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Working together to reduce


serious youth violence
WAVE Conference for the 33 London boroughs
20 November 2007

Summary of key themes and main messages

Ita Walsh
WAVE Trust
April 2008
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WAVE report on Conference Working together to reduce serious youth violence London, 20 Nov 2007

‘I believe this issue, the subject of this


conference, is a great challenge for
practitioners of the many disciplines
represented here: each discipline may have
another significant challenge to face within its
own professional world: but I believe reducing
serious youth violence is the great challenge,
in our generation, which we face
collectively together.’
Sir Ian Blair

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Preface
In November 2007 the Wave Trust and the WAVE Trust was set up in 1996 with the
Metropolitan Police Service joined together goal of reducing violence and child abuse.
to invite over 250 delegates from the public Our approach has been to apply proven
and third sectors to attend a conference business strategy methods to this huge
focussed on identifying and tackling the challenge. Nine years of research into the
roots of violence. The Commissioner, Sir root causes of violence, and global best
Ian Blair, signalled the MPS commitment to practice in tackling those root causes, were
reducing violence in London by giving the recorded in our report Violence and what to do
opening address at the conference. about it, published in October 2005. We are
committed to finding truly effective ways of
As the lead officer for the MPS Youth making society less violent, and this
Strategy, I know that serious youth violence conference to address serious youth
and the risks it poses to young people are violence – with the influential support of
the cause of grave concern amongst the Metropolitan Police – is another step
professionals and communities across along the path.
London. The Wave Trust are leading the
way in developing new thinking on how to Both our previous research and the
tackle the roots of violence. Together with conference conclusions indicate that while
colleagues from the Wave Trust, we much can be done to alleviate the problem
recognise that the challenge of tackling in the short-term, a city dedicated to
serious violence is not one for the police achieving a sustained reduction in levels of
service alone. violence must adopt measures unlikely to
show their full benefits until 5-15 years after
This report summarises the critically the initial commitment. This reality conflicts
important issues debated by delegates at the with the constant political imperative for
November 2007 conference, and makes a short-term results, since governments both
series of cogent recommendations that flow national and local are elected for only a few
from the conference. years. This pressure, combined with a
natural dislike of increasing taxation, too
We are committed to examining how we often makes investment in the long-term an
can progress these recommendations in unattractive political option.
order to make London a safer city.
Effective and enduring partnerships across To make London a safer city we must
the public sector and third sectors, and with redress this balance. This calls for leaders
non-governmental organisations, are willing to step beyond their short-term
essential if real and lasting change is to interests and to take a stand for the quality
be secured. of society in which our children and
grandchildren will grow up.
Rose Fitzpatrick
Deputy Assistant Commissioner This report sets out a blueprint to reduce
Metropolitan Police serious youth violence in London. What is
now needed for success is for those leaders
to step forward.

George Hosking
Chief Executive
WAVE Trust

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WAVE report on Conference Working together to reduce serious youth violence London, 20 Nov 2007

Speakers
Dr Sean Cameron Camila Batmanghelidjh
Pillars of Parenting Founder
Kids Company
Prof Jonathan Crego
School of Psychology Lord Victor Adebowale
University of Liverpool Chair
London Youth Crime
Sir Ian Blair Prevention Board
Commissioner
Metropolitan Police DCS John Carnochan
Head
Prof Friedrich Lösel Scottish Violence Reduction Unit
Institute of Criminology
University of Cambridge George Hosking
CEO
Dr Suzanne Zeedyk WAVE Trust
Senior Lecturer in Psychology
University of Dundee Commander Shaun Sawyer
Commander
Dr Denny Grant Violent Crime Directorate
Principal Educational Psychologist Metropolitan Police
London Borough of Enfield
Brojo Pillai
Dr Theo Gavrielides Strategy Consultant
Head of Policy WAVE Trust
Race on the Agenda

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Introduction
‘…other than the threat from terrorism, violence by young people on young people is the
most significant cause of fear and concern about community safety in this city’

Sir Ian Blair’s words sum up the 3. To recommend a comprehensive set of


seriousness of the challenge leading to this actions to achieve a significant
exploration of ideas for effective action reduction in serious youth violence.
against the blight of violence on our society.
The immediate history to the Conference 4. To propose the next steps in creating a
was the 2005 WAVE Report Violence and comprehensive strategy and action plan
what to do about it, which led to the 2006 for London.
WAVE Think Tank of the same name,
attended by academic and practical experts Pre-Conference research and
from the UK, Europe and the USA, and 50 consultation
leading UK civil servants, police officers and Pre-Conference work by WAVE included
charity CEOs. research into global best practice in tackling
The Think Tank generated optimism gang violence as well as the collection and
that solutions could be found, and led to the analysis of delegates’ suggestions for
Metropolitan Police proposing that WAVE effective measures to bring about a
host a conference on serious youth violence significant reduction in youth violence.
in London, for the London boroughs.
Participants were invited from the Crime Structure of the Conference
and Disorder Reduction Partnerships After Dr Sean Cameron had set the scene,
(CDRPs), police teams from all the London Jonathan Crego explained the 10,000 Volts
boroughs and representatives from London system.
schools. 300 people attended. Sir Ian Blair then made his opening
The Conference was sponsored by the address, followed by the presentations of
Metropolitan Police, the Metropolitan the guest experts from around the world.
Police Authority, the Safer London George Hosking presented his summary of
Foundation and Pillars of Parenting. the pre-Conference consultation back to the
original contributors, and Brojo Pillai
Purpose of the Conference presented a summary of research on
The stated purpose of the conference was: measures to reduce serious gang violence in
the USA.
‘To work together to identify the key
actions needed to lead to a significant Anatomy of violence
reduction in levels of serious youth To re-cap on WAVE’s original research,
violence in London’ violence arises when two factors converge:
the propensity to be violent and a trigger
The commitment to achieving such a to ignite that propensity. Long-term
reduction is core to this report. measures for a drastic reduction in violence
need to encompass avoiding creating the
Purpose of the report propensity.
1. To recount the main points from pre- The broad consensus of the Conference
Conference work, the day itself and the was that, in the shorter-term, improvements
feedback from delegates. can be achieved by addressing the triggers
(such as alcohol consumption, family
2. To highlight the key themes and breakdown, unemployment, economic
messages from the conference. inequality) that produce violence in people
who already have the propensity towards it.

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However, real and lasting improvement will Justice (Theme E, page 33), and better
come only from long-term actions to multi-agency working and a proactive
prevent the development of propensity to 20-year strategy by government (Theme
violence. F, page 35).
The two top areas for action emerging
from the pre-Conference consultation Terminology
reflected this dual approach: 41% of Prevention: Whenever we refer to primary
suggestions related to longer-term early prevention, i.e. a protective action before any
prevention and child protection measures damaging symptoms of propensity to
and 30% to shorter-term youth-focused violence have developed, it will be written
remedies. Prevention with an initial capital.
The remainder was split between 16%
for remedies which address violence in Exclusion: Whenever the terms ‘exclusion’
schools and 13% focused on methods to or ‘excluded’ refer to formal School
make what we do about the problem work Exclusion they are spelt with an initial
better, e.g. in inter-agency partnership. capital.

Proposals 10,000 Volts: This was Professor Jonathan


From this background and the subsequent Crego’s system of linked laptop computers
Conference work, an holistic strategy with enabling delegates to exchange thoughts and
the following 4 main components emerged: ideas throughout the day.

1. A long-term Primary Prevention ‘At risk’ register: Throughout this report


strategy, focused on 0-5 year olds, there is reference to the ‘at risk’ register. In
explained in Theme A (page 11) and April 2008, as part of the development of
supported by a major change in the the Integrated Children’s System (ICS), the
(currently under-utilised) role of Health, government has decided that there is no
outlined in Theme B (page 18); need for local authorities to keep a separate
Child Protection Register. The ICS will
2. A medium-term Secondary Prevention include all of the functions of the Child
strategy, focused on 6-16 year olds, to Protection Register (CPR). Once ICS has
unlock the power of schools to deflect been introduced and tested, the CPR will be
children who are already on the path- phased out. The tasks previously performed
way to violence, outlined in Theme C by the CPR remain a part of the ICS. All
(page 21); procedures to help keep children safe and to
respond to situations when there is concern
3. A short-term strategy, focused on youth that a child may have suffered significant
activities and behaviour outside of harm remain the same. From April 2008
school, recommending how to tackle where previously there was reference to a
gangs and youth problems on the street child being on the CPR, now the reference
(Theme D, page 26); will be to a Child subject to a Child
Protection Plan.
4. Enabling and support measures in the
form of a change in focus of Criminal

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Executive Summary
Key themes and main messages
Theme A (pp.11-17) – Early child protection measures focused on Prevention are by far
our most effective (and cost-effective) weapons to combat the development of people
with a propensity to be violent
Exploring the proactive, long-term strategy needed to stop youths of the future growing up with
a propensity to be violent. This theme focuses largely on Primary Prevention (i.e. warding off the
initial onset of a disease or unwanted occurrence)

• Message 1: As well as being an urgent youth issue, the problem of gangs is in


large part a child protection issue that requires early prevention
• Message 2: The earlier the intervention, the better
• Message 3: Empathy is the best known antidote to violence and needs to be
fostered in young children
• Message 4: Radically improve early parenting and care both (a) within families
and (b) in the Care Home system

Theme B (pp.18-20) – Place Public Health at the heart of the drive to reduce violence
Placing the strategic focus developed in Theme A in the logical context for delivery of Primary
Prevention

• Message 5: Health is the only agency naturally involved with children from before
birth until age 3
• Message 6: Shift the focus from Criminal Justice after the fact to Health before
the fact

Theme C (pp.21-25) – Give schools a key role in deflecting children from a pathway to
youth violence
Proposing measures to reduce youth violence in London by harnessing the power of schools to
influence pathways in life. This theme focuses largely on Secondary Prevention

• Message 7: Expand Education’s role to include emotional as well as academic


development
• Message 8: Schools can greatly reduce dysfunctional behaviour, anger, bullying
and violence
• Message 9: Violent crime can be reduced by appropriate alternatives to School
Exclusion

Theme D (pp.26-32) – Provide young people with the support they need to become
healthy, successful, pro-social citizens
Exploring ways the community can more effectively support and protect young people to help
them tread a pro-social pathway to maturity

• Message 10: There is an urgent need to improve the level and quality of youth
support at street level
• Message 11: Tackle the trigger factors making youngsters particularly vulnerable
(e.g. being unoccupied, high alcohol consumption, family breakdown and
social disadvantage)
• Message 12: Consult and involve young people to find solutions to gang violence
• Message 13: Parents and the wider community can help reduce violence by
working with agencies and services to protect young people

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• Message 14: We need to provide more facilities and activities to fulfil young
people’s need to be occupied and challenged

Theme E (pp.33-34) – Shift the focus within Criminal Justice to Prevention and
Rehabilitation
Exploring how Criminal Justice can play its part to support a more holistic approach to the
problem of violence by focusing attention on what works best in the long-term as well as taking
care of the immediate needs of policing and containment

• Message 15: Need for greater Police focus on Prevention


• Message 16: Need for radical shift towards prison as rehabilitation

Theme F (pp.35-40) – Shift government strategy to proactive, long-term funding and


planning to reduce violence
Looking at the implications of shifting from the present reactive, ‘fire-fighting’ approach to the
proactive, strategic approach needed to deliver on the recommendations that emerged from the
Conference

• Message 17: Long-term success will take a shift to long-term planning and
funding
• Message 18: Importance of what we measure because ‘what gets measured gets
managed’
• Message 19: True inter-agency partnership plus strong local leadership are
essential for success

Note: because their presentations have been re-ordered into the above themes and messages,
speakers’ names have been highlighted each time they are quoted.

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Recommendations
These recommendations were summarised from the suggestions of delegates and speakers and
are presented under the Theme headings A-F.

A – Early child protection measures focused on Prevention are by far our most effective
(and cost-effective) weapons to combat the development of people with a propensity to
be violent

1) Progressively reverse the current spending pattern to focus Prevention expenditure on


the very earliest years (pregnancy to 18 months) where it is most effective and
economic.
2) Foster attunement and empathy from the first months of life by focusing proven
interventions on the 10% most ‘at risk’ children and families. This will involve the
development of explicit systems of early identification, intervention, support and
monitoring for socially excluded families.
3) Radically improve parenting standards through innovative measures to make parenting
programmes an accepted routine for people with 0-3 year old children.
4) Teach parenting to children still at school, to ensure they know how to attune with and
foster empathy in their babies in the future.

Needs of cared-for children not met


5) Redesign Care Home systems to ensure they do what it takes to heal the effects of prior
neglect, abuse and rejection. Significantly reduce the inequality of opportunity
experienced by children in care.
6) Provide professional psychological support for adopting, fostering and residential carers
to ensure they can (a) form secure attachments with children and (b) help them deal
with prior trauma.

