Part 1
Lecture Outline
Lumped and Distributed Models Network/Circuit Conservation of Charge KCL Conservation of Energy KVL
p2
Melchor Hall
UP Chapel
DEEE Bldng.
 Meralco views the total consumption of an entire household as load  The only information you get is the KWH you consumed when you get an electric bill
Zeroresistance wires
1.5V
50
1.5V
53
Wire (0.5m)
Network / Circuit
Current is measured as the flow of charge through the cross section of a circuit element Voltage is measured across the ends of a circuit element Electrical circuit consist of various types of circuit elements connected by conductors
Circuit elements: sources, resistors, inductors and
Network / Circuit
Topology
Branch of geometry which is concerned with those properties of a geometrical figure which are unchanged when the figure is twisted, bent, folded, stretched, squeezed, or tied in knots, with the provision that NO parts of the figure are to be cut apart or to be joined together
Network / Circuit
Nodes  where two or more circuit elements are connected
A B C
Network / Circuit
Path a set of elements that may be traversed in order without passing through the same node twice Branch a single path, containing one simple element, which connects one node to any other node
Network / Circuit
Path
A B C
Path 1: going through source, 1k and 2.7k resistors Path 2: going through 2.2pF, 2.7k and 10mH
p9
Network / Circuit
Loop a closed path
In an electrical circuit, a loop is a closed path starting at a node and proceeding through circuit elements, eventually returning to the starting node.
L1
L2
Network / Circuit
Mesh a loop that does not contain any other loops within it
M1
M2
p 11
Network / Circuit
Planar circuits a circuit which may be drawn on a plane surface in such a way that no branch passes over or under any other branch
p 12
Network / Circuit
Nonplanar circuits  any circuit that is not planar.
p 13
Series Connection
Consider the circuit
a
i i i i i i
The circuit comprises a loop. Every node has only 2 elements connected to it. The current through each element is the same.
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 14
Parallel Connection
Consider the circuit
i i i i i
ix X
iy
Y V

Same circuit as before except for an extra element. The voltage across the elements X & Y is the same.
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 15
Conservation of Charge
The algebraic sum of all electric charges in any closed system is constant. Charge can be transferred from one body to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
p 16
Conservation of Charge
Consider the junction in the circuit:
Q Q1
Conservation of Charge
Q = Q1 + Q2
Taking the derivative
Q Q1 Q 2 = + t t t
Q2 But i =
Q t
i = i1 + i 2
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 17
Example: KCL
b
(a) iw = is (b) is ix iy iz = 0
or
is = ix + iy + iz
p 19
Conservation of Energy
Energy can not be created or destroyed, it is converted from one form to another.
p 20
10
Conservation of Energy
Consider the circuit: Dissipated energy for each element
 Voltage Source Ps = VsIs  Element x Px = VxIx  Element y Py = VyIy
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 21
Conservation of Energy
Consider the circuit: At any instant,
P =0
Ps +Px + Py = 0 VsIs + VxIx + VyIy= 0 But Is = Ix = Iy VsIs + VxIs + VyIs= 0 Canceling Is Vs + Vx + Vy= 0
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 22
11
= voltage drop
p 23
Total
Example: KVL
3 Loop 1: 9 + 1 + 5 + 3 = 0 Loop 2: 3 + VX 4 5 = 0
or VX = 12
Loop 3: 9 + 1 3 + 12 4 + 3 = 0
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 24
12
KVL
Resistors in Series
13
Equivalent Voltage: Veq = VS1 + VS2 You cannot put two voltage sources in parallel unless they have the same value.
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 27
Resistors in Parallel
Req =
R1R2 R1 + R2
Equivalent Resistance:
1 1 1 = + Req R1 R 2
p 28
14
Equivalent Current:
You cannot put two current sources in series unless they have same value.
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 29
Example 1
Find the current IS.
KCL: IS = I1 + I2 + I3 I1 I2 I3
I2 =
5V = 100mA 50
I3 =
5V = 1A 5
15
Determine Req:
1 1 1 1 = + + Req 100 50 5 1 = 0.23 Req
KVL:
Is = 5V 5V = Req 4.348
or Req = 4.348
IS = 1.15A
Example 3
I1
V1 = 40mA 100 Since R1 and R2 are in series, I1 is the same current through R2
Ohms Law: I1 =
V3 = Vs = 10V
p 32
16
Example 4
a
I1 IS I2
KCL at node a:
Is = I1+ I2
From previous example, we found I1= 40 mA and V3= 10V V Ohms Law: I 2 = 3 = 40mA 250
Plugging in to the first equation,
Is = 40 mA + 40 mA = 80 mA
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 33
From previous example, we found VS = 10V R1 in series with R2 : Req1 = R1 + R2 Req1 = 100 + 150 = 250 Equivalent circuit:
Req1 is in parallel with R3
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 34
17
The resistance of two equal resistors in parallel is equivalent to half the original resistance.
p 35
Example 5
Find the equivalent resistance between nodes A and B. Simplify the circuit from left to right. Series resistance: Req1 = R1 + R2 + R3 = 80 + 30 + 40 Req1 = 150
EEE 31 Introduction to Electrical and Electronics Engineering p 36
18
Example 5
Req1 parallel R4 : Req1( R4 ) 150(75) Req2 = = Req1 + R4 150 + 75 Req2 = 50 Req2 series R5 : Req3 = 50 + 50 = 100
19
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