Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation) was a German association of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists.

The Werkbund was to become an important event in the development of modern architecture and industrial design, particularly in the later creation of the Bauhaus school of design. Its initial purpose was to establish a partnership of product manufacturers with design professionals to improve the competitiveness of German companies in global markets. The Werkbund was founded in 1907 in Munich at the instigation of Hermann Muthesius, existed through 1934, then re-established after World War II in 1950. Muthesius was the author of the exhaustive three-volume "The English House" of 1905, a survey of the practical lessons of the English Arts and Crafts movement. Muthesius was seen as something of a cultural ambassador, or industrial spy, between Germany and England. The Werkbund was less an artistic movement than a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with England and the United States. Its motto "Vom Sofakissen zum Städtebau" (from sofa cushions to citybuilding) indicates its range of interest. The organization originally included twelve architects and twelve business firms. The architects include Peter Behrens, Theodor Fischer (who served as its first president), Josef Hoffmann, Bruno Paul, and Richard Riemerschmid. Other architects affiliated with the project include Heinrich Tessenow and the Belgian Henry van de Velde. The Werkbund commissioned van de Velde to build a theatre for its 1914 Cologne Exhibition in Cologne, the theatre which turned out to be his best work, and which only stood for one year before being destroyed as a result of World War I. Eliel Saarinen was made corresponding member of the Deutscher Werkbund in 1914 and was invited to participate in the 1914 Cologne exhibition. Its most famous member was the architect Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, who served as Architectural Director. Bauhaus ("House of Building" or "Building School") is the common term for the Staatliches Bauhaus (help·info), a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. It operated from 1919 to 1933. The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during the first years of its existence. The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design.[1] The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography. The school existed in three German cities (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1927, Hannes Meyer from 1927 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 to 1933, when the school was closed by the Nazi regime. The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. When the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, for instance, although it had been an important

revenue source. mass production. The Bauhaus had a major impact on art and architecture trends in Western Europe. in fact. developed a consistent corporate identity. the most important influence on Bauhaus was modernism. with a mind towards preserving Germany's economic competitiveness with England. the Werkbund came to be regarded as the authoritative body on questions of design in Germany. and made full use of newly developed materials such as poured concrete and exposed steel. Beyond the Bauhaus. and turned toward rational. Beginning in June 1907. Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig. also known as the International Style. functional. and sometimes fierce public debate. In its first seven years. Such influences can be overstated: Gropius himself did not share these radical views. a cultural movement whose origins lay as far back as the 1880s. The Bauhaus was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist ("spirit of the times") had turned from emotional Expressionism to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. the rationality and functionality. Canada and Israel (particularly in White City.[3] Thus the Bauhaus style. were argued out among its 1870 members (by 1914). and Martin Wagner. or were exiled. and was copied in other countries. such as constructivism. previously suppressed by the old regime. Peter Behrens' pioneering industrial design work for the German electrical company AEG successfully integrated art and mass production on a large scale. They also responded to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar Constitution. he transformed it into a private school. Tel Aviv.were already partly developed in Germany before the Bauhaus was founded. The entire movement of German architectural modernism was known as Neues Bauen. Bruno Taut. and the idea that mass-production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit . well-attended public exhibitions like the Weissenhof Estate. However. An entire group of working architects. built the modernist landmark AEG Turbine Factory. and would not allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer to attend it. standardized parts. The German national designers' organization Deutscher Werkbund was formed in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius to harness the new potentials of mass production. Many fundamental questions of craftsmanship vs. and both Walter Gropius and Adolf Meier worked for him in this period. liberal Weimar Republic allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts. The design innovations commonly associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus .[2] Just as important was the influence of the 19th century English designer William Morris. the fall of the German monarchy and the abolition of censorship under the new.the radically simplified forms. the relationship of usefulness and beauty. sometimes standardized building. among others. it had some 4000 Bauhaus buildings erected from 1933 on. Defeat in World War I. and which had already made its presence felt in Germany before the World War. Behrens was a founding member of the Werkbund. The acceptance of modernist design into everyday life was the subject of publicity campaigns. created clean-lined designs for the company's graphics. was marked by the absence of ornamentation and by harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design. despite the prevailing conservatism. many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aesthetic issues and material possibilities as the school. the pottery shop was discontinued. . who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function. Tel Aviv) in the decades following its demise. turned away from fanciful experimentation. and said that Bauhaus was entirely apolitical. He designed consumer products. films. and whether or not a single proper form could exist. has been named to the list of world heritage sites by the UN due to its abundance of Bauhaus architecture[17][18]. Ernst May. built large housing blocks in Frankfurt and Berlin. the United States. Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution. When Mies van der Rohe took over the school in 1930. including Erich Mendelsohn. the practical purpose of formal beauty in a commonplace object. by the Nazi regime. as many of the artists involved fled.