B – Place Public Health at the heart of the drive to reduce violence

7) Develop tightly integrated strategies between Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) and local
authorities so that all ‘at-risk’ infants are identified before birth, and they and their
families receive focused support until the children reach school age.
8) Put in place excellent antenatal and postnatal mental health services specifically to
support mothers and fathers to address such challenging issues as depression and
domestic violence which arise in the time surrounding births, and which can interact
with other complex factors such as mental health problems, alcohol and drug abuse.
9) Radically increase the therapeutic resources available within Child and Adolescent
Mental Health Services (CAMHS) specifically for the mental health of 0-5 year olds.

C – Give schools a key role in deflecting children from a pathway to youth violence

School curriculum
10) Teach parenting and relationship skills within the standard school curriculum, covering
both attuning with and fostering empathy in babies (e.g. through Roots of Empathy)
(repeat of Recommendation 4) and improving the child’s own emotional literacy, e.g. through
Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL).
11) Develop alternative, more vocational, curricula in secondary schools for children who
are not academically orientated, especially those on the cusp of gang and group
offending.
12) Elevate social and life skills to an importance approaching that of academic achievement.

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Preventing offending
13) Require schools to maintain visible, transparent systems to identify and monitor all
school violence.
14) Adopt effective bullying management systems in schools that also address the longer-
term implications of bullying, that: (i) perpetrators are significantly at risk of future
offending, and (ii) victims are vulnerable to long-term harm.
15) Deliver proven anger management programmes in schools, and ensure the successful
participation of children who have anger issues.
16) Introduce good quality conflict management training for teachers.
17) Place police officers in all secondary schools, to work in partnership with the schools
and carry out preventive work with their feeder primary schools.
18) Set up a system to assess school children with social and emotional issues for Post-
Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and ensure resources are available to treat it early.
19) Set high standards to be achieved by Pupil Referral Units (PRUs) and resource them
accordingly. Invest in highly skilled teams to create significant and enduring shifts in
outcomes for pupils.
20) Radically reduce truancy and school Exclusion (including ‘back door exclusion’) by
running proven programmes, e.g. Dorset Healthy Alliance and Toronto Regent’s Park.

D – Provide young people with the support they need to become healthy, successful,
pro-social citizens

21) Radically increase the current ratio of youth support workers to youths; and improve the
quality of these workers through appropriate selection, training and remuneration.
22) Adopt the two-pronged approach of strong social work support coupled with toughness
on the really criminal element used in successful US anti-gang violence programmes.
23) Provide intensive support for identifiable ‘at risk’ young people before they become
criminalised.
24) Take vigorous steps to improve employment prospects for young people, especially
those from disadvantaged ethnic minorities, when they leave school.
25) Form a carefully considered strategy to reduce alcohol consumption by young people
and then set up a community drive to support its delivery.
26) Working with supportive figures in the media, initiate a programme to provide effective
non-violent role models for young people.
27) Reverse the trend of recent years and greatly increase the availability of youth clubs and
other activity facilities for young people in London. Work with their natural desire to
band into groups.
28) Ensure facilities include significant ‘development’ components such as art, sport,
education or skills, and acknowledge and support youngsters’ need for challenge.
29) Significantly improve employment opportunities for those already out of school but
unemployed by e.g. developing relationships with businesses in the community to
provide employment opportunities for unemployed ‘at risk’ youths.
30) Co-ordinate the resources of the community and voluntary sectors to support and
protect ‘at risk’ youths, especially those engaged, or at risk of being engaged, in teenage
onset violence.
31) Provide specialised support, including assessment for and treatment of PTSD, for
disadvantaged children from war-torn regions.

E – Shift the focus within Criminal Justice to Prevention and Rehabilitation

Shift the focus within Police to Prevention


32) Shift the time balance of police officers to place more emphasis on prevention and less
on form-filling.
33) Be tough on the hardened criminals, drug and gun dealers, but take care to identify the
vulnerable lone children at the front end who need to be on the ‘at risk’ register.

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34) Place police officers in all secondary schools, to work in partnership with the schools
and carry out preventive work with their feeder primary schools (repeat of Recommendation
17).

Shift the focus within Prisons to Rehabilitation


35) For violent prisoners, fund proven rehabilitation programmes on a large scale.
36) Continue to expand the use of restorative justice.

F – Shift government strategy to proactive, long-term funding and planning to reduce


violence

37) Enlist Government support in creating a 20-year violence reduction strategy for London,
with adequate funding for early protection of all ‘at risk’ children.
38) Track ‘at risk’ children from pre-birth through to leaving school to ensure they are
treated in a way that fosters empathy and pro-social development.
39) Develop more comprehensive Public Service Agreements (PSAs) related to early
prevention, with short term measurable proxies.
40) Embed short-term measures of strategic progress in long-term strategies, to fit
comfortably within the 2-3 year time horizons of day-to-day decision-makers.
41) Start to measure and address all violence, not just what is classified as Criminal.
42) Evaluate the merits of a focused National Violence Prevention Agency to coordinate,
fund and drive effective Prevention strategies or, if not adopted nationally, consider
creating a London Violence Prevention Agency.

Engage everyone involved in true inter-agency partnership and encourage strong


local leadership
43) Foster a culture that rewards strong, courageous leadership rather than always playing
safe by managing strictly along traditional lines.
44) Produce a user-friendly guide to ensure everyone involved in multi-agency partnerships
has a much clearer understanding of the roles of different agencies.
45) Structure the reward schemes of community and multi-agency partnerships to
acknowledge the achievement of alliance goals, to encourage close collaboration on
producing results beneficial to all concerned.

Next Steps
• Create 4 small (5-6 strong) London working groups representing CDRPs, Police, Health,
Schools, Government Office for London (GOL) and academic research, to focus on
each of the major themes:

1. Primary prevention and early intervention


2. Health
3. Schools
4. Youth support

• Charge these groups with producing detailed action plans for London, based on the
findings of the Conference; the process to include consultation with a representative
sample of London boroughs and agreeing plans with the MPA, Metropolitan Police and
GOL.

• Use the outputs from this work to formulate a comprehensive action plan for London
by end September 2008.

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Theme A – Early child protection measures focused on Prevention are by far our most
effective (and cost-effective) weapons to combat the development of people with a
propensity to be violent

As well as exploring ways to reduce current Importance of self-referral – encouraging


youth violence (see Theme D), the even the youngest of children to self-refer
Conference put great emphasis on finding overcomes the flawed notion in the delivery
ways to prevent it from happening among of services that there is a responsible carer
future generations. In this context, with 65 in the lives of vulnerable children to take
mentions, ‘Early Intervention/child them to appointments (when the carers are
protection’, was one of the two top pre- the very people causing the harm).
Conference delegate recommendations. It
was also echoed repeatedly by the Speakers In-school therapeutic work is currently
and was a major message from the 10,000 set up in response to requests and carried
Volts workshop. out by a team of 20-25 including trainee
Research confirms that early child social workers, psychotherapists, health
protection measures focused on Prevention workers – and artists, musicians and
are by far our most effective (and cost- grandmothers who love children. Within
effective) weapons to combat the each school (in addition to such activities as
development of people with a propensity to alternative health therapies, art and drama
be violent. clubs, bereavement groups, anti-bullying
groups), 60 children can receive weekly one-
Message 1: The problem of gangs is to-one therapy, and social work intervention
in large part a child protection issue is provided for some 100 children a year.
that requires early prevention
Street level centres, where young people
also self-refer. The model is 25-30 duty staff
Youth violence is part of a cycle that
and 200-300 children visiting per day.
encompasses all aspects of family life,
Support includes everything from buying
especially parenting and family breakdown,
essentials – 68% are homeless – to trying to
and is both a cause and an effect. While
stabilise their lives. The typical arrival is an
many factors contribute, the most serious
11 or 12-year-old boy or girl, who has been
causes are abuse, neglect and poor parenting
run as a drug courier or in prostitution, and
skills. Sir Ian Blair captured the difficulty
has been out of school for a number of
of tackling gang or youth violence in
years.
isolation:
Lone children and the cycle of violence
‘We need … to understand gang
Camila then moved on to analyse the
membership to be a child protection
problem. Chronically abused and neglected
issue. If you have a 17-year-old gang
behind closed doors, these children were
member with involvement in serious
years in the making and, in effect, drive the
violence, firearms, heavy drug use, etc.,
culture of violence at street level. Their
then what is the likely future of his or
history has deprived them of a self-calming,
her 12-year-old brother or sister? That is
self-soothing repertoire and has led to over-
a family protection issue and it has to be
programming the emotional centres of their
grasped. That child is as much at danger
brains. The storing of horrific memories is
as a child who is in danger of emotional,
compounded by the release of vast amounts
sexual, or physical abuse’
of adrenalin and stress hormones. The result
is a young child whose understanding of the
Camila Batmanghelidjh on child
world is one in which he is responsible for
protection
his own survival. He sees his own life as
What follows is a paraphrased summary of
completely worthless and therefore it
part of Camila’s overview of the work of
becomes very easy to take the next step and
her charity Kids Company to help and
eradicate someone else’s quality of life or
protect the most vulnerable inner-city
someone else’s existence. In a world where
children in London:
you have to be self-centred and fight to

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survive, savagery becomes the currency, Different parts of the infant brain develop
meaning the violence of these children is at different rates with critical ‘sensitive’
neither random nor irrational, but an windows along the way. One such window
appropriate construct based on their life relates to learning language, and is the
experiences. reason learning a new language is more
In these conditions, Camila said, many difficult to as we get older. The critical
thousands of children cannot be blamed for window for emotional skills is 0-18 months.
turning to crime to survive their childhood.
This route emerges out of the savagery of
adults who refrain from paying attention to
child protection and child mental health
issues, who avoid the task of dealing with
these issues robustly.

We need to prevent the development of


propensity to violence

A strong dose of love, early on,


prevents violence later on, and vice
versa
The above slide from Bruce Perry’s work in
These were the opening words of Dr the States shows what happens if you don’t
Suzanne Zeedyk, and what follows is a have a positive interaction. The smaller of
paraphrased summary of part of her the two brains on the scan is of a child who
presentation: received little reinforcement or interaction,
The reason early conditions are so and reveals graphically what happens from
crucial in fostering emotional health, and extreme neglect. Brains are affected by
avoiding the development of propensity to experience. Note also the higher proportion
violence, is that children’s brains reflect the of dark areas, parts of the brain which have
world they live in. If their world is one of failed to develop in the neglected child.
trauma, fear and chaos, their brains develop
to cope with that environment. 3 circles of street violence
Baby humans are born premature Camila Batmanghelidjh described the
relative to other mammals, because model of street crime as three concentric
evolution faced a difficult choice: for circles: From the central circle the
humans to be born with heads as large professional drug dealer/criminal looks into
relatively as other mammals, women would the community to recruit from the second
have to have hips too wide to allow them to circle, of lone vulnerable children. These
run away from danger. So evolution lone children then run the drugs to the third
compromised by allowing infant brain (and circle, made up of ‘imitator’ children, who
skull) development to take place outside the are relatively well cared-for, but have
womb. Although this makes babies become aggressive to survive the conditions
relatively helpless, it gives humans a huge created by those in the two inner circles.
degree of flexibility. It also makes us very
sensitive to trauma. Dealing with lone children and the cycle
Human infants come into the world of violence
already tuned into (and with a reflex to When a youngster from this background
mimic) the facial expressions of those moves into the outside world, Camila
around them. This wonderful advantage described society’s second opportunity to
turns into a disadvantage whenever it is met meet his needs:
by the long-term lack of positive expression Social care agencies could step in and
on the nearest face, and the result is a give him another chance at reparation and
withdrawn child who doesn’t understand recovery. At this point he has two
others will interact with it, a child who is possibilities: does society have something to
unlikely to grow up to be happy. offer to enable him to have his humanity

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affirmed and to have a chance in life, or lowest social class in society, any ethnic
does the drug dealer offer him that, in a group, anything you could think of…
perverse but more efficient way? In many of the earlier the aggression is established
our inner cities, said Camila, the drug dealer in the child, the worse the long-term
does a better social care job than we do in our outcome. Serious anti-social behaviour
agencies. is highly resistant to change at school-
age and adolescence’
‘Offender’ or ‘at risk’?
The line between young offender or ‘at risk’
victim is as blurred here as in the
distinctions of offender and victim in
‘recreational’ violence described by John
Carnochan. However, Camila pointed out
that in tackling the three circles it is vital to
distinguish accurately between the groups.
Our current practice of trying to reach all of
them (criminal/drug dealer, lone children
and aggressive imitators) with the exact
same (policing) solution is mistaken. The
drug dealer needs policing; the lone children
need social care structures robust enough to
meet their needs (so they are not driven
The above graph from James Heckman, the
back to the drug dealer as a better social
Nobel Prize winning economist, shows
care structure than society offers); and the
rapidly falling return on capital from pre-
imitator children can be addressed by
school ages to post-school.
cultural and educational means.
Camila firmly believes these lone
children belong on the ‘at risk’ register and
that if they are not identified as such they
are likely to finish up on the young
offenders’ register – a key step on the road
to adult criminality.

