven comes to the window of the imprisoned hero (this time called Gruia), sent by his father to search for his son all over the world (Francu, Romanii din muntii apuseni, p. 209). The second grade of initiation in Mithra’s mysteries has the name of Gryphus, meaning griffon. The mythological vultures called griffons symbolized, as we know, the country of the Hyperboreans. On the cloths worn by those initiated in Mithra’s mysteries, as Apuleius tells us, were figured also griffons, called by him gryphes hyperborei (Metam. XI. Ed. Garnier, I. p. 394). It seems though that the name Gryphus is only an altered Latin form, and that the original idea had been in the beginning completely different. In various Romanian songs the hero who represents chained Prometheus has also the name of Gruia, Lat. Grus (Corcea, Balade poporale, p. 88). It is a historic probability therefore that Gryphus, exactly like Corax, was only a simple Latinised form of a name given to the hero Mithra in folk traditions.

The fifth grade of the mysteries of Mithra, according to Hieronymus, was called Perses. Under the name Perses, Mithra also appears at Porphyrius (De antro Nympharum, 16), and the poet Statius mentions the cave of Mithra under the form “Persei antri” (Thebaid. I. 719-720). The origin of this name has remained a mystery to this day. The word “Perses” has not at all the character of an ethnic name. In the Romanian folk legends the hero suffers “in the prison of Opris” (Teodorescu, Poesii pop. p. 517; Tocilescu, Materialuri folklore. I. 147. 1256). It is the same underground place called by the poet Statius “Persei antri”. It is the same word, identical, from the point of view of the legends, with the literary Latin form of “Perses”. In the theology of the Pelasgians from the Danube, the deified Prometheus is called Mithra (Mithras). This is again only a simple epic name from the regions of the Istru. In various traditional Romanian songs, the tortured, innocent hero, Prometheus of antiquity, is celebrated under the name of Marza, or Mirza (Bibicescu, Poesii pop. din Transilvania, p. 329; Catana, Balade poporale, p. 17, 18). It is the same name as the Greek Mithras, with the two middle consonants changing places. Mithras instead of Mirthas = Mirsas. In the Doric dialect the letter th had also the sound of s. (In historical documents Mursa or Marsa is the name of a Romanian noble family from the country of Fagaras). Prometheus as the god Mithra also had various epithets. He was called “deus invictus”, the brave god. So, he must have sustained some tough battles, from which he had emerged victorious. In the Roman inscriptions from Pannonia he has also the epithet of “patrius” (C. I. L. III, nr. 4802), meaning that he was an ancient national god of the Pelasgian tribes from the Danube. But a particular historical significance has his epithet of Arimanius. On two inscriptions from Aquineum (Buda), Mithra is called DEVS ARIMANIVS (C. I. L. III, nr. 3414, 3415), meaning the god from the nation of the Arimii (Arimani) or the ancient Ramleni (TN – see Ch.VII). Also as DEVS ARIMANIVS appears Mithra on an inscription from Rome (C. I. L. VI, nr. 47) and it is important the fact that this appellation is given him by Pater patrum himself, the head of the Mithraic religion in the entire empire. Without doubt this glorification of Mithra as Arimanius had also the character of a religious propaganda. The inscriptions with Deus Arimanius from Rome and from Aquincum impressed on the Roman people and the colonies from Pannonia the idea that this was the ancestral god of the Arimii or of the ancient Ramleni. And in truth the god Mithra had strong national traditions in Pannonia, Dalmatia and Dacia. Around 307ad the Roman emperors from the houses called “Jovii” and “Herculii” considered Mithra as their ancestral god, the patron of their reign or their empire, fautor imperii sui (C. I. L. III, nr. 4413). To the family “Jovii” belonged at that time: Diocletian, born in Dalmatia; Galerius, born at Sardica in Aurelian Dacia, whose mother had migrated there from old Dacia (Lactantius, De mort. Pers. c. 9; Eutropius, lib. IX. C. 22); Maximin Daia or Daza, originally from old Dacia (Lactantius, De mort. Pers, c. 18; Zosimus, II. c. 8; Zonoras, c. XII); Licinius the father, born in Aurelian Dacia (Eutropius, lib. X. c. 4) and Licinius, his son. And to the family “Herculii” belonged Maximianus the old, born at Sirimium, and his adoptive son Constantius Chlor, whose father was from Dacia, from across the Danube (Trebelius Pollionis, Divus Claudius, c. 13), and Constantine the Great, the son of Constantius Chlor.

