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82000 Pontian, Johor.
ABSTRACT This research was carried out to help the pupils to improve their reading at the early stage. Basically when conducting this research, I have been wondering on how to find the solutions to make these pupils improve their early reading. All teachers know that pupils become successful readers by learning to use a range of strategies to get at the meaning of a text. In line of using phonic approach, where this system of teaching pays special initial attention to helping children see the relationships between the sounds of English and the letters or combination of letters that produce them. ( At first, isolated sounds are learnt and then the skill of putting the sounds together to form whole words is taught). Using two techniques, firstly ‘ BINGO ’, that is specially-designed games are use in teaching phonics. Secondly, P-CHART ( pocket charts ) which made on a smaller scale to help effective reading where most of the activities described for class work can be transferred to use with individual pocket charts with teacher providing help to the individual pupil. I found out that this action research has helped me in assisting the pupils especially in preparing them for future education.
1.0 REFLECTION ON PREVIOUS TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS Since I started teaching English Language for Year 1 Bestari, it was quite a surprised to see that some of the pupils, could neither know nor recognise simple words. When given a simple text, they were unable to read fluently. They were eager to learn English but when asked, their reasons varies. Some said that they do not understand English at all, some were not confident of themselves and most do not read enough in English. I found that their English vocabulary were low and limited. In my opinion, for pupils to improve their level of confidence and reading skills, they should be given proper exposure. Keeping this in mind, ‘ BINGO n P-CHART’ could help them to achieve communicational reading. 2.0 RESEARCH FOCUS This research is focusing on early reading skills from identifying words and simple text reading. This would involve word recognition and sight word skills. As it involves a lot of repetition, the activities that would be conducted should be able to attract pupils’ attention and arouse their interest. If pupils’ early reading problem could not be solved, the pupils will face lots of difficulties in their day to day lesson and in the future. So, I decided to expose and introduce “Improving The Skills Of Early Reading Through ‘ BINGO n P-CHART ‘ “ to my target group.
3.0 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES :
3.1 General Objective To improve the early reading skills among pupils. 3.2 Specific Objectives 1. To give pupils opportunity to use old and new words to make sentences of their own and read sentences to others. 2. To propose a technique of teaching to reduce the problem of reading in order to help pupils get a sense of achievement reading ‘a whole book ‘.
4.0 TARGET GROUP The target group consists of 6 pupils from Year 1 Bestari. This group of pupils is a weak language proficiency group. One of their main problem is they do not know English and initially, teacher has to teach them the target words in a spoken context or introduce written words with visual or auditory support such as pictures, tape, action, mime, etc. 5.0 ACTION IMPLEMENTATION 5.1 PROBLEM OBSERVATION 5.1.1 Observation I made an observation on pupils during the teaching and learning process. This target group was evaluated during reading session that is conducted every week. 5.1.2 Pre-assessment Oral Test The pre-assessment oral test are used to assess these target group of pupils on their literacy. It was done before the action plan and pupils have to read words and simple text. 5.1.3 Interview In an informal interview, I have identified the problems of why these 6 pupils of my target group could not read. 5.2 Analysis of the Problem 5.2.1 Observation English Language has been said as a tough subject. Most pupils find it difficult due to the lack of interest and communication in English. Moreover, they have little environmental support for learning to read English. Many ways and techniques have been adopted to teach reading but, the pupils tend to forget and find difficulties when reading a text even though a line of phrase. Subsequently , this would lead to a short attentions spans, where they get bored very quickly. 5.2.2 Pre-assessment Test Result of the Pre-assessment Oral Test GRADE NUMBERS OF PUPILS A B 1 C 3 D 2 Based on the results from the Pre-assessment Oral Test, there was no pupil scored A, one of them scored B, three pupils scored C. Two pupils did not develop word attack skills and understand sequence. Hopefully, by conducting this research, I will help the pupils in improving their reading skills. 5.2.3 Interview Pupils’ Respond On Reading Skills Percentage / Number of Pupils Pupils’ (%) Respond Yes No Do you like English subject ? 83.3 16.7 Do you like to read English book ? 33.3 66.7
Is English difficult ? Do you know how to read ? Do you know to read English book ? Do you like to listen people reading? Do you like to listen people reading in English? Do you happy if you can read English very well?