Message 2: The earlier the


intervention, the better

Combined with child protection, early


intervention was the second most suggested
action by delegates in the pre-Conference
consultation, and was elevated to the top
priority during the 10,000 Volts workshop. This next graph (from Bruce Perry) depicts
the malleability of the brain at different ages
Aggression is established very early (blue line) and spending, by age, on
George Hosking used statistics to stress programmes to change the brain (red line).
the crucial importance of very early It indicates that very early intervention is
experience and, as a consequence, considerably more cost-effective than later
Prevention and early intervention: intervention, and that the earlier the
intervention takes place, the better the
‘Male aggressive behaviour is highly return. This is because, at birth, the capacity
stable as early as age 2. There is no of a baby to change in response to
better predictor of violent or anti-social interactions is massive, but that capacity
behaviour by the age of 15-17 than diminishes sharply with age. Yet money is
aggression at age 2 – not whether spent in precisely the most ineffective way.
children come from single parent
homes, broken homes, poor homes, the

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The early starters contribute the most to We can already predict that low attunement
serious crime from parents at 10-12 months can lay down
In his presentation of ‘The chain reaction to longer term problems. At 18 months
violence and how to interrupt it’ Professor aggression and temper tantrums are evident.
Friederich Lösel graphically illustrated the By 2 years, compliance is low and, by 3,
typical pattern in this cycle as an there are problems with other children. To
accumulation of risks and problems, starting babies, whose brains are being sculpted for
as early as pregnancy, rather than one single the rest of their lives, attunement is love. If
factor. Since the single most significant someone didn’t receive the kind of
threat is from the tiny minority of early- responsiveness needed as a baby, it isn’t
onset offenders who commit over half of all hopeless or too late; but after the early years
crime, including violence, putting our focus it is harder, less effective and costs far more.
on the earliest possible prevention or Suzanne listed numerous international
intervention in the chain reaction will bear studies which trace the roots of violence to
the most fruit in reducing violence. early relations in families, to parenting and
If more early-onset type offenders were child rearing methods, to types of discipline,
given the appropriate level of support and and to harsh punishment. In view of the
intervention much farther back in the chain, importance of very early experience, it is
the number of youths behaving in ways to tragic that the first year of life is the peak
warrant Exclusion could be significantly age for child abuse in the UK. The now
reduced. classic Dunedin Study, first published in
1996, shows just how important early
Message 3: Ensure empathy is experience really is:
fostered in young children through The development of one thousand
improved attachment, attunement children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in
and parental nurture 1972 was followed and monitored from
birth. When these children were 3, nurses
(who knew nothing about their
Before taking us through her presentation
backgrounds) assessed them, by watching
on the development of the infant brain,
them at play for 90 minutes, to identify
Suzanne Zeedyk quoted the conclusion of
those they judged could be at risk.
psychiatrist Alan Schore that:
At follow-up at age 21, it was found that
the ‘at risk’ boys had 2½ times as many
‘A child’s earliest primary relationship
criminal convictions as the group deemed
acts as a template permanently
not to be at risk. In addition, 55% of the
moulding the capacity to enter into all
offences were violent for the ‘at risk’ group,
later emotional relationships’
as opposed to 18% of those not at risk; 47%
of those in the ‘at risk’ group were abusing
To put it another way, the human baby
their partners, as opposed to under 10% of
arrives incomplete, ready to be programmed
the other group.
by adults. The keys to shaping an
Far fewer girls than boys had shown
emotionally healthy infant brain are
conduct disorder by age 21 but, of those
attunement and empathy.
who did, two striking statistics emerge: 30%
Parents and babies attune to each other
of the ‘at risk’ conduct-disordered girls had
through such contacts as eye gaze and facial
become teenage mothers, whereas there had
expressions, right from birth. By age 2,
been not a single teenage birth to the
children are demonstrating empathy for
conduct-disordered girls from the not at risk
each other. Early attunement equals later
group. And of those ‘conduct-disordered
empathy. It is only through attunement with
and ‘at risk’ teenage mothers, 43% were in
others that we develop the ability to feel
abusive, violent relationships, having found
empathy for others. That process is crucial
their partners from within the ‘at risk’ boys.
both to preventing violence and
Subsequent follow-up at age 26 showed
understanding other people’s emotions.
the pattern was maintained. Thus, before it
Empathy is the quality that has now come to be
was even completed, the study was able to
regarded by many scientists as the single greatest
conclude that immature mothers with no
inhibitor of the propensity to violence.
strong parenting skills and violent partners

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had already given birth to the next This is now a really poor area where the guy next
generation of ‘at risk’ children. door deals drugs, there’s perhaps a paedophile
While it is not totally guaranteed and across the road and a really angry guy living
other factors might arise to alter it, the fact upstairs. Imagine you are a teenager on your own
is that, in general, adult behaviour can be there. Now think how difficult it is to bring up
predicted with statistical accuracy at age 3 children.
when children are still riding their tricycles,
because we already know the risk factors. John pointed to Heckman’s estimate that
Further details of the Dunedin study can for every £11 spent at the end of the scale
be seen in the WAVE Report Violence and when a youngster is 17-18 years of age, the
what to do about it, and downloaded free from same result can be obtained at the other end
www.wavetrust.org. (0-3 years) for £1, and he urged the
Conference to challenge those who can
Importance of empathy change these spending decisions.
George Hosking told us that absence of
empathy is the key characteristic of violent Message 4: Radically improve early
criminals, and that the reason most of us are parenting and care both (a) within
not violent is that we possess empathy – the families and (b) in the Care Home
greatest single antidote to violent behaviour system
because it stops us from hurting other
people. In his book Violence: Our Deadly
Radically improve early parenting within
Epidemic and Its Causes James Gilligan
families
described a murderer who had recently
Speakers and delegates saw this as crucially
killed a 14-year-old girl and was recounting
important to making sure young people are
his feelings just before he murdered her: ‘I
given the sort of start in life that protects
had no feelings. I just felt empty. No love,
them from later dysfunction, anti-social and
no hate, sadness, remorse.’ And just
violent tendencies.
afterwards: ‘I felt nothing.’
Roots of Empathy – a parenting
‘Empathy – the glue that holds society
programme with beneficial side-effects
together’
George Hosking described this
The crucial importance of empathy was
programme as one of two he believes can
reinforced by John Carnochan, quoting the
make the greatest difference (the other
Scottish philosopher David Hume:
being Nurse Family Partnership). Roots of
‘empathy is the glue that holds society
Empathy is a hands-on source of dual
together’.
benefits that not only protects the next
In explaining the 4-stage Public Health
generation, by teaching future parents ways
model he is using in his causal approach to
to foster empathy in babies, it also reduces
tackling violence in Scotland (Individual,
bullying in schools.
Relationship, Community and Society) John
Children who may never have
illustrated the Relationship stage with the
experienced the critical commodities of love
following radically different experiences of
and empathy in their own lives, and who did
two sets of potential parents:
not receive attuned parenting (and so are
not primed to deliver it to their own
First there’s a professional couple in an affluent
children in the future), spend nine months
part of town deciding to start a family. They each
in close contact with a relationship of
have well-paid jobs and nice cars. They have a
attunement and empathy between a real live
broad family network and a wide social network.
baby and its competent, loving parents. This
Even so, having that baby will be difficult, and
programme, delivered in a school setting,
looking after that baby will be difficult.
may transform their ability to parent, and is
intended to break the cycle of violence. A
Now think ‘protective’ and ‘risk’ and
fuller description of Roots of Empathy can
remove some of those nice things. Take
be seen in the WAVE Report.
away the family network, the social
network, the money and the cars.

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More support for parents and families London each year by truanting children. It
What follows is a small, representative would therefore seem advisable for agencies
selection of the 26 pre-Conference to co-operate to identify these children
suggestions calling for more support for wherever possible, so they can be placed on
parents and families: the ‘at risk’ register rather than ending up on
the young offenders’ register.
‘We don’t leave it to parents to figure out The following are typical of pre-
how best to educate their children. We Conference suggestions by delegates:
see that as a societal/state
responsibility. We could, if we wished, ‘[We] require funded and systematic
see it also as a societal responsibility to identification of those at risk, followed
assist parents in raising children to the by coordinated efforts to safeguard early,
best of their ability’ without recourse to Care’

‘Suggest promoting values of families ‘More work has to be done on very early
and providing support to parents in identification, intervention and support
community coupled with continued and monitoring of families with high
enforcement such as parenting classes, levels of problems/dysfunction/abuse’
truancy patrols, etc.’
Radically improve early parenting in the
‘Strengthening courses for families in Care Home system
“neutral” settings such as Children’s Twenty delegate suggestions related to
Centres should be a universally available improving the quality of foster care and
option to enable hard-to-reach families Care Homes. Research shows one third of
to access them’ prisoners have been in local authority care,
yet only 0.6% of the nation’s children are in
‘The lack of familial support is obviously care at any one time.
a major factor. Unless a stable
framework of support is offered to the Needs of cared-for children not met
kids we will all be fighting a losing There is an urgent need to transform the
battle’ experience of children going through our
Care Home system. Children taken into
Focus on ‘at risk’ children and families Care will have invariably suffered some sort
31 of the pre-Conference suggestions cited of trauma, ranging from relatively mild to
the need to focus on ‘at risk’ children, and 9 severe, meaning they arrive in an already
stressed the need to understand risk factors. damaged condition. For the care delivered
At present strategies to identify, let alone in these exacting circumstances to be of a
serve, these families proactively are patchy high enough quality to heal the existing
and it is not always recorded whether or not damage, it probably needs to be of higher
families in need are seen by Children’s quality than that in a ‘normal’, (adequate)
Centres. In one local authority there were domestic environment.
no targets relating to socially excluded While there are some excellent examples
families, and no data management or of Care Homes within the UK and in other
caseload analyses were carried out on health countries, the following statistics from the
visitor contact with these families at key recent UK study of cared-for children by
points. Colin Maginn and Sean Cameron (both
Official figures show at least 350,000 from Pillars of Parenting) reveal how poorly
children live in households headed by drug we are performing overall in the UK:
addicted parents, yet addicts are not even
asked to divulge whether they have While each one of the 60,900 children
dependent children when they seek and young people who were in local
treatment. We know from separate research authority care at the end of March 2005
that children from the homes of problem had his or her own painful story to tell,
drinking or addicted parents have an there were a few common circumstances
increased tendency towards truancy, and which had led to them becoming looked
that almost 50,000 crimes are committed in after children, the chief of these being

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abuse and neglect (42%), family process flawed and measurable outcome
dysfunction (13%), intense family stress limited’
(12%), parental illness (7%) and socially
unacceptable behaviour (6%). ‘Increase adoption and fostering
So, rather than viewing these children capacity to ensure that children remain
as ones who exhibit such disturbed and in structured and caring environments’
disturbing behaviour they have to be
removed temporarily or permanently ‘Too much time is wasted and too much
from their families, the majority appear damage is done to children who are left
to have ended up in care through the in families for long periods with services
problems of adults. The high level of trying to support a child in the family
social, emotional and behavioural long after this is viable’
difficulties experienced by children
living in both residential and foster-care ‘When [children] come into care they are
indicates that looked after children are often so damaged, traumatised and
among the most disadvantaged in our lacking in attachment that placements
society. fail and children fall through the net.
Too many children are then allowed to
2003 research showed 68% of children in drift through multiple placements and
residential care and 39% of those placed multiple schools before they become 16-
with foster-carers were identified as having a 18 and are kicked out of the system’
mental disorder, and a 1996 study found
that as many as 96% of children in ‘… we need to stop washing our hands
residential care and 57% of those in foster- of these children’
care had a variety of ‘psychiatric disorders’.
In England in 2004 only 6% of children ‘Care is an environment where teenagers
leaving care had achieved ‘good’ (A-C) have to stand up for themselves; they
grades at GCSE level or equivalent, learn that violence is an effective way to
compared with 53% of pupils overall. Only do this. Care support often finishes too
one in a 100 looked after children went on early, and young people at 16 do not
to university that autumn, compared with 43 have the skills they need for adult life,
per cent of people (aged thirty and below) in and hence resort to a life of crime’
the population as a whole and 60% of
children in one of the really successful Potential improvements in Care
Danish Care Homes. conditions
Some 25% of all children in care have a The June 2007 White Paper ‘Care Matters –
‘Statement of Special Educational Needs’. Time for Change’ discusses various measures
to improve Care provision for children.
Pre-conference comments by delegates These are wide-ranging, from pilot studies
included the following: to explore the effectiveness of European
‘Children in foster care are not dealt ‘social pedagogy’ models, through working
with as if they have been through a with birth parents while children are in care,
traumatic incident, which they often to funding specialist interventions for
have, and this needs to be addressed’ youngsters on the edge of care. The
measures under discussion also include
‘The standard of accommodation in tackling the problems of truancy and school
Care Homes is ad hoc, the inspection Exclusion.