Pannonia. 131). XI. fires are lighted on the eve of Sam-Miedru. 210-215. reliefs. as a demon of the shadows. Old Buda (Kuzsinszky. The sanctuaries consecrated to the god Mithra were underground. L.As a national god. where a great many Dacians had been expatriated. 202-225). Superstitii. Epigr. Mitth. on the right bank of the river Olt. altars. Here echo even today the traditional songs about the suffering of Prometheus as a hero. The cult of the god Mithra had been introduced to Persia together with other Pelasgian beliefs even from the time when the Scythians had occupied Media. 1114). Mithra appears on an inscription from Apulum.1114 seqq). nr. near Hadrian’s Wall. theoretical and practical. According to the theological books of the Persians. 99. the Persian Mithra was a feminine divinity. 56). from the orthodox religion of Mithra in the Pelasgian territories. The largest number of Mithraic inscriptions outside of Italy is to be found in Dacia. and from Phrygia to the Romans (in Operae of Papinius Statius. Sam-Miedru (Saint Dumitru in the Christian calendar. p. 717-720). under the name of Cohors I Aelia Dacorum. in Romanati district (Annalele Soc. character and extent of the cult of Mithra in the Roman provinces. Even today. VIII. According to Lactantius Placidus from the 6th century ad. U. the religion of Mithra originated in Persia. Mithra was a subordinate divinity. But in Phrygia. from where it had passed into Phrygia. A Mithraeum had probably also existed at Apulum. nr. They had no idea that the regions so-called barbarian from near the Istru had formed in a very remote time the sacred cradle of Mithra’s religion. L. where have been found a number of bas-reliefs and inscriptions dedicated to the god MIthra (C. entirely distinct from Ahriman. III.I. in Arch. VII. as the protector of the empire and of the Roman people. Such an underground temple of Mithra was discovered in 1837 in the village Slaveni. south of the village Gradisce (in the ruins of Roman Sarmizegetusa). Another sanctuary of Mithra also built underground was discovered in 1881. Ertesito. 250-256). where a dedication is made to him: pro salute imperii populique Romani et ordinis coloniae Apuli (C. and the religious hymns of Mithra as a god [5]. The ancients had entirely confused ideas about the origin. VI. . 101. [4. And according to Herodotus (I. I. the latter being considered as the principle of evil. [5. The Zoroastrian ideas about the nature and position of the god Mithra in the divine hierarchy were always confuse]. F. and another at Deutsch-Altenburg on the territory of ancient Carnutum. T. with a big number of Mithraic monuments. Az Aquineumi Mithraeum. Acad. statues and columns (Arch. 2. and even these are only in the spirit of the Hyperborean traditions [4]. 385-392). v. p. and on the entire territory of Asia Minor. The history of the cult of Mithra belongs since its inception to the Pelasgian race and territory from near the Istru. To Mithra as god of the fire was consecrated in ancient times the holly day called even today by the Romanian people Sam-Medru. we find only very few monuments consecrated to the god Mithra. Noric and Britain. Sect. and without even mentioning here Plutarch. and boys gather around them and shout “Come! to the fire of Sam-Miedru” (Ionneanu. 26 October). Also to the region of the Carpathians belongs the Mithraeum discovered at Aquincum. in some places. The religion of Mithra in Persia appeared though entirely heterodox. inscriptions. III. It differed in a great number of precepts.

while sfantu or santu means the saint. But in fact Meditrinalia. Oct (11 Oct) an ancient national rustic holly day called “Meditrinalia”. derive this name from mederi. without bothering to research the historical character of this day. . Varo and Festus. It seems to me that even the name of Dumitru can be explained as deriving from Santu Mitru = San T(D)u mitru ].The Latin people also celebrated on the day of V Id. by its name and the month in which was celebrated. to heal. appears to have been the same religious festivity which the Romanian people call SamMedru TN – In Romanian language Saint = Sfant = Sant = Sam (the last two in folk idiom).

1016 seqq). Ed. rel. chained on Pharang. p.343. I. V. rising or emerging into light from a stone pillar. 224 and in Kiralyi. 20). This cult of Prometheus or Mithra. Patr. which was on a height. or in other words. fig. p. Mitth. ser. v. nr. in a stone pillar from the region which the ancient Roman theology called Cardines mundi. Migne.PART 2 – Ch. in Romanian carols. After the doctrine about the birth of the god Mithra from a stone pillar had been established as an absolute religious truth. prim. or with curly hair. In one of these religious hymns is said that God had been enclosed into a stone pillar. Prometheus (Mithra) as theos ex petras. III. and after a long interval of time you will again come out into the light. The emergence of Prometheus or Mithra from a pillar of stone refers in fact to the same antique legend communicated by Eschyl. invictus de petra natus. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. 13 ]. addresses him the following words: “Firstly the father of gods will shatter with his thunders and the fire of his lightning this corner of Pharang. 4543). while around the pillar is figured a coiled serpent [1]. L. Mercury. c. 4524. VII. Dacia. Other two monuments showing theos ex petras were discovered at Apulum. and then the winged dog of Jove. and will hide your body in a womb of stone. the bloodthirsty aquila.13 (KION OURANOU. or born from a stone pillar is celebrated even today in Romanian carols. Beytrage z. called in dogmatic sense theos ex petras (Firmicus. which treated the birth of the god Mithra (Prometheus) from stone. The text of this Romanian carol. emerged. naked or clothed in a sort of Daco-Phrygian costume. One of these is reproduced at Hene. “Petra genetrix” and “Petra genetrix domini” are mentioned as divinities on two inscriptions from Upper Pannonia (C. Various statues and bas-reliefs from the Roman epoch show Mithra as a youth with long tresses. 13. During the Graeco-Roman antiquity there still existed a legend connected to the Pelasgian theology from the Danube. Epigr. [1. II. invictus de petra natus (Commodianus. will avidly rip pieces from your body and will eat your black liver” (Prometheus vinctus. which by its contents appears to be very archaic. the Pelasgian theology had attributed a divine character also to the pillar (the creative power). A statue representing the birth of the god MIthra from stone has been discovered at Sarmizegetusa and is reproduced in Arch. 210-211). lat. De err. curs. is the following: . prof. dacischen Geschichte. sent by Jove to Prometheus. on the lower part of the key of heaven.XIV.

