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Class Question What comes to mind when you hear the term psychological disorder? What is a Psychological Disorder? Hard to pin down a correct definition o Baron (definition)- thought and behavior that is maladaptive and causes the individual distress o Abnormal - deviates from the norm being left handed is considered abnormal, does not fit definition? o Maladaptive - behavior is disruptive thinking interferes with functioning o Personal distress-personality disorders serial killers (antisocial disorders) What is a Psychological Disorder? – APA definition acknowledge that it can be due to learning, thought processes etc o A pattern of behavior can be considered a psychological disorder if it satisfies three conditions: o The person experiences significant pain or distress, an inability to work or play, an increased risk of death, or a loss of freedom in important areas of life. o The source of the problem resides within the person, due to biological factors, learned habits, or mental processes, and is not simply a normal response to specific life events such as the death of a loved one. o The problem is not a deliberate reaction to conditions such as poverty, prejudice, government policy, or other conflicts with society. People in Egypt who are protesting are not considered to have a disorder just because their behavior deviates from norm One year prevalence rates o 26.2% of adults suffer from a diagnosable disorder each year Any anxiety disorder 18.1% Any mood disorder 9.5%(predominantly depression, followed by bipolar Schizophrenia 1.1% o Source: Kessler et al. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry, 2005 Jun;62(6):61727. o Surveys are taken to find out these figs as a lot of people avoid treatment One year prevalence rates for children (under 18) o 20.9% of children have any disorder in a given year Anxiety 13.0% Mood disorders 6.2% Disruptive disorders 10.3% behavioral, Substance abuse 2.0% o Source: Surgeon General’s report on Mental Illness (1999)
.drugs etc.seizure type behavior. wake up later with no recollection about what they did Incidence Rates of Common Psychological Disorders Types of disorder Men Women Anxiety 19% 31% due to te culture and society we live in Depression 15% 24% Substance Abuse 35% 18% Schizophrenia (no gender diff) 0.g.john Watson and albert. men are supposed to remain stoic o Differences in power. Pay etc Mental illness as a myth . Explaining Psychological Disorders . abuse. When American teenagers are unhappy they ‘act out’. ourselves Sociocultural approach o Psychological disorders occur within the context of society o Highlight the importance of society on how we express behavior (eating disorders and fashion) o Teenagers and different cultures. fear about personal safety is more for women.fear of rape at 3 am in the morning.intrapsychic conflict idea of conflicts between id.8% Antisocial Personality 6% 1% Source: Kessler et al.Why do people develop psychological disorders? o Chemical imbalances o Early childhood experiences.6% 0.‘arctic hysteria’.abnormal behavior is learned.impacts how you think about the world o Environmental factors.eat feces. Pibloktoq.Inuit. are antisocial. ego and superego Behavioral . e.distorted thinking how we think about the world. o Koro irrational fear that your genitals might get sucked back into the body and you would die. In Thailand teenagers sleep. genetic abnormality’ disease of the brain’ Psychological approaches o Psychological disorders are the result of past and present life experiences Psychodynamic . stress o Distorted thought processes o Genetics Biological approach o Abnormal behavior results from some physical dysfunction o Physical deformity that produces this disorder-dysfunction in brain. Reinforced for certain behaviors Cognitive . (1994) Gender differences in diagnoses o Women are taught to express emotions.
frontal lobotomy to treat disturbing behavior as it worked in primates.the argument that a person may have a tendency towards from some disorder. St. We use it to ignore people we don’t like. o Ex people who opposed the soviet gov were put in psych. facilities Interactionist approach-what causes abnormal behavior o Diathesis-stress model. Lobotomy went out of fashion when drugs were discovered o Electroconvulsive therapy-application of electric shocks to create seizures. Seletti. o Thomas Szaz . What we perceive as psych.had a patient who was mute and had catatonia. But this biological cause is not enough. There might be childhood experiences that also protect you from developing a disorder in the future. it would cause you to act abnormally. Dark ages people believed in devil possession ergo burning at the stake.(famous renaissance asylum in England) emergence of the asylum to imprison crazy people Phillipe Pinel – superintendent at an asylum in Paris. Drugs alleviate symptoms they don’t cure disorders The nature of psychotherapy . Doctors thought that seizures were prophylactic against schizophrenia.problems in living not mental illness. Is used as a treatment for depression as a fast and effective treatment o Drug therapies. social and psych causes that work together. Mary’s of Bethlehem. Broader approach. Greeks believed that if you had too much of a certain body fluid. PTSD due to their childhood experience. How do we treat psychological disorders? o Treatment based on concept of the disorder Trephining-drilling holes into the skull to release spirits trapped inside the head that causes disorders. Induced seizure on person who spoke after treatment. children who experience trauma are more likely to experience PTSD if put into a war zone.To call behavior a disease is wrong. Believed in moral therapy that if you gave patients good work. Disorders is just fallacies in society. One of the more significant treatments at the time o Freeman ice pick lobotomy. Unchained the inmates. It is expanded to include all factors o Biopsychosocial model – there are bio.Remove/destroy a portion of the brain. it would help them Biomedical therapies o Psychosurgery. needs an environmental trigger/stressor to activate the disorder.
