AN INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR STUDENTS REPORT GENERATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CASE STUDY: LAKE SIDE COLLAGE LUZIRA SECONDARY SCHOOL

BY

THEMBO JIMMY IT TECHNICIAN KYAMBOGO UNIVERSITY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................. iv LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................. v ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................................... vi CHAPTER ONE ..................................................................................................................................... 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY ......................................................................................................... 1 1.1Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Case Study Description ...................................................................................................................... 2 1.3 Problem Statement ............................................................................................................................. 2 1.4 Project Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 3 1.4.1 General Objective of the Study ....................................................................................................... 3 1.4.2 Specific Objectives ......................................................................................................................... 3 1.5 Scope of the study ............................................................................................................................. 3 1.6 Justification of the Study.................................................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER TWO................................................................................................................................... 4 LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................................................................... 4 2.2 Information Systems .......................................................................................................................... 4 2.3 History of Information Systems ......................................................................................................... 6 2.4 Types of Information Systems ........................................................................................................... 6

2.4.1 Transaction Processing System (TPS) ....................................................................................... 6 2.4.2 Management Information System (MIS) ................................................................................... 7 2.4.3 Decision Support System (DSS) ................................................................................................ 7 2.4.4 Executive Support System (ESS) ............................................................................................... 8
2.5 Components of Information Systems ................................................................................................. 8 2.5.1 Hardware ........................................................................................................................................ 8 ii

2.5.2 Software ......................................................................................................................................... 8 . 2.5.3 Data .............................................................................................................................................. 8 2.5.4 Procedures: ................................................................................................................................... 9 2.6 Application of Information Systems ................................................................................................... 9 2.7 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................ 9 CHAPTER THREE............................................................................................................................. 11 METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................................................. 11 3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 11 3.2 system study .................................................................................................................................... 11 3.2.1 Questionnaire................................................................................................................................ 11 3.2.2 Interviews .................................................................................................................................... 12 3.3 System Design ................................................................................................................................. 12 3.3.1Logical design ............................................................................................................................... 12 3.3.2 Physical design ............................................................................................................................. 12 3.4 System Implementation ................................................................................................................... 13 3.5 System Testing ................................................................................................................................ 13 3.6 System Validation ........................................................................................................................... 14 CHAPTER FOUR ............................................................................................................................... 15 SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION................................................................................ 15 4.1 System Design ................................................................................................................................. 15 4.1.1 Functional requirements ................................................................................................................ 15 4.1.2 Functional requirements ................................................................................................................ 15 4.1.3 Physical design ............................................................................................................................. 15 4.1.4 Logical design .............................................................................................................................. 15 4.2 A physical Entity Relationship Diagram........................................................................................... 16 4.3 Physical Design of the Database Tables in details ............................................................................ 16 iii

4.4 Logical Design of the Entity Relationship Diagram .......................................................................... 22 4.5 Data Flow Diagrams ........................................................................................................................ 23 4.5.1 Context Diagram........................................................................................................................... 23 4.5.2 Level 1 Logical Data Flow Diagram ............................................................................................. 23 Logical Level 1 Data Flow Diagram ...................................................................................................... 24 4.6 System Implementation ................................................................................................................... 25 4.6.1 Implementation Requirements ....................................................................................................... 25 4.6.2 Program Execution sequence ........................................................................................................ 25

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 shows the students table ................................................................................................ 17

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Table 2 shows the staff table ..................................................................................................... 18 Table 3 shows the combination table ......................................................................................... 18 Table 4 shows the fees table ...................................................................................................... 19 Table 5 shows the Olevel_subs table ......................................................................................... 19 Table 6 shows the OlevelResult table ........................................................................................ 21 Table 7 shows the AlevelResults table ....................................................................................... 22