whose essence is epictheogonic. a book of oracles in the Scythian language]. But Ilie [3]. From nearby pray. and his release through the mysterious power of the ancient prayers or sacred formulae (the Latin race had always strongly believed in the miraculous power of the ancient prayers and formulae – Pliny. Homer. in Cer. On your wings take him.XXVIII. Saint Ilie is the god Helios (Sol). Nr.High up at the key of heaven. the Pelasgian tribes from near the Lower Danube had their own sacred books of prophecies. 1899) the divinity of the Sun is invoked under the name “Ilion”]. from his mouth like this he spoke… You read. well he knows him…. As we see. according to Suidas. but Good God they did not know. as God born from the stone. But Good God you do not know. and prophesied. for three days and for three nights. I know him well. good group was assembled Only Saints of those saintly. the text of this carol refers to the locking of the god Mithra in the pillar of stone. High and higher to the legion. [3. you will know him when he’s born. Another version refers to theos ex petras in the spirit of later legends. IV. Domn in the sky. Popescu from the village Rasova. with clouds they mingled. And they read of Good God. Met.And Ion Sant – Ion…. v. and they read and prophesied [2]. Ramnicul-Sarat district). It means that the saints consulted oracle books. from afar drop on it. high and higher lift him. Hymn. and you read of Good God. Trans. See you that block of stone. Low and lower they plunged. the renowned priest and prophet of Apollo. on pillar of stone they dropped.When the Saints heard this. in stone pillar he’s locked up. As results from this carol. while I come. you prophesy. Constanta district) [2. 120. . And read.. where there’s Saint Ion… (Communicated by the teacher Baiculescu. all jumped up and flew. A group of small Saints. Baltati village. books in hands they took. In a Romanian carol from Transilvania (Gaz. High and higher they soared. enquired but found him not. We also note that Abaris. Down at the key of heaven. . had written. II. 281. From there Good God is born. whose eternal eye sees everything (Ovid. behold Good God escapes” (Communicated by the teacher T.and they talked and he told them…. 62).54.3). Enquired after Good God. stone in four split. . Pillar of stone in four was split. When they arrived there. Lerului Domne.

anterior to the Trojan and Pharaonic times. the entire state of culture. He created new types of humans from earth and water. are owed to this illustrious representative of the northern countries of Thrace. The legend of Prometheus in history. According to the traditions of antiquity. but applied to a biblical personality: “Preminte Solomon”. meaning Solomon the most wise (Sezatoarea. He was the man with the deepest understanding. present a particular interest for the countries from the Carpathians and the Danube. was just a simple epithet characteristic of the qualities of his mind and soul. these religious. the secrets of the future and fate. The name of Prometheus. In Romanian traditions this term has been still preserved under the form of “Preminte”. the beginnings of the awakening of the human genus. Here. v. similarly the epithet of Prometheus given to this wise hero was not a Greek creation. Here. In Greek language the words Prometheus and promethes had the primary meaning of clear sighted. Exactly as the country of Prometheus was in the regions of Thrace. or seeing in advance (providus) and only its secondary meaning was that of “wise man” (Fulgentius. Prometheus was the representative of the entire state of culture in the Stone Age and the beginning of the epoch of metals. I. 85. 84. He made from the divine element of fire the most powerful agent of human civilization. III. They throw a ray of light over an epoch full of facts and great events. martyr at the same time of his science and deep understanding.XIV. . in order to combat the evils which attack man’s organism (Aeschyl. He discovered many secrets of nature.PART 2 – Ch. The origin of the word is northern Pelasgian. An. was the ancient cradle of human civilization before the Assyrian and Egyptian times. 49). 9). according to all the fragments preserved to this day from the great bible of ante-historical paganism. (In Eschyl’s “Prometheus vinctus”. v. He taught man how to use the power of animals. 447 seqq). Providus) appears only as a modification of the primitive Pelasgian word “Preminte”. which. V. appears only as a copy of a much older legend about the creation of man by Prometheus. gave him soul and wisdom. historic and poetic traditions. He found the way to overcome the obstacles presented by waters. He introduced the knowledge and use of metals. although somewhat different. Flaticeni. Prometheus vinctus. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. But what presents a positive value for science is that. He discovered the occult properties of plants. and even tried to give them life. the divinity Kratos addresses Prometheus: “The gods call you Prometheus with a false name”). II. was the country of this titanic genius. Prometheus tried to influence even the spirit of man. according to all these sacred legends which form the Promethean cycle. He tried to know. Bibl. The word Prometheu in its original form had only the meaning of: the first in mind. Prometheus taught mankind to build dwellings in the light of the sun. 1). So that the Hebrew legend according to which Jehova had formed man from earth. but missing in history. under which appears in Greek legends this ancient representative of Pelasgian civilization. So the Greek form of Prometheus (Lat. wise. 110. sending the sailing ships on the expansive surface of the seas. 7.14 (KION OURANOU. at the Carpathians and the Lower Danube. having preserved nevertheless a similar meaning. 4. western Scythia. brainy man. by the art of divination. The legends of Prometheus. Myth. with deep understanding. he succeeded (Apollodorus. as the sacred books of Pelasgian theology said. Even more. 14.

