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1.The dental pulp is the central part of the tooth filled with soft connective tissue. It is highly vascular and richly innervated connective tissue forming the soft core of the tooth. Anatomically the pulp organ is divided in: 1. Coronal pulp- located in the pulp chamber, in the crown portion of the tooth, including the pulp horns that are directed toward the incisal ridge and cusp tips. Because of continuous deposition of dentin, the pulp becomes smaller with age. This is not uniform throughout the coronal pulp but progresses faster on the floor than on the roof or side walls. 2. Radicular pulp is that pulp extending from the cervical region of the crown to the root apex. Roots are not always straight and vary in shape, size and number. The radicular portion of the pulp continuous with periapical tissues through the apical foramen or foramina. Apical foramen is the opening of the radicular pulp into the periapical connective tissue. The average size of foramen is 0.3 to 0.4 mm in diameter. There can be two or more foramina separated by a portion of dentin and cementum or by cementum only. Most of infections spread through the apical foramen from the pulp to periapical tissue. Accessory canals are pathways from the radicular pulp, extending laterally through the dentin to the periodontal tissue seen especially in the apical third of the root. 5.Pulp functions:  Nutritive function (trophic) – pulp supplies nutrients and moisture to the dentin through the blood vascular supply to the odontoblasts and their processes. Basic substance of the pulp is a medium thru which nutritive elements from blood get to the cellular elements of the pulp, and metabolic products thru this medium get to veins.  Defensive function (barrier) – is realized by the cells of reticuloendothelial system: histocytes, plasma cells, neutrophil granulocytes and fibroblasts. Histocytes in pathologic processes transforms into mobile macrophages and perform the function of phagocytes. Plasma cells are developed by antibodies. Fibroblasts form the fibrous capsule which surrounds the pathologic place which appears in the pulp. Neutrophil granulocytes realize the function phagocytosis and intercellular digestion.  Plastic function (protective) – is the production of primary and secondary dentin by the odontoblasts, as the protective response. Primary and secondary dentin protects the pulp from external factors and stop bacteria to penetrate the pulp.  Sensory function – transmitting afferent pain response (nociception) and proprioceptive response. Provides sensory nerve fibers within the pulp to mediate the sensation of pain. 2.The structure of the pulp:       Basic substance of the pulp Cells of the pulp Fibers of the pulp Blood vessels Nerves Lymphatic vessels


3 si 4. monocytes.are white blood cells that produce large volumes of antibodies. particularly those that cause allergic symptoms. glycosaminoglycans. Vascular system (blood supply of the pulp) .a. speckled nucleus having one or two nucleoli. It is rich in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi a key role in the inflammatory process. to give it a high secretory capacity (firstly collagenous matrix to form predentin. Odontoblasts are large columnar cells arranged in an epithelioid sheet along the junction between dentin and pulp. ~ . This odontoblastic layer produces primary. Grade of polymerization depends of age. Pulpal circulation contains numerous arteriole and arteriole-venule anastomoses.Granulocytes . functional activity and pathological state. which promotes blood flow to tissues. and glycoprotein found in the extracellular matrix. This prolific production of antibodies is an integral part of the humoral immune response. Mandibular teeth are irrigated by the a.Collagen fibers and Reticular fibers.approximately 40µm in width.are part of the immune system by way of two distinct functions: phagocytosis and antigen presentation. In the radicular pulp are much more fibers then in the coronal pulp.a. Granulocytes neutrophil have role in anti-microbial function. Many blood vessels with small diameter 100µm-arterioles -enter in the pulp thru the small lateral orifices. and degranulation. all the way down to the root apex. They also contain the vasodilator histamine. .Pulp has 3 layers of cells:  Cell poor zone. Granulocytes basophils appear in many specific kinds of inflammatory reactions. -Fibroblasts (the principal cell). macrophage. These cells are smaller than odontoblasts and they are at the stage to be transformed into odontoblasts.dentin (dentinal tubules) and reaches the enamel-dentin junction. plasm cells. -Mastocytes . Alveolares superioris. Phagocytosis is the main process of macrophages and antigen presentation the main property of dendritic cells (so called because of their star-like cytoplasmic processes). phagocytosis. especially during primary dentin formation. discrete collagen fibers. secondary and tertiary dentin. Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with a considerable nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. Number of fibers increase with age. then minerals to form the complete dentine). Fibroblasts have a branched cytoplasm surrounding an elliptical. extensions in predentin . Body is situated in the pulp. Blood irrigation of the pulp is made by Artery Maxillaries interna.  Central layer – has the most of the cells: fibroblasts. Fibroblasts make collagens. and the channels of vascular and sensory supply. Alveolares inferiory. Basophils contain anticoagulant heparin. unmyelinated nerve fibers and fibroblasts. and granulocytes. -Plasma cells . -Histocytes .Basic substance (BS) of the pulp – is largely ground substance.  Subodontoblastic layer . Pulp vitality depends from metabolic function of BS. Odontoblasts have Body and Extensions.blood vessels enter in the pulp thru the main root’s apical foramen. muco-polysaccharides. it is relatively free of cells and is called the cellfree layer Weil. histocytes.are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. It is traversed by blood capillaries.Odontoblast cells situated closely together. also regulate or influence tubular mineralization and sclerosis as a defense mechanism. Dental pulp of maxillary teeth is irrigated by Artery Infraorbitalis thru its braches a. lymphocytes. which prevents blood from clotting too quickly. BS includes: muco-protein. If BS is involved in an inflammatory process appear depolymerization. an amorphous protein matrix gel surrounding: cells. glyco-protein. Basic substance is always in dynamic state of polymerization and depolymerization. which have many protoplasmatic extensions. All types of metabolism run thru BS.contain pulpocite starry shape cells. Fibers of the pulp . reticular and elastic fibers. Each plasma cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies per second. .

fibrosis. and number of collagen fibers of the pulp increase. plasma cells. can be noticed accumulation of bacterial toxins. Activity of synthesis and energy function of the cells in the pulp became lower. and products of tissue destruction. Blood vessels can be observed dilated with increased permeability of the walls.Changes in the pulp with ages – with age pulp suffer morphological and functional changes.parallel with blood vessels thru the apical foramen in the pulp penetrate branches of Maxillary and Mandibular Nerve. granulocytes. chemotaxins. Increase in number macrophages. organic acids. With age there is a progressive reduction in the number of nerves and blood vessels. Odontoblasts decrease in size and number. reticular dystrophy of the pulp. particularly in the radicular pulp. Continued formation of secondary dentin throughout life gradually reduces the size of the pulp chamber and root canals. bacterial enzymes. calcification of the pulp. Number of cells in the pulp decrease. antigens. 7. and they may disappear in some areas – on the Pulpal floor over the bifurcation or trifurcation. Pressure in the pulp increase. ~ . 6. so the dental pulp is reducing in volume too. The volume of the root canal where the dental pulp is situated is reducing in the dimensions.Changes in pulp in pathological states : Number of odontoblast decrease. When numerous unfavorable factors influence on the pulp – appear changes like: vacuolation of odontoblasts.Innervation of the pulp .