LIST OF FIGURES

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Figure 2.1 shows an information system ......................................................................................5 Figure 2.2 showing history of information systems ......................................................................6 Figure 4.1 shows a physical Entity Relationship diagram. ......................................................... 16 Figure 4.2 shows a logical Entity Relationship Diagram ............................................................ 23 Figure 4.3 shows a Context Diagram ......................................................................................... 23 Figure 4.4 shows a Logical Level 1 Data Flow Diagram............................................................ 24 Figure 4.5 shows the welcome form .......................................................................................... 26 Figure 4.6 shows the login form. ............................................................................................... 26 Figure 4.7 shows the MDI form................................................................................................. 27 Figure 4.8 shows the staff registration form. .............................................................................. 28 Figure 4.9 shows the combination registration form .................................................................. 29 Figure 4.10 shows the O-Level subjects Registration form ........................................................ 30 Figure 4.11 shows the students registration form ....................................................................... 31 Figure 4.12 shows the A-level Results entry and manipulation form.......................................... 32 Figure 4.13 shows the O-level Results entry and manipulation form.......................................... 33 Figure 4.14 shows the O-Level Report ...................................................................................... 34 Figure 4.15 shows the A-level Report........................................................................................ 35 Figure 4.16 shows the Fees Summary report. ............................................................................ 36 Figure 4.17 shows the A-level Results Analysis form ................................................................ 37 LIST OF ABBREVIATION

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CBIS CPU DFD DSS ERD ESS GB MB MIS RAM TPS XML

Computer Based Information System Central Processing System Data Flow Diagram Decision Support System Entity Relationship Diagram Executive Support System Giga Byte Mega Byte Management Information System Random Access Memory Transaction Processing System
Extensible Markup Language

ABSTRACT
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This report summaries the results of a study done on the handling, analysis and management of the data associated with secondary schools and prescription processes carried out at Lakeside college school. The study aims at designing and developing a management information system that is cable of capturing this data as well as providing quick and efficient ways of manipulating and analyzing it. The study is based on open interviews which were conducted at the Lakeside college premises, direct observation of the activities involved in the processes and reading of the existing data at schools. The researchers used Microsoft Access as a database language to create a database for the school and Visual Basic as programming language to design user interfaces for manipulation of database created. The user interface is menu-driven providing forms for data entry and database searching, and reports for data output. The system design is a computerized approach to efficient data storage, analysis and retrieval and therefore should be adopted by the school. This would enable making of students reports as well as planning future operations basing on the previous report.

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CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1.1Introduction Modern schools have become more and more dependent on information systems to deal with the complexity and changeability of the context in which they operate and consequently their internal organization structures. Up-to-date, complete and accurate information has become a necessity to survive in an increasingly competitive world (Eric Yu, 2004). Developments like dynamic cooperation networks, mass customization of products and services, and end-to-end process control require automated means to control operational school processes, for the simple reason that humans cannot oversee the entire operation in an efficient and effective way anymore. Consequently, school requirements to information systems increase at a dazzling pace (Eric Yu, 2004). On the other hand, the rapid developments in information technology give way to application types that simply were not feasible just a few years ago. These developments range from basic computing technology via communication technology and a broad spectrum of data and process management technology to complete frameworks for enterprise information systems and elearning systems. Consequently, technology push forces have a major influence on current developments (Eric Yu, 2004). Lake Side Collage secondary school is one the leading secondary school in Uganda, offering secondary educations to thousands of students in Uganda. Lake Side Collage Secondary School started as a small training Centre for Adventists in 1989 with a small number of students. But within the last ten years Lake Side Collage secondary school student population has grown exponentially in numbers yet the school still employ a manual system of report and result processing.

Lake Side Collage secondary currently uses a manual system to manage student record and generate reports, this manual system is slow, time consuming and it‟s very difficult to monitor student‟s performance as a result of the distributed nature of storing student‟s report and results. A report regenerating information system is a computerized information system that will automate the process of report generation, and grading, automate result calculation and keep records of all the students in the school there by making it easy to track students‟ performance all around the years they have been at Lake Side Collage secondary school by just a click of the mouse (Wikipedia, 2012) 1.2 Case Study Description Lake side collage started as a small primary school in 1989 to provide low level education for Adventist living around Luzira village. In 1992 Lake Side Collage was transformed into a secondary school for both Ordinary level and Advanced level. Today lake side collage secondary school is one of the leading secondary schools in Uganda providing ordinary and advanced level education. The school currently uses a manual system of reporting and result processing. This manual system is slow, tiresome and makes it impossible to track students‟ performance. 1.3 Problem Statement The current system is manual, this system is slow, prone to error and it makes it impossible to track students‟ performance from class to class. The designed system will automate result processing and report generation, store student details there by making it easy and efficient to track a student‟s performance throughout his life time at Lake Side Collage School