pagan Turks and brawlers. 507 that Clymena. with the sword on his chest. because “the Danube reared him and wide in shoulders made him. Braila and wives from Ialomita. Then before the Turks appears Tanislav’s servant. Frightened. where the streams gather and flow into the Danube. In this cycle of ancestral songs the famous titan Atlas has the name of Tanislav or Stanislav. but run away and crawl as frogs through the orchards. in the regions of Ialomita and Braila. going downstream on the Danube. or . Tanislav’s mother. with 12 silk thick ropes. The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. And after Tanislav is bound. v. any more in this regard. These Turks then. son of snake of the Danube. Giurgiu and Braila. They do not dare to get near Tanislav.22. anchored with silver chain. Paid by the Turks. v. Going further downstream the Turks find Tanislav sleeping in his kayak. p.PART 2 – Ch. p.74. Arriving to the turn of the river. In ante-Homeric antiquity existed a heroic legend in which the titan Atlas. Negoescu. bind her and torture her. 134). Poesii pop. they answer that the mother of Tanislav is further downstream. Poesii pop. to tell them the whereabouts of her son. Luckily for the study of ante-Homeric traditions. From this Pelasgian legend Homer has preserved only a small fragment in which is told that the titan Atlas knew all the depths of the seas (Odyss. still sleeping. V. go on the Danube to catch Stanislav the brave. An. 15. a big number of heroic songs have been preserved to this day with the Romanian people. The titan Atlas in Romanian heroic songs. and in it Tanislav sleeps with drawn sword on his chest. A part of these traditional Romanian songs present in several versions the Homeric legend about Atlas. he ties Tanislav. Materialuri folkl. Balade. dread and cold shivers run through them. I. catch Matusa. who is “big in stature and terrible at sight”. Catana. advises his mates to tie on the neck of Tanislav the millstone from the country of Moldova and then to throw him in the Danube. 80. they meet some “maids from Craiova. The hero is originally from the parts of Moldova. or of Olt. This is proof that the legend about Atlas. washing cloths in the water. and the scene takes place on the Lower Danube. a son of an immigrant Greek. Asked if they saw Tanislav the brave. or they see some maids from Selina. 84. Balade. The contents of this legend are the following: The Turks from Darstor. I.558-577. She washes the weapons and clothes of Tanislav of Turkish blood. and spreading them into the sun. p. a smaller Turk. who offers to sell them Tanislav tied up. 85. because Tanislav is clever. But when they see Tanislav’s hair fluttering in the wind. as a giant of the waters had not originated in the southern regions. is the kayak of Tanislav. blind in one eye and lame of one leg. the son of Matusa. Tocilescu. this grandson of Oceanos potamos (Istru) and king in the country of the Hyperboreans (Hesiod says in Theog. because Tanislav is clever. as giant of the Danube and the sea (Teodorescu. written with silver letters. Alecsandri.XIV. the old woman answers them that even further downstream. the Danube should finish him and his life to end”. the daughter of Oceanos was the mother of Atlas and Prometheus). which they tie around the head of Tanislav. the essence of which harks back to a very remote antiquity. Sezatoarea. and “the Danube reared him and wide in shoulders made him”. but those who followed him do not say anything.15 (KION OURANOU. at a willow with branches bent to the water and spread on the banks. p. 52-53). The Turks bring the millstone from the country of Moldova. p. proud like queens”. was presented as a giant of the waters and particularly of the seas.

This is an exceptional rhapsody. cuts the ropes. wide sea and deserted. Frightened. runs to the Danube. arriving with the buckets at the Danube. goes to his aid straightaway. Originum lib. feeling that he is tied up. the son of Matusa. she knows him and he knows her”. But Tanais. and fights in it like ten. We have here an important ante-historical reminiscence about the simulacra of the titan Atlas. In the historical traditions of the Romans the hero Tanislav was known under the name of Tanus and it was said about him that he had been a king of the Scythians from near the Riphaei Mountains. he strains. And her father answers: how can he drown. the waves rise and for three hours bubble.. and the big river named by Greek authors Tanais. because “the Danube knows him. no boat.on his back. which flows into the Meotic Lake. taking in his hand the silver oar. superior in eloquence and images to any other epic episode from Homer. she throws the buckets to the ground. chooses a copper kayak and seeing Tanislav straining himself and lifting the stone above him. at the surface he emerges. no ship”. when Tanislav wakes up at the bottom of the water. v. where the eyes see only the wide sea. [1. then he emerges to the surface of the water and bravely swims. no being alive. wide in shoulders made. she knows him and he knows her. Then this good hearted old man. sees Tanislav swimming and breathing hard and exhausted. whom the Danube reared. Isidorus Hispal. the most titanic figure presented by the Romanian heroic songs. the personality of the Romanian hero Tanislav or Stanislav is identical with the figure of the titan Atlas. the kayak jumps on the bank and throws Tanislav on the grass. But look. XVI. . or the sphere of the universe behind his head. the giant who sleeps for three days at the bottom of the Danube. In this particular passage of Isidorus there is a simple confusion between the ancient name of the Danube. is a river of steppes and its sources are not in the mountains. “he thought of God. figured with a stone globe. According to another version. he prayed to God and God gave him strength”. who. the water splits in two. props himself up on his legs. Danusis (Stephanos Byzanthinos). XIII. knows all the depths of the seas. “where the water is deeper and there’s no wave. A very characteristic image presented by the Romanian legend is when it tells us that the Turks had tied around his head a millstone and that he had emerged on dry land still with it around his head. or today Don. Tanislav still sleeps when he reaches the bottom of the Danube and for three days he stays in the water with his mouth in the sand. according to the Odyssey. places it on his chest. still with the stone around his head. with a yellowish bucket”. 24. and then they capsize the kayak in the Danube. 20. lifts the stone. when he swims like a fish. The name Tanislav or Stanislav under which the famous titan Atlas appears in Romanian epic songs belongs also to the ante-Homeric times. He grabs the stone. chained and with the stone around the head. runs fast home and tells her father that Tanislav is drowning and it would be a pity. One of the Dardanian heroes who fight at Troy against the Greeks had in Homer’s Iliad the name of Sthenelaos (II. the water withdraws to the sides and hits the banks. These are the main parts of the Romanian legend about Tanislav the brave. As we see. 586). grabs the oar of the kayak. and when it dips it in the waves of the Danube. it happens that “a ruddy maiden. whom the Danube knows. therefore the Carpathians [1]. bravely swims and on the bank emerges. After three days the hero awakens and feeling himself tied up and with a stone around the head. he crosses the Danube walking. Now Tanislav. the stone sinks. freed from the load.