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Theme B – Place Public Health at the heart of the drive to reduce violence

Message 5: Health is the only agency perpetrators; neurotransmitter dysfunctions


naturally involved with children from and serotonin transference in the brain play
before birth until age 3 a role; hormonal factors (too high or too
low); cortisone level (cortisone is a stress
indicator).
The US Surgeon General gave the following
definition of Primary Prevention:
Genetic protective factor in violence –
One very early protective factor is the
‘Preventing an illness from occurring is
presence in some children of high levels of
inherently better than having to treat the
monoamine oxidase activity (MAOA).
illness after its onset. The classic public
When children are not subjected to
health definition of primary prevention
childhood maltreatment the level of MAO
refers to interventions which ward off
activity has no impact on levels of violence.
the initial onset of a disorder’
When children are subjected to serious
levels of maltreatment, high levels of MAO
Research shows that very many of the
activity have a protective effect, and
earliest signs of physical or personality risks
children with this protective factor are less
likely to result in later violence are either
likely to develop anti-social behaviour.
visible, or identifiable, at birth (or even pre-
Serious maltreatment together with low
birth in the cases of Foetal Alcohol
levels of MAO activity does give a
Syndrome or drug addiction). This is one of
disposition for higher levels of anti-social
many factors to make Health the obvious
behaviour and aggression.
service of first choice in a strategic approach
to combating violence as well as preventing
Professor Lösel also cited inappropriate
other mental and physical disorders.
nutrition, including too much meat and junk
food, as a minor risk factor along the chain
Health-related risk factors in the chain
towards violence.
reaction
That diet plays a role in mood (and hence
In his presentation on the chain reaction to
could be a triggering factor in aggressive
violence, Friederich Lösel specified some
behaviour) has been established in a number
of the risk factors along the chain, and they
of studies with both schoolchildren and
could all be said to be Health issues. The
offenders in prison.
problem is when many or all of these factors
coincide. If just two or three factors are
present, the likelihood of severe problems is Message 6: Shift the focus from
low, but the risk increases exponentially Criminal Justice after the fact to
with an increase in the number of risk Health before the fact
factors. Health care professionals involved
with pregnancy and young children are best ‘Criminal justice was meant to be the
placed of all groups to detect risks at the service of last resort, but it’s become the
most crucial and potentially fruitful (in service of first resort because it’s easy to
terms of the effectiveness of intervention) count’ John Carnochan
stage in a child’s life.
John adopted, and adapted, the World
Pregnancy risks include foetal alcohol Health Organisation model because the
syndrome (neurological development is Criminal Justice model is not effective for
impaired by alcohol during pregnancy), preventing violence.
delivery complications and very low birth He illustrated the point by speculating
weight (only a minor risk, but can play a role on the likely success rate of tackling measles
if it is not compensated for later). or tuberculosis via the Criminal Justice
Physiological markers include under- model (Event, Report, Investigate, and then
arousal – a low resting heart rate is a Act). In that model, society would wait until
correlate of youth violence, particularly in someone developed TB before providing
the more proactive, cold-blooded medical intervention. In severe cases,

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patients would be put in a sanatorium and most ‘at risk’ group and then scaling up the
allowed out again only after the disease had things that work. John described making
cleared up. Had this absurd approach been Criminal Justice the service of first resort as
adopted by Public Health, many diseases being as sensible as:
such as TB and measles would still be rife.
In contrast, the Public Health model ‘…wondering where to position the
focuses on finding the cause of a problem ambulance at the bottom of the cliff,
and, once identified, looks at risk factors instead of building a wall at the top’
and reduces them, finds protective factors
and increases them – building around the

Public Health Model

5HODWLRQVKLS ,QGLYLGXDO
6RFLHWDO &RPPXQLW\

•Poor parenting skills •Lack of communication skills


•Lack of punishment for •Cultural norms •Poor behavioural control
pre cursor offences – knife •Legitimisation of violence •Lack of knowledge
•Friends that engage in •Impulsiveness
carrying •Access to and use of alcohol •Aggressive behaviour
•Lack of visible swift •Lack of aspiration violence
•Prevalence of gang culture •Lack of skills to deal with
justice •Dependancy conflict
•Lack of appropriate court •Violent families –
siblings/parents •Lack of “life” skills
disposals •Exclusion from
•Lack of appropriate •Lack of significant
adults/positive role model Services/Schools
change programmes •Nutrition Diet Health
•Links to deprivation •Alcohol
•Lack of employment
opportunities

How Criminal Justice practices fit inside the Public Health model of the 4 dimensions: Individual,
Relationship, Community and Society

Components of the Public Health model 3 Community – about cultural norms and
1 Individual – those life skills that allow us what’s acceptable. For lots of these young
to make good decisions about ourselves, to men involved in gangs, that’s just what they
‘negotiate life without bumping into it’; do. Their dads, their uncles and granddads
about what we drink and eat, how we were all in gangs.
exercise, who we run with or, as John put it:
4 Society – the wider community and how
The first time young people are offered it responds and handles the problems.
drugs or alcohol or that big risk, they
don’t have somebody standing on their What follows is a brief selection of
shoulder to tell them the right thing to comments relevant to the role of Health
do. You just hope they’ve been equipped from the 10,000 Volts workshop:
to make the right decisions before they `
get there. ‘Up to 3 years old, how do the police
have an impact?’ –
2 Relationships – basically about couples ‘That’s the point; they don’t (apart from
and parenting (see Empathy in Theme B). their involvement with parents). It’s the
role of Health and Education’

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‘…colleagues in Health do not attend ‘Please can we ask the PM to require


and participate. Can’t they see the Health to participate in violence
benefits in Prevention?’ reduction?’

‘Excellent speaker – [John Carnochan] ‘There is nowhere near enough resource


this needs to be cascaded to every put into child mental health… when
borough, good point about Health – people end up in custody and have
why is Health so poorly represented mental health problems which are not
today?’ addressed, custody does not have the
ability to deal with such people. If the
‘Government must see violence as a resource was put it at a much earlier
disease that can be prevented. Disease stage then maybe we could address this’
prevention must have Health provision
as part of the solution. Indeed violence ‘Let’s appoint more health visitors. Let’s
reduction should be led by Health get dentists to ask why women’s jaws
services’ are broken. Let’s let speech and
language therapists work with mothers
‘Health colleagues must get involved and infants’
and we need to break down
organisational barriers’ ‘Drawing the health impacts of getting
involved in violence should be used as
‘Strategic Health Authority should be an education for those involved’
required to participate and map out
participation locally’

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Theme C – Give schools a key role in deflecting children from a pathway to youth
violence

‘It shall be the duty of the local education authority for every area, so far as their powers
extend, to continue towards the spiritual, mental and physical development of the
community’ para II 7 of the 1944 Education Act

Message 7: Expand Education’s role • Greater focus on pre- and post-


to include emotional as well as school activities
academic development • Education for better parenting
included in the standard school
As discussed in the previous sections, curriculum
because aggression can be well-established • Police officers based in all secondary
as early as the age of 2, action to ensure schools, with an additional
children are non-violent at school needs to requirement to deliver PSHE to their
be taken well in advance of their entry into catchment area of local primary
the educational system. schools
The great grandparents and grandparents • Personal development in all schools
of today’s school children grew up in an • A well-rounded person is able to be
environment of strict discipline in which both practical and academic and
children had little voice and teachers good teachers foster that
generally were both respected and feared.
The pendulum has swung in the opposite The following is a representative selection
direction, and it is now often the case that of the many other suggestions from the
the teachers are afraid of the children they 10,000 Volts workshops:
teach. Clearly, neither extreme is ideal and
we need to synthesise them in a way that • Early identification of whether
respects the rights and needs of everyone. children are basically academic or
The long-term answer lies not only with vocationally oriented
schools but within all of society, particularly • Teach a broad range of practical
within families. subjects – from hairdressing to car
Short-term solutions could include maintenance, to first aid and public
improved conflict management training for speaking
teachers and anger management courses for
• Teach homemaking skills such as
pupils.
cooking and cleaning as well as
parenting skills
School practices and curricula
School practices and curricula ranked third • Hold healthy living workshops
in pre-Conference suggestions for reducing • Elevate social and life skills to the
youth violence. Specific suggestions same height as academic
included: achievement

• A comprehensive approach to Other suggestions for how school could


truancy and youths Excluded from provide a more fruitful and secure place for
school, with better support for the youngsters included lengthening the school
latter day and not allowing pupils off the premises
until the end of the day, since much trouble
• Increased availability of work-related
and crime take place during the lunch
learning opportunities at age 14
period.
• Significant investment in voluntary
community programmes on self- The early personality and behaviour
esteem and identity risks
• An alternative curriculum for young In current practice, any child entering the
people on the cusp of gang and school system could well have been
group offending previously unobserved and unmonitored by

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anyone outside immediate family since birth. presence contravenes government


Therefore, the first days and weeks in the guidelines.
school system offer a valuable opportunity Indicator 1 in the PSA on improving
to assess a child’s general welfare including child safety is the ‘Percentage of children
whether there might be risk factors in the who have experienced bullying’:
home. Professor Lösel identified the
following markers for risk in the young ‘Bullying is a primary safety concern for
personality: children and young people. In the
TellUs2 survey in 2007, 30% of children
• temperamental difficulties said they had been bullied in school in
• hyperactivity the last four weeks, with 5% of all
• attention deficit children saying that they were bullied on
most days’
• impulsiveness
• sensation-seeking (more Reasons for denial of bullying
adventurous, more risk-taking) There was a great deal of feedback on this
• early lying and early stealing problem and the need for schools in denial
• cruelty to animals – a particular risk to admit that they do have bullying, as the
predictor because it is early onset first step in improving the situation.
aggression Because they are judged not only on
academic success but also on the perceived
A system for schools to raise alerts safety they provide, delegates (many of them
whenever a risk factor is observed could be from schools) stated that when schools deny
a very powerful strategic string to the bow bullying exists, or greatly under-report it, it
of the Grand Alliance envisaged by Sir Ian is because to admit its true level could lower
Blair (page 38). This would imply a massive the perceived attractiveness of the school or
shift in the focus of the role of Education, perceived competence of its senior
to encompass the development of the whole teachers. When this happens, because the
child in every sense of the word. problem is not owned, it gets neither
measured nor managed. The denial can then
Message 8: Schools can greatly create frustration and disrespect amongst
reduce dysfunctional behaviour, the pupils. It also acts as an obstacle to
anger, bullying and violence teachers’ acquiring the skills to deal with the
problems of conflict and bullying. In the
Conflict resolution for pupils is both a child words of a 10,000 Volts contributor:
protection and a violence reduction issue.
Since bullying and aggression in school-age ‘… teachers don’t understand gang
children are predictors of later actual culture. When one child told her teacher
violence, handling these effectively presents “Miss, the Olders are after me”, the
an opportunity to interrupt the chain teacher just laughed and sent her on her
reaction. way. That is a training issue’
George Hosking recommended that
bullying, conflict and violence could be Bullying as a warning sign
reduced by delivering anger management Frequently bullied children are 4 times more
programmes in schools rather than waiting likely to be suicidal than children not
until people have been sent to prison. This involved in bullying if boys; 8 times more
idea was echoed by delegates and other likely if girls. By age 24, almost 60% of
speakers who made recommendations for those boys classified by researchers as
various programmes to reduce conflict and bullies in grades 6-9 were convicted of at
bullying in our schools. least one crime and 40% of them had 3 or
more convictions. Research also shows that
Government guidelines half or more of all bullying can be prevented
‘Safe to learn’ (DCSF 2007) renews the and that those youngsters with the most
guidance for schools to record and report all serious behaviour problems benefit most
incidents of bullying, any false denial of its from effective programmes. Four rigorously
tested interventions have proved effective:

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The Olweus Bullying Prevention crucial stage is not managed adequately – or