keep calm and work al the way up to introducing a spider while you remain calm. avoiding the topic. actions that they are good humans whose actions have cause people pain but are good under all those actions o Active listening and genuineness (congruence). Behavior therapies-very effective for anxiety disorders o Classical conditioning approaches John Watson. shows empathy towards patient. the patient starts missing sessions. I will get better. Change behavior (give punishments etc) to change the disorder. Rodgers felt that you should have reactions towards patients’ declarations. Psychodynamic therapies o Psychoanalysis (Freud) Idea that childhood experience affects later life. Goal is self actualization o Person-centered therapies-pioneered by Carl Rodgers-goal being to help validate the patient o Empathy-the therapist expresses an understanding as to what the client is feeling.use this idea to remove fear Counterconditioning.the therapist communicates through their posture.Patients developed strong feelings toward therapist. o Unconditional positive regard. If I get an insight into the cause. Ex afraid of spiders.show a picture of a spider.reward for approaching the fear Systematic desensitization -Joseph Wolpe teach people how to relax the muscles of the body and introduce them to gradual increase in their fear stimulus (mary.let the individual talk about what is on their mind to help them come to a conclusion Resistance.once they are close to realizing the cause. a reenactment of significant relationships that happened in the patient’s life. peter and the rabbit).goal is insight and catharsis-to help make the unconscious conscious and allow mental relief. is resistant to admitting the cause.a form of treatment in which a trained professional employs psychological techniques to help persons in need Insight therapy-trying to gain understanding about their problematic behavior. Eclectic . current experiences and life skills to treat the person.in odds with psychodynamic approach. Free association. Behavior therapy-does not care about finding the cause. Albert. o Psychotherapy . Ex maternal relationship of critical nature is transferred between the patient and therapist Contemporary psychodynamic therapiesHumanistic therapies-distress cause as we are not living up to our ideal self. Transference. .using more than one approach-elements of exploring childhood experiences.
Therapist holds the spider.overwhelm the patient with their fear and not let them escape (to avoid the pleasure felt when you escape your fear). 80% said that psychotherapy was beneficial. you administer an electric shock. Loss of confidentiality o Lack of confidentiality. administering an electric shock (punishment) could reduce this behavior Flooding/Exposure.has to be implemented regularly Self mutilation. Rward social behavior with a snack. Developed in psychiatric institutions for patients. Did a bad study. Seems to be a cruel method of o Social learning. The variety of health care professionals o Clinical Psychologist.reward for enforcing a particular positive behavior. o Operant conditioning approaches-reward and punishment to reduce the particular behavior Token economies. Cognitive therapies o Psychological disorders are caused by distorted thoughts o Change the thoughts and cure the disorder Managed care.people who have a graduate degree and have a major understanding of psych.people who bang their head against the wall.therapists. Focused intervention.therapist models the behavior and asks the patient to repeat it.every time he smokes. Goal-to control costs o Favors short-term treatment-stops after feel that you have had enough. o Counseling Psychologist o Social Worker o Psychiatric Nurse o Occupational Therapist o Pastoral Counselor-rabbi. minister o Counselor Is therapy effective? o Consumer Reports study Good rep for testing prod.therapist needs to get authorization from insurance company to continue treatment. Aversion therapy-training people to become afraid/ anxious around a previously pleasurable stimulus. Uw hospital spent $15000 just to interact with insurance companies. You have to talk about the patient to validate continuity of treatment o Oversight eats up savings. . etc Punishment. doctors spend a lot of time talking to the insurance company and a lot of money and time. proves it is harmless and asks the patient to do the same. Cannot prescribe o Psychiatrist-gone to med school can dispense medications. goal is to get them back to the world asap.not usually effective. Ex smoking.
found that the average psychotherapy patient shows more than 80% improvement and better fucnt than people who don’t get therapy at all. o Opportunity to open up-let their feelings out. something that affects the primary disorder o Axis III: medical conditions that might effect the individual’s psychological disorder-if the person had had a stroke that plays a role in their disorder o Axis IV: recent social and environmental sources of stress in the person’s life – envi.empathy and warmth b/w therapist and patient. DSM 3 there was a new disorder describing PMS as a mood disorder. Not dependent on particular type of therapy given. Other studies did not make sure that people in no trstment did not get other forms of trstment ex meds o Mary Lee Smith (1980) review 480 studies. motivates you. Clients who feel that they are understood by therapist improve. More specific about different criteria for disorders.personality disorders. Therefor no conclusion. Associated with clinical improvement.2/3 got better and 2/3 without therapy also got better.how impaired the individ is. Classifying Psychological Disorders – DSM IV diagnostic and statistical Introduced in1952. Multi axial diagnostic system o Axis I: primary diagnosis of the disorder-behavioral. o Hans Eysenck (1952) review treatment lit where peole are assigned to therapy/ non thery cond. can they go to work and what was thaier highest level of functiionnign Criticisms of DSM-IV o Reinforces disease model-dsm reinforces disorders as diseases. No one particular therapy that was most effective. . o Ray of hope-maybe things can change. Course. influence by the norms of the time. social stress that make the disorder worse or is a causative agent o Axis V: current level of functioning and highest level of functioning in the past year. o Everyday problems viewed as mental problems-classifies everyday things as pathological. o Overly responsive to political issues-changing diagnosis in response to political power. NEGS-Some had no random assignment. But certain therapies were more effective in dealing with a particular disorder than others o Kenneth Howard (1996). Positively correlated Common themes of successful psychotherapy no approach is consistently better o Supportive relationship .looked at # of sessions individual got and the likelihood of improvement.there is something biologically wrong with you. Not arbitrary. diagnosis. Gives a push that helps you make changes. treatment. All were effective to a certain degree. psych disturbance interfering with funct o Axis II: personality disorder and mental retardation-long standing or chronic disfunct.
Theroises that once a person was dagnosed and Lablled they stopped being human. Psychiatric Assoc. I am a person with scizo. As soon as they got admitted they stopped reportig tat syptoms.o Power of the label-whole way in which we see an individ as their diagnosis the diagnosis becomes the person Rosenhan study 1960s got admitted to psych hospitals saying they had auditory hallucination. Am. . How long it took for the institi.label behavior not person rather than I am a schizo. Logest period was 8wks. . To declare them ok.
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