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ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF BHUTAN GAEDDU COLLEGE OF BUSINESS STUDIES GEDU: CHUKHA: BHUTAN BACHELOR IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BBA) PROJECT

WORK (705)

Topic of the Project:


Organic Farming A study on organic farming and its sustainability in Chukha Dzongkhag Group Members: Kencho Tshering Phuntsho Choden Ugyen Wangmo Dubjur Wangdi Tshiltrim Phuntsho Dechen Lhamo

GC (1)/0800512 GC (1)/0900836 GC (1)/0900838 GC (1)/0900842 GC (1)/0900858 GC (1)/0900864

Project Guide: Prof. K. Maitreyi

Submission Date: 10th November 2012

DECLARATION FORM Module Code: 705 Project Guide: Prof. K. Maitreyi Type of Course Work: Major Project Date of Submission: 10th November 2012

We hereby declare that this academic work is our own and those derived from other sources have been appropriately acknowledged. We understand that if found otherwise, our academic work will be cancelled and no mark will be awarded besides the legal consequences.

Kencho Tshering
GC (1)0800512

Phuntsho Choden
GC (1)0900836

Ugyen Wangmo
GC (1)0900838

Dubjur Wangdi
GC (1)0900842

Tshiltrim Phuntsho
GC (1)0900858

Dechen Lhamo
GC (1)0900864

For Project Evaluator Marking Criteria/ Q. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Marks Assigned ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Marks Secured ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) )

..( .....( .....( .....( ..........( .....( .....( Total Marks

Comments: Signature of Project Evaluator

Acknowledgement

The corporation and enormous contribution by all the supporters and group members deserve more than what is express in this paper. It is a result of tremendous team spirit, corporation and hard work. But it wont be enough to credit simply the group for the completion of the project as others were equally participative in contributing their perspective on the project topic. The foremost sincere appreciation and gratitude of the research team is for Prof. Maitreyi Kollegal for her modest support and guidance from grounding of the project till its completion. It was a great advantage for the team to have such an intellectual project guide to surpass us through all thick and thins while doing the project. We would like to express our sincere thanks to the Director and Dean of research and Industrial Linkage Mr. Sangay Rinzin for providing such an important work. It is due to the effective management headed by the dean of research who made the procedures and system of research smooth and effective. The research guidelines in fact were our special reference for laying out a brief outline for the project. In addition to this the team would also like to convey its gratitude to all the friends and colleague of GCBS for lending their help and support. The team thanks all the district heads, Farmers, Merchants and people of Chukha Dzongkhag. It is also our keen interest to thank the village head of Ketokha, Ap Dawa for his generous hospitality and service during the survey in Ketokha, the Gewog head of Chukha who permitted us to conduct our survey and made arrangements when required. We are very much gratified with all the support and cooperation from all these people and would once again like to offer our sincerest acknowledgement to each and every respected personnel.

Abstract;
Organic farming is one simple word but to sustain it has become a challenge. Every nation seems to have realized the need for such generosity and preserves their land for longer use and better management. The barrier to sustainability of organic farming in mainly caused due to excessive use of synthetic chemicals to the betterment of the yield. Synthetic chemicals evolved even before the First World War where people poured a huge amount of chemical in their field to feed their greed of more and more yields. In the due course of using chemicals as fertilizers, people forgot to understand the future consequence. Time has come to react for such situation or else the fertile land may become deserted without any other option to revert it. Soils have become hard due to use of fertilizers, minerals have been destroyed, micro organism dead and waters polluted. Agriculture catastrophe is yet to start if not prevented at this curtail point. Bhutan sensed the need of reconverting from inorganic to organic since early 2000s but on the contrary, use of synthetic chemicals increased every year hopping for the boosting yields. Poor farmers didnt consider the aftershock of this looter which will gradually eradicate all the belonging of their rich soil. Few years ago in 2007, Bhutan declared to go fully organic by 2020 but this plan is endangered by extensive import of agricultural products from India and leaving many lands barren in the rural arable places. Farmers migrated from rural area to urban and urban people had only a subsistence agriculture product. Soils degraded, imports increased, environment destroyed, health hampered, and tremendous harm is yet to occur if we do not act for betterment. Never the less the nation has enacted a framework to ensure sustainability and improvement in agricultural sector for better organic farming practices. Besides, Bhutan can also serve it GNH pillar for sustaining natural resource and preserving its tradition and culture through practice of organic farming. The countries mission to go fully organic is a paradigm and will be followed by other nations if it can walk the talk. The research team also aims to contribute best in its own way by studying the sustainability of organic farming. Due to various constraints viz. time, finance, labor, facility etc. the team will focus on Chukha Dzongkhag for more convenience.

List of tables
Table 1.1 Kind of manure used Table 1.2 Increase of households using chemical fertilizers... Table1.3 Awareness of the effect of chemicals... Table 1.4 Difficulties faced in collecting and generating manure.. Table 1.5 Adequacy water supplies Table 1.6 Cultivation for Commercial Purposes. Table 1.7 Difficulties in transporting farm product to the market. Table 1.8 Increase in the profitability of organic products Table 1.9 Will you commercialize your product if there is better market?............... Table 1.10 Source of labor force Table 1.11 Government support and subsidies received... Table 2.1Procurement of Stock.. Table 2.2 Number of Procurement per week. Table 2.3 Do farmers or agents supply organic products to your shop?................... Table 2.4 Customer Preference of Organic over Inorganic.......... Table 2.5 Which product do you sell more?............................................................. Table 2.6 Contract suppliers.. Table 2.7 Are you willing to sell more organic product if there is more supplier? Table 2.8 Will you support the plan of going fully organic by 2020?...................... 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22-23 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Cross Tabulation Table 3.1 Kind of manure used * Commercial Purpose ... Table 3.2 Kind of manure used * Difficulties in transportation ... Table 3.3 Kind of manure used * Awareness of the effect of chemicals...... Table 3.4 Kind of manure used * Difficulties in processing manure.... Table 3.5 Commercial Purpose * Difficulties in transportation . Table 3.6 Commercialization * Difficulties in transportation. Table 3.7 Village * Kind of manure used Cross tabulation. Table 3.8 Village * Commercial Purpose Cross tabulation. Table 3.9 Village * Trend of shift to inorganic farming . Table 4.1 Procurement of Stock * sales of stock ... Table 4.2 Willingness to sale organic product * Customer Preference of Organic.. Table 4.3 Willingness to sell * Contract suppliers . Table 4.4 Sales volume * Customer Preference of Organic over Inorganic. Chi-Square Table Table 5.1 Kind of manure used * Commercial Purpose . Table 5.2 Difficulties in transportation *Commercialization. Table 5.3 Distance from road * Kind of manure used .... 47 48 49 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 45 46

List of figures
Figure 1.1 Kind of manure used Figure 1.2 Increase of households using chemical fertilizers... Figure 1.3 Awareness of the effect of chemicals... Figure 1.4 Difficulties faced in collecting and generating manure.. Figure 1.5 Adequacy water supplies Figure 1.6 Cultivation for Commercial Purposes Figure 1.7 Difficulties in transporting farm product to the market. Figure 1.8 Increase in the profitability of organic products Figure 1.9 Willingness to commercialize there is better market................. Figure 1.10 Source of labor force Figure 1.11 Government support and subsidies received... Figure 2.1Procurement of Stock.. Figure 2.2 Number of Procurement per week. Figure 2.3 Presence of farmers and agents supplying vegetables ...................... Figure 2.4 Customer Preference of Organic over Inorganic.......... Figure 2.5 Which product do you sell more?............................................................. Figure 2.6 Contract suppliers.. Figure 2.7 Are you willing to sell more organic product if there is more supplier? Figure 2.8 Willingness to support the mission of going fully organic by 2020.......... 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22-23 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Acronyms

BAFRA: Bhutan Agricultural and Food Regulatory Authority FCB: IPM: INM: IFOAM: MOA: NRDC: NFOFB: NEC: RNR: RGOB: RSPN: SPSS: USDA: WFP: Food Corporation of Bhutan Integrated Pest Management Integrated Nutrient Management International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements Ministry Of Agriculture National Resource Defense Council National Framework for Organic Farming in Bhutan National Environment Commission Renewable Natural Resource Royal Government of Bhutan Royal Society for Protection of Nature Statistical Package for Social Science United States Department of Agriculture World Food Program

Table of Contents
Contents Acknowledgement....i Abstract...... ii List of Tableiii List of Figures.v Acronymsvi
Chapter I 11

1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 11 1.2 Problem Statement ........................................................................................................... 12 1.3 Objective ......................................................................................................................... 13 1.4 Research questions........................................................................................................... 13 1.5 Scope of the study............................................................................................................ 13 1.6 Limitation of the study ..................................................................................................... 14 1.7 Hypothesis ....................................................................................................................... 15
Chapter II 16

2.1 Literature Review ............................................................................................................ 16


Chapter III 19

Methodology ......................................................................................................................... 19
Chapter IV 22

4.1 Data Analysis and Interpretation ...................................................................................... 22 4.2 Farmers Cross Tabulation ................................................................................................ 45 4.3 Market Cross Tabulation .................................................................................................. 54 4.4 Hypothesis Testing .......................................................................................................... 57
Chapter V 60