100 33.3 16.7 66.7 16.7 66.7
66.7 83.3 33.3 83.3 33.3
Based on the interview conducted, 5 out of 6 pupils like to learn English but all (100%) said that English is hard. Therefore, they do not like to read and listen to people reading in English. Most of the pupils like to learn English but only 2 pupils like to read English book. 4 pupils said that they are happy if they can read English. It showed that most of these pupils have interest and want to learn English. Therefore, there should be methods and strategies that can attract this people to learn reading. 5.3 Plan in action
1. There were two activities planned to implement the action research on improving the pupils’
reading skills. 1st Activity 2nd Activity 3rd Activity 2. Materials used in the activities Phonics book Laptop and LCD Pocket chart Manila card for individual pocket chart Sentence strips Phonic Approach Crossword Puzzle Pocket Chart
3. The instrument for Observation Oral Assessment Form Results from activities carried out.
5.4 Implementation and Observation / Evaluation 5.4.1 Implementation of Activity One – Phonic Approach Through this activities, once a pupil has learned the phonemic elements, he can obtain the pronunciation of the printed words by assembling the sounds together in blended sequence. Thus, when he gets the pronunciation of the word, he will understand what he has read. Generally in this activity, I will make sure the pupils has a good listening vocabulary and able to see and hear difference in letters and sounds. Pupils also are exposed to sight words reading. Reading using sight words is like using an escalator or lift. I could see pupils have enjoyed the pleasures of reading through such a faster way. Steps that I used to teach phonics are: • • Introduce units of sounds starting with the short vowel sounds. Introduce the consonants ( eg. l, c, m, r )
Teach pupils to sound combinations of consonants and vowels they have learnt. Eg. /ra/ /ru/ /ri/ /ma/ /mu/ /mi/, etc. Teach pupils to join syllable together to form simple words. m at f all d ig c at t all b ig f at w all w ig
Eg. m an c an f an • Observation
Grade No. of pupils/Percentage
A 1 16.7% 3
Results of the activity B C 50% 2 33.3% -
This activity has given them a lot of improvement. Now, they can read and say the words correctly. Even though it took a long period of time and processes, it was worth it • Reflection From the result shown above, it was found out that 1 pupil scored A, 50% of them scored B with 2 pupils scored at least C. In teaching phonic to pupils, it is vital that pupils are taught to use the word level strategies effectively. Teaching phonics involves understanding a lot of aspects. Different teachers have different types or ways of teaching them. The only important thing is a mere outline of important aspects of procedure. I use a few books on phonics teaching, so that I could teach my pupils effectively. In my opinion , phonics needs to be taught systematically but often it is not. This will leads to confusion. 5.4.2 Implementation of Activity Two –BINGO
As phonic training involves a lot of repetition and repetition can make a phonic lesson boring. I could see this when my pupils start complaining and told me as if they have learnt much. Because of this, I specially designed a game to teach them reading. It involve word recognition skills that included the sight word skills and word attack skills. Sight word skills enable the pupils to recognize words instantly. Word attack skills enable the pupils to recognize unfamiliar words. The pupils were very happy if they can solve the crossword puzzle and such games was fun and they were very excited. C T
P • Observation A 2 16.7% 3
Grade No. of pupils/Percentage
. Results of the activity B C 50% 1 33.3% -
From this activity, I found that all the pupils were able to recognise words easily. The pupils were interested playing this game and they had fun. • Reflection The pupils showed a vast improvement in reading. From the result, it showed that 2 pupils got A, 3 pupils got B, only 1 got C and none got D. It can be concluded that the second activity was able to help the pupils to remember what they have previously learnt . This activity is such to strengthen their knowledge and memory. 5.4.3 Implementation of Activity Three- P-Chart In this third activity, I have decided to help the pupils improving their reading by giving them word combinations, phrases and simple text to read. So, I prepared a small pocket chart for each of the pupil. Most of the activities described for class work, can be transferred to use with their individual pocket chart. • Grade No. of pupils/Percentage Observation A 2 16.7% 3 . Results of the activity B C 50% 1 33.3% D -
From this activity, I found that these pupils are getting better improving their reading skills.
each day. It helped them in
• Reflection The result from the activity showed that all students have got better result. So, it can be concluded that this activity was able to help the pupils in development reading However, more activities need to be given to them in order to achieve better improvement in their readings. I could say that I am satisfied with their improvement. 5.4.4 Post Test Differences Between Pre-assessment Oral Test and Post-assessment Oral Test GRADE A B C D TOTAL NUMBERS OF PUPILS 1 3 2 6 NUMBERS OF PUPILS 2 2 2 0 6
Based on the differences between pre-test and post test results, there were an increasing numbers of pupils who got A, B and C and none pupil failed in the test. It showed that the pupils have improved very well after going through all the activities.