As the scholiast of Apollonius Rhodius tells us (IV. Istru is the river which flows from the lands of the Hyperboreans and from the Rhipaei mountains. Finally we note here that the Danube figured under the name of Istru only from its cataracts downstream (Strabo. The name of Tanais has been applied to Istru even in the legend of the Argonauts. the Argonauts had entered from the Euxine Pontus into the river Tanais. . 3. VII. and after transporting the ship on dry land they reached the great sea]. 73). 13).According to Eschyl (Frag. 282).

The Sky Column on Atlas Mountain in the country of the Hyperboreans) XIV. Bibl. 276). As Greek traditions tell us. he invited him to depart straight away. took out of his bag the head of Medusa. and in this way Atlas was turned on the spot into a huge mountain. recounts for him all his miraculous deeds. according to Hesiod (Theog.PART 2 – Ch. a son of Jove and the nymph Danae. X.16 (KION OURANOU. after severing the head of Medusa. IV. Medusa and Atlas. and from now on only the sky with the stars shall lean on Atlas. nor even Jove. Theog. This had been the wish of the gods. visits also Atlas. the king from the country of Hyperboreans (Pindar. Atlas though.XIV. We also find in the Romanian heroic songs about the titan Atlas principal elements of the ancient legend about Perseus. refused to give Perseus hospitality. II. writes Ovid (Metam. At these words Perseus. The names of the three Gorgons who dwelt on the northern shore of the famous river Oceanos were. v. There existed another version which said about Medusa that she had been the daughter of one called Sthenelos. . remembering the pronouncement of an ancient oracle from Parnas. 5). one of the Gorgons which dwelt on the northern parts of the famous river Oceanos (Hesiod. The epic cycle about Atlas. considered as king of Mycenae (Apollodorus. which said “Atlas! The time will come when your trees will be despoiled of their gold and this glorious deed is reserved for a son of Jove”. who could not match the strength of the titan Atlas. 4. Stheno. Perseus. As Perseus insisted. his head became the top of a high peak and his bones changed into rocks. which had the magical attribute to turn to stone anybody who looked into her face. and asks hospitality for one night. 50). Perseus. whom he had found asleep. had been sent by the king Polydectes from the island of Seriphos to bring him the head of Medusa. tells him that he is a son of Jove. 274 seqq). Medusa and Perseus in Romanian tradition. 16. would save him from his hands. 637 seqq). the renowned hero from Argos. v. Euryale and Medusa. Pyth. as otherwise neither the glory of his false deeds. lib.

when one sees her. who dwells in “the plain of Nistru” at the shore “of the seas”.In the Romanian tradition though. She is “a wild maid”. 55). intends to cut her head (Teodorescu. but there is a difference in form. She was in the beginning an entirely distinct personality than the legendary Gorgon. torture her and one of them. 565). the Greek legend has been altered. 108)]. has been one of the legendary heroes from the Carpathians and the Danube [1] [1. p. this representative of the ancient Pelasgian generation. 75). shivers of death run through him. 3. Balade. p. Matusa is the mother of Stanislav (Negoescu. The Romanian tradition about Tanislav the brave. Tanislav the renowned. . as trophy of victory (Catana. As Pliny writes (VI. the captain. And the Turks tie a stone around the head of Stanislav or Tanislav. it has taken the character of a simple fabulous tale. The Turks who come against Stanislav catch Matusa first. Medusa (Matusa) is one and the same with Clymene (“Renowned” for her beauty). The most warlike hero of Romanian traditions. Poesii pop. is also found in Romanian heroic songs. beheads her. The legend of the ancient Gorgon. She has an entirely sinister figure. and about his mother Matusa. whom he finds asleep. and therefore a more original form. Old Novac. The tradition is the same. helps in establishing that the titan Atlas of the Greek mythology. who represents here the titan Atlas. Hellada being more removed from the theatre of events. Novac wakes her up. while according to Diodorus Siculus (III. goes to cut the head of this wild girl. “big in stature and terrible at sight”. puts her head on top of his spear and takes it home. 4). fights her. like Perseus had found Medusa. tie her up. Balade. the Gorgons were a nation of women always warring with the Amazons. the Gorgons were some wild hairy women. or the terrible Gorgon. 36. 54. while the Romanian version has preserved its fundamental historical character.

