Review of foam applications and research since 1980’s Foam types Stable foam -mainly used in gap coating

or screen coating e.g. back coating, black out, laminating, flocking etc. Appearance: cream like ,half life above 5 hours Semi-stable foam -mainly used to a certain penetration surface coating Appearance: Shampoo foam like , half life around 30 minutes Unstable foam -Used for deeply penetrated chemical application Appearance: Beer foam like, half life less than 6 minutes Notes: Half life means the time it will take for half of the total weight foam collapse into liquid Conventional foam application mainly use blade coating or screen printing use stable foam

Advantages of foam coating • • • • • • Reduce weight and economize yarn consumption of the substrate Insulation against heat and cold Sound-deafening Shock-absorbing (packaging material) Handle effects Very good embossing properties

therefore less penetration into -Difficult to have high solid add-on the fabric.Low specific gravity. . cannot operate on coarse structure fabrics Knife over roller • Suitable for paste and foam coating.• Water vapor permeability • Reduce coating strokes Comparison stable foam coating / paste coating foam coating with foam coating untreated fabric knife-over-roller calendered fine coating doctor knife Conventional foam coating use aerated coating paste to coat onto fabrics by blade or screen . must be sharp • Solid add on 5-50 g/m2 • Fabric selective .Soft handle -Less adhesion . Solid add on 25-250 g/m 2 • Coating thickness rely on blade and fabric gap .High technical knowledge . necessary Conventional paste or foam coating methods Knife over air • Blade selective.Coating of open fabrics possible.

Screen coating • Solid add on 5-120 g/m2 • Only suitable for water based coating foam or paste • Can do foam finishing for its higher penetration • Can do color coating Blade types Conventional method to control application of foam/paste by options of blades and angle of the blade .

Conventional foam application control –Holland method Holland Method: Two pipes with outlet holes inside screen for mixing fresh and collapsed foams。Since foam is not linear collapsing . Results: Unevenness across the width and tailing Problems must be solved to use semi/un-stable foam Foam must collapse the same across the whole width. . collapsed foam’s chemical concentration is much high than fresh foam.fresh foam and collapsed foam mixing do not give the same chemical concentration across the width. Even the collapsing time is in seconds. Foam must collapse the same to the fabric from start to end.Other foam application methods Why semi/un-stable foam is not used from 1980’s Reasons Foam collapse all the time affect foam concentration esp. semi-stable and unstable foam.

but still have strips ( dyestuff indicator in foam) Conventional foam application control—Moving pipe method Moving pipe method: Foam pipe moving across the fabric width before coating blade Foam rolls collapsed and fresh as pipe moves leading to chemicals concentration variation across the width.but in case of semi/un-stable foam it has zig-zag unevenness Conventional foam application control—English divided pipe control method By dividing the main foam inlet pipe into 3 pipes .control the pipe valves to control foam flow across the width Still have stripes since foam is always fresh in the middle( less chemical concentration) less fresh near the sides(high chemical concentration) whatever adjustment of the pipe valves . Suitable for stable foam .Suitable for stable and nearly semi-stable foam .

. then each divided into two again…. leads to an even application of foam across the width.Suitable for stable foam . Foam collapse the same across the fabric width ..but for semi/un-stable foam applicated foam layer has divided strips Conventional foam application control—US parabolic box method Foam goes through a parabolic box with a parabolic plate in the middle. Suitable for stable foam . Foam near outlet pipe exits are fresher (chemical concentration is low) ..but in case of semi/un-stable foam shade is always lighter in the middle than edges Conventional foam application control— German multi divided pipe method Main pipe is divided into two .50%/50% dividing is very difficult to control. then pressed out through a slot.

Distances of foam moving from inlet to slot are all equal Suitable for stable and unstable foam . Fabric width is limited to parabolic box width. Disadvantage: Parabolic box have large space to fill and drain leading to difficulty in cleaning and slow response of production lines. even application if dyestuff put into chemical as an indicator. will have high chemical concentration at edges if fabric is narrower than box width. .

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