5.1 Findings ........................................................................................................................... 60 5.2 Conclusion....................................................................................................................... 63 5.3 Recommendations............................................................................................................ 64


Appendix I II III

Chapter I 1.1 Introduction


Organic Farming is not using artificial chemicals in the growing of plants and animals for food and other products. The method of organic farming dates back to the time of earliest civilization when people started to grow crops near their shed. Organic farming method flourished till 18th century when chemicals interfered into farming methods. After the industrial revolution had introduced inorganic methods, some of which were not well developed and had serious side effects, an organic movement began in the mid-1920s in Central Europe through the work of Rudolf Steiner 1, who created biodynamic agriculture, an early version of organic agriculture. In case of Bhutan, it is a small country in the core of the Himalaya surrounded by the worlds most developed and advanced countries. With 79% of the population engaged in farming 2, its subsistence agriculture is gradually shifting to semi-commercial operations. With majority population engaged in farming, the RGOB also provides huge support and priority for development of agricultural sector. Ministry of agriculture supported the farmers with seeds, farm machinery, fertilizers, and many other advanced technologies at least or free of cost. When Bhutan provided chemical fertilizers to its farmers, their yield increased and pests and weeds were eradicated for the first few years, but it was realized as a mistake only in 2002 when the nation planned to formulate a framework for organic farming. The formulation of framework started in 2002 and took five years to complete when the nation officially announced it in 20073. Organic farming is a labor and knowledge intensive farming but in Bhutan there is shortage of labor. There are many departments like RNR, BAFRA, NEC and many others who are working to comply with the nations mission of going fully organic by 2020. The government hopes to

Paull John (2011). "Attending the First Organic Agriculture Course 1924 Promoting organic farming in Bhutan, 2008

2, 3

develop and promote organic farming as a way of life among Bhutanese farmers and trade in organic produce to enhance their incomes.

1.2 Problem Statement


Sustainability of organic farming is endangered due to many reasons and has become a major concern to the country and its people. The RGOB has set a mission to make Bhutan fully organic by 2020. Introduction to synthetic chemicals, import of more inorganic products, leaving land barren, farmers migrating to urban area causing labor constraints, and many others have become a challenge in improving organic farming in the country.
(A guide to organic farming in Bhutan 2007)

In

Tashigang, most of the farmers prefer to use chemical fertilizers over organic manure (Bhutan
Observer, 11th Feb. 2011). This might have happened due to few or no livestock to produce organic

manure. Other reasons may be due to increase in yield with the use of chemical fertilizers and unawareness of its adverse effect. In Chukha Dzongkhag, studies reveal that the organic farm products are dominated by inorganic farm products and farming practices
(Annual Dzongkhag statistics 2010).

Despite favorable climatic

conditions, farm productivity is low due to rugged terrain and limited farming infrastructure and facilities. To attain the nations organic goal and to sustain organic farming, it is important that organic farming gives good returns and less challenges. There could be many unspoken challenges for these organic farmers who are gradually shifting to inorganic farming along with those who are already into inorganic farming practices. 1.2.1 Importance of the Problem Since the concept of organic farming is new to many farmers practicing inorganic farm, it is important to know the constraints and suggest solutions for sustaining and improving organic farming. As Chukha is the main entry point for import and a commercial hub of the country it is important to concentrate on reducing excessive import of inorganic farm products and improve the organic standard of the native farmers. Since Chukha is very near to India, there is every chance that the organic farmers may be lured to the practice of inorganic farming. It is not too late to retain the organic farmers and convert other inorganic farms into organic farming practices.

1.3 Objective
1. To study the sustainability of organic farming in Chukha Dzongkhag. 2. To identify the challenges in promoting organic farming.

1.4 Research questions


1. 2. To what extent has the practice of organic farming changed? What are the different challenges faced in organic farming and how can they be overcome? 3. What are some of the reasons that have led farmers to practice organic farming? Is it by choice or by compulsion? 4. What are some of the essential supports required from government in order to enhance the practice of organic farming as well as commercializing?
5.

What are the reasons for non commercialization of organic products? Has profitability of organic products changed over the years and why?

6.

1.5 Scope of the study


This study will cover only some part of Chukha Dzongkhag due to various constraints like time and other resources. It will cover rural as well as urban places of the Dzongkhag. Other factors4 related to agricultural farming will be discussed to the extent that they have a bearing on organic farming. The following are the details of the areas covered; The study will concentrate on vegetable farming and marketing The study will be conducted in some specific places of Chukha Dzongkhag Both rural and urban places will be covered for data collection Phuentsholing, Pasakha and Gedu vegetable market will be covered.

Irrigation channel, road network, labor, total land holding etc.

1.6

Limitation of the study

Villages were scattered and separated with hills and forest with poor road and foot paths. The survey period was limited to one week and we couldnt reach to distant places due to rough terrains and wet forest. While interviewing the farmers, they responded based on memory as they do not have the practice of keeping farm records. Further, some farmers were reluctant to provide correct information regarding land holding and income from cash crop due to fear of tax. Farmers and merchants perceived us as government officials and complained about many personal problems diverting our time in other matters. Most farmers use local measurement units that differ from place to place. Instead of reporting in Kg and Acre they usually report in langdo, bjey, bags, baskets, which not only create difficulties in compilation but also affect the quality of data in terms of area and production. Since some of the group members were not fluent in Nepali and Hindi, it took quite a time for the group to interpret the questionnaires to the market vendors in Phuentsholing and other southern part of the Dzongkhag. Market vendors were busy with their customers since we happened to interview them during government holiday (Sunday) when customers visiting market is at peak hours. Quantity of vegetable Products in market differ from season to season. The data collected revealed huge commercialization in terms of organic products as it was harvesting season in Bhutan. The data collected in terms of quantity of vegetables sold or purchased may however contradict those collected in off seasons.

1.7 Hypothesis
In regard to the above problem, the research team has set the following hypothesis to see if organic farming can be sustained in Chukha and Bhutan as a whole. It is also to see if there are possibilities that the vegetable market will support in sustaining organic farming and going fully organic. Hypothesis test 1 H0: there is no relation between the kind of manure used and commercial farming. H1: there is relation difference between the kind of manure used and commercial farming. Hypothesis test 2 H0: there is no relation between difficulties in transporting & commercialization. H1: there is relation between the difficulties in transporting & commercialization.

Hypothesis test 3 H0: there is no relation between road accessibility and kind of manure used. H1: there is relation between road accessibility and kind of manure used.

Chapter II 2.1 Literature Review


According to IFOAM5 defines the overarching goal of organic farming as: "Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved" Beginning of organic farming has started ever since the evolution of farming and cultivation practice. Fully organic food production dates back to prehistoric times when human being grew food to survive. Artificial fertilizers had been invented during the 18th century, initially with superphosphates and then ammonia-based fertilizers mass-produced using the sophisticated process developed during World War I. These early fertilizers were cheap, powerful, and easy to transport in bulk. Similar advances occurred in chemical pesticides in the 1940s, leading to the decade being referred to as the 'pesticide era'. (Horne, Paul Anthony, 2008 integrated pest management for crops and pastures). In the 1980s organic agriculture began to receive renewed attention when the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) published their Report and Recommendations on Organic Farming. These reports and the awareness raised as a result, culminated in the Federal Organic Foods Production Act in 1990. This Act established the framework to create National Organic Standards (Heckman, 2006). There are also countries where the concept of organic farming was brought into existence through the demand of organic products. In 1988, the Primary and Allied Industries Council produced a report titled Implications of increasing world demand for organically grown food. By 1990s organic products occupied prime shelf space in the large supermarkets & organic farms were clustered near Australias big cities (Kondinin Group, 2000).

Definition of Organic Agriculture. IFOAM. http://www.ifoam.org/growing_organic/definitions/doa/index.html. retrieved 27/8/2012

Plants need nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as well as micronutrients and symbiotic relationships with fungi and other organisms to flourish. On the other hand, getting enough nitrogen and other soil nutrient at the right time is likely the greatest challenge for organic farmers. Crop rotations help to provide nitrogen through legumes which fix nitrogen from the atmosphere through symbiosis with rhizobial bacteria (Watson CA, Atkinson D, Gosling P, Jackson LR, Rayns FW. (2002). Intercropping, which is sometimes used for insect and disease control, can also increase soil nutrients, but the competition between the legume and the crop can be problematic and wider spacing between crop rows is required (Gillman J. 2008). For smooth and effective progress of sustaining organic farming, it also important to look at the basic input- seed. According to Micaela Colley and Matthew Dillon in the article, The next challenge; Breeding seed for organic systems they have mentioned three distinct forms of plant breeding: formal, farmer and participatory. Formal breeding can be either public or private, and is conducted by professional scientists with the goal of releasing new varieties for the market. Farmer breeding is often referred to as "Seed Saving," wherein the farmer selects plants from crops in production that possess desirable qualities and then collects seed from them for future planting. The participatory breeding model is a combination of formal and farmer breeding. It can take one of two modes: the participation of farmers in formal led research or the participation of science professionals in farmer led research. Bhutan was recently introduced to organic when the ministry of agriculture released the framework for organic farming in Bhutan 2007. The Framework outlines key approaches and strategies to promote organic farming in the country. It hopes to develop and promote organic farming as a way of life among Bhutanese farmers and trade in organic produce to enhance their incomes (Promoting Organic Farming in Bhutan 2008). The policy in the form of the National Framework for Organic Farming in Bhutan (NFOFB) is the first of its kind in the country. Besides this framework, the country has many agriculture sectors around the country to support and promote agriculture related activities. As of 2011, Bhutan has 139 RNR extension centers, 4 RNR research centers, 40 agriculture extension centers, 11 Agriculture seed production farms, 3 Farm mechanization centers, 51 Livestock extension centers. (Bhutan at a Glance, 2011).