Programme – developed in Norway after is missed altogether – Exclusion can result.
the suicides of a number of victims of A failure at the third stage leads to stages
bullying. Now implemented in several 4 and 5 – involvement by external third
hundred schools around the world, it parties, followed by resolution in the form
produced a 50% reduction in bullying and of the youngsters involved being either
other anti-social behaviour in Norway, and a rehabilitated back into the original
20% reduction in a South Carolina test. environment or permanently re-located.
Denny said that when schools fall down
Roots of Empathy (RoE) – In research badly it is at the third stage in the process.
evaluations RoE has consistently shown
significant decreases in pupils’ aggression Yale University study
and bullying, and an increase in pro-social The ‘most important’ finding reported after
behaviours (see page 15). These benefits a Yale University study of developmental
were maintained 3 years after the end of the trajectories toward violence over middle
programme. childhood (Years 1-6) was that:

Linking the Interests of Families and ‘children whose teachers taught a high
Teachers (LIFT) – LIFT shows long-term number of lessons in the conflict
results are possible from a 10-week anti- resolution curriculum demonstrated
aggression programme. positive changes in their social-
Compared to LIFT participants, 5th emotional developmental trajectories
graders whose schools did not receive the and deflections from a path toward
programme were, by 8th grade, 59% more future aggression and violence’
likely to drink alcohol regularly, and twice as
likely to have been arrested than those who Making youth crime-prevention in
received the programme. schools more effective
Two of the initiatives of the London Youth
The Incredible Years – originally designed Crime Prevention Board are relevant to the
for children aged 2-8 with high levels of role of schools in reducing violence. What
aggressive behaviour, this program trains follows is a paraphrased summary of Lord
parents and children in problem-solving and Victor Adebowale’s presentation of the
other non-aggressive social skills. It has Board’s work, which focuses primarily on
been able to stop the cycle of aggression for cutting the flow of young people into early
approximately two-thirds of the families criminality, because entering the criminal
receiving help. justice system is a watershed from which it
is very hard to turn back
The conflict management model He explained that the LYCPB arose out
Denny Grant took us through his 5-stage of the conviction that further progress on
conflict management model, which he youth crime would ultimately depend on
recommends on the basis that ‘there is no two things: improved prevention effort, and
such thing as a conflict-free zone’ – whether a forum that genuinely bridges the worlds of
the conflict is internal or external, between community safety and children’s services.
people or between nations, there is always a
state of some kind of conflict. So, stage one, Schools Award
managed conflict, is ‘about as good as it One strand of the LYCPB work is to
gets’. establish a new benchmark for London
However, in the second stage, some schools, bringing together the key
aspect of the inherent conflict develops into characteristics of excellence in creating safer
open challenge, usually of the authority of a schools, and then disseminating these
teacher or teachers. Then the third stage is characteristics to schools, pupils, parents
about negotiating differences to identify and and the wider community. This benchmark
try to resolve what was behind the will form the basis for a new school Award
challenge. During this key stage, many day- to demonstrate, and celebrate, genuinely
to-day conflicts are resolved over varying stepping up to the plate when it comes to
time periods. However, whenever this the safety of pupils, schools, and the

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community. One of the elements of the schools that did not invest resources in
benchmark is a positive, productive resolving existing conflict between
relationship with the Police. community needs and the pupil’s position.
His Hampshire study of offenders showed
Pupil Referral Units (PRUs) that 93% of them had received some form
The Board is also exploring alternative of Exclusion over a 3-year period.
education provision, including Pupil This bleak picture is borne out in
Referral Units. PRUs need to be a classic Government statistics: Home Office
site for best prevention work for many research suggests 78% of males and 53% of
children, being potentially the last safety net females who truant once or more in a week
before they risk falling out of the system commit offences. Excluded children are 2.3
altogether. The next step could well be times more likely to commit an offence
supervision, if that’s not already the case, or (MORI, 2004) and 50% more likely to
indeed custody. commit ‘very serious’ offences than other
Pupil Referral Units can offer young pupils. A DfES 2004 survey of 14-year olds
people a second chance to turn around their found that 60% of those truanting were also
education and their behaviour, to live a life drinking frequently or fighting.
that isn’t solely governed by the harsh A retrospective study (Home Office,
culture of the street. 2001) of young people who had been
The success of PRUs varies with the Excluded across a ten year period from
quality of delivery. While some do a great 1988-98 found that 44% of youths had no
job, the Board will be looking hard over the recorded offences prior to permanent
coming months at how to raise all units in Exclusion but had a record of offending
London up to the standard of the best, following permanent Exclusion. 11% of
because inadequacy cannot be tolerated if these youths had their first offence in the
we’re serious about youth crime prevention. same month they were Excluded.
One commentator made the point that David Gilbertson provides data from the
Pupil Referral Units can be located either on Metropolitan Police showing that nearly half
the same site as the school from which the of all offences of Theft and Handling by
pupil has been referred or off-site at a juveniles are committed during school
different location. In his experience, it is far hours. Gilbertson’s view is that:
better to run these units on-site because it
facilitates the rehabilitation of referred ‘There is a direct and palpable link
pupils back into the regular school between Exclusion, truanting and crime’
environment.
This view is supported by the Audit
Message 9: Violent crime can be Commission’s survey of young offenders,
reduced by appropriate alternatives which found that 42% had been Excluded
to School Exclusion from school while a further 23% ‘truanted
significantly’. Prisoners are 10 times more
likely than the general population to have
‘We have to understand the link between
been habitual truants.
exclusion from school and criminality,
the connection between literacy and
Measures need to foster the emotional
anti-social behaviour…’ Sir Ian Blair
development of teenagers
Excluding troublesome youths from school
Some statistics showing why Exclusion
simply shifts the problem out into the wider
and truancy really matter
community. The Excluded ones will
Denny Grant lamented the fact that the
naturally band together and either create or
best current indicator of violence in schools
worsen conditions that increase the
(coyly labelled ‘aggression’ rather than
likelihood of violence. This phenomenon
‘violence’ in the UK) lies in Exclusion
was described by Professor Lösel in terms
statistics, because we do not routinely
of a concentration of people with violent
collect any other data. His research showed
tendencies in a particular area, or group,
that many of the youngsters who ended up
raising the overall level of violence
as runners in gangs had been Excluded from
exponentially. Once Excluded and mixing

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only with others in the same category, solvent and drug abuse. Academic
youngsters lose the protective factor of performance improved significantly. The
positive role models in the form of teachers. project produced financial returns of more
They also lose the protective factor of the than double its cost.
diluting effect of the usual mix in the peer The Pathways to Education Program in
group. The absence of these protective Toronto’s Regents Park provided students
factors can make it all too easy for violence with moral, financial and intellectual
and general anti-social behaviour to become support. Academic support took the form
their norm. of tutoring for 4 nights a week, and financial
support the form of bus tickets earned
‘Back door Exclusion’ through school attendance. Student-Parent
The following comment came from the Support Workers helped build bridges
10,000 Volts workshop: between pupils, parents and teachers.
The programme reduced absenteeism by
‘… some head teachers don’t record 50% while the percentage of ‘academically
young people not being in school… at risk’ students fell from 40 to 16. The high
back door Exclusion is the elephant in school drop out rate fell from 56% to 10%.
the room that nobody talks about – it’s a The Boston Consulting Group evaluation
highly contentious political issue’ concluded the long-term benefit to society
for every $ invested in Pathways is $12.
The challenge faced by many schools is
huge: emotionally immature youngsters can Steps to improve the situation in schools
be physically fully grown, frightening and PSA Delivery Agreement 12 stipulates that:
very aggressive; sometimes they are armed.
It is not surprising if many a teacher feels ill- • Schools will also promote emotional
equipped to cope. However, turning these health and resilience
difficult youths loose on society is an • By 2011 all schools will offer access
abdication rather than a viable solution to to extended services, which could
the problem. If the formality of School include health or therapy services
Exclusion were required to be part of an
integrated approach that ensured Excluded All primary schools and 50% of secondary
youth receive comprehensive support to schools will implement the Social and
deflect them from anti-social pathways and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL)
encourage pro-social choices in their lives, programme by 2012, to:
the current multiple consequences of
Exclusions could be avoided. • Promote children’s emotional well-
being and early intervention work
Alternatives to Truancy and Exclusion for those children and young people
The workshop on truancy and Exclusion at risk of mental health problems
looked at two effective programmes for
• Increase the numbers of schools
reducing these problems.
delivering school-based mental
The Dorset Healthy Alliance Project
health support
addressed the relationship between
education, health and anti-social behaviour.
While it is designed to improve children’s
It promoted closer parent-school links while
emotional intelligence, as yet there is no
tackling truancy and bullying. An
research evidence that SEAL increases their
educational social worker based at a local
empathy. Nor does it teach attunement and
primary school continued to work with the
parenting of babies. Because all of these
children and their families after they had
benefits are delivered by the Roots of
moved up to the local secondary school.
Empathy programme, for schools to offer
Truancy was virtually eliminated in the
both SEAL and Roots of Empathy would
primary school and fell from 28% to 16% at
be a very strong step towards preparing
the secondary level. There were reductions
children for life and parenthood.
in theft, vandalism, under-age drinking,

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Theme D – Provide young people with the support they need to become healthy,
successful, pro-social citizens

In his introduction, Sean Cameron quoted to earlier. Much youth violence is carried
Socrates as a reminder of the vulnerability out by these teenage onset offenders and is
and humanity of the youngsters at the heart simply ‘grown out of’ by the time the
of the subject of the Conference: survivors of it reach their early 20s.

‘In no order of things is adolescence a Rising levels of youth violence


simple time of life’ Following the Conference, the Channel 4
Dispatches documentary (Why Kids Kill,
Gangs or groups? January 2008) found that:
Just as banding into co-operative hunting
groups was crucial in the survival and • murder of children by children
success of our species, it is entirely natural tripled in the UK in the last 3 years;
for today’s developing youngsters to band the number of killings in which both
together once they outgrow the need for victim and assailant were under 18
close parental care and protection. Delegate jumped from 12 in 2005 to 37 in 2007;
comments in 10,000 Volts and speakers • more than half of these killings are
such as Denny Grant and John believed to be gang-related;
Carnochan observed that ‘gang’ is a • there has been a six-fold increase in
pejorative term for a group, which could the number of gangs in some parts
equally be called a team, depending on their of London since 2000; and
purpose or activity or, as John Carnochan
• children as young as five are now
put it –
joining gangs and even throwing
petrol bombs
‘You could say Strathclyde Police is a
gang of 65,000…’
Disadvantaged children from war-torn
regions
… and Denny Grant illustrated the point
A new source of problems on our streets
with the tale of a group of small boys asking
and in our schools comes with children
their teacher to help them to:
from war-torn parts of the world, whose
attitude to violence has been distorted by
‘…become a gang, but we don’t want to
this experience. Specialised support,
be the sort of gang that bullies people
including assessment for and treatment of
and fights; we want to be a different
PTSD, is needed for these children if they
kind of gang’
are not to contribute to a normalisation of
extreme violence amongst their associates.
What is not acceptable – but can be a
Without the right sort of support, they are
tendency when there is not enough
also likely to contribute disproportionately
opportunity for energy to be discharged
to the next generation of infants in need of
positively – is when youths band together
early intervention.
with the intention deliberately to harm
others, as has been increasingly happening
Low UK youth wellbeing
with gangs in London.
Suzanne Zeedyk told us that the 2006
UNICEF study of child poverty ranked UK
Teenage onset violence
youth wellbeing the lowest in the 19
Adolescence can be a really severely
European countries measured. This study
challenging time while youngsters learn how
has since been updated for 2007. Current
to handle increased feelings of anger and
figures rank UK youth wellbeing at the
frustration triggered by surges in hormones.
bottom of the 21 countries evaluated, and in
When youths in this phase turn to violence
the bottom quartile on 5 of the 6 measures.
for the first time (‘teenage onset offenders’),
Our best score was 12th out of 21 (on
they are in a different category from the
Health and Safety).
early onset violent aggressors who result
from very harsh early circumstances referred