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1.4 Project Objectives 1.4.1 General Objective of the Study To develop an information system that will handle result and report processing as well as store student records for easy access and monitoring 1.4.2 Specific Objectives i. To study the current system identifying its inefficiencies and its strength ii. To design an information system to keep track of students report as well facilitate report and result processing iii. To implement the developed result and report processing information system iv. To test and validate the developed system by use of case study 1.5 Scope of the study The scope of this project will be limited to keeping student records, generate termly reports and compute student marks at the end of every term. The project will also make it easy to track student records and performance throughout the course of the students study at lakeside collage Luzira. However the system excludes computing teacher salaries and other administrative activities 1.6 Justification of the Study With the current increases in the population of students, at lake side collage the manual system employed by lake side collage will not be able to track student performance, generate reports on time, and compute student marks with minimum delay, hence an automated report and result processing system is necessary and justifiable.

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction
With the apparently simple premise of universal connectivity and accessibility, Internet computing is changing the field of information systems fundamentally. It is redrawing the map of information systems. As barriers to connectivity are removed, products and processes are being redefined. Quality criteria are shifting. New social structures are emerging around systems both in the user‟s world and in the developer‟s world. People‟s conception of what computers can do, and what they can be trusted to do, are evolving. (Michael Papazoglou, 2001)

A Report Generator is an application whose purpose is to take data from a source such as an XML data feed or any application like spread sheet and then use it to produce a document in a format which satisfies a particular human readership. Report generation functionality is almost always present in database systems, where the source of the data is the database itself. It can also be argued that report generation is part of the purpose of a Spreadsheet. (John Mylopoulos, 1998) Information Systems theory specifies that information delivered to a target human reader must be Timely, Accurate and Relevant. Report generation software targets the final requirement by making sure that the information delivered is presented in the way most readily understood by the target reader. Report generators are used to store data by a user and retrieve information from files (Rob Kling, 1996) 2.2 Information Systems Information System is a combination of people, hardware, software, communication devices, network and data resources that processes (can be storing, retrieving, transforming information) data and information for a specific purpose. The operation theory is just similar to any other system, which needs inputs from user (key in instructions and commands, typing, scanning). The inputted data then will be processed (calculating, reporting) using technology devices such as computers, and produce output (printing reports, displaying results) that will be sent to another user or other system via a network and a feedback method that controls the operation. The

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picture below shows the procedure of Information System when it works (Langer, Arthur M, 2008) Input

Data; Information Instruction

Processing

Calculating Programming, Storing

Output

Printing; Reports Graphics

Feedback

Figure 2.1 shows an information system

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2.3 History of Information Systems

Figure 2.2 showing history of information systems Information systems have evolved from data processing systems in the 1950s and 1960 to Electronic commerce information systems that support e-business with each being an improvement of the previous version. 2.4 Types of Information Systems 2.4.1 Transaction Processing System (TPS) A Transaction Processing System (TPS) is a type of information system that collects, stores, modifies and retrieves the data transactions of an enterprise. Not so long ago, Transaction Processing Systems were the exclusive domain of mainframe computers. Typical examples of such systems would be Airline Reservation Systems, Banking Systems, or the Accounting System of almost any large company. Because of this, Transaction Processing Systems are mostly unknown to the world of personal computers.