Since Bhutan is a large agrarian country, 80% of the Bhutanese populations live in rural areas and they directly depend on agriculture and livestock as their livelihoods. Nearly 65,000 farming households are scattered in small and remote villages. Each village comprises of a dozen to hundred households or families (Statistical Yearbook of Bhutan, 2004). Sustainability of organic farming is not a big issue in Bhutan as most of the farmers are dependent on agriculture. However it is important that the concerned authorities seek the public cooperation and work hand in hand with all the actors in sustaining and promoting organic farming. Sustainable agriculture improves food security by improving the quality and nutritional value of the food and producing a wider range of produce throughout the year (GTZ Sustainet, 2006). In some countries, organic farming produce better yield than inorganic farming practices. These high yields are obtained when farmers incorporate intensive agro-ecological techniques, such as crop rotation, cover cropping, agro-forestry, addition of organic fertilizers, or more efficient water management. In some instances, organic-intensive methods resulted in higher yields than conventional methods for the same crop in the same setting (the system of rice intensification) (Organic agriculture and the global food supply, 2006).

2.2 Description of the study area (Chukha Dzongkhag) Chukha Dzongkhag is located along the Thimphu Phuentsholing highway and has one Drungkhag and 11 Gewogs. It covers an area of 1,882.38 Sq. Km. with elevations ranging from 200 to 3500m above sea level. It has a total arable land of 4.63 percent of the total land. The average landholding is 5.6 acres per household. Majority of the people depend on livestock and subsistence agricultural farming. Mandarin, potatoes and cardamom are the principal cash crops in the Dzongkhag. Despite favorable climatic conditions, farm productivity is low due to rugged terrain and limited farming infrastructure and facilities (Annual Dzongkhag Statistics 2010). Chukha is the main entry and exit point for import and export as well as the commercial hub of the country. Most of the inorganic agriculture products are imported and supplied to other places from Phuentsholing.

Chapter III Methodology


Chukha Dzongkhag was selected for the survey and the team covered as many as 5 villages comprising both villages where there is accessibility to road and no accessibility to road. The sampling method that we used is multi-stage sampling. We chose Chukha Dzongkhag as our focal place because of the time constraint, cost involved and the proximity. We have selected five villages, viz., Tshimasham, Chapcha, Tala, Chungkha and Ketokha. Selection of village is based on the distance between the road and the village. We have taken some samples which are near to road and some samples which are away from the road. Ketokha and Chungkha are away from the road and other villages are nearer to the road. In Ketokha and Chungkha it is thinly populated and we wanted to cover all the households as they were practicing organic farming. But in other villages, we picked the required households.

3.1 Research Methods


Both primary and secondary data has been collected. Primary sources are questionnaires and in depth interviews. For supporting facts and figures, the team employed secondary data from various sources viz. internet, journals, news papers and books. 3.1.1 Survey Method The entire research is carried out through Exploratory Interview method and structured questionnaire. As for employing the survey method to collect data, some number of questions has been set up to be answered by respondents who are given their freedom of expressing their views and ideas. The questions also consist of open - ended questions. 3.1.2 Collection of Data The preparation of this project has been based on a larger proportion of the information being collected from primary source of data whereby questionnaires and in depth interviews were used to retrieve information.

3.1.3 Sample size


The total number of population out of the selected villages was 230 households and for this study the calculated sample size is 144 which were calculated using 95% significance level. We have also added additional sample size of 15 household to get relevant information. After finding the total sample size the proportion of sample in each village was calculated which is shown below: Determination of Sample size: Sample size n=144 to be drawn from a population size N=230 which are divided into five strata of size:
No. Village 1 2 3 4 5 Chapcha Tshimasham Tala Chungkha Ketaykha Total No. of household Sample size

52 38 45 45 50 144

Now we will find the proportion of sample size under different strata: Chapcha Tsimasham Tala Chungkha Ketokha = = = = = =33

=24 =28 =28 =31

We have added 8 and 7 sample size to Chungkha and Ketaykha respectively to get more relevant information. Thus, using proportional allocation, the sample size for different strata are 33,24,28,36 and 38 respectively.

3.1.4 Analytical Tools


For analyzing the data, the team has used Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 11.5) for plotting the graph and to draw charts. Microsoft excel has also been used for the modification of the graphs. The group has used the cross tabulation tool, chi-square and frequency table in SPSS. Chi-square: Chi-square is used to test the hypotheses between two variables. The Pearson's Chi-square is used to determine whether an association between two variables is independent or dependent. Frequency Table: Frequency table is used to analyze the data by presenting it in a suitable tabular and graphical format. Charts: Pie Charts and Bar Charts are used to get a clear and quick view of the data.

Chapter IV 4.1 Data Analysis and Interpretation


4.1.1 Farmers Data Interpretation Table 1.1: Kinds of manure used
Valid Organic manure Synthetic chemicals Both(more of chemicals) Both(more of organic) Total Frequency 79 2 1 77 159 Percent 49.7 1.3 .6 48.4 100.0 Valid Percent 49.7 1.3 .6 48.4 100.0 Cumulative Percent 49.7 50.9 51.6 100.0

Figure 1.1: Kind of manure used Analysis of the data From the data collected among 159 households, we found that majority of the farmers use organic manure or more of organic than synthetic chemicals. In case of villages located far from the market and where commercial farming is not so popular, organic manure served adequate for self consumption and other domestic purposes. Farmers with access to road and market used organic manure to triumph the market with their organic products eg. Chungkha 77 households used both (more of organic) and the reasons for using chemical fertilizers are due to the availability and easy accessibility. Few years back the government distributed chemical fertilizers to the farmers of Tala village, since then most of the farmers have been practicing inorganic farming. Bjachog and Chapcha areas have private agencies who supply chemical fertilizers. Farmers in these places shared that they were unaware of the adverse affect of synthetic chemicals which they now experience and are planning to revert back to organic manures.

Table 1.2 Increase of households using chemical fertilizers


Valid Yes No Total Frequency 60 19 79 Percent 75.9 24.1 100.0 Valid Percent 75.9 24.1 100.0 Cumulative Percent 75.9 100.0

Increase of Households using chemical fertilizer

No 24.1%

Yes 75.9%

Fig. 1.2: Increase of households using chemical fertilizers Analysis of the data Out of 79 households practicing inorganic farming, 75.9%, consisting of 60 households says that the number of people using chemical fertilizers have increased in their village. Places like Chapcha has private agents supplying fertilizers and the farmers using chemical fertilizers increased since then. In case of Tala, the farmers enjoyed the luxury of free chemical fertilizers in past few years and they were influenced thereafter. Other reasons for the increase in households using chemical fertilizers are neighbor influence, low effort, better yield, etc. Some farmers even had to make the use of chemicals a mandatory practice as they think that if they do not use synthetic chemicals, their yields may decrease. Some farmers observed a decrease in households using synthetic chemicals in their village. The reason as shared by them were due to the increase in price, and their advancement in studying the effect of using such chemicals viz. soil getting hard, killing of many helpful insects, new diseases etc. There were also places where district agriculture officers advised them about the negative impact of the chemicals and trained them in resorting to other organic means of cultivating like organic manure, compost, crop rotation, field fallow and organic methods of controlling pest.

Table1.3 Awareness of the effect of chemicals


Frequency 126 33 159 Percent 79.2 20.8 100.0 Valid Percent 79.2 20.8 100.0 Cumulative Percent 79.2 100.0

Valid

Yes No Total

Awareness of the effect of chemicals

No
20.8%

Yes
79.2%

Figure 1.1: Awareness of the effect of chemicals Analysis of the data 79.2% of the respondents observed their soil turning hard and becoming very infertile which made it difficult to plough and consequently giving low yield. 20.8% were not aware of such adverse effects and most of these farmers were from the rural villages where they did not use such chemicals. Not knowing the drawback of chemical fertilizers, few respondents even shared their wish to boost their yield with chemical fertilizers. For instance, the farmers of Ketokha expect free chemical fertilizers from the government, which contradicts the interest of sustaining and promoting organic farming. Some farmers do not care of the adverse effect of using chemicals in their farmland as far as they get what they want from it. Respondents from Tala village shared that they know the adverse effect of using chemicals to their soil, crops and health but had to use it as their soil have been degraded due to use of chemical in the past. The research team shared other problems related to excessive use of chemicals with those who are unaware.