In ancient geographic literature. IV. c. the western by the Celts and the northern region is occupied by the Scythians. The Boreal Column was therefore in the geographical region of the Scythians. 243). It was therefore situated in those parts of the European continent which ancient geography considered as a northern region. also called “the boreal sea”. was called the Boreal Column. It results therefore that the so-called Boreal Column was on one of the heights of the mountains which stretched on the western side of the Euxine Pontos. In later times. . graec. so important for the prehistoric geography of ancient Dacia. Bertrand. 188-195). whose dwellings stop there. close to the Celts. the southern by Ethiopians. geographical and ethnographic. v. or the stormy sea. The Boreal Column near the Lower Istru In the geographical poem. summarizes like this the ideas of the ancients about the geographic and ethnographic divisions of the earth: “The eastern region is inhabited by the Indians. or in the extreme corner of the peninsula named Bretagne (Mullerus. the famous monument of the prehistoric world about which Scymnus speaks. 38 in Gragmenta Hist. but in their western parts. Vol. The same Pontos figures with Hesiod as the stormy or angry sea (Theog. as well as the Lower Istriens. which rose on the crest of a mountain near the Lower Istru. different authors tried to establish the geographical position of this column. they are nevertheless an important vestige of the civilization of a vanished world and we should never avoid the task imposed by history to study those still extant today. Ephorus. I. As mysterious as the primitive and colossal monuments of the ante-Homeric times appear today. is mentioned a colossal column. and with Herodotus as the boreal sea (lib. v. Close to this column dwell the most remote of the Celts. p. others in the Alps. 131-137). and which had the name Stele boreios. 37). We have to examine now the ethnographic data presented by Scymnus regarding the geographic position of this important prehistoric monument.XV STELE BOREIOS. Boreal Column. p. It is very high and the crest of the mountains on which it stands. Only one stormy sea par excellence was known to the ancient Greeks and this was Pontos axeinos. the inhospitable sea or the Black Sea of today. and bring to light their primitive character and meaning. stretched towards the sea full of waves. I. Didot. About the position of this gigantic Column of the ancient world we find another important geographical indication with him. The text of this passage. is the following: “In the most extreme parts of the Celts there is a Column which is called boreal. stretches towards the sea full of waves. for the western parts of Europe. some near the strait of Gibraltar. According to what this author tells us. In the vicinity of the Column dwell also the Enetii. Geographi graeci minores. according to Scymnus. Pyrenees. I. because the regions occupied by the Scythians and Ethiopians are more extensive. 299-300).PREHISTORIC DACIA PART 2 – Ch. 202-203. one of the Greek historians who had tried to bring some light to ante-Homeric times. who are spread from here inside towards Adrian” (Orbis Descriptio. La Gaule avant les Gaulois. commonly attributed to Scymnus of Chios. in Geographi graeci minores. Ed. to fix the position of the enigmatic ones. But not all these parts are equal in size. while those of the Indians and Celts are smaller” (Fragm. p. But all these locations present enormous difficulties. the crest of the mountains on which the Boreal Column rose.

[1. Homer mentions Enetii of Pahlagonia. IV. appear here the inhabitants of the lower parts of the Istru.391). Vol. lib. v. after the destruction of Troy. 8). Fragm. 1) understands under the name Istrici the entire population from the Lower Danube. were the extreme Celts. who must not be mistaken for the ‘Istrianoi (Mnemonis. Mela. 32). The ethnic name of the prehistoric Eneti (‘Enetoi. 391). were a people from near the Lower Istru [1]. says he. 33. has left its trace in Romanian topography to this day. who dwelt near the river Maris (Mures in Transilvania). 35. in groups more or less considerable. 21. 3). about whom Scymnus speaks in the above text. while Eustathius tells us that Enetii were neighbors with Tribalii. Enetii dwelt this side of Istru. 5. and extended “inside” towards Adrian [2]. Venata (Gorj. 18. We have therefore an absolute historical certitude that Enetii. 78). Under the name of ‘Istroi. Cauconii. X. lib. 2). Herodotus. scattered throughout Thrace and after wandering they reached Venetia (Cf. In the western parts of today Romania. Lelegii. were extended only that far. These Istri. We find the same ideas also with Strabo (XII. a small group separated from the large tribe of the Eneti (Pliny. According to Herodotus. It seems then that Enetii of Paphlagonia too. v. III. the Celts were scattered in ancient times as far as Scythia (lib. The second ethnic group which dwelt close to the Boreal Column is called by Scymnus ‘Enetoi. IV. II. Periplus Ponti euxini. Didot. etc. were considered as a Celtic people. the third people who dwelt close to the Boreal Column were the so-called ‘Istroi. Pliny. were only a fragment of the large group of Eneti from near the Istru]. lib. lib. Apollonius Rhodius. c. 3. 20). Mysii. Of Trojan origin were considered also Venetii of Italy. 23. in Fragm. the inhabitants of the rich and powerful city called ‘Istros. lib. 2). who dwelt near the river Oescus (Isker) in Lower Mesia.537. V. Veneti). Enetii of Paphlagonia. V. At Trog Pompeius the same ‘Istroi or Istrici also figure under the general name of Istriani (Justinus. Vinetesci (Falciu district.According to him. Ed. Scymnus. Scylax also tells us that Enetii were settled near Istru and the Istriens (Periplus. and according to Stephanos Byzanthinos. Bithynii. Arrianus. Finally. But the current of migrations between Europe and Asia Minor appears to have been completely different in history. III. had immigrated there from the Hem peninsula and from the parts of the Lower Danube. . c. writes he. The first one mentioned by the author of this geography. at north of Thrace and were neighbors with Sigynii (lib. Vinetia (the country of Fagaras). ‘Istria. 320). like Brygii. About these Eneti we find another important geographical note with him: they were neighbors with the Thracians called Istriens (Orbis Descriptio. which we find settled in Asia Minor. 889). ‘Istrie. It is a positive fact that all the Pelasgian tribes. a number of villages are called even today Vineti (Olt district). Historicorum graecorum. Trojans. II. 9. the Agathyrsii or Tursenii rich in gold. p. [2. Ialomita. Mela (De Situ Orbis. starting near the river Tyras or Nistru (TN – Dnestr). c. as allies of the Trojans. c. or the Celts most removed from their main body and who. II. Mehedinti. Prahova districts). who dwelt near the shores of the Black Sea. I. three populations known to the ethnographic history of the ancient world were settled in the vicinity of the Boreal Column. according to what Scymnus tells us. in close vicinity with the so-called Caucones. situated near the old mouth of the Istru (Herodotus. According to Diodorus Siculus. c. were part of the large and historically important family of the Thracians (v. IV.