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But all of this is about to change drastically, and it's all because of the Internet. Today, many small companies, non-commercial organizations, and even private individuals are discovering applications that can benefit from a Transaction Processing System (Langer, 2008) The main problems addressed by Transaction Processing Systems are:
  

The need to handle hundreds, even thousands of simultaneous Users The need to allow many Users to work on the same set of data, with immediate updating The need to handle errors in a safe and consistent manner

2.4.2 Management Information System (MIS) A Management Information System is used by managers throughout the organization to help them in directing, planning, coordinating, communicating, and decision-making. MIS is a formalized computer information system which can integrate data from various sources to provide the information necessary for decision-making at the management level. An organized assembly of resources and procedures required to collect, process, and distribute data for use in decision-making (Eckstein, spring 2007) MIS refers broadly to a computer-based system that provides managers with the tools for organizing, evaluating and efficiently running their departments. In order to provide past, present and prediction information, an MIS can include software that helps in decision-making, data resources such as databases, the hardware resources of a system, decision support systems, people management and project management applications, and any computerized processes that enable the department to run efficiently (Eckstein, Spring 2007) 2.4.3 Decision Support System (DSS) A Decision Support System (DSS) is a collection of integrated software applications and hardware that form the backbone of an organization‟s decision making process. Companies across all industries rely on decision support tools, techniques, and models to help them assess and resolve everyday business questions. The decision support system is data-driven, as the entire process feeds off of the collection and availability of data to analyze. Business Intelligence
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(BI) reporting tools, processes, and methodologies are key components to any decision support system and provide end users with rich reporting, monitoring, and data analysis (G.M.Marakas 1999) 2.4.4 Executive Support System (ESS) A ESS (or DSS more in general) is a software system under control of one of many decisionmakers that assists in their activity of decision making by providing and organized set of tools intended to impart structure to portions of the decision making situation and to improve the ultimate effectiveness of the decision outcome". (G.M. Carte, 1992) Sharing the same concepts of a DSS, an ESS focuses more in the end-user requirements of maximum interactivity and user-friendliness. An ESS can be understood as a friendly, fully customized and interactive DSS to be mostly used by top executives and policy-makers to get permanent and updated assessment in relation to key questions (information and knowledge). While a complete DSS will have efficient links to external large databases and

advanced models, an ESS focuses only on interactive and executive assessment tools, those which can be used personally by end-users. An ESS requires a previous expert work filtering information and knowledge into meaningful indicators and tools. (Turban E, 1998) 2.5 Components of Information Systems 2.5.1 Hardware The term hardware refers to machinery. This category includes the computer itself, which is often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipment. Among the support equipment are input and output devices, storage devices and communications devices. (Richard T. Watson, 2007).

2.5.2 Software The term software refers to computer programs and the manuals (if any) that support them. Computer programs are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the
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hardware parts of the CBIS to function in ways that produce useful information from data. Programs are generally stored on some input / output medium, often a disk or tape. (Richard T. Watson, 2007). 2.5.3 Data Data are facts that are used by programs to produce useful information. Like programs, data are generally stored in machine-readable form on disk or tape until the computer needs them. (Richard T. Watson, 2007).

2.5.4 Procedures: Procedures are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system. "Procedures are to people what software is to hardware" is a common analogy that is used to illustrate the role of procedures in an Information System (Richard T. Watson, 2007).

2.5.5 People The people component of an information system encompasses all those individuals who are directly involved with the system. These people include the managers who define the goals of the system, and the users. Information Systems needs people if it is to be useful. Often the most over-looked element of the Information System are the people, probably the component that most influence the success or failure of information systems (Richard T. Watson, 2007).

2.6 Application of Information Systems Information system has been applied in many fields, in business Transaction processing systems to track sales, in schools admission information systems to handle admissions, in flights, reservation information systems for airlines and many more other fields in Computer science 2.7 Conclusion It is time to consider that the failure to improve learning might lie precisely in the assumption that the problem is one of performance to be solved by pushing the existing model to do better. Rather, we have instead a design problem, a need for radically different forms of schooling that
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can better educate the majority of students who, relative to their potential, are underachieving in the factory model of school and the solution lie in information systems that require less human interaction