Table 1.4 Difficulties faced in collecting and generating manure


Valid Yes No Total Frequency 76 83 159 Percent 47.8 52.2 100.0 Valid Percent 47.8 52.2 100.0 Cumulative Percent 47.8 100.0

Difficulties in collecting and generating manure

No 52.2%

Yes 47.8%

Figure1.4: Difficulties in collecting and generating manure Analysis of the data Collecting and generating manure in this project includes ways of gathering raw materials like pine leaf, oak leaf, other tree leaf, bush and plants from the environment for decomposition by micro organisms like bacterium or fungus and procuring animal waste from their sheds. 52.2% consisting 83 respondents shared that they do not face much difficulty in generating manure. They had community forest near their village for dry leafs. Chapcha for instance has plenty of pine leaf and oak leaf. Ketokha village in Bongo Gewog also face the least difficulty as farmers had huge herd of cattle and they tie their cattle in their farm land to generate manure. On the contrary, places like Mebesa and others of Bjachog Gewog faced more difficulty in generating manure since the cattle were raised away from the farmland and it was cumbersome to carry the manure on their back. They even lack knowledge of making decomposition pit.

Table 1.5 Adequacy of water supplies


Valid Yes No Total Frequency 114 45 159 Percent 71.7 28.3 100.0 Valid Percent 71.7 28.3 100.0 Cumulative Percent 71.7 100.0

Adequate water supply

No 28.3% Yes 71.7%

Figure 1.5: Adequacy of water supplies to their farmland Analysis of the data 71.1% of the respondents have proper water supply. According to the data collected from various places, only 28.3% had improper irrigation channel to their fields. Chapcha Geog previously had a good irrigation channel but due to lack of maintenance and natural disaster, the channels were damaged and they depend on rainfall for cultivation. In case of Bongo Geog, irrigation channels were destroyed from many places due to construction of road. To our knowledge from the survey, irrigation channel and water supply will contribute highly to cultivation since the people are willing to cultivate even in winter had there been continuous water supply. Some households received greenhouse facilities but they could not use it in winter due to shortage of water. Chukha Dzongkhag is a wet area and receives huge and continuous rainfall in summer seasons. However it is a problem if plantation were to be practiced in winter. There are also places in remote areas where houses are scattered and have not received the support in terms of irrigation channel since it was cost intensive to connect all scattered villages with water supply.

Table 1.6 Cultivation for Commercial Purposes


Valid Yes No Total Frequency 94 65 159 Percent 59.1 40.9 100.0 Valid Percent 59.1 40.9 100.0 Cumulative Percent 59.1 100.0

Commercial Purpose

Yes
59.1%

No
40.9%

Figure 1.6: Cultivation for commercial Purpose Analysis of the data Most of the farmers commercialize the crops they grow. They said that they either sell their crops in the nearby streets or carry their stocks to the cities where the market is large. 59.1% of the farmers commercialize their products. Chungkha village has Agriculture Association which encourages the farmers to grow beans of various types and is collected by the association to be sold in Thimphu. Similarly, Tala is planning to come up with one such association for better market of their products. 40.9% of the households still do not commercialize the crops they grow. This is either due to cultivation for self consumption or they do not have a good knowledge of the present market situation. To the date of this survey, most of the villages either do not have good market or lacks proper transportation facilities to transport and sell their products. Most of the farmers however have keen interest in commercializing their products. In some cases, plans of forming agriculture associations have failed due to lack of trust and confidence. Such incident recently happened in Ketokha prior to the teams visit.

Table 1.7 Difficulties in transporting farm product to the market


Frequency 84 75 159 Percent 52.8 47.2 100.0 Valid Percent 52.8 47.2 100.0 Cumulative Percent 52.8 100.0

Valid

Yes No Total

Difficulties in transporting the product to the market

Yes 52.8% No 47.2%

Figure 1.7: Difficulties in transporting farm products to the market Analysis of the data Difficulty in transportation of farm products to the market is one of the major problems in remote villages besides their interest in commercializing their products. Farmers had to carry the output either on their back or by mule and horse. Places with transportation problems were less affected by fertilizers and other chemicals and thus the research team could see few pockets of sustained organic farming practices. As presented in the figure 1.7, 52.8% consisting 84 households have difficulty in transporting their products to the market. Never the less, the problems are at the arm length to be solved as road construction and repairs are moving at good pace. If transportation problem is solved, there could be greater risk to the remaining pockets of organic farming practices. For instance the farmers of Chapcha, Tala and Ketokha are so keen to purchase synthetic chemicals for their farmland had it been transported easily. They even have expectations for free supply of fertilizers and chemicals by the government. Villages like Chungkha and Chapcha do not face much difficulty in transporting their product to the market, yet they shared their view of having better market facility near their home town for better and faster trading of their products.

Table 1.8 Increase in the profitability of organic products


Valid Yes No Total Frequency 126 33 159 Percent 79.2 20.8 100.0 Valid Percent 79.2 20.8 100.0 Cumulative Percent 79.2 100.0

Figure 1.8: Increase in profitability of organic product Analysis of the data The above graph reveals the profitability of organic vegetables and it is observed that most of the respondents believe that profitability has increased comparing to past years. In some cases it is true that profitability has increased as a result of better market facility and increase in demand for organic vegetables. In the past the farmers grew vegetables for self consumption only but at present most of the farmers are growing vegetables for sale. For instance, in Chungkha village the Agriculture Association is helping the farmers to sell their vegetables in the market. So the profitability has increased over the years. However in some cases there is no change in the profitability over the years. The reasons for such constraint or decrease in profitability are either due to poor market facility, high investment during plantation, transportation cost and natural causes. In some cases, profitability remains constant of no profit due to non existence of better commercial related infrastructures. In Ketokha it is very cumbersome for the farmers to carry the vegetables on their back.

Table 1.9 Will you commercialize your product if there is better market?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Yes 153 96.2 96.2 96.2 No you commercialise your product if there is better market? 6 3.8 3.8 100.0 Will Total 159 100.0 100.0

Valid

No 3.8%

Yes 96.2%
Figure 1.9: willingness of farmers to commercialize their farm products Analysis of the data Figure 1.9 shows the willingness of farmers in commercializing their product. Considering in mind that sustainability of organic farming needs a market for the sale of excess farm products, the research team asked the farmers if they were willing to sell their product if there are good market facilities. There is no doubt that if given the opportunity, the famers would definitely like to make their earnings through sale of the crops they grow in their fields. They stated that they are willing to get involved into the market for the sale of their crops if the market offers them good opportunities and prices. Almost 96.2% of the farmers said they would want to improve their subsistence farming practice to a more advanced and commercial one. There are still few households who do not go for commercializing their products. Observed from the survey conducted, the team understood that they were not opposing the opportunity but they had their own constraints. Some farmers were old and their children were far-gone in towns to help them. Others shared similar reasons of children being gone to job or schools and leaving only a small bunch of labor in the house as well as village. Some even have problem of small landholding which would only serve the inmates and says they cannot afford to produce for sale.

Table 1.10 Source of labor force


Valid Home based labor Paid labor Total Frequency 131 28 159 Percent 82.4 17.6 100.0 Valid Percent 82.4 17.6 100.0 Cumulative Percent 82.4 100.0

Labour force

Paid labor
17.6%

Home based labor


82.4%

Figure 1.10: Source of labor Analysis of the data Labor force employed as shown in figure 1.10, are mostly of home based labor where villagers help each other in rotation basis. Almost 82.4 % of them said they employ home based labor. They find it more effective in terms of cost as well as outcome. Small farm holders were okay with home based labor. However, in some cases, where there are few members in the family working in the farm, paid labor was the only source to rely on. In one incident, the farmer was a shopkeeper and was all alone to run both his shop and his fields. He shared his view of not being able to repay his neighbors labor and thus had to resort to paid labor to complete his work in the stipulated time. There are also cases where families resort to paid labor as they were old and their children were out for other income sources. Due to all these various reasons, 17.6% of the households resort to paid labors.

Table 1.11 Government support and subsidies received


Government Support Making pit for decomposition Irrigation channels Seeds Plastic sheets Trainings Micro finance(low interest) Tools and Infrastructure Frequency 41 113 155 114 149 18 55 Percent 26% 71% 98% 72% 94% 11% 35%

Figure 1.11: Government support and subsidies received Analysis of the data Decomposition pit Places near town and road had no cattle to produce manure as that of the remote villages. Chapcha for instance, is interested in decomposition pit but lacked the knowledge and labor. Few people in this area received training but they had no supporters. The people are fortunate to receive training and guidance from the government but they did not receive other support in terms of finance, tools, etc. Irrigation channels Almost all of the places received support in terms of irrigation channel but due to lack of maintenance and proper care, most of them lie damaged. In all the places the research team has covered, there was either good irrigation or ruins of the channel. Natural disaster (soil erosion, land slide, earthquake, boulders etc.), development activities (construction of roads, buildings) have the main cause of damage on irrigation channel.