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Message 10: There is an urgent need workers’, or social workers, who the police
to improve the level and quality of saw as little better than gang members –
youth support at street level they looked and spoke like gang members
and had often been gang members in the
past. Their responsibility was to connect
The Dispatches documentary quoted above
current gang members to the social services
gave the actual ratio of youth workers to
available, e.g. job opportunities. There was
youths in London in January 2008 as 1 in
also an anti-gang unit, which was reshaped
800, against a target of 1 in 400. The need
after the community erupted around certain
for more, and better quality, youth workers
racial discrimination issues at that time. The
was stressed by many delegates:
key operational innovations were Operation
Nightlight and Operation Ceasefire.
‘Lack of youth workers…’
Operation Nightlight – Here probation
‘I would re-introduce Detached Youth
officers who usually sat in their offices went
Workers who work with “hard to reach
out on to the streets with police officers,
young people” in the community’
carrying out joint patrols to track the same
people breaking their parole conditions. The
‘Put more money into youth provision &
result was a significant change in the
diversion (iPe) – at the partnership level
dynamic, putting the probationers under
e.g. Met track, Kicks, outreach workers’
very strict supervision conditions.
‘More money into youth centres;
Operation Ceasefire – In this, gang
training for all youth workers’
members involved in serious violence were
subjected to a united, multi-agency front
‘Funding for youth workers’
saying, essentially, ‘We know who you are.
We know what you do. If you cross this line
Models for success
– serious violence – we will come down on
To increase our understanding of how to
you, and it will be a multi-agency coming
divert youngsters into safer activities, Brojo
down on you. On the other hand, if you
Pillai took us through WAVE’s research
want a way out, here is the 10-point
into four promising approaches adopted in
coalition’. The street workers, who sat in the
the US to reduce youth homicide levels and
audience during these conversations, then
gang crime:
said: ‘We are here to help you. As a gang
1. Boston
member, you are seven times more likely to
2. Philadelphia
die, and we don’t want you to die. So if you
3. Chicago’s Little Village
need to get connected to a job, if you need
4. Los Angeles’ Boyle Heights pilot
to get back to school, if your mum needs an
operation, give us a ring and we’ll help you.’
The following is a paraphrased summary of
In parallel with the community initiative,
his presentation:
the Boston project focused intense policing
on the sources of illegal firearms and made
1. Boston
the lives of gun runners supplying the gangs
The success of the Boston approach
very difficult. These combined strategies
(incorporating the well-known ‘Operation
brought a very successful period of
Ceasefire’) was grounded in one principle
homicide reductions to Boston.
and two operational strategies: the principle
was a network based on capacity and trust,
2. Philadelphia
where stakeholders with very different
The Philadelphia approach sought to
perspectives on gang violence were brought
replicate Boston’s success but with a high
together. This wasn’t some police action
level partnership involving the mayor,
with an advisory community group, but a
district attorney, police and social services.
cohesive working group with members from
They identified Boston’s two critical success
a ‘10-point coalition’ including a group of
factors as (a) the network of capacity and
black ministers representing the minority
trust and (b) Operation Nightlight.
community in Boston. These were ‘street

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They targeted a set of 100 young times the gang crimes of New York – a
probationers who were most likely to kill or staggering statistic as New York is larger.
be killed before they reached 25. These were After all these years and the billions of
then assigned a team of two: a probation dollars spent, LA has twice as many gang
officer and a street worker. Each team members, six times the number of gangs,
handled a case load of 25 as opposed to the and accounts for 75% of homicides in
regular load of 200. The probation officer California. In an admission of spectacular
was responsible for very strict supervision failure with the original strategy, LA put
to ensure the probationer met parole forward a new gang strategy in April 2007,
conditions. The street worker was based on their one area where gang crime
responsible for connecting that individual to was going down – a little area called Boyle
supportive services. The dynamic was to Heights.
support, but impose graduated sanctions to The Boyle Heights pilot was funded by
ensure that the support was taken up. the Gang Reduction Programme, part of the
This operation has been successful National Youth Gang Agency, whose remit
enough to be expanded to cover half of the is to identify ‘gang reduction zones’
under-25 probationers in the area. characterised by high crime but also high
citizen involvement. They then identify the
3. Chicago’s Little Village (the series of steps required, from pre-natal
‘comprehensive’ gang approach) through to criminal conviction and
This approach was initiated by Irving subsequent release from prison (echoing
Spergel, a social worker in New York during Professor Lösel’s chain reaction and its
the 1950s, at a time when there had been a points of interruption in Theme A).
significant rise in gang violence and NY had There is primary Prevention, at
opted for the social work solution. population level; secondary, in schools; then
The core of this strategy is the admission intervention with young people, perhaps out
that it is not just youth who are the problem of school. Next there is suppression, with
but also the community and institutions, those hard core gang members unwilling to
and that any approach taking a single change their lives. Then there is re-entry –
perspective (such as suppression, or harsh for people coming out of prison, often to
sentences, or more support, or more create more chaos in the community,
community mobilisation) is unlikely to especially so if they rejoin their gang. One of
succeed. Spergel put forward a the key changes was to create a central
comprehensive model with two key points: agency with one person (an evangelical
minister) in charge of all preventive action
1. create the street team, similar to the across LA.
current one in Philadelphia, and
2. balance – for each individual, determine Summary conclusion of research into
what kind of sanctions to impose and tackling gang violence
what kind of support to provide. For The measures researched indicate that gang
each individual, balance the strategy. violence responds positively to a two-
pronged approach of (a) support coupled
This comprehensive approach has been very with firm supervision to ensure the support
successful. is not wasted, and (b) tough crackdown on
the really criminal element, such as the arms
4. Los Angeles (Boyle Heights) or drug dealers at the top of the criminal
Like New York, Los Angeles faced a pyramid.
growing gang problem in the 1950s, and the However, most attempts to replicate
LA Chief of Police opted for hard policing Boston’s success have not succeeded. It was
rather than the social work approach. Brojo Pillai’s conclusion that this
450,000 LA juveniles have been arrested disappointment resulted from most (if not
in the last ten years – one of the operations all) of these attempts failing to remain
was so intense the Red Cross offered faithful to the original model, especially the
residents disaster relief. The hard policing community involvement component.
approach has not worked. By their own
definition of gangs, last year LA had 49

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Message 11: Tackle the trigger few problems from their youngsters that
factors making youngsters many do not even have a word for
particularly vulnerable (e.g. ‘teenager’. In these less developed societies
being unoccupied, high alcohol youngsters are not only socially adjusted,
consumption, family breakdown and they display no particular personal
social disadvantage) problems.

Absence of age-related segregation


Changes in triggering factors associated
One significant factor in less ‘westernised’
with youth violence
societies is the absence of age-related
Research suggests part of the huge rise in
segregation as teenagers are naturally
violence in recent decades can be accounted
integrated with adults. Working alongside
for by a change in triggering factors
adults from quite a young age exposes these
affecting adolescents, including:
youngsters to far fewer violence-triggering
factors than their western counterparts. For
1. Less social control of adolescents,
instanc1e, they are unlikely to be
because of the increasing gap
unemployed or to have the time (or
between males reaching puberty and
transport) to go and make trouble
starting work
somewhere they are not known. They are
2. Dramatic rise in teenage alcohol
more likely than young westerners to have
consumption
the stabilising effects of early marriage-type
3. Growth in viewing electronic media
relationships as well as wider social support
modelling high levels of violence
from extended family.
4. Reduction in stable marital
However, the key difference between
relationships (to provide consistent
such communities and both ancient Greece
parenting and positive role models)
and modern western culture lies in their
5. Mental health problems
level of occupation: the ancients had slaves,
6. Economic inequality
leaving their emancipated youngsters idle.
Today we have gadgets and unemployment.
To look at some of these in turn:
What youngsters say would work
(1) Less social control of adolescents,
In reporting on the London Gangs, Gun
because of the increasing gap between
and Knife Culture Project, Dr Theo
reaching puberty and starting work
Gavrielides told us young gang members
are agreed that what would work to solve
Youth unemployment
the problem is a combination of better
The 1999 social study by the Joseph
youth employment prospects and better
Rowntree Foundation showed rates of
youth recreational facilities.
unemployment were highest among teenage
males: in particular over 40% of 16-17-year-
Recreational violence
olds from minority ethnic groups were
The growing fashion for youths to engage in
unemployed, compared to only 18% of
recreational violence is perhaps the most
whites. This high teenage unemployment
deadly legacy of not making enough
was closely associated with lack of
provision for healthy youth activities.
qualifications obtained by early school
John Carnochan told the Conference
leavers. Although the study is not recent, the
that whether those involved in ‘recreational’
pattern above is unlikely to have changed.
violence emerge as offenders or victims
after any particular evening is totally
Adolescence not a universal problem
random, making nonsense of setting up
Research shows that the phenomenon of
services for them as two categories.
‘problem adolescence’ is by no means
universal, although there is a minor amount
Offender or victim? and ‘teachable
of evidence it was a problem in ancient
moments’
Greece.
In light of this realisation, nurses at Glasgow
Today, there could be as many as 60
Dental Hospital have been trained to
communities around the world suffering so
provide advice to these young men in a

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ground-breaking motivational intervention. between alcohol and deviancy in young


The hospital deals with a new serious facial people: 25% of weekly drinkers had a
injury every six hours, 365 days a year, and criminal record compared with 6-7% of
24% of those treated are repeat victims. occasional and non-drinkers. The British
Nurses deliver the brief programme during Crime Survey 2005/06 shows that in
the ‘teachable moments’ – those key England and Wales 44% of violent
moments when the stitches are going in or offenders were perceived to be under the
coming out, when the jaw is being set, when influence of alcohol by their victims.
the wire is going in or coming out – those Some delegates saw reviewing the easy
times when people sometimes think, ‘Maybe availability of cheap alcohol as an
I should change what I’m doing’. The same opportunity for Government to play a
point could well be true in London’s stronger part in the fight against violence.
‘postcode wars’, between youngsters with Whatever method is chosen to achieve it,
nothing else to do, as covered in the a reduction in excessive alcohol
Channel 4 Dispatches item mentioned consumption by young people would clearly
above. be nothing but beneficial. Since adults with
The adoption of ‘teachable moment’ a propensity towards violence can be
interventions outlined by John Carnochan dangerous when they drink too much, it is
present what Professor Lösel described as hardly surprising if youngsters with the same
a point of interruption at quite a late stage in propensity, but far less developed tools and
the chain reaction. strategies for self-control, behave badly
under the influence of high levels of alcohol.
(2) Rise in excessive teenage alcohol The following comment came from the
consumption 10,000 Volts workshop:
Long-term trends in excessive youth alcohol
consumption show sharp rises: offences of ‘Public Health is moving towards
drunkenness amongst young males in focusing increased resources and
England and Wales were 949 in 1959. By capacity to prevent alcohol-related
1977 the level had risen to 4,920 – an violence, pursuing the Prevention
increase of 518%. Female teenage agenda’
drunkenness rose 749% in the same period.
(3) Media violence
Although the percentage of pupils drinking There is well-established research showing
has remained similar since the late 1980s, that violence in the media has little effect on
the quantity consumed by those drinking most of the population but does have a
regularly has increased, as shown in the significant adverse effect on the behaviour
following table: of those who have been brought up in a
violent environment.
Average units per week (those drinking) Many delegates called for action to
Age 1990 2000 2006 reduce the exposure to violence which has
11-13 yrs 5.6 10.1 become the staple viewing diet amongst our
11-15 yrs 5.3 10.4 11.4 young people.

Recent statistics show that over 45% of 14- ‘Clamp down on the portrayal of violent
15 year olds had consumed more than five gangs on internet sites’
drinks on a single occasion during one 30-
day period. UK teenagers have high levels of ‘There is too much media promotion of
intoxication and binge drinking (more than violent lifestyles’
five drinks in a row) compared with their
European counterparts. ‘The main constraint is the media role in
Youth drinking was already such a depicting violence as glamorous’
problem in 2004 that 3-4,000 (some as
young as 11) were admitted to hospital for There is a glamorisation of the
alcohol-related illness. “gangster” lifestyle in films, music and
The link to crime is demonstrated in a music videos, which depict those
Manchester-based study of the associations enjoying the high life as those who are