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CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter describes the tools, techniques that were employed to achieve the specific objectives of the Report generating information system. The development of the System was based on the waterfall mode life cycle. It involves feasibility study, requirement analysis, requirement determination, system design, implementation, testing and validation. This approach below describes the following sequence of steps. 3.2 system study This involved studying the current system to identify its weaknesses and its strength. To achieve this researcher employed two methods of data collection. 3.2.1 Questionnaire A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. This was carried out on the school staff, the teachers who are the current users if the manual system. A set of questions were drafted regarding the efficiency of the current system. The questionnaire were distributed and later picked when they had been answered. The respondents‟ views were analyzed. This method had the following advantages i. This method gave the respondents enough time to understand the questions and this was reflected in the answers given This method provided clear mind facts about the current system and this helped the researcher in understanding fully the weaknesses and strength of the manual system in use However this method also had some disadvantages i. ii. Some hand writings were un readable Some respondents misfired on some questions Because of these disadvantages of questionnaire the researcher used a second method in order to better understand the current system
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ii.

3.2.2 Interviews This was carried out on heads of department who are responsible for generating reports for their respective departments. A set of interview guide questions were set and the researcher had a one on one meeting with each head of department. This method helped the researcher to learn about the current system in the words of the immediate users of the manual system. In here the researcher was exposed to firsthand information directly from the users The analysis of the results of the two methods of data collection here made the researcher to understand the weaknesses and the strength of the current system hence the researcher achieved her first objective 3.3 System Design Systems design is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. One could see it as the application of systems theory to product development. There is some overlap with the disciplines of systems analysis, systems architecture and systems engineering. This was divided into logical and physical design 3.3.1Logical design The logical design of a system pertained to an abstract representation of the data flows, inputs and outputs of the system. This was conducted via modeling, using an over-abstract (and sometimes graphical) model of the actual system. In the context of systems design are included. Logical design included Entity Relationship Diagrams. The data base design was based on the relational data model and the database was designed using Microsoft access 2003 3.3.2 Physical design The physical design relates to the actual input and output processes of the system. This is laid down in terms of how data is input into a system, how it is verified/ authenticated, how it is processed, and how it is displayed as output. This was broken down into three sub-tasks: 1. User Interface Design 2. Data Design
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3. Process Design

User Interface Design was concerned with how users add information to the system and with how the systems presents information back to them. Data Design was concerned with how the data is represented and stored within the system. Finally, Process Design was concerned with how data moves through the system, and with how and where it is validated, secured and/or transformed as it flows into, through and out of the system. At the end of the systems design phase, documentation describing the three sub-tasks was produced and made available for use in the next phase. In here the researcher achieved here second objective 3.4 System Implementation This involved making the new system available to a prepared set of users (the deployment), and positioning on-going support and maintenance of the system within the school (the transition). At a finer level of detail, deploying the system consisted of executing all steps necessary to educate the Consumers on the use of the new system, placing the newly developed system into production, confirming that all data required at the start of operations was available and accurate, and validating that all school functions that interact with the system are functioning properly. Transitioning the system support responsibilities involves changing from a system development to a system support and maintenance mode of operation, with ownership of the new system moving from the Project Team to the school. The system was implemented on a Pentium III computer running windows XP operating system and also having Microsoft office 2003 and visual basic programming language. In here the researcher achieved her third objective 3.5 System Testing System testing was conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. This was performed on the entire system in the context of a Functional Requirement Specification and System Requirement Specification. System testing was not only limited to the design, but also the behaviour and even the believed expectations of the customer. It was also intended to test up to and beyond the bounds defined in
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the software/hardware requirements specification. The aim here was to identify errors that could arise while using the system. In here the researcher achieved her last objective 3.6 System Validation The system was used by different departments to generate student reports, enter and calculate student grades and track student performance. This helped the researcher to achieve her last objective

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CHAPTER FOUR SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 4.1 System Design This comprises two parts physical design and logical design. 4.1.1 Functional requirements    System should be faster in producing reports. System should System should be secure to some level.

4.1.2 Functional requirements  System should provide fast searching capabilities.  System should surmmarise the results for the administration.  System should follow up on fees defaulters. 4.1.3 Physical design Under the physical design the researcher implements the system using design strategies that describe how the data will be stored including data types for the database and the locations where the data will be stored. It includes the physical ERD and the tables. 4.1.4 Logical design This is an abstract representation of the system without the physical storage of the data and the format in which the data is to be stored. This includes the logical ERD capture from the database management system and the logical DFD.