Seeds The government is spending lots of budget in procuring seeds and distributing it to the villages. Around 97.5% of the villages are provided with the seeds from the government. And only 2.5% of them are not to receive government seeds. Through the survey conducted, we found out that most of the farmers are dependent on the seeds provided by the government. If the government does not provide them with seeds then they dont grow those vegetables. Greenhouse facilities/plastic sheets In order to boost production and attain food security, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forest provided green house facility to some section of the villages. Around 71.7% of the villagers were provided with green house facility and that really helped them in the improvement in terms of yield. But there are some sections of the villages where green house facility is not provided by the government. Trainings The government not just only protects the environment but also train the farmers to help them grow more food in new methods and persuade to be self-sufficient. The farmers said that the government officials come to their village twice or thrice a year and train them how to grow vegetables in new methods. Micro finance The government provides micro finance to the farmers so that they can improve their farming practice but the villagers feel unsafe to mortgage their land farm. Thus many do not go for micro finance and some are even not aware of such facility. Farmers indulging in getting micro finance is 18% and rest does not go for it or dont know about such loans. Tools and infrastructures Ministry of Agriculture and Forest motivates farmers to practice organic farming by providing tools and infrastructures. The farmers who go for large production are provided with tools and infrastructures like spades, hoes, etc. but the farmers who have less land and those who practice subsistence farming are deprived of this benefit. Through our survey we came to know that 65.4% of the farmers are getting this benefit. On the other hand 34.6% of the total population is deprived of this benefit.

4.1.2 Open-ended farmers Questionnaires Interpretation What influenced you to practice of inorganic farming? Better yield 33 Softens soil Low effort Pest control 14 9 Better quality Low investment 28 10 Weed control 13 Free agrochemicals Availability of chemicals 30 Neighbor influence 19

To answer this question, farmers recollected their past memory on what influenced them to practice inorganic farming. There were various answers to this question like weed control, better yield, and availability of chemicals and so on. 33 households practice inorganic farming for the want of better yield and 30 households due to availability of chemical fertilizers. There are also farmers who practice inorganic farming due to the influence of neighbors. According to the data collected, farmers also believe that farmers use synthetic chemicals for better quality of farm products. Other factors like pest control and weed control are some of other factors which influenced farmers to practice inorganic farming.

What makes you practice organic farming? (Is it by choice or by compulsion?) Some villages practice organic farming just because they do not have other options to rely on. Places like Ketokha, where there are no proper road network and access to synthetic chemicals, homemade manures are the only option for them. However there are also farmers in these places who are not at all interested in going for the use of synthetic chemicals since they have enough cattle and homemade manure. Other places that are near to road and have access to chemicals also choose not to practice inorganic farming. Chungkha farmers for instance are not interested in using chemicals as they know the adverse effect and also they have government advisors who motivate them to go organic. Other reason for practicing organic farming is due to good soil fertility, farming traditions, high investment and expensive chemicals.

What government assistance do you expect? This question is seeking the needs and wants of the farmers and thus has many types of responses from the farmers. Farmers who are accessible to road and synthetic chemicals have different wants like market facilities and advanced machinery etc. on the other hand those who are away from the road expects the government to provide them with good transportation facilities. This question does not imply that government is not helping the farmers rather it is the interest of the survey to know the necessities of the farmers so as to find solutions and suggestions to sustain and help organic farming.

4.1.3 Market Analysis Table 2.1Procurement of Stock


Valid Importers Farmers Own Farm Exporters Both(Importers & Farmers) Total Frequency 6 7 6 4 19 42 Percent 14.3 16.7 14.3 9.5 45.2 100.0 Valid Percent 14.3 16.7 14.3 9.5 45.2 100.0 Cumulative Percent 14.3 31.0 45.2 54.8 100.0

Figure 2.1: Procurement of Stock Analysis of the data Through the survey conducted, we found out that almost every vendor selling vegetables procure their stock from both the neighboring country India (Phalakatta, Silguri and Mangalburi) and farmers from Paro, Punakha and Wangdi on a contract basis. The farmers of Bhutan auction their farm products in Food Corporation of Bhutan (FCB) and the vendors procure the required vegetables from this corporation. There are also some vendors who sale vegetables which they grow in their own fields.

Table 2.2 Number of Procurement per week


Frequency 9 17 16 42 Percent 21.4 40.5 38.1 100.0 Valid Percent 21.4 40.5 38.1 100.0 Cumulative Percent 21.4 61.9 100.0

Valid

Once Twice More Total

Figure 2.2: Number of procurement per week

Analysis of the data We can see very clearly that most of the vendors procure vegetables more than twice a week. Those who procure once a week are the farmers who sell vegetables which are grown in their own field and the vendors who procure the vegetables from Paro, Wangdiphodrang and Punakha on a contract basis. The contract suppliers bring the vegetables every Saturday.

Table 2.3 Do farmers or agents supply organic products to your shop?


Frequency 16 26 42 Percent 38.1 61.9 100.0 Valid Percent 38.1 61.9 100.0 Cumulative Percent 38.1 100.0

Valid

Yes No Total

Do farmers or agents supply organic products to your shop?

Yes 38.1% No 61.9%

Figure 2.3: Farmers or agents supply products to shop. Analysis of the data In most of the cases, there are no agents or supplier who supplies the stock to the door step of the shopkeepers. The stocks have to be procured by themselves from the farmers, FCB, Silguri, Phalakata, Mangalburi and in some cases they procure from their own farm. In the above diagram, 61.9% of the shopkeepers do not have agents or suppliers who supply stocks to their shop. 38.1% of the shopkeepers have suppliers. These shopkeepers are mostly Indian and deal in inorganic products business. They have agents who supply vegetables in regular interval to the shopkeepers. There are also other Bhutanese shopkeepers who have suppliers from various places like Wangdiphodrang, Paro and Punakha.

Table 2.4 Customer Preference of Organic over Inorganic


Frequency 28 9 5 42 Percent 66.7 21.4 11.9 100.0 Valid Percent 66.7 21.4 11.9 100.0 Cumulative Percent 66.7 88.1 100.0

Valid

Yes No Dont know Total

Customer Preference Of Organic over Inorganic

No

21.4%

Dont know

11.9%

Yes

66.7%

Figure 2.4 Customer Preference of Organic over Inorganic Analysis of the data Most of the vendors said that the consumers prefer more of organic vegetables as compared to inorganic vegetable. They said that this could probably be due to their awareness of the impact of consuming inorganic products and benefits of consuming organic vegetables. Almost 66.7% of them stated that the buyers prefer organic products over inorganic. But there are also 21.4% of them who said that buyers do not prefer organic over inorganic. They said that this could be because usually buyers do not ask anything regarding whether the vegetables are inorganic or organic. Besides there are also 11.9% of the vendors who said that they have no idea regarding the buyers preference since they themselves acquire the vegetables from suppliers and have no idea whether the vegetables are organic or not. And moreover consumers also do not make any inquiry while buying most of the time. But what we have learnt from this questionnaire is that greater margins of the people prefer to consume organic products as compared to inorganic products. So it is conclusive to say that even the people are towards going fully organic since it gives them more benefits when compared to the consumption of inorganic products.

Table 2.5 Which product do you sell more?


Frequency 22 15 5 42 Percent 52.4 35.7 11.9 100.0 Valid Percent 52.4 35.7 11.9 100.0 Cumulative Percent 52.4 88.1 100.0

Valid

Organic Inorganic Dont Know Total

Which product do you sell more?

Dont Know

11.9%

Organic Inorganic

52.4%

35.7%

Figure 2.5 Which product do you sell more? Analysis of the data According to the survey conducted in Phuentsholing, Pasakha and three other markets, the result show that there are more people who prefer organic vegetables than that of inorganic and imported ones. In case of vegetable sellers at Chapcha, they sell only organic vegetables and do not sell that of inorganic. Most of the shopkeepers do not know about the kind of product they are selling but customers and sellers believe that the products from within Bhutan is organic There are still huge sellers who sell more of inorganic product and this is due to the insufficiency of organic products. Some of the respondents directly procure their stock from Silguri, Phalakatta and Mangalburi. So they have no other products other than the inorganic ones. Few merchants do not know which product they sell more and this is due to lack of knowledge as they were assisting their parents in the market and do not work regularly. In figurative terms, 22 merchants sell more of organic products and 15 sell more of inorganic product. 5 of the sellers do not know which product they sell more.

Table 2.6 Contract suppliers


Frequency Valid Yes No Total 19 23 42 Percent 45.2 54.8 100.0 Valid Percent 45.2 54.8 100.0 Cumulative Percent 45.2 100.0

Contract suppliers

No 54.8%

Yes 45.2%

Figure 2.6 Contract suppliers Analysis of the data Majority of the respondents do not have contract suppliers. Some of them sell the vegetables from their own farm. Some sellers procure vegetables from farmers of Paro, Wangdiphodrang and Punakha in a contract basis. Most of the vendors go to procure their stock from Food Corporation of Bhutan which exports the vegetables they gather from the countrys farmers. In Phuentsholing market, there were merchants from India dealing in imported vegetables and these people also get their stock from Silguri, Phalakatta and Mangulbari by themselves. In case of Gedu market, all the shopkeepers had contract supplier and they procured their stock directly from their suppliers. They receive twice or thrice in a week and the suppliers deliver the stock to their door step. However, there were only few people who have organic product suppliers. If the country could manage to supply organic products to the market sellers, it is possible that organic farming could expand with better management.

Table 2.7 Are you willing to sell more organic product if there is more supplier?
Frequency 40 2 42 Percent 95.2 4.8 100.0 Valid Percent 95.2 4.8 100.0 Cumulative Percent 95.2 100.0

Valid

Yes No Total

Are you willing to sell more organic product if there is more supplier?

