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Dan Meiron

Caltech

D. Meiron (Caltech)

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So far we have categorized the three types of points we can encounter in linear ODEs The easiest is if the point is ordinary. In that case we can use Taylor series If a point is singular then we showed that under certain circumstances it could be a regular singular point In that case the behavior at the point is that of a general power law or a logarithmic singularity or some combination If the singular point is not a regular singular point, then it is an irregular singular point.

D. Meiron (Caltech)

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In this case the nature of the singularity is like that of an essential singularity in the complex plane. You may recall from your work in complex analysis that the behavior near such a point can be very complicated. And that there is no general theory to help guide us. However, it is still possible to perform certain types of analyses that give us insight into the behavior near the singular point. Here we give an example of what is possible.

D. Meiron (Caltech)

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Consider the modied Bessel equation again: y + y 2 1 2 y = 0. x x

Recall is a parameter that gives you the order of the Bessel function. Its generally an integer but it can be any kind of number - even complex. This ODE has an irregular singular point at . To see this we simply make the substitution x 1/t The ODE becomes d 2y 2 1 1 + 2 4 2 y =0 2 t dt t t t As t 0 we see there is an irregular singular point.

D. Meiron (Caltech) ACM 100b - Methods of Applied Mathematics January 27, 2013 4 / 14

To analyze the ODE we return to the original form in x y + y 2 1 2 y = 0. x x

We will try to understand what the two solutions are doing as x . First well choose = 0 for a denite case. To analyze this we rst make the following substitution: v (x) y (x) = . x In terms of v (x) the ODE becomes v + 1 1 v = 0. 4x 2

We didnt have to do this but it makes our work a little easier by eliminating the v term in the ODE.

D. Meiron (Caltech) ACM 100b - Methods of Applied Mathematics January 27, 2013 5 / 14

Now look at the resulting ODE: v + 1 1 v = 0. 4x 2

Now note that as x the ODE becomes v v = 0, We know how to solve this. The solutions are v (x) = exp(x). An exponential does indeed exhibit an irregular singular point as x . So we might guess that the Bessel functions behave like this and this conclusion is basically correct.

D. Meiron (Caltech) ACM 100b - Methods of Applied Mathematics January 27, 2013 6 / 14

We will now write y (x) = for one of the solutions. What we are doing is peeling away the types of behavior the solutions have as we approach the irregular singular point The function w(x) can be shown to satisfy w + 2w + w = 0. 4x 2 exp(x) w(x) x

By trial and error, we can show that one can get a series solution for this ODE as x . But it is not a Frobenius expansion because the point x is still an irregular singular point.

D. Meiron (Caltech) ACM 100b - Methods of Applied Mathematics January 27, 2013 7 / 14

The following expansion can be derived:

w(x) =

n=0

an x n .

As you will see we will get a recursion relation for the coefcients an . Note this is not a Frobenius expansion because its in powers of 1/x. We could argue that this is the Frobenius expansion about t = 1/x. But we will see that this idea is not quite right for reasons we uncover below.

D. Meiron (Caltech)

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We can try to see if we can get a recursion relation for the coefcients. If we plug in the series we nd that we are successful. We get the following recursion relation: an+1 = an (2n + 1)2 , 4(n + 1)

with a0 arbitrary. In this series, the coefcients are 33 a1 = a0 42 (5 5)(3 3) a2 = a0 (4 4)(3 2) (7 7)(5 5)(3 3) a3 = a0 (4 4 4)(4 3 2) and so forth.

D. Meiron (Caltech) ACM 100b - Methods of Applied Mathematics January 27, 2013 9 / 14

But look at the way the coefcients behave as n Or use the ratio test on this series. But in a Frobenius expansion, we expect to nd a nite radius of convergence Because the expansion is supposed to describe a locally analytic function. These coefcients do not decrease with increasing n. In fact they blow up factorially. This series is certainly not a Frobenius series. It has zero radius of convergence and is divergent!

D. Meiron (Caltech)

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Asymptotic expansions

So we see that analysis of irregular singular points leads to essential singularities and divergent expansions Nevertheless, it turns out the divergent series is useful in describing the behavior of the Bessel function. It is called an asymptotic expansion and can actually give very accurate values of the Bessel function for x large when used properly. This topic is explored in detail in ACM 101. But well show that the series we got can actually be used to evaluate the Bessel function for large x.

D. Meiron (Caltech)

11 / 14

A similar derivation as above will get you the asymptotic expansion for = 5. We will look at the growing solution - the one that grows like exp(x) We have the (divergent) series 1 exp(x) 100 1 (100 1)(100 9) I5 (x) = + 1 x 1!8x 2!(8x)2 2

D. Meiron (Caltech)

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D. Meiron (Caltech)

13 / 14

The table above shows what happens when we evaluate partial sums of this series Note that after a certain number of terms the answer starts to diverge (depending on the value of x) Thats as it should be - its a divergent series, But the value you get before it does diverge is quite accurate And this accuracy improves as x gets large. This is why such series are useful even if they are divergent.

D. Meiron (Caltech)

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