Those who travel from Romania to Ardel. which was in an ethnic continuity with the Lower Istrieni. Strabo tells us (XI. In the oldest geographical sources though. nr. These Istri formed therefore a considerable ethnic group. this geographical matter becomes even clearer. Axiochus. the Danube was called Istru only downstream from the cataracts. could be no other than the central region of Dacia. We are confronted now with the principal historical matter of knowing what significance had the socalled Boreal Column in the beliefs of the ancients. Scymnus though is not the only author of antiquity who called Adrian the mountainous zone from north of the Lower Istru. The same does Theopompus (Frag. 5.Scymnus mentions three times in his “Periegesa” the geographical name of ‘Adrian (in the accusative). which puts in evidence that the real name of the territory in question was not at all ‘Adrias. the course of the Istru”. lib. at the center of which was the earth (Plato. 5). and we have numerous examples. p. which Scymnus mentions in connection with the Istru and the Boreal Column. 3. 9). Vol. Ed. the universe (chosmos. VI. at Theopompus (Fragm. I. like an enclosure. 8) and even Herodotus (lib. the historian of the Getae and the Goths. or today Ardel [3]. Eratosthenes (Strabo. and beyond Rhipaei mountains (or the southern Carpathians). The Greek and Roman authors had tried often. 6. 143). a territory further away from the open region of the big waters. 2). The firmament with all its stars turned continually around the earth. . lib. There existed therefore a scientific reason to do this. called the Hyperboreans who dwelt above the Euxine Pontos. designated. V. but a form somehow near the Greek mode of expression. under the geographical term of Adrian or Andrian. which we find with Scymnus. under the name of Adrias was not understood the territory near the Adriatic Sea. can be understood the lands from the NE parts of the Adriatic Sea. say that they go inside). it is also said in the final verse: “From here (the lands of the Istriens) starts. in the history of Alexander the Great (Strabo. II. This complex of mountains. with the grammatical forms of the language in which they wrote. According to Strabo (VII. I. vicus Ardilenus (C. Jornandes. Hist. as it is said. But by these words must not be understood the sources. 9). Nobody mentions the Arimaspi and Sauromati in those parts. from Ardel ]. Adrian or Andrian. as we know. Sauromati and Arimaspi”. Didot. homogenous and speaking the same language. of the Euxine Pontos. graec.561). 13). p.303). [3. 3. Adrian or Andrian (according to another version). mundus) was considered as a concave sphere. dwelt in the northern parts of the Lower Istru. VII. a territory surrounded on all sides by high mountains. but the cataracts of the Istru. by the natural meaning of the words. It is evident that here too. valleys and hills appears under the same geographical name of ‘Adrian and ‘Adrias. applies the same term of “inside” (intorsus) for the interior region of Dacia. The geographical expression “inside”. The Hyperboreans. today Ardel (De Getarum origine. c. So. VII. or the city Adria from the plains of the river Padus (Po) in Italy]. with the inhabitants of the region called by Scymnus Adrian. Istru and Adria. 143 in Fragm. 2799) and probably the inhabitants of that “vicus” had emigrated or resettled there from the northern parts of the Istru. But in no case. instead of Rhipaei figured the name of Adria (‘Adrias). In Scymnus’ passage related to the boreal Column. to assimilate different personal and geographical names of the barbarians. A suburb of Philipopoli was called around 227ad. The region which Scymnus calls “inside” (This expression is in use even today with the Romanian people. According to the cosmographic ideas of the Hyperboreans. “The first to describe the regions of the earth. L.