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4.2 A physical Entity Relationship Diagram

Figure 4.1 shows a physical Entity Relationship diagram. 4.3 Physical Design of the Database Tables in details a) Students table

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Field name Reg_Index First_name last_name Residence D_O_B Gender Address Guardian Tel_guad Level Class Combination sudjects_cod imagepath

Data type Text Text Text Text Date/Time Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text

Description Being a student‟s Registration or index number The first name of a student The other names of a student The pace of residence The date of birth The students gender The address of the student‟s residence The immediate guardian of the student Contacts of the guardian Level attended by student Class of the student Combination if in A level Subjects code for O-levelers The path for the image on the disk

Table 1 above shows the students table b) Staff table Field name Staff_id First_name Last_name D_O_B Data type text Text Text Date/Time Description The staffs identification number The staff‟s first name Second name of the staff The date of birth of the staff
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Resicence Address Contact Post Subjects Level

Text Text Text Text Text text

The place of residence of the staff The address of the place of residence The contacts of the staff The post held by the staff The subjects qualified by the staff The level taught by the staff

Table 2 above shows the staff table d) Combination table

Field Name combination Sub1 Sub2 Sub3 Sub4 Sub5

Data type Text Text Text Text Text Text

description A combination offered at school First subject Second subject Third subject Fouth subject Fifth subject

Table 3 shows the combination table e) Fees table Field Name Reciept_NO Reg_Index Data Type AutoNumber Text Description Number identifying a Receipt Index or Registration Number of student
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Amount Balance Required Comment

Currency Currency Currency Text

Money deposited by student The balance left unpaid The amount each students is supposed to pay Comment on receipt

Table 4 shows the fees table f) Olevel_subs Field Name Subject_cod Sub1 Sub2 Sub3 Sub4 Sub5 Sub6 Sub7 Sub8 Sub9 Sub10 Data type Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text description A combination offered at school First subject Second subject Third subject Fouth subject Fifth subject Six subject Seventh subject Eighth subject Ninth subject Tenth subject

Table 5 shows the Olevel_subs table g)OlevelResult Field Name Oresult_no Data Type Text Description Number identifiying a result
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Reg_Index Term Year No_of_subs subjects_code mark1 mark2 mark3 mark4 mark5 mark6 mark7 mark8 mark9 mark10 grade1 grade2 grade3 grade4 grade5 grade6 grade7 grade8

Text Text Number Number Text Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text

Index or Registration Number of student The term the exam was done Year of study Number of subjects a student offers The code identifying the subjects Mark for the first subject Mark for the second subject Mark for the third subject Mark for the fourth subject Mark for the fifth subject Mark for the six subject Mark for the seventh subject Mark for the eighth subject Mark for the ninth subject Mark for the Tenth subject Grade for the first subject Grade for the second subject Grade for the third subject Grade for the fourth subject Grade for the fifth subject Grade for the six subject Grade for the seventh subject Grade for the eighth subject

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grade9 grade10 points Staff_id

Text Text Number Text

Grade for the ninth subject Grade for the Tenth subject Points from total grades Staff identity responsible

Table 6 shows the O’level Result table e) AlevelResult table Field Name Oresult_no Reg_Index Term Year comb No_of_subs mark1 mark2 mark3 mark4 mark5 grade1 grade2 grade3 grade4 grade5 Data Type Text Text Text Number Text Number Number Number Number Number Number Text Text Text Text Text Description Number identifiying a result Index or Registration Number of student The term the exam was done Year of study Combination offered by student Number of subjects a student offers Mark for the first subject Mark for the second subject Mark for the third subject Mark for the fourth subject Mark for the fifth subject Grade for the first subject Grade for the second subject Grade for the third subject Grade for the fourth subject Grade for the fifth subject
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points Staff_id

Number Text

Points from total grades Staff identity responsible

Table 7 shows the AlevelResults table

4.4 Logical Design of the Entity Relationship Diagram

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Figure 4.2 shows a logical Entity Relationship Diagram 4.5 Data Flow Diagrams 4.5.1 Context Diagram This is logical representation of the entire system as a whole. It shows how the system interacts with external entities.