No 4.8%

Yes 95.2%

Figure 2.7 Are you willing to sell more organic product if there is more supplier? Analysis of the data Most of the sellers, i.e., 95.2% are willing to sell more of organic vegetables since the customers prefer more of organic vegetables than the inorganic vegetables. But they have the fear that they might not be able to compete with the sellers of inorganic vegetables since inorganic vegetables are cheaper than the organic vegetables. There are some section of the sellers, i.e., 4.8% of the respondents said that they are not willing to sell more of organic vegetables. They said that they would rather prefer to sell inorganic vegetables. More over most of the customers are low income earners and they prefer vegetables at a cheaper price. But all in all what most vendors said was that since they are very well aware of the health impact of inorganic products and knows that organic yield has better quality as compared to inorganic yield so therefore they would definitely want to acquire more of organic products if there are more organic suppliers.

Table 2.8 Will you support the nations mission of going fully organic by 2020?
Frequency 42 Percent 100.0 Valid Percent 100.0 Cumulative Percent 100.0

Valid

Yes

Will you support the plan of going fully organic by 2020?

Yes 100.0%

Figure 2.8 Will you support the mission of going fully organic by 2010? Analysis of the data The sellers said that they will support the governments goal of attaining full organic by the year 2020 only if there is no competition from the inorganic vegetable sellers. Since the inorganic vegetables are available in the market at a lower price than the organic vegetables, they have no choice but to sell inorganic vegetables. Moreover the farmers viewed their opinion saying that not only by going organic does it help in developing ones personal health but also gives them much confidence in increasing their yield and productivity in the best possible way. Every market vendors said that if given the chance they would always choose to go fully organic rather than relying on inorganic products. This would indeed help in building a future space for the country to fully resort to organic production and contribute towards sustainable development of organic farming practices in the country.

4.1.4 Open-ended vendors Questionnaires Interpretation How do you know that the products are organic or inorganic? As per our findings we came to an understanding that the market vendors are not well aware whether the products are organic or inorganic. However what most of them perceives is that local products are better than the imported products since local products are considered to be fully organic as compared to imported products that are inorganic and has chemical contents. Most of the vendors basic assumption is that the local products are mostly organic and imported ones being inorganic. Some vendors also said that they ask the FCB agent when procuring their products about its origin as to it being organic or not. Moreover they are not sure enough regarding whether the products are organic or inorganic. What further assistance do you expect from the government? Almost every vendor stated that they would be very happy to have a good market place where they can sell their products. This would create a good place for them to market their products to the consumers. Along with this several vendors also said that they would like the government to assist them in providing a cold storage facility because vegetables are perishable and has the risk of getting perished if not maintained. Therefore a warehouse facility would be very helpful for them in minimizing their loss of vegetables.

4.2 Farmers Cross Tabulation


Table 3.1 Kind of manure used * Commercial Purpose Commercial Purpose Yes No 37 44 1 56 94 0 21 65 Total 81 1 77 159

Kind of manure used

Organic manure Both(more of chemicals) Both(more of organic)

Total Analysis of data

44 households do not commercialize their product and use only organic manure. In depth interview revealed that they have enough organic manure for subsistence farming. 37 households commercialize and use organic manure. Chungkha village has agriculture associations, and other villages including Chungkha village have government advisors. The highest figure shows 56 households who commercialize their product and use both (more of organic) manure. They have good organic manure but they still use synthetic chemicals to boost their production and reasonably have income to resort to such option. We can conclude from this cross tabulation that farmers resort to use of chemicals if they commercialize their product and do not have advisors and associations to guide them towards organic farming. Government advice and support, agriculture association dealing in organic products and sufficient organic manure helps in improving organic farming.

Table 3.2 Kind of manure used * Difficulties in transportation Difficulties in transportation Yes No 52 29 1 31 84 0 46 75 Total

Kind of manure used

Organic manure Both(more of chemicals) Both(more of organic)

81 1 77 159

Total Analysis of data

52households who face difficulties in transportation uses purely organic and 46 households who do not face much difficulty in transportation uses chemical fertilizers but more of organic. Therefore we understand that those who practice pure organic farming are far from the road accessibility. On the other hand, those who use chemical fertilizer are located near the road and chemical fertilizers are readily available. So if the government makes a policy to gradually eradicate the use of intensive chemicals, people will be motivated to quit using synthetic chemicals.

Table 3.3 Kind of manure used * Awareness of the effect of chemicals Awareness of the effect of chemicals Yes Kind of manure used Organic manure Both(more of chemicals) Both(more of organic) Total 56 1 69 126 No 25 0 8 33

Total

81 1 77 159

Analysis of data 56 households who are aware of the effects of chemical fertilizers uses purely organic manure and 69 households although are aware of the adverse effect of chemical fertilizers opted to use it. One of the reasons for using chemical fertilizers is in order to boost their yield in the short run. Another reason is that they had been unaware of adverse effect of using it back then. But at present even though they are aware of the effects of, they feel that if they dont use it, their yields may decrease. So this has led to the continuous use of chemical fertilizers. So if the Government can suggest some ways and means of improving their soil fertility and increase their yields, the farmers may not opt for the chemical fertilizers.

Table 3.4 Kind of manure used * Difficulties in collecting and generating manure

Difficulties in collecting and generating manure Yes Kind of manure used Organic manure Both(more of chemicals) Both(more of organic) Total 28 1 47 76 No 53 0 30 83

Total

81 1 77 159

Analysis of data 53 households who do not face difficulties in collecting and generating manure use organic manure. It is because the cattle sheds are very near to their farmland. But on the other hand there are 47 households who face difficulties in collecting and generating manure. It is because some of these farmers have no cattle, some have very few cattle and some cattle sheds are very far from their farm land. So they resort to the use of chemical fertilizers. So in conclusion we can say that most of the farmers do not face much difficulty in collecting organic manure and most of them resort to the use of organic manure. To contribute in achieving the mission of going fully organic, they can support the farmers in making decomposition pit, and create more awareness of the negative impact of using chemical fertilizers.

Table 3.5 Commercial Purpose * Difficulties in transporting the product to the market Difficulties in transporting the product to the market Yes No 35 59 49 16 84 75

Total

Commercial Purpose Total Analysis of data

Yes No

94 65 159

59 households who do not face difficulties in transporting the products to the market go for commercial purpose. They do not face difficulties in transporting because of the accessibility of road and Agriculture Association is helping the farmers. On the other hand, 49 households who face difficulties in transporting the product to the market do not go for commercializing. We can very clearly see that 35 households face difficulties in transporting but still then they are willing to commercialize, so if there is some support in transporting the product to the market, the farmers are willing to commercialize their product.

Table 3.6 Will you commercialize your product if there is better market? * Difficulties in transporting the product to the market Difficulties in transporting the product to the market Yes No 81 72 3 84 3 75

Total

Will you commercialize your product if there is better market? Total Analysis of data

Yes No

153 6 159

81 households out of 159 say that they will commercialize the products if there is better market though they face difficulties in transporting the products to the market. 72 households say that they will commercialize if there is better market facilities as they do not feel much difficulties in transporting their product to the market. There are only small portion of the households, i.e., 6 households who say that they will not commercialize even though there is better market facilities. So we can conclude that poor market facilities are one of the barriers which obstruct the farmers from commercializing their products. So if better market facilities and warehouse facilities are provided, than the farmers are very much interested to commercialize their product.

Table 3.7 Distance from the road * Kind of manure used


Distance from the road (in Km.) Village Chapcha Chungkha Ketaykha Lower Sourini Mebesa Tshimasham Upper Sourini Less than 1 5-6 35-40 3-4 Less than 1 Less than 1 3-4 Kind of manure used Both(more of Both(more chemicals) of organic) 2 1 30 35 0 1 38 0 0 4 0 11 0 0 12 0 0 12 2 0 11 81 1 77 Total

Organic manure

Total

33 36 38 15 12 12 13 159

Analysis of data The kind of manure used by the farmers is mostly of organic manure. 38 farmers and 35 farmers of Keytaykha and Chungkha respectively, are using more of organic manure compare to other villages. Keytaykha village is not accessible to road, so the chemical fertilizers are not available in their village. In Chungkha village, there is farm road but rarely vehicles travel in the village. And also there is sufficient manure to be used in their field as they are practicing subsistence farming. Unlike in Chapcha, Lower Sourini, Mebesa, Tshimasham and Upper Sourini they are depended on chemical as well but more of organic manure. In order to get high yield they are using little of chemical in addition to organic manure. So we can conclude that the villages which are nearer to the highways are prone to using chemical fertilizers and the villages faraway from road are less prone to it.