Chicago School Chicago's architecture is famous throughout the world and one style is referred to as the Chicago School. but the ′Ulm Model′ concept continues to influence international design education. with no essential continuity with the Bauhaus under Gropius in the early 1920s[20]. enjoyed the sponsorship of the influential Philip Johnson. the Chicago School was a school of architects active in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century. in particular in reaction to Carl Condit's 1952 book The Chicago School . Vorkurs ("initial" or "preliminary course") was taught. One of the most important contributions of the Bauhaus is in the field of modern furniture design. The school is notable for its inclusion of semiotics as a field of study. They were among the first to promote the new technologies of steel-frame construction in commercial buildings. This included live stage productions in the Bauhaus theater under the name of Bauhausbühne ("Bauhaus Stage"). The style is also known as Commercial style. this is the modern day "Basic Design" course that has become one of the key foundational courses offered in architectural and design schools across the globe. and became one of the pre-eminent architects in the world. using the tensile properties of steel. Herbert Bayer. After German reunification. craft. In 1953.[2] While the term "Chicago School" is widely used to describe buildings in the city during the 1880s and 1890s. Both Gropius and Breuer went to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and worked together before their professional split. Louis. moved to Aspen. The ubiquitous Cantilever chair by Dutch designer Mart Stam. The machine was considered a positive element. I. and the Wassily Chair designed by Marcel Breuer are two examples. a design school in the tradition of the Bauhaus. Marcel Breuer. producing such students as Philip Johnson.[1] In the history of architecture. and developed a spatial aesthetic which coevolved with. Moholy-Nagy also went to Chicago and founded the New Bauhaus school under the sponsorship of industrialist and philanthropist Walter Paepcke.[19] One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art. Mies van der Rohe re-settled in Chicago. part of the Illinois Institute of Technology. Germany (HfG Ulm). and László Moholy-Nagy re-assembled in Britain during the mid 1930s to live and work in the Isokon project before the war caught up with them. and then came to influence. Colorado in support of Paepcke's Aspen projects at the Aspen Institute. Printmaker and painter Werner Drewes was also largely responsible for bringing the Bauhaus aesthetic to America and taught at both Columbia University and Washington University in St.Walter Gropius. A "Second Chicago School" later emerged in the 1960s and 1970s which pioneered new structural systems such as the tube-frame structure. This school became the Institute of Design. this term has been disputed by scholars. Lawrence Halprin and Paul Rudolph. and therefore industrial and product design were important components.M. There was no teaching of history in the school because everything was supposed to be designed and created according to first principles rather than by following precedent. among many others. In 1979 Bauhaus-Dessau College started to organize postgraduate programs with participants from all over the world. and technology. parallel developments in European Modernism. The school closed in 1968. The physical plant at Dessau survived World War II and was operated as a design school with some architectural facilities by the German Democratic Republic. Pei. The Master Craftsman Program at Florida State University bases its artistic philosophy on Bauhaus theory and practice. together with Inge Aicher-Scholl and Otl Aicher. Max Bill. sponsored by Paepcke. The Harvard School was enormously influential in America in the late 1920s and early 1930s. founded the Ulm School of Design|Hochschule für Gestaltung in Ulm. American art schools have also rediscovered the Bauhaus school. a reorganized school continued in the same building. This effort has been supported by the Bauhaus-Dessau Foundation which was founded in 1974 as a public institution. In the late 1930s.