Figure 4.3 shows a Context Diagram 4.5.2 Level 1 Logical Data Flow Diagram This is the first break down of the contest diagram, it shows the first level sub processes that make up the report generating system.

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Logical Level 1 Data Flow Diagram

Figure 4.4 shows a Logical Level 1 Data Flow Diagram

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4.6 System Implementation This describes step by step how the system runs and what is required for the system to run properly. 4.6.1 Implementation Requirements For the Report Generation system to be implemented, the following software and hardware requirements must be met.  The system requires a well installed computer that has; a mouse, keyboard, a printer, monitor and a tower or desktop. The CPU show at least be a Pentium IV in order to improve the speed to the require one. The system also requires RAM not less that 512MB and a disk space of about 80GB minimum.  The system should be installed on a windows operating system specifically windows XP or later versions but not earlier versions. 4.6.2 Program Execution sequence This describes the steps gone through when running the system has been installed. a) Welcome interface This is the first interface on running the system and it presents options for logging in and quitting if the user is not interested.

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Figure 4.5 shows the welcome form b) Password form

Figure 4.6 shows the login form. This is for user verification; it is also used by the admin to add users to the system and edit the credentials of existing users.
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c) MDI form This is where all the other forms are loaded from it appears when the user logs in successfully.

Figure 4.7 shows the MDI form d) Staff Registration form This is where the staff details are entered when creating their records. It has several navigation buttons and database manipulation buttons for saving, deleting records, clearing the form and searching for records in the database.

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Figure 4.8 shows the staff registration form. e) Combination Registration and creation form. This is the form used to create and register the combinations that are offered at Lakeside College Luzira. The form also has all the database manipulation and navigation buttons.

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Figure 4.9 shows the combination registration form f) O-level Subjects Registration form This is used to record the different subjects done by different students in O-Level at the college. The form also has database manipulation and navigation buttons.

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Figure 4.10 shows the O-Level subjects Registration form g) Students Registration form This is the form used for registering students at Lakeside College Luzira. The form is also used for both navigating through the students records and manipulating them.

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Figure 4.11 shows the students registration form h) A-Level results data entry form The form is used to enter and manipulate Records concerning the marks for the A-level students at Lakeside College Luzira.

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Figure 4.12 shows the A-level Results entry and manipulation form i) O-Level Result Entry and Manipulation form The form is used to enter and manipulate Records concerning the marks for the A-level students at Lakeside College Luzira.

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Figure 4.13 shows the O-level Results entry and manipulation form j) O-level Report This is an automatically generated report that is one of the main goals of the project. The report contains a variety of information concerning the student yet stored in different location hence maintaining data integrity.

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Figure 4.14 shows the O-Level Report k) A-Level Report This like the previous contains information regarding the performance of the students in A-Level and any other relevant information from the database.

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Figure 4.15 shows the A-level Report l) Fees summary report This is a report generated form management to monitor fees for students before they are handed their reports.

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Figure 4.16 shows the Fees Summary report. m) Result Analysis form This is for analyzing the results for all or particular students.

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Figure 4.17 shows the A-level Results Analysis form

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CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Discussion Today technology is controlling the way everything is done, from medical research to education, to manufacturing and as everyone joins the bandwagon so are secondary schools. Technology has a reciprocal relationship with teaching and school operations, the emergence of new technologies pushes educators to understand and leverage these technologies for classroom use; and school result processing activities. While many new technologies have emerged throughout history, so has the cry for educators to find meaningful ways to incorporate these technologies into the classroom and other school activities be it the typewriter, the television, the calculator, or the computer for result and report processing. But while some professional educators may have become numb to this unwavering „call‟ and for good reason, it is crucial to consider that the excitement that comes with technology over games and social networking. This isn‟t just about business and industry “crying wolf.” Indeed, those previous technologies have a powerful place in instruction and the classroom and all other school activities; but without them, school objectives can still be achieved. With these more recent technologies, however one would think educators should take the call, even if only on a trial basis. So as populations in secondary schools soar, the increasing call for educators to implement technology and replace manual system with automated systems is becoming evident and since it is clear that education is no different from the other sectors in its need to adapt and modify to the transforming world, it is also clear that many educators currently already implement excellent teaching practices and are able to skillfully create dynamic learning environments and adapt to changing social, economic and political needs of society