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the ‘bad boys’, and they attract the inequality. He found that young people
money, girls and “bling”’ consider crime, or youth violence, is not just
a criminal justice problem, it actually reflects
(4) Reduction in stable marital society’s failure, particularly on the issue of
relationships (to provide consistent gangs, guns and knives. The focus on the
parenting and positive role models) word ‘crime’ ignores the culture that leads to
While family breakdown was not a major that crime. The criminal justice system
pre-Conference item (cited by only one understands what it calls crime – a criminal
delegate) research shows that crime in act – but what the young people spoke
general is strongly correlated with family about was the culture leading to that
breakdown – 70% of young offenders are criminal act, a culture created by exclusion,
from lone parent families. This was echoed poverty and inequality.
in Professor Lösel’s model, which
described violence as a family matter Message 12: Consult and involve
starting early and continuing indefinitely, a young people to find solutions to
cycle in which youngsters can appear as youth gang violence
victims, perpetrators, or both. Here the
image of ‘family’ needs to be expanded to
Involve young people directly
embrace the surrogate family when a child is
Theo emphasised that the findings of the
in foster care or in a Care Home. Happily,
project were not just about young people,
there are many points in that chain when
they were by young people, and one of their
youngsters can be helped to develop more
recommendations was about youth
positive outlets for their energies.
empowerment and youth leadership. They
felt strongly that if policies and practices
(5) Mental health problems
relating to young people are to be set up,
Some delegates suggested we need to
young people will need to be involved
address the significant role mental health
directly, and that this needs to be a reality,
plays in youth violence; to repeat a 10,000
not just a myth.
Volts comment from page 20 above:
They also went into issues of identity,
‘There is nowhere near enough resource
and were very honest about materialism and
put into child mental health… when
‘easy money’ as part of what drives the gang
people end up in custody and have
scene (gangs carry out more than half of
mental health problems which are not
London street robberies).
addressed, custody does not have the
Delegate comments supported the
ability to deal with such people. If the
proposition that young people should be
resource was put it at a much earlier
actively involved in the creation of
stage then maybe we could address this’
solutions, for example:
(6) Economic inequality
‘Have a strategy of valuing, respecting
A number of delegates made the point that
and engaging young people’
there needs to be more effective action to
reduce the economic inequality suffered by
‘… engaging and working with young
the most disadvantaged in our society.
people who by virtue of their disaffection
with the education system and
‘There also needs to be greater emphasis
disengagement from society have begun
on reducing poverty … [and] on good
the slippery slope to gang involvement
quality housing and less on new
and an offending lifestyle’
skyscrapers, festivals and sports
stadiums that will be white elephants’
‘… There needs to be a move towards
active participation with young people
Theo Gavrielides described Race on the
in the solutions, not assuming someone
Agenda as an organisation devoted to
of my generation understands what it
equality rather than criminal justice. He said
means to be 13 years old travelling in
his London Gangs, Gun and Knife Culture
fear of being a victim of crime’
Project explored direct links between
criminal justice, crime, youth violence and

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Message 13: Parents and the wider Message 14: We need to provide
community can help reduce violence more facilities and activities to fulfil
by working with agencies and services young people’s need to be occupied
to protect young people and challenged

Ten of the pre-Conference delegate Human brilliance in solving problems via


suggestions related specifically to supporting technological advances has the malignant
and encouraging community initiatives. side-effect of consigning unemployed
people to a life where there is less and less
Importance of community – ‘it takes a needing to be done in order to survive. If
whole village to bring up a child’ the consequent leisure is not offset by
The availability of guns and knives is voluntary activity, the results can be
making youth violence potentially more fatal dissatisfaction, frustration and, all too often,
than ever before and adding to the urgency mischief. Such negative effects are
to protect youngsters themselves as well as magnified in young people with an
society from the negative consequences of abundance of energy needing to be
irresponsible behaviour during this phase. discharged.
We heard many acknowledgements of the
work already being done by voluntary Top recommendation by delegates
organisations and members of the With 74 mentions, providing more and
community. Putting more focus on fostering better ‘Youth activities/support’ was the top
co-operation and trust between the recommended measure from delegates in
community and the police could be valuable the pre-Conference exercise. We heard
in combating violence. concern that as gang problems have been
The examples of successful approaches increasing, availability of youth clubs and
to reducing gang violence (see Models for other activity facilities has been steadily
success above) show that when the whole decreasing.
community is presenting a united front on Suggestions to keep youths out of
boundaries and limitations, youngsters’ mischief ranged from boot camps and
behaviour improves significantly. It is also compulsory national service to supervised
important that the stricter stance by the activities before and after the school day.
community is offset by wholesome There was a strongly expressed view in
alternative outlets for young energy. 10,000 Volts workshops that the activities
need to have a large ‘development’
‘Work local because of the global’ component (whether art, sport, educational
Another of the recommendations from the or skills), and not be simply a ‘distraction’
London Gangs, Gun and Knife Culture offering. Some delegates saw the lead up to
Project was ‘Work local because of the the 2012 Olympic Games as an ideal
global’. While the young participants opportunity for many wholesome youth
acknowledged that policy and legislation are projects in the next few years.
very important, because they provide the There were also numerous suggestions
essential framework, they also felt that real to improve emotional literacy by running
life is what is happening in local groups and specific awareness programmes in schools,
in youth groups. more mentoring, better role models and a
higher level of community/voluntary
Building Bridges Project involvement with young people. Suggestions
One of the recommendations of the recently for specific curriculum and school focus
published House of Commons Home Affairs improvements included teaching children
Report (paragraph 2.11) called for new strategies how to associate positively and running
and new policies to be set up to involve young parenting skills classes.
people. This is where ‘Building Bridges’ comes in.

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Theme E – Shift the focus within Criminal Justice to Prevention and Rehabilitation

If we place Health at the heart of it, how Perception that crime is ‘cool’
best could Criminal Justice do its part to This was a very real concern. In a culture
support violence Prevention? lacking a structured and balanced family life,
the street gang can easily become an
Enforcement and tougher sentences alternative ‘family’ where disaffected
43 of the pre-Conference suggestions from youngsters earn credit and recognition for
delegates recommended more enforcement brutality.
and tougher sentences, including: In London, a significant amount of
robbery is committed by gang members,
• Substantially increase sentences for making them a menace to society at large as
violent crime and possession of well as to each other. In contrast, the gangs
weapons of Glasgow are almost exclusively devoted
• Target gang leaders in special to ‘recreational’ violence, to the extent of
operations and, where possible, inter-gang battles being arranged by the
remove them from the streets leaders as though they were regular sports
• Tough penalties for all offenders, fixtures. However, recreational violence is
include parents as appropriate increasingly catching on in the form of
London ‘post code wars’.
• Be ruthless regarding asset
confiscation
• Ensure full use of stop-and-search Message 15: Need for greater Police
powers by police focus on Prevention
• Mandatory sentences for carrying
guns or knives. Initially short and ‘... and as soon as you define that
sharp – 3 strikes problem in that way [child protection]
• Tougher penalties and zero you realise that enforcement, however
tolerance good, is only a holding operation. It’s
necessary but too late. I can tell you that
• Restorative justice
we will, as the Metropolitan Police,
dedicate all our skills of intelligence
A small minority of delegates, mainly police
gathering, disruption, covert operations,
officers, favoured a prime focus on a
displacement activity, but it will not be
tougher approach to violent crime, with
enough. Nor will community
more severe (and certain) punishments.
involvement and mediation, however
However the majority of those wanting a
necessary, be enough. What we’ve got to
tough approach called for it to be combined
understand – and I’m sure we all do in
with much more robust preventive
this room – is that the problems lie
measures, while others wanted the tough
much earlier, in family dysfunction, in
approach focused only on the more extreme
educational under-achievement, in peer
offenders such as drug dealers and gang
pressure, in lack of role models’
leaders.
Sir Ian Blair
A 2006 European Communities study A
Many delegates commented on the need for
review of good practices in preventing the various
police to be more focused on preventive
types of violence in the European Union reviewed
work, rather than just in waiting for crime to
the impact of prisons and found:
happen and then catching the offenders.
There was repeated mention of the potential
‘… little evidence that imprisonment has
for police to play a proactive role in or with
the desired effect in deterring or
schools, for example:
rehabilitating offenders’
• Promote community policing e.g.
It did, however, find a beneficial impact
police based in secondary schools
from well-designed rehabilitation
programmes.

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• More collaboration between schools, of the crime pyramid – the real criminal
police probation and Youth culprits in drugs and arms dealing. However,
Offending Teams (YOTs) unless we can lock these offenders up
• Introduce mandatory schools police forever, if incarceration is not combined
officers in all secondary schools with effective rehabilitation all we are
where they would be based with an achieving is an expensive interval before
additional requirement to deliver they return to the streets to take up where
Personal, Social and Health they left off. In this context, the current
Education (PSHE) to a catchment over-population of youth offender facilities
area of junior schools is not simply a reflection of the inadequacy
• Place police officers and Police of that system, it carries the dangerous
Community Support Officers consequence of youngsters being placed in
(PCSOs) within all secondary prisons for adults, sharing cells with (and
schools and ensure contact with all sometimes becoming the victims of)
primary schools hardened criminals.
There is plenty of evidence that
• Greater police presence on streets
Rehabilitation works, including the prison
• More police emphasis on prevention work of Dr Bob Johnson in Parkhurst and
and less on the hundreds of hours of George Hosking at Brixton, Parkhurst
filling in forms and Wandsworth, who both found that
• Partnership work in Schools – prisoners can be cured of the impulse to be
including Safer Schools police violent by, for instance, treatment for Post
officers Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
• Early intervention with ASB (anti- Delivery of rehabilitation is a very patchy
social behaviour) and crime affair though and, as we heard from John
• Make it compulsory for schools to Carnochan, even in one Scottish prison
tackle anti-social behaviour and which does offer a violence rehabilitation
crime in partnership with the police programme, an offender needs to have done
something serious enough to earn a 4-year
stretch before ‘qualifying’.
Message 16: Need for radical shift The like-for-like comparison of recent
towards prison as rehabilitation history in New York and Los Angeles given
above shows the twin-track social work
Sir Ian made the following observation: approach works far more effectively than
harsh enforcement on young gang
‘…particularly I think we have to look members. While tough enforcement
with our partners in the prison service measures against those supplying drugs or
about what we do about the inadequacy firearms to the gang are also indicated, the
of support to gang members as they gang members themselves can often be
enter and leave prison.’ rehabilitated into a pro-social way of life by
help and support with housing or
Custodial sentences might well be the best employment, or some other pressing social
we have to offer in the case of truly problem.
dangerous people, especially those at the top

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Theme F – Shift government strategy to proactive, long-term funding and planning to


reduce violence

‘Governments should ensure that children are properly cared for, and protect them from
violence, abuse and neglect by their parents, or anyone else who looks after them’
Article 19 of The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

Moving in the right direction ‘There is no excuse for the fourth richest
Sure Start Children’s Centres country of the world to have some
Government has recently been making a 550,000-570,000 children referred to
very encouraging shift towards a holistic, Child Protection and be able to place
family-centred approach by, for instance, only 37,200 of them on the Child
the introduction of Sure Start Children’s Protection Register.’
Centres, with a target of establishing 3,500
centres to reach all communities by 2110. … and posed the following question:
The initiative aims to give children a
better start in life by supporting the whole ‘What happens to the other 500,000 plus
family across a range of services, most of children left outside the doors of our
which were traditionally provided by Health, agencies? There is no excuse to have
Education, Employment and Social Services local psychiatrists be told that they
The initial centres are being targeted at cannot deal with emotional difficulties
the 20% most disadvantaged areas to act as any more and that they should only take
a service hub within the community. Their on psychiatric disorders that are
offering includes classes on English as a chemically originated. Anyone who
second language, basic skills and parenting. knows anything about child psychiatry
They also provide a base for childminder knows that the bulk of the problem in
networks as well as links to other day-care children is emotional, as a result of poor
provision and out-of-school clubs. attachments. These are the systemic
crimes we commit that contribute to the
Targeted Youth Support (TYS) fact that our children turn to savagery in
This initiative in the ‘Youth Matters’ green order to survive.’
paper (2005) sets out a vision of integrated
youth support services helping all young The pre-Conference consultation and the
people achieve the 5 ‘Every Child Matters’ 10,000 Volts workshop also strongly
outcomes. The integrated delivery for recommended more funding and better
vulnerable teenagers is central to the vision management of funding, for example:
and aims to ensure needs are identified early
and met by agencies working together ‘Funding is often short-term. A 3-year
effectively, in ways shaped by the views and cycle is inadequate when you are trying
experiences of the youngsters themselves. to turn around attitudes – rather like
Multi-agency partnership was also the turning around an ocean liner. To get
idea behind YOTs. results we will need to wait 15-20 years
It will take strong leaders in true inter- but the irony is we would reap the
agency partnership to drive systemic benefits. Had this been implemented 15
changes to enable these positive years ago we would not be having this
government moves to produce long-term, conference or this problem’
lasting success.
‘Lack of funding for innovative projects
Message 17: Long-term success will and very difficult funding processes for
take a shift to long-term planning what is available, linked to too many
and funding “empire-building” egos involved with
the existing funding streams, can result
in funds not reaching the most
Camila Batmanghelidjh drew attention to
potentially effective initiatives’
one glaring gap in funding:

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‘Statutory bodies such as the ‘Anti-social children grow up to become