5.5 Reflection on the Research From this action research, I found that as a teacher I need to versatile the techniques and strategies in conducting lessons to the pupils. The most important thing in teaching is trying to
find the simplest and fun ways that suits the pupils’ level and ability. This would lead to the success of the teaching and learning process and in the end help the pupils in acquiring the language. From this action research also, I can say that all the activities that I have already done, the pupils have improved their early reading skills. Learning to read in English is not as difficult if pupils can read in their own language. It is just that teacher teaching situation is the most important factor when deciding how a teacher should teach reading. As an English Language teacher, I must always be aware of the needs of the pupils and know how to use the most suitable and meaningful materials in the teaching and learning process. 6.0 SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Based on my action research, I believe that these three strategies can be adopted and adapted in early reading. The most important thing is how to capture pupils attention and interest in learning to read. It would be next to impossible to teach pupils to read when they are not interested. So part of the English teacher’s job in teaching reading would be to create a positive attitude to reading among the learners. Furthermore, get pupils to involve in activities which make them aware of how interesting a book can be. Example by reading (as opposed to telling ) stories and making available many books with interesting pictures and facts about things children would naturally be interested in. I should also make the pupils enjoy learning about new things and stimulate their curiosity. REFERENCES Andrian Doff.(1995).Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers.Cambridge University Press. Nesamalar Chitravelu, Saratha Sithamparam, Teh Soo Methodology:Principles and Practice.Penerbit Fajar Bakti. Choon. (2005).ELT
Slattery,M,Willis,J(2001).English for Primary Teachers.Oxford University Press. Rohayati Printing,Assoc.Prof Dr.Mohd Amin Embi.(2005).e-Xra:Express Reading Approach.Xra Center. Eliani Nik Nawi, Othman Ahamad(2003).Read Easy Phonics.Onestop Language and Computer Consultancy. Judith Sim.(2002)Phonics Picture Dictionary.Penerbitan Pelangi. APPENDICES Implementation of Activity 1 Phonic Approach » » » Introduce units of sounds starting with the short vowel sounds. Introduce the consonants ( eg. l, c, m, r ) Teach pupils to sound combinations of consonants and vowels they have learnt. Eg. /ra/ /ru/ /ri/ /ma/ /mu/ /mi/, etc.
» Examples: m an c an f an m at c at f at
Teach pupils to join syllable together to form simple words.
f all t all w all
d ig b ig w ig
INTRODUCE PUPILS WITH : • • • • • • • • Letter sound Eg : A ant B bag
Eg : desk
Words with Short Vowel ‘a’ Eg : rat hat cap pan Words with Short Vowel ‘e’ Eg : bed leg hen pen Words with Short Vowel ‘i’ Eg : dig pin tin sit Words with Short Vowel ‘o’ Eg : dog hot pot hop Words with Short Vowel ‘u’ Eg : tub mud bug cup Words with Initial Consonant Blends Eg: clap clip flag crab Words with Final Consonant Blends
Words with Initial and Final Consonant Blends Eg : stamp stand plump cramp Words with Final Double Consonants Eg : bell smell kiss
Words with Silent ‘e’ – Long ‘a’ Sound Eg : blade cake grape plate Words with Silent ‘e’ – Long ‘i’ Sound Eg : slide file five kite Words with Silent ‘e’ – Long ‘o’ Sound Eg : hoe toe hose rose
Words Sights • • • • • • • a an he I in is it • • • • • • • of this that the to was and
Implementation Of Activity Two
The words used in this game are those words that pupils learnt from previous activity (Activity 1 ). Some words are new words, so teacher has to teach them the target words in a spoken context or introduce written words with visual or auditory support such as pictures, tape, action, mime, etc. Example:
APPENDIX D Implementation of Activity Three
This is a fat cat The pin is in the tin That is a blue cap A rat is in the tin
This pocket charts were made on a smaller scale to help effective reading where most of the activities described for class work can be transferred to use with individual pocket charts with teacher providing help to the individual pupil. The pupils were able to read as they have already gone through Activity One and Activity Two. The sentences given consists of those old and new words that they have learnt and through word recognition skills that included the sight word skills and word attack skills.
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