American Highrise Architecture The most notable United States architectural innovation has been the skyscraper. when. It is a three-part window consisting of a large fixed center panel flanked by two smaller double-hung sash windows. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. act as the shaft of the column. Beman. The Chicago window combined the functions of light-gathering and natural ventilation. the middle stories. Sometimes elements of neoclassical architecture are used in Chicago School skyscrapers. Professional engineer William LeBaron Jenney solved the problem with a steel support frame in Chicago's 10 story Home Insurance Building. which would become the first commercial building to use an elevator. Chicago buildings of the era displayed a wide variety of styles and techniques. is sometimes credited with the rise of a second "Chicago school" between 1939 and 1975. These windows were often deployed in bays. An 1868 competition decided the design of New York City's six story Equitable Life Building. . John Root. when in fact developments in Boston. Allen Brooks. The use of a thin curtain wall in place of a load bearing wall reduced the building's overall weight by two thirds. that projected out over the street. with some projecting out from the facade forming bay windows. with more ornamental detail and capped with a cornice. known as oriel windows. Solon S. Load bearing stone walls become impractical as a structure gains height. Architects whose names are associated with the Chicago School include Henry Hobson Richardson. Historians such as H. in fact. Contemporary publications used the phrase "Commercial Style" to describe the innovative tall buildings of the era rather than proposing any sort of unified "school". Chicago in 1885 by Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. Many Chicago School skyscrapers contain the three parts of a classical column. and Louis Sullivan. Other structures followed such as the Auditorium Building. while the two surrounding panes were operable. Construction commenced in 1873.of Architecture. William Holabird. In 1853 Elisha Otis invented the first safety elevator which prevented a car from falling down the shaft if the suspending cable broke. Martin Roche. Frank Lloyd Wright started in the firm of Adler and Sullivan but created his own Prairie Style of architecture. allowing large plate-glass window areas and the use of limited amounts of exterior ornament. This adopted Italian palazzo design details to give the appearance of a structured whole: for several decades American skyscrapers would blend conservative decorative elements with technical innovation. and the last floor or so represent the capital. who had run the Bauhaus in Germany before coming to Chicago. The arrangement of windows on the facade typically creates a grid pattern. Several technical advances made this possible. Some of the distinguishing features of the Chicago School are the use of steelframe buildings with masonry cladding (usually terra cotta). Other scholars have noted that the phrase implies that Chicago was the only locus of technical or aesthetic innovation in skyscraper design. Soon skyscrapers encountered a new technological challenge. The first floor functions as the base. usually with little ornamental detail. Elevators allowed buildings to rise above the four or five stories that people were willing to climb by stairs for normal occupancy. reaching a technical limit at about 20 stories. The "Chicago window" originated in this school. Winston Weisman and Daniel Bluestone have pointed out that the phrase suggests a unified set of aesthetic or conceptual precepts. Daniel Burnham. Dankmar Adler. William LeBaron Jenney. Philadelphia and Cincinnati often paralleled or preceded similar work in Chicago. New York. Arguably this is the first true skyscraper. 1885. a single central pane was usually fixed.

European architects who emigrated to the United States before World War II launched what became a dominant movement in architecture. United Nations headquarters." In reaction. One culturally significant early skyscraper was New York City's Woolworth Building designed by architect Cass Gilbert.Another feature that was to become familiar in twentieth century skyscrapers first appeared in Chicago's Reliance Building. Basically the law allowed a structure to rise to any height as long as it reduced the area of each tower floor to one quarter of the structure's ground floor area. Security concerns following the attack on the nearby World Trade Center have closed the lobby to public viewing. The Woolworth Building blocked a significant amount of sunlight to the neighborhood.) have rejected the austere. Other public concerns emerged following the building's introduction. designed by Charles B. 1913. Atwood and E. younger American architects such as Michael Graves (1945. Skycraper hotels gained popularity with the construction of John Portman's (1924-) Westin Peachtree Plaza Hotel in Atlanta followed by his Renaissance Center in Detroit which remains the tallest skyscaper hotel in the Western Hemisphere. 792 ft (241 m). This became the first skyscraper to have plate glass windows take up a majority of its outer surface area. Although the competition selected a gothic design influenced by the Woolworth building. Frank Woolworth was fond of gothic cathedrals. however. boxy look in favor of postmodern buildings such as those by Philip C. Modern American governmental buildings and skyscrapers have a distinct style known as Federal Modernism. Perhaps the most influential of these immigrants were Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) and Walter Gropius (1883-1969). His most talented student was Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959). . 1949-1950. Cass Gilbert constructed the office building as a cathedral of commerce and incorporated many Gothic revival decorative elements. Raising previous technological advances to new heights. it was the world's tallest building until 1930. who spent much of his career designing private residences with matching furniture and generous use of open space. both former directors of Germany's famous design school. including an acorn growing into an oak tree and a man losing his shirt. The Reliance Building's move toward increased window area reached its logical conclusion in a New York City building with a Brazilian architect on land that is technically not a part of the United States. by Oscar Niemeyer has the first complete glass curtain wall. America's first great modern architect. An entry from Walter Gropius brought attention to the Bauhaus school. This inspired the New York City setback law that remained in effect until 1960. buildings in their style have been both praised as monuments to American corporate life and dismissed as "glass boxes. 1890 . Based on geometric form. The popularity of the new Woolworth Building inspired many Gothic revival imitations among skyscrapers and remained a popular design theme until the art deco era. Shankland.C. Chicago.1895. Because outer walls no longer bore the weight of a building it was possible to increase window size. some of the numerous competing entries became influential to other twentieth century architectural styles. Some of the most graceful early towers were designed by Louis Sullivan (1856-1924). Johnson (1906-2005) with striking contours and bold decoration that alludes to historical styles of architecture. the International Style. the Bauhaus. is a public one: the Guggenheim Museum in New York City. The main entrance and lobby contain numerous allegories of thrift. Second place finisher Eliel Saarinen submitted a modernist design. One of his bestknown buildings. Another significant event in skyscraper history was the competition for Chicago's Tribune Tower.

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