Table 3.8 Distance from the road * Commercial Purpose Distance from the road Village Chapcha Chungkha Ketaykha Lower Sourini Mebesa Tshimasham Upper Sourini Less than 1 5-6 35-40 3-4 Less than 1 Less than 1 3-4 Commercial Purpose Yes No 32 1 34 2 1 37 1 14 10 2 12 0 4 9 94 65 Total

Total Analysis of data

33 36 38 15 12 12 13 159

From the above cross analysis we understand that most of the farmers in Chungkha, Chapcha, Tshimasham and Mebesa are selling their product in the market as compared to other villages. In Chungkha the road is not accessible to their village. But there is agriculture association which comprises of group of villagers who collect crops in bulk from the local farmers and sell the product in the market. The vegetable mostly grown for the commercial purpose is bean which is transported to Thimphu. Other vegetables grown in small quantity are sold at the local area. In Ketaykha, farmers are not growing crops for the commercial purpose but for their own consumption. They produce less in quantity. The reason for not going into cash crop production is because of difficulty in transportation since Ketaykha is far away from the road accessibility as well as other village. Like that Lower Sourini and Upper Sourini also have no good road networking. So therefore the factor behind the farmer are not going commercial purpose were due to the problem of road networking and market facilities although in Chungkha there is no road access they have association who help them for commercial purpose.

Table 3.9 Distance from the road * Time of shift to inorganic farming (in years) Distance from road (in Km.) Less than 1 5-6 Less than 1 3-4 Less than 1 Less than 1 Time of shift to inorganic farming(in years) 0-4 5-8 9-12 13-16 3 12 13 3 1 0 0 0 8 3 0 0 1 6 2 3 3 5 3 1 9 2 0 0 25 28 18 7 Total 31 1 11 12 12 11 78

Village

Chapcha Chungkha Lower Sourini Mebesa Tshimasham Upper Sourini

Total

Analysis of data The adoption of inorganic farming was mostly found in Chapcha village where 13 of the farmers have shifted to inorganic before 9 to 12 years and 12 farmers before 5 to 8 years. Farmers of Lower Sourini and Upper Sourini were found to have used inorganic manure since 2008. Whereby, least number of farmers was found to have used inorganic farming before 13 to 16 years. The earliest shift was due to the fast development and availability of chemical fertilizer in the location.

4.3 Market Cross Tabulation


Table 4.1 Sources of Procurement of Stock * which product do you sell more? Which product do you sell more? Organic Inorganic Dont Know 0 6 0 6 1 0 6 0 0 1 0 3 7 21 10 17 2 5

Procurement of Importers Stock Farmers Own Farm Exporters Both(Importers & Farmers) Total

Total 6 7 6 4 19 43

Analysis of the data The table shows highest total organic seller (21) and highest procurement done from both farmers and importers (19). Though the market is located in Phuentsholing, the table shows more organic seller as the survey was conducted in September when it was harvesting season of Bhutan and the market was dominated by organic products. The sale of inorganic products acquired from both the importers and farmers is the highest as seen from the graph. The market vendors have the highest sales of inorganic products that they have acquired from the importers since here importers are more concerned with inorganic products and on the other hand the next highest sales made by the vendors include organic product which is mainly supplied by farmers and the vendors solely growing organic products in their own farms whereby they deal with organic farming practices for the production of organic products in their fields.

Table 4.2 Are you willing to sell more organic product if there is more supplier? * Customer Preference of Organic over Inorganic
Customer Preference Of Organic over Inorganic Yes No Dont know Total 27 9 4 40 1 28 0 9 1 5 2 42

Are you willing to sell more organic product if there is more supplier? Total

Yes No

Since there are more number of people who prefer organic products over inorganic products as they are well aware of the ill effects of inorganic products and benefits of consuming organic products so the market vendors are also willing to sell more organic product if there is more supplier. With more number of people preferring organic over inorganic, the market vendors see it as a profitable market to sell more organic products as compared to inorganic products since they will be able to sell more of their products in the market. Table 4.3 Are you willing to sell more organic product if there is more supplier? * Contract suppliers
Contract suppliers Yes No Are you willing to sell more organic product if there is more supplier? Yes No Total 19 0 19 21 2 23 Total

40 2 42

Almost all the vendors are willing to sell more organic products if there is more suppliers though at present only 19 households have contract supplier from Paro, Wangdiphodrang and Punakha. So we can say that if there are lots of farmers who go for cash crop production, the shopkeepers are very much willing to sell the products. If the government takes initiative to encourage the farmers to go for large production, then the achievement of fully organic can be achieved.

Table 4.4 which product do you sell more? * Customer Preference of Organic over Inorganic
Customer Preference Of Organic over Inorganic Yes Which product do you sell more? Organic Inorganic Dont Know 18 9 1 28 No 3 5 1 9 Dont know 1 1 3 5 Total

Total

22 15 5 42

The demand for the organic product is more according to the shopkeepers. 18 of the shopkeepers say that customers prefer more of organic products than inorganic. So if the government encourages the farmers to produce more organic products, the country can attain fully organic.

4.4 Hypothesis Testing


Chi-Square Test I. Table 5.1Kind of manure used * Commercial Purpose Commercial Purpose Yes No 37 44 57 94 21 65 Total 81 78 159

Kind of manure used Total

Organic manure Synthetic chemicals

Let us set up the null hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis (H1): H0: there is no relationship between the kind of manure used and commercial purpose. H1: there is relationship between the kind of manure used and commercial purpose.

Chi-Square tests Value Pearson ChiSquare 12.342 df 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .000

At 5% significance level and under 1 degree of freedom the calculated value i.e., 12.342 which is greater than table value i.e., 3.84, we reject the null hypothesis H 0 which means that attributes are dependent(i.e., there is relation between the kind of manure used and commercializing the produce).

Chi Square Test II. Table 5.2 Difficulties in transporting the product to the market * Commercial Purpose

Commercial Purpose Yes No Difficulties in transporting the product to the market Yes No Total 35 59 94 49 16 65

Total

84 75 159

Let us set up the null hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis (H1): H0: there is no relationship between difficulties in transporting & commercialization. H1: there is relationship between the difficulties in transporting & commercialization.

Chi-Square Tests Value 22.444 df 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .000

Pearson Chi-Square

At 5% significance level and under 1 degree of freedom the calculated value 22.444 which is greater than table value i.e., 3.84, we reject the null hypothesis H0 which means that the attributes are dependent(i.e., there is relation between commercialization and the difficulties in transporting the product to the market).

Chi Square Test III Table 5.3 Distance from the road* Kind of manure used Distance in Kilometers from the road Village Chapcha Chungkha Ketaykha Lower Sourini Mebesa Tshimasham Upper Sourini Less than 1 5-6 35-40 3-4 Less than 1 Less than 1 3-4 Kind of manure used Organic Synthetic manure chemicals 2 31 35 1 38 0 4 11 0 12 0 12 2 11 81 78

Total 33 36 38 15 12 12 13 159

Total

Let us set up the null hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis (H1): H0: there is no relationship between village and kinds of manure used. H1: there is relationship between village and kind of manure used.

Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson ChiSquare 129.083 df 6 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .000

At 5% significance level and under 1 degree of freedom the calculated value 129.083 which is greater than table value i.e., 12.6, we reject the null hypothesis H 0 which means that the attributes are dependent(i.e., there is relation between the distance and the kinds of manure used).

Chapter V 5.1 Findings


5.1.1 Farmers findings 49.7% of the farmers use organic manure and 48.4% use both (more of organic). However there is 1.3% who uses purely synthetic chemicals and 0.6% of the households use both (more of chemicals). 79.9% of the household agrees that the households using chemical fertilizers have increased and 24.1% does not agree with the same. 79.2% of the household are aware of the effect of chemical fertilizer and the rest of the 20.8% are not aware of its effect. 47.8% of the households face difficulty in collecting and generating manure and 52.2% does not face any difficulty in doing the same. 71.7% of the households have adequate water supply for their farmland and 28.3% of no adequate water supply. 59.1% of the households grow vegetables for commercial purpose and 40.9% of them do not grow for commercial purpose. 52.8% of the households have difficulty in transporting their product to the market and 47.2% of them do not face difficulty in transportation. 79.2% of the households agree that there is change in profitability of organic product and 20.8% does not agree that the increase in profitability has not changed. 96.2% are willing to commercialize their product if there is better market and 3.8% are not willing to do the same. 82.4% employs home based labor and 17.6% rely on paid labor. Almost all the household (98%) has received support in terms of seed.

94% received support in terms of trainings, 72% in terms of plastic sheets, 71% in terms of irrigation channel, 35% in terms of tools and infrastructures and 26% in making pit for decomposition pit. Only 11% received government support in terms of micro finance and low interest loan.

5.1.2 Market Findings The highest procurement of stock done by the shopkeepers is done from importers and farmers. There are only 14.3% of the shopkeepers who procure their stock from their own farm. 40.5% of the shopkeeper procures their stock twice a week, 38.1% of them procure more than three times and 21.4% of them procure their stock only once. 38.1% of the shopkeepers have agents supplying organic product to their shop and 61.9% do not have agents supplying organic product to their shop. 66.7% of the shopkeepers agree that customers prefer organic over inorganic vegetables and 21.4% does not agree. There are 11.9% who do not know whether customer prefer organic or inorganic vegetable. 55.4% of the shopkeepers sell more of organic product and 55.7% sell more of inorganic product. 11.9% do not have correct information. 45.2% of the shopkeepers have contract suppliers and 54.8% do not have contract suppliers. 95.2% of the shopkeepers are willing to sell their products if there are suppliers dealing with organic product whereas 4.8% are not willing to sell their product. There is 100% support from the shopkeepers in helping the government to go fully organic by 2020.