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5.2 Conclusion Many agree that technologies have much to offer to the education sector. Yet while the benefits of these offerings are still making themselves apparent, a growing number of educators are making sure they are on the front-end of the wave. The impact of technology is evident in every ramification of the education sector. This research supports the idea of technology to enhance report generation in secondary schools much as the question still looms of where this work headed? And what does the future look like? While no one can say for sure, it is clear that the strong academic examples and applications of information technology is growing exponentially. And as other school refuse to join the bandwagon citing expenses, the schools that have embraced information system for report generation offer us a glimpse at where the front-runners of the field are headed. 5.3 Recommendation

The researcher recommends the following about the system: a) The researcher recommends that the administrators and staff of Lake Side Collage be trained on how to use the system, thus enabling them to understand the functionality of the entire system. b) More research on this system is required to fully identify and eliminate some of the weaknesses and integrate it with banks to enable online payment c) There is need for the system upgrade as user‟s requirements increase. User requirements differ with time, therefore, it is of great help for the system to be flexible enough. d) Other researchers can use this project report as a basis during future study of Report generating system e) The system should be made affordable so as to encourage other schools in patronizing the system

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References 1. Eric Yu (2004), Information Systems (in the Internet Age) 2. Michael Papazoglou (2001) Agent-oriented technology in support of e-business. Communications of the ACM 44(4): 71-77. 3. John Mylopoulos (1998) "Information Modeling in the Time of the Revolution", Invited Review, Information Systems 23(3/4): 127-155. 4. Rob Kling (1996) Computerization and Controversy: Value Conflicts and Social Choices. 2nd ed. Academic Press 5. Eckstein, Spring( 2007) Management Information Systems Rutgers Business School / Undergraduate New Brunswick 6. Microstrategy(2012), http://www.microstrategy.com/decision-support-system/ retrieved on 6th June 2012 7. 8. G.M.Marakas (1999) "Decision Support Systems in the 21th Century", G.M. Carter, M.P.Murray, R.G. Walker, W.E.Walker (1992)"Building Organizational Decision Support Systems", 9. Turban E. & Aronson J.E. ( 1998) "Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems", 1998"Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems", 10. Richard T. Watson, (2007). Information Systems by the Global Text Project 11. Langer, Arthur M (2008) Analysis and Design of Information Systems 3 rd edition

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12. Ted kolderie and Tim mcdonald | ,(2009) How Information Technology Can Enable 21 Century Schools

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APPENDICES Appendix A: Interview Guide Questions Name: …………………………………………………. Section: ……………………………………………….. Qn 1: How long have you been working with Lake Side collage school? Qn 2: Have you ever heard of a report generation system. If yes what is your view about it? Qn 3: Have you ever used a report generating system? Qn 4: How long does it take you to process a report for a single student? Qn 5: How is student information stored currently? Qn 8: On a scale of 10 how would you rate the current system you are using in relation to those used by other school?

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Appendix B: Questionnaire
Am Achieng Susan a student of Kyambogo pursuing Bachelors of Information Technology and Computing, am carrying out research on Report generation Information System as part of the requirements for completing the course. Am currently collecting data on the manual system of report generation by Lake Side Collage Luzira. Please help me by answering the questions under listed below. Information provided here will be kept private. Thank you

Q1. How do you rate the overall service provided by the current system? 1. Very good 2. Fair 3. Needs improvement 4. Very poor Q2. What is your view about automated report generating system? ............................................................................................................................................. Q3.Would you recommend an automated report generation system? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Q4.What is the mode of student detail storage currently? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Q5 How is student grades generated? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Q6. How are the marks of students computed? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Q7. What recommendations would you make regarding automated report generation system?
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………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Thank you

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