fragmented and scattered among the authors of antiquity. Virgil says: the giant Atlas turns on his shoulders the starry axis of the sky (Aen. I. or chion ouranou. 2). Geogr. Isidorus. exiled at Tomis. IX. 381). Martial calls the same geographic and astronomic point Geticus polus (Epigr. Ovid tells him that he was right under the Cardines mundis. v. Ibid. From all this data. XII. or the Getae. lib. 349). XIII. lib. II. 482). the Column called stele boreios from near the Lower Istru. III. 32. 1. the titan Atlas from the country of the Hyperboreans. They touched the surface of the terrestrial globe on both sides. addressed to his friend Macerus in Rome. cardines mundi. was considered to pass through the centre of the earth. Hyperboreus septentrio. The extreme parts of the axis between the earth and the sky were called Cardines mundi (hinges of the world). and represented therefore certain points of the celestial and terrestrial geography. END OF PART 2 . According to the astronomical and geographical ideas of classic antiquity. or the universe turned. touched the earth near the Lower Istru. and that he talks often with his friend under the boreal axis (axis gelidus) in the country of the Getae. also called polus Geticus. 13). an important historical truth comes out to light: according to the geographical ideas of ante-Homeric times. 41-42) that he must spend his life under axis boreus. or as Homer says. v. The same Virgil tells us also that the northern pole is in Scythia. supports the pole of the universe (Bibl. which the titan Atlas supported on his shoulders. around which the ancients believed that the celestial sphere turned. complains in one of his elegies (Trist.The axis around which the sky. and in another letter. III. H. Geticus polus. was the same traditional and sacred monument as the great Column of theogony. Vinct. Lib. IV. on the Rhipaei mountains. According to the grammarian Apollodorus of Athens. the southern Meridies (Vitruvius. V. Originum. The poet Ovid. 240-241. IV. the northern pole. And Ovid: Atlas still labors. 36 and 37. from where it rises up in the shape of a rock peak (Georg. the astronomical and geographical terms of axis boreus. The authors of antiquity also present the same geographical idea under another form. II.(to follow up go PART 2 – CONTENTS – PART 3) . 11). 5. N. 8). 11. from the south-eastern arch of the Carpathians. with “the long columns. 53). This northern axis of the universe. As we see from the texts referred to here. barely supporting on his shoulders the white and glowing axis of the sky (Metam. lib. v. on Rhipaei mountains. Lib. v. I. lib. Statius calls it Hyperborei axes (Thebaid. 2. the northern one Septentrio or axis boreus. also called axis boreus or cardines mundi. which Atlas supports and which hold the sky around the earth” (Odyss. c. was therefore identical with the Sky Column from the Atlas mountain (chion ouranou Eschyl. around which turned the sphere of the universe. Virgil. 5. We have examined here the principal texts regarding the geographical character of the Boreal Column. IV. 297). 650-651). v. De architectura. v. were identical expressions which indicated that in the region of the Lower Istru was the important geographical point. 8. IX. Prom. 26. Lib. Hyperborei axes. 46). on the territory of the Hyperboreans (Pliny. II. So the sky and the earth had a common axis (Strabo. 1. on the left side of the Euxine Pontos. 1.

2. XIV. Manes. as sacred emblem of the acropolis of Mycene The Sky Column from the Carpathians.4.9. The Sky Column from the Carpathians. ‘Ree. XIV. XIV. as symbol of eternal life in Etruscan religion The Sky Column from the Carpathians. Medusa and Perseus in Romanian tradition Stele Boreios – the Boreal Column near the Lower Istru . Ieroi Bomoi.15. XII. XIV. The geographical position of Atlas Mountain according to heroic legends.11.2. The cyclopean altars on Caraiman mountain. Sibyla Erythrea or Dacica.8. aigiochos. XIV. Saturn as Zeus Dachie and Dokius Caeli filius. XII. Pamentul Saturn as Princeps Deorum. The figure of Zeus Dachie (aristos megistos.1. XV. XII. Cybele and Attis. Ceriul domnul Gaia. XII. Terra Dacia. The principal prehistoric divinities of Dacia PART 2 Kerus. XIV. XIV. XII. XII. XIV. Terra.5. XIII. ‘Reia. XII. XIV.5. Rhea. Rhea or the Great Mother called Dochia and Dochiana.11. XII. XIV. XIV. XIV.10. XII. Caraiman. in Romanian legends.14. duonus Cerus. Rhea.1.12. Ceriul. His simulacrum at the Iron Gates.7. Deciana and Caloian. and Dacia Augusta. venerated under the name of Dacia.6. XIV. euruopa) and of Jupiter of Otricoli. XIV. Kion ouranou. Ge.PREHISTORIC DACIA . XII.9. ‘Rea. Tellus. in the country of the Hyperboreans. in Romanian carols The legend of Prometheus in history The titan Atlas in Romanian heroic songs The epic cycle about Atlas. XII. or the Great Mother.12. The Sky Column on Atlas mountain. XIV.3.htm XII.pelasgians. The first version The legend of Prometheus in Romanian heroic songs. Prometheus chained on the Sky Column in Dacia Prometheus in irons on Caucas mountain in Dacia Prometheus chained on the rocks of Pharanx (Parang) mountain The Sky Column from the Carpathians. Mithras genitor luminis.6. as symbol of Egyptian trinity The titan Atlas. Deus Arimanius Prometheus (Mithra) as theos ex petras. Saturn honored in the archaic cult with the name ‘Omolos Saturn as Zeus aristos megistos euruopa. The second version Prometheus as Deus pyrphoros.TABLE OF CONTENTS http://www.10. Deus Manus and Tartaros (Tatal) Saturn worshipped in Dacia under the name of Zalmoxis or Zeul-mos (TN – old man God). Cerus manus.3. invictus de petra natus.4. His colossal simulacrum on Omul mountain in the Carpathians.8. XII. ancestor of the Ausoni.16. as symbol of immortality for the Pelasgians of Sicily The Sky Column from the Carpathians on funerary monuments of Carthage The legend of Prometheus in Romanian heroic songs.7. XIV.

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