5.1.3 Findings from cross tabulation Farmers resort to use of chemicals if they commercialize their product. The chance of using chemical is higher when there are no advisors and associations towards organic farming. Farmers who have difficulty in transportation use organic manure on the other hand farmers those who are near the roads and having no difficulty in transportation use synthetic chemicals. Those farmers who do not find difficulties in collecting and generating manure use more organic manure. Consequently those farmers who find difficulty in making manure use some amount of synthetic chemicals. Farmers who do not face transportation problem commercialize their yield and those who face difficulty in transportation do not commercialize that much. All the 38 households surveyed in Ketokha are purely organic practitioners. Mebesa and Tshimasham households practice inorganic farming. Out of 33 households in Chapcha, only two households practice organic farming. Chungkha, Chapcha, Mebesa and Tsimasham have the highest households who commercialize their yield. Amongst the village surveyed Chapcha was the first village to be introduced in using chemical fertilizers. Three households in this place started using chemicals from 13 to 16 years back. Amongst 42 samples from Phuentsholing vegetable market, 27 shopkeepers are willing to sell if there are more suppliers of organic product.

5.2 Conclusion
Sustainability of organic farming in Chukha Dzongkhag will not be a problem in the remote villages where farmers are isolated from synthetic agriculture chemicals. However these places are at the verge of getting exploited by inorganic methods and practices of farming. Road networks are improving in all parts of the country which indirectly help farmers to bring in chemical fertilizers. Construction of road and other infrastructure in rural villages are being done with the intention to develop rural villages but it may lead to a negative impact in as far as organic farming is concerned. It is important that government shelter these unexploited farms and villages as they proceed with rural development activities. Farmers in urban places are more advanced comparing to that of rural in terms of farming activities. They use more advanced tools and methods of farming and use synthetic chemicals in many reasons. The effect of chemicals to their farm land has shown significant result. Quitting the use of such chemicals is has become difficult to some farmers. Never the less, some places like Chungkha is a paradigm in the world of organic farming. There are others who intend to quit using Synthetic chemicals. This is a significant respond that the farmers are willing to go organic which may take some time but the outcome will be is positive. In terms of commercialization, farmers add at least some amount of chemicals to their field which makes the product inorganic. If there are advisors who motivate and help them to stop the minute use of chemicals and compete the market in terms of quality product, it is possible to eradicate the inorganic means of farming. This would also improve the income and organic standard of the agriculture products as a whole. There are also places where farmers do not go for commercial farming due to lack of markets and other necessities for commercialization of their products. These places would improve if provided with necessary support and guidance. In the vegetable market, shopkeepers deal both in organic and inorganic products. During the time of this survey, there were no organic standards enacted on these products. It was thus a problem and chaos in differentiating the organic products from inorganic. All stockholders in the vegetable market assumed that the products grown in Bhutan as organic and imported products as inorganic. The vegetable dealers and customers complained the disguise of imported vegetables as organic. Certification of organic products is required to condense the chaos.

5.3 Recommendations
Through our study, we found that the farmers and merchants face problems in storing the products. So the team suggests developing a post harvest storage infrastructure. We would like to suggest promoting entrepreneurship and assist in the input supplies like digging decomposition pit. Strengthen the linkage between the farmers and the merchants like contract farming system. There should be product differentiation between the organic and inorganic product in terms of labeling and certification. Remote villages need to be connected with good transportation facility but government should strictly ban the supply of synthetic Agro chemicals to such places. Some of these places are the remaining pockets of pure organic practitioners and needs to be preserved if Bhutan want to produce Bhutan organic brand. Government should initiate and introduce a separate department who will concentrate on improvement of organic farming, organic marketing, and all other activities related to organic farming. Strengthen Agriculture association network in the country. Government should slowly ban the import of chemical fertilizers and increase the organic production within the country. Government should provide land to the landless that are willing to practice organic farming.

5.4 Reference
Bhutan Organic: Himalayan Country Aiming To Phase Out Chemicals From Farming Over Next Decade Retrieved on 19th August 2012 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/04/bhutan-organic-farming-chemicals-fertilizerspesticides_n_1940029.html Organic Farming in Australia Retrieved on 19th August 2012 https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/downloads/00-097 Promoting Organic Farming in Bhutan: A Review of Policy, Implementation and Constraints Retrieved on 19th August 2012 www.fao.org/sard/common/ecg/3120/en/BhutanEngNov08case.pdf Bhutan at a Glance, 2011 Retrieved on 22nd August 2012 www.nsb.gov.bt/pub/baag/BAAG%202011.pdf Organic Agriculture and the World Food Supply Retrieved on 27th August 2012 http://www.ifoam.org/growing_organic/3_advocacy_lobbying/eng_leaflet_PDF/Global_Food_S upply.pdf Annual Dzongkhag Statistics, 2010 Retrieved on 27th August 2012 http://www.nsb.gov.bt/pub/ads/2010/chhukha.pdf Attending the First Organic Agriculture Course: Rudolf Steiners Agriculture Course at Koberwitz, 1924 Retrieved on 4th September 2012 http://www.eurojournals.com/EJSS_21_1_05.pdf A guide to organic farming in Bhutan 2007 Retrieved on 4th September 2012 www.moa.gov.bt/moa/downloads/.../MoADownload8aa2349am.pdf

Appendix I

Phuentsholing Market, Source; survey

Tala Source; survey

Appendix II Dear respondents, We are a group of VII semester student from GCBS conducting a survey to study the sustainability of organic farming in Chukha Dzongkhag. We seek your kind and generous support as a respondent to our survey questionnaire attached below. We assure that the information you provide will remain confidential and will be used for academic purpose only. Thus we would be grateful if you could spare some time in answering the questions. Your support and cooperation will be highly respected and acknowledged. Name:........................................ Geog:. Village:. 1. How many acres of land are being used for farming? (In acre) Less than 1 acre 3 acres 2 acres More than 4 acres (Specify) 2. What kind of manure/chemical do you use? Organic manure Both (More of chemicals) 3. What chemical fertilizers do you use? If yes 4. What are the vegetables that you cultivate? And in which do you use chemical fertilizers? Items Potato Chillies Cabbage Cauliflower Onion Bean Chemicals Items Asparagus Cucumber Pumpkins Spinach Spring onion Pea Chemicals Items Bitter gut Ginger Garlic Radish Mushrooms Carrots Chemicals Age

Synthetic chemicals Both (More of organic)

Others if any

5. Do you think farmers using use of chemical is increasing in our village? Yes No

6. Are you aware of the effect of using chemical fertilizers to your farm? Yes 7. Since when did you shift to inorganic farming? . 8. What influenced you to practice of inorganic farming? Better yield Softens soil Low effort Better quality Pest control Low investment Weed control Free agrochemicals Availability of chemicals Neighbor influence No

Other reasons; 9. What fraction/acre of your land is free of synthetic chemicals? For how long? 10. What makes you practice organic farming? (Is it by choice or by compulsion?) . 11. Do you leave any land lie fallow? Yes (How long) 12. Do you find any difficulties in collecting and generating manure? Yes (specify) 13. Do you have adequate water supply for your farmland? Yes No No No

14. Do you grow vegetables for commercial purpose? (if no skip to Q. 15) Yes No

15. Do you face difficulty in transporting your products to the market? Yes No

16. Has the profitability of organic products changed over years? Why? Yes No

Reason .. 17. Will you commercialize your products if there is better market? Yes 18. From where do you get your labour force? Home based labour 19. Does the government assist you in: Particulars Making pit for decomposition? Irrigation channels Seeds Plastic sheets Trainings Micro finance (loans) (low interest) Tools and infrastructures Others if any 20. What government assistance do you expect? Yes No Paid labour (Cost per lab.) No

................................................................................................................................................ 21. Will you participate in going fully organic after receiving all necessary government assistance? Yes No

Thank you

Dear respondents, We are a group of VII semester student from GCBS conducting a survey to study the sustainability of organic farming in Chukha Dzongkhag. We seek your kind and generous support as a respondent to our survey questionnaire attached below. We assure that the information you provide will remain confidential and will be used for academic purpose only. Thus we would be grateful if you could spare some time in answering the questions. Your support and cooperation will be highly respected and acknowledged. Name .. Market place

1. From where do you procure your stock for sale? Importers Farmers Own farm Exporters

2. How often do you procure vegetables in a week? Once Twice More (Specify).

3. Do farmers or agents supply organic products to your door step? Yes No

4. How do you know that the products are organic or inorganic? 5. Do the customers prefer organic over inorganic vegetables? Yes 6. Which product do you sell more? Organic 7. Do you have any contract suppliers? Yes No Inorganic No

8. Considering that there are suppliers dealing with organic products, are you willing to sell their product? Yes No

9. How many kilos of organic products do you sell in a week and at what price? Particulars- organic/inorganic Organic
Qty. (Kg.) Price/Kg.

Inorganic
Qty. (Kg.) Price/Kg.

Potatoes Chillies Beans Carrots Cabbage Radish Cauliflower Spinach Ginger Ferns Asparagus Tomatoes 10. Does government assist in terms of; Tax exemptions Market infrastructure Warehouse facilities Others if any..

11. What further assistance do you expect from the government? 12. The government has a plan to go fully organic by 2020. Will you support them as a merchant? Yes Thank you No