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# 110

Continuous Wavelet Transform of a fractal (selfsimilar) geometry From an intuitive point of view, the wavelet decomposition consists of calculating a ‘resemblance index” between the signal and the wavelet. The indices are the wavelet coefficients. If a signal is similar to itself at different scales then the wavelet coefficients will also be similar at different scales. Example - Koch curve

111 .

The CWT is also continuous with respect to shifting the analyzing wavelet .the information content of the CWT is highly redundant.This is a very interesting aspect of the wavelet transform that differs from the Fourier transform. From the point of view of signal reconstruction (from the wavelet coefficients) . .we only have to trade off the need for detailed analysis with the available computational horsepower.the wavelet is shifted smoothly over the full domain of the analyzed signal.Any signal processing performed on a computer using real-world data must be performed on a discrete signal (a digital signal) .What distinguishes the CWT from the DWT is the set of scales (S) and positions (ô) at which it operates.The CWT can operate at every scale . . .112 Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) What is continuous about the CWT? . .

Thus the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) The Discrete Wavelet Transform .it is useful to consider another form of the WT that is easier to compute and contains only the sufficient amount of information for analysis and synthesis.we can choose a subset of scales and positions for calculating coefficients.Multi-resolution Analysis Instead of calculating wavelet coefficients at every possible scale: .113 . .Due to the computational time and the redundancy of the CWT coefficients . .it is convenient and remarkably useful to choose scales and positions based on powers of 2 (dyadic scales and positions) The result is a transform with as much information as the CWT with significantly less computational effort .

For the DWT.series of low-pass filters to analyze the low frequencies . a series of bandpass filters is are used to analyze the signal at different scales. .series of high-pass filters to analyze the high frequencies . .114 The approach to implementation of the DWT is considerably different from the CWT .The resolution of the signal (a measure of the amount of detailed information in the signal) is changed by the filtering operation and the scale is changed by upsampling and down-sampling operations.

115 Some Definitions: .ie .up-sampling by 2 refers to adding a new sample (usually a 0 or an interpolated value) between every 2 samples of the signal . .increases the sampling rate by adding new samples to the signal .a half-band filter removes or passes ½ of the total frequency range contained in the signal .down-sampling by a factor n reduces the number of sample on the signal by n times .up-sampling by a factor of n.if a signal contains a maximum of 100 Hz.Down-sampling .Up-sampling .Half-band filter .reduce the sample rate by removing some of the samples in the signal.the time domain response of a filter convolved with a spike . increases the number of samples by n times .down-sampling by 2 refers to dropping every other sample of the signal . then a halfband lowpass filter removes all of the frequencies above 50 Hz .Impulse response of a filter .

The DWT analyzes the signal at different frequency bands by decomposing the signal into a course approximation and the detailed information .associated with high-pass filters The decomposition is obtained by successive high-pass and lowpass filtering of the signal in the time domain.wavelet functions .DWT employs two functions: . .associated with low-pass filters . .scaling functions .116 The DWT is implemented as a series of cascading filters.

half of the samples can be eliminated (based on Nyquist sampling criterion) This decomposition can be expressed as: where the summation represents the convolution of signal with the impulse response of the high-pass filter. where the summation represents the convolution of signal with the impulse response of the low-pass filter.117 The Process 1) The original signal x[n] is first passed through a halfband highpass filter g[n] and a lowpass filter h[n]. 2) After filtering. and y[k](high/low) is the output of the filters after sub-sampling .

The first level of decomposition reduces the time resolution by ½ since only half the number of samples characterizes the signal and doubles the frequency resolution since the frequency band of the signal now only spans ½ of the previous frequency band . Without the down-sampling the number of coefficients output by the process would increase .the scheme on the right includes the down sampling procedure used in the DWT.118 The first level of decomposition .

the highest frequency in the signal is represented by pi radians High Pass Side Low Pass Side .119 Progressive Decomposition by DWT (cascaded filters) .

the first level of decomposition is shown at the bottom (d1) .120 Decomposition of a signal by the discrete wavelet transform .

121 The dominant frequencies of the signal appear as high amplitudes in the part of the DWT signal that includes those frequencies. .time localization is better for higher frequencies Also.unlike the FT the time localization of thoses frequencies is retained . .but the localization has a resolution the depends on which level they appear . the frequencies that are not very prominent in the signal will have low amplitudes in the DWT and that information can be discarded without significant loss of information This property allows for significant reduction in the signal and is the basis for wavelet based signal compression algorithms.

122 Analysis of the Koch curve with the DWT Analysis if the Koch curve with the CWT .