Government Office for London and anti-social adults who go on to raise
Youth Justice Board could take a more anti-social children’
enabling role with Local Authorities in
overseeing the development of projects Message 18: Importance of what we
and funding streams to ensure [LA measure, because ‘what gets
senior managers] cannot siphon off measured gets managed’
important money which could be better
used for cutting edge projects’
UNICEF cites measurement as the pre-
requisite for bringing about improvement
Proactive vs reactive approaches to
and gives this as the reason for their annual
handling the problem of violence
measurement of youth wellbeing. John
The 16-year-old brandishing a knife or a gun
Carnochan made a similar point, stressing
presents a visible threat that demands an
that, in our target-ridden culture, anything
immediate reaction. Whole armies of youths
that is not measured is unlikely to be
at war with each other and with society at
managed – or changed.
large present such a serious threat that the
A 20-year violence reduction strategy will
reaction even stretches to major conferences
be of little use if the people making the day-
devoted to solving the problem.
to-day decisions are driven by (and judged
However, when a very small child is
on) time horizons of 2-3 years. This conflict
treated with brutality, abuse or neglect
in agendas can be resolved with techniques
behind closed doors, the threat can be
to detect movements in trends at early
invisible because the consequences will not
points in a process: instead of needing to
be felt (in society) for many years. The
wait a decade for tangible outcomes of
proactive measures involved in identifying
improved practices, shifts can be predicted
whether this particular threat even exists
by relatively short term changes.
appear intrusive and go against our cultural
grain. Also, by their very nature, such
Present focus is on the middle ground
measures sit outside the realms of individual
rather than where most needed
agencies’ performance targets and measured
The current measurement system
results.
encourages universal services to serve the
The business management term for the
middle ground, rather than those who most
reactive/short-term vs proactive/long-term
need it and the traditional target framework
pattern of problem-solving is ‘fire-fighting’.
supports this gravitational pull. While there
The problem the Conference sought to
is broad support at policy, senior
resolve is that if enough proactive measures
management and operational level for
are not put in place, the whole of the
inclusive approaches, implementation is left
available resource can eventually be fully
to individual initiative. This is especially true
occupied in reacting – for how can we find
in the crucial pre-school years.
the time and resource to replace
combustible material with fire-proofed
Gaps in measurement
material in the middle of an inferno?
Need to address all violence, not just
The challenge is to do both. We need to
what is classified as Criminal
react effectively to the inferno of youth
John Carnochan warned that the true level
violence at the same time as putting in place
of violence is far worse than statistics
proactive, preventive measures to stop
reflect, because we currently measure this
fuelling the flames. It has been estimated
solely in terms of reported crime. Since we
that 30% of people who are abused or
know that only 30% of the violence turning
neglected when young go on to abuse or
up for hospital treatment in Scotland is ever
neglect their own children, escalating the
reported to the police, we can work out that
scale of the problem generation upon
a significant percentage of overall violence
generation or, as Professor David
goes unrecorded in the criminal reporting
Farrington puts it:
system. There is no reason to believe this
pattern varies much throughout the UK.

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To obtain a more accurate picture, the not received this at school), to tracking
measuring system needs to be expanded to youngsters from conception or pre-birth
include non-accidental injuries showing up through to leaving school, to ensure they
at hospitals, clinics, dentists and surgeries. were being treated in a way that fostered
Schools and other group establishments empathy and pro-social development.
could also be included in the reporting Once children reached school age, their
system. A free-phone service installed social adjustment as well as their educational
recently in hospitals throughout Strathclyde performance would be routinely monitored.
produces an extra 100 reports of violence Quite simply, it would be a transformative
each month. move in society, placing the responsibility
for child welfare at the top of the agenda in
Unreported crimes, including violence order to stem the flow of anti-social and
Post-Conference research supports John violent people at source.
Carnochan’s conviction that much violence
goes unreported and unrecorded in official Outcomes not measured
statistics. For example, in an article in Police The graded increase in youth offending
Professional (Issue 101, 6 March 2008) Ian suggests the lack of an effective Prevention
Johnston, Chief Constable of the British agenda. Yet research shows there is a belief
Transport Police, recommends the overhaul amongst some local government
of the British Crime Survey statistics (which, professionals that good practice is in place
for instance, exclude all crimes among those and good progress being made. This may be
under 16). In the same interview, Mr true for the universal services (which serve
Johnston added his support for the estimate more than 95% of the population) but data
that 60% of all crime is not reported to the on improvements for the vulnerable are
police (Crime Statistics: an Independent Review, scarce and, when available, tend to focus on
carried out for the Home Secretary and process rather than change. The lack of
published in November 2006). measurement of change (i.e. outcomes)
reduces the drive to find and use evidence-
Early-onset offenders not targeted based programmes.
because they are not monitored
The most dangerous, persistent (usually life- School violence not measured
long) offenders are those in whom As noted above, despite government
childhood damage leads to early onset (pre- guidelines urging schools to measure and
teens) violent offending. Later onset report all instances of bullying, the reality
(teenage) problems and delinquency are appears to be that there is significant under-
often outgrown, allowing the youngsters to reporting by schools.
go on to lead productive lives. It could
therefore be strategically vital to be able to Gaps in measurement lead to gaps in
distinguish between these two groups and to responsibility
treat them entirely differently when they While the present trend is moving towards
first offend. joined-up working, there can be a lack of
The early-onset children need special continuity over bands of age groups (from
support, probably including PTSD and conception to age 18) between agencies.
anger management counselling, and the Although there is good integration
timely delivery of such support could greatly across agencies at many levels, there is a
reduce the probability of continued noticeable disconnect between the agencies
offending as well as the likelihood of these involved in the earlier years (conception to
youngsters giving rise to ‘the next age 10) and the subsequent years (age 10 to
generation of anti-social children’. It is 18). Families served by Children’s Centres
recommended that all early onset children are unlikely to be the same families served
are regarded as victims and placed on the ‘at by Social Care. A child recently assigned a
risk’ register. custodial sentence was not known to YOT
Tackling this issue has huge implications until his first offence at age 13, yet primary
and would involve a plethora of measures, school records show he had led a gang fight
from mandatory parent training for school when he was 10. Because of this gap in the
children (or to expectant parents who had system, a child whose mother suffers from

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depression, whose brother has been referred carry out which services and functions.
to Social Care in the past and whose father However, the following brief selection of
has had complaints of domestic violence in typical comments from the 10,000 Volts
a previous relationship, might receive no workshop shows the lack of clarity that can
intervention. exist about exact roles and responsibilities:

Message 19: True inter-agency ‘How do you plan to involve Health?


partnership plus strong local Who in Health? Is it PCTs? As someone
leadership are essential for success from Health, I am interested’

‘Excellent question – the focus on


Leadership vs managing
“health” displays the lack of knowledge
Delivering on a proactive violence reduction
that exists about the Health set-up. In
strategy will take strong leadership. John
fact, a similar lack of knowledge usually
Carnochan drew a distinction between
exists re “local authorities” (which are
leaders and typical managers:
hugely diverse and often have their own
organisational and internal
‘We have to have leaders that don’t just
communication issues) and the Police
lead within their authority, because
(likewise)’
that’s managers. Leaders are people who
step out with their authority and do
‘A good starting point would be to
things; that stand on a balcony and lean
expand our understanding of different
over and take a chance. So you need to
partner agencies so we can build more
encourage them doing that’
effective partnerships. Often the CDRPs
are too narrow to make a genuine
John’s presentation stimulated very positive
impact on these kind of issues and we
feedback from delegates, and the following
need to work through other LSP boards’
typical quotes serve to underline the
importance of inspirational leadership:
Holistic approach
One of the 3 key findings from Dr Theo
‘Person with passion [John Carnochan].
Gavrielides’ London Gangs, Gun and
Never underestimate what committed
Knife Culture Project is that the problem is
people can do TOGETHER’
so complex it needs to be addressed
holistically. It is not just an issue of Police
‘Motivational speech that hits on some
officers, or of social workers, or of housing
key areas including organisations failing
officers; it is an issue of health service
to work together and responding to a
providers, and also of the voluntary and
crisis after it has happened with young
community sector, and is about creating
people rather than identifying issues,
multi-agency partnerships.
putting measures in place to prevent, or
work through real issues today...’
Take account of global research
The third recommendation from Dr
Multi-agency partnership
Gavrielides project is ‘work local’, but use
‘And what we need, particularly in
findings from European and international
London but I believe in all the major
studies to inform practices and enable
cities of the UK, is a grand alliance –
people at the local level to make a change.
from Education, Social Services, Police,
academia, the voluntary sector, general
Structure the alliance for success
justice organisations – to look at the
A key requirement for the type of successful
whole picture, to understand gang
multi-agency partnership implied in recent
membership to be a child protection
initiatives is for everyone involved to be
issue’ Sir Ian Blair
working together to an agreed standard of
what constitutes success. The reminder that
Need for clear understanding of roles
there is no such thing as a conflict-free zone
True inter-agency partnership will involve
highlights one element of the challenge
clarity about which agencies are meant to
inherent in the vision of all agencies

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working in harmony towards common John Carnochan gave us an example of


goals. A very telling instance of the type of what is involved in agencies working
issue involved came from a delegate: together towards something beyond their
individual agendas:
‘Hospitals do not buy into the CDRP as
much as the police or local authority ‘… So, the challenge for us is how we
because they do not get as much out of work together, and that’s the difficult
the return. We need to identify a stuff, the uncomfortable truth, the
common thread between all CDRP notion that there isn’t such a thing as a
members so that everyone who brings conflict-free zone because of all those
something to the discussion table also little things – your funding, your idea,
takes something away. If the PCT sat at your group, your borough…We need to
NIM TTCG meetings and, instead of stop that. When we had our first meeting
citing patient confidentiality, told police with Glasgow Local Authority, we had a
which clubs people were being assaulted room and on the door we put a sign that
at on a Friday and Saturday night those said “Egos cloakroom”’
areas could be policed, the LA could
invoke extra lighting and CCTV and the Understanding what the problems are, or
hospital queues would be reduced’ why they came about, or even what needs to
happen to stop them continuing, will not be
The 2005 WAVE Report sought to resolve enough unless we also have the soundest
the problem by inviting debate on the merits possible working methods. Some of what it
of a focused, National Violence Prevention will take to succeed implies changes in
Agency to coordinate, fund and drive policy, attitude and culture. The undertaking
effective Prevention strategies. is massive, but it has to be started because
the alternative is too bleak to contemplate.

The following slide from John Carnochan’s presentation gives an overview of some components of the
challenge in matrix form:

INDIVIDUAL RELATIONSHIP COMMUNITY SOCIETY

PRIMARY •PIPPIN (U) •Nurse Family Partnership Community •Changing


•Early Years Education (T) Engagement – ask and acceptability of
•Roots of Empathy (U) •PALS (U) and (T) Involve and Deliver Violence against
•Anti Bullying Children
•Triple-P (U) and (T)
programmes •National Strategy on
Parenting and early
years.
•Violence as Public
Health Issue and
associated action.
•Surveillance (U)

SECONDARY •S.S.P.C. •SNAP – (T) – Parent and •Diversion activity •Anti Bullying
•SNAP (T) – Under 12’s child •Role Models Programmes
•Violence Is Preventable (U) •Relationship counselling •Campus Officers Citizenship (U)
(T) •Community action •Public Health
•PATHS around significant Campaign (U)
events – murders. •Alcohol Policy
•Reducing alcohol
availability

TERTIARY •Violence (COVAID) •Relationship counselling •Routes into work (U •Raising domestic
•Anger Management (T) •Restorative Justice (T) and T) violence awareness
•Victim support (T) •Routes out of Gangs Community Court (T) •Legislation (U)
•BMI – Alcohol (T) •Tackling Domestic •Swift Justice (T)
•RSVP – (T) – Jail based Violence •Test Purchase
•Knife Searches (T) •Safe city centres
•Violence Help lines •Tackling
Territoriality

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13% of pre-Conference suggestions related There is an organisation structure aimed at


to co-operation, partnership and working optimal co-operation between previously
methods (in order of numbers of mentions): alien functions which could equally be
applied to multi-agency co-operation. In
• Improved Partnership this, a layer of people whose role is to work
• Government strategy together cross-culturally and cross-
• Listen more to young people functionally is included in the structure.
These people then act as bridges between
• More support for Police
their ‘native’ team and the ‘alien’ functions.
• Identify effective programmes and To give John Carnochan the final word
support their adoption on the quality of commitment it will take to
• Intelligence-sharing reverse the trend in youth violence:
• More support for child witnesses
• Training of a dedicated, professional ‘We need to aspire. We absolutely need
work force to plan to build cathedrals – not garden
sheds. And if we’re going to fail, let’s fail
For partnership to succeed, any culture of absolutely spectacularly, because we’re
blame or responsibility-shifting amongst the not going to make it worse. Young
agencies involved must be sacrificed. One people that are there today deserve you
way to secure this would be through the if you’re doing your absolute best,
type of reward scheme practised in industry, because we’ve all got a responsibility for
linking a proportion of everyone’s bonus how we arrived at this’
solely to the success of the overall strategy.

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Report coverA.qxd 29/7/08 09:58 Page 3

© WAVE Trust 2008


First published in 2008 by WAVE Trust
Cameron House, 61 Friends Road, Croydon, Surrey CR0 1ED England
Tel: 020 8688 3773 Fax: 020 8688 6135
e-mail: office@wavetrust.org Website www.wavetrust.org
ISBN-13:978-0-9551615-1-3

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