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– A NEW ALIEN SPECIES IN THE FLORA OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Semir Maslo Lundåkerskola Gislaved Sweden E.mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract A new alien species for the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina was found, namely Bromus catharticus Vahl. rescue grass. I first found this species in July 2005 in the village Gnjilište near Hutovo blato. Rescue grass is a South American annual or short-lived perennial grass, widely introduced as winter forage and found as an escape in most temperate regions. Commercial pasture varieties of this grass are available and are suited to the tablelands (Clayton et al., 2009). The paper presents a short morphological description and illustrations of the species based mainly on the collected specimens, as well as the distribution of the taxon.
Keywords: alien species, morphology, distribution.
Introduction Bromus catharticus Vahl. belongs to subgenera Ceratochloa (Beauv.) Hackel. No representative of subgenera Ceratochloa (Beauv.) Hackel. is spontaneous in the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bromus catharticus cannot be confused with other species of Bromus from this flora. The native distribution range is South America, but it can be found widely naturalized elsewhere. Smith (1980) indicates Bromus catharticus as occasionally cultivated for fodder and locally naturalized in Southern Europe. It was recorded for the flora of Italy (Pignatti, 1982), Czech Republic (Pyšek et al., 2002), Great Britain (Ryves et al., 1996), Spain and Portugal (Acedo & Llamas, 1999), Denmark (Schou, 2009), France (Portal, 1995), Austria (NOBANIS, 2012), Germany (Conert 2000), Russia (Komarov, 1934), Sweden (Ekman, 1989) and Romania (Anastasiu, 2008). In the area of the former Yugoslavia rescue grass was recently found in Croatia in the Zadar area, (Milović et al., 2010., Nikolić, 2012). In the literature available to me, this plant was not known in the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and may be now considered a new member of it. Even Beck (Beck, 1903) did not mention it in the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Material and methods During fieldwork in 2005 on the Hutovo blato area, the author found a new alien species for the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bromus catharticus Vahl. Digital photographs and GPS coordinates were taken in field. Identification of the specimens was done according to SMITH, P. M. (1980), COPE T. & GRAY A. (2009), CONERT, H. J. (2000), HITCHCOCK, A. S. (1950), SCHOU, J.C. (2009), PORTAL, R. (1995), EKMAN, J. (1989):) and PETERSON, P. M. & A. M. PLANCHUELO. (1998). The taxonomy and nomenclature of species has been adjusted according to GRIN Taxonomy for Plants, online Database (2012).
Herbarium samples (No.inv. XX XXX) are stored in the Herbarium of the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina (SARA).
Fig.1. Bromus catharticus Vahl. A. Habit. –B. Ligule. – C. Spikelet. – D. Glumes. – E. Lemma. – F. Palea. – G. Gynoecium and androecium. – H. Caryopsis
(Drawing by Susan C. Escher, from publication Peterson, P. M & A. M. Planchuelo, 1998)
Results and discussion Rescue grass (Bromus cathaticus Vahl., synonymous with B. willdenowii Kunth., and B. unioloides Hum. Bonpl. et Kunth.), also known as prairie grass, originated in the Pampas of south America, widely introduced as a winter forage species, and now found as an escape in most temperate countries. The first finding of this species for Bosnia and Herzegovina is coming from 2005 in the village Gnjilišta (Fig. 2) and five years later in the area of Hutovo blato in South Herzegovina. In the first community this species is presented beside the local road Karaotok – Gnjilišta in the middle of the village (x=4772002, y=1657388), several massive colonies on both sides of the road. In the second community this species has been met on the embankments of the river Krupa near Karaotok, in this local presented only with single turfs. It prefers sunny and warm places, with light (often sandy or stony), moist, and moderate – fertile soils. It especially grows in disturbed habitats: waste places, cultivated fields, roadsides, riverbanks, and so on. The invasive character: Although it is not known yet from other localities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, its wide spread throughout the world leads to us considering it a species with a fairy high invasive potential into disturbed habitats, especially in southern Herzegovina. In Great Britain rescue grass is sometimes established and locally abundant as a weed of arable land in the south, especially in the Isles of Scilly and the Channel Islands (Ryves et al., 1996). It can occur as a weedy grass even in N America, in lawns and stands of Medicago sativa L. (Green et al., 2001). Bromus catharticus is regarded as an environmental weed in many parts of south-eastern Australia. It forms dense swards and replaces the native vegetation (Brawn et al., 2009). Genus Bromus L. comprises approximately 150 species found mainly in the temperate region of both hemispheres (Clayton & Renvoize, 1986). Traditionally, the closest related species in Bromus have been grouped only on the basis of their morphological similarities. Recently Acedo and Llamas (1999) have provided leaf anatomical data, allowing differentiation of some groups of species. The six subgenera of Bromus are: Bromus, Stenobromus Hackel, Festucoides Hackel, Ceratochloa ( Beauv.) Hackel, Neobromus Shear and Nevskiella Krecz. & Vvevd. (Acedo & Llamas, 2001). Subgenera Ceratochloa (Beauv.) Hackel. is native to North and South America, and contains about 25 species. It is marked by strong lateral compresse spikelets, with 3 – 12 florets. According to Smith (1980), two species from the Bromus subgenera Ceratochloa, occur in Europe – B. carinatus Hook & Arn and B. catharticus Vahl. Bromus catharticus Vahl species (Fig. 1) is a laxly caespitose grass, with erect or ascending stem, up to 100 – 150 cm high. Leaves up to 12 mm, glabrous or thinly hairy. Ligule roundly obtuse, 2 – 4 mm. The sheaths of upper leaves are glabrous, while those of lower leaves are shortly hairy (Fig 3). The spikelets are grouped in large panicles, with patent or nodding branches (Fig 4). The spikelets are lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 25 – 35 mm (excluding the awns), very strongly compressed, glabrous or scabrid, with 6 – 12 closely imbricate florets (Fig 5). Glumes are acuminate, unequal, sharply keeled on the back. Lemma is broadly lanceolate 14 – 18 x 5 – 7 mm, keeled on the back, rather corneous, with awn usually absent or up to 1 mm and weak. Palea is about half as long as lemma. Anthers are up to 4 mm, shorter in cleistogamous florets (Smith, 1980).
Fig. 2 habit
Fig. 3 leaf sheath and ligule
Fig. 4 panicle
Fig. 5 spikelet
Rescue grass was first introduced for fodder in England in 1788 (Cope, 2009). As well as escapes from cultivation it may also occur as an alien of grain and wool. Considered to be an invasive species in N America, it appears to be slowly increasing in Europe (Cope, 2009). This species reproduces entirely by seed. Seeds can be dispersed by wind and animals, and become attached to vehicles and clothing. The mode of introduction in our flora is not certain. It is possible that it happened accidentally, through vehicle transportation.
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