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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 – 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  981 
Mass :
The mass of a body is a ve scalar quantity which is proportional with the weight of this body .
The mass of a body is denoted by m .
Units of mass : 1 Ton 1000 Kgm & 1 Kgm 100

+
÷ ÷ 0 gm & 1Gram 1000 milligram . ÷
Definition :
The momentum vector of a particle , At a certain instant is defined as the product of the mass
of the particle and its velocity vector at this instant , Momentum is denoted by H .
Rule of Momentum :
From this definition , It is clear that the momentum of a body at a certain instant is a vector in
the same direction of the velocity vector .
H m v =
Units of Momentum : H mv
Where m Mass , And v Velocity .
Its units may be for an example : gm . cm / sec & kg . m / sec & kg . m / hr .
=
¬ ¬
Note : I always prefer to use the unit kgm . m / sec .
( )
2
Since there is only one body in the problem , Then we don't need to show a direction .
To find the momentum : H mv
1
So we must find v : u 0 a 9 cm / sec t 60 30 sec .
2
v u at v 9 30 270 c
=
= = = × =
= + ¬ = = m / sec .
H mv 7.5 270 2025 gm . cm / sec . = = × =

For example, a heavy truck moving fast has a large momentum—it takes a large and prolonged
force to get the truck up to this speed, and it takes a large and prolonged force to bring it to a
stop afterwards. If the truck was lighter, or moving slower, then it would have less momentum.
Momentum can be defined as "mass in motion." All objects have mass; so if an object is
moving, then it has momentum  it has its mass in motion



Example (1)
2
A body of mass 7.5 gm , Moves from rest in a straight line with acceleration 9 cm / sec in the
1
direction of its motion , Find its momentum after minutes from the begining of the motion .
2
Answer
Newton’s law of motion
1
st
: Momentum عفدلا ةوق
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  911 
Example (2)
Find the momentum of a stone of mass 500 gm , When it is let to fall 4.9 meters vertically
downwards .
Answer
( )( )
2 2 2
H mv So we have to get velocity :
u 0 " fall" s 4.9 m .
So , v u 2 g s v 2 9.8 4.9 96.04
v 9.8 m / sec .
H 500 9.8 4900 gm . m / sec .
= ¬
= =
= + ¬ = =
=
= × =

Example (3)
Find the height from which a body of mass 500 gm , falls such that the magnitude of the momentum
when it collides with the ground equals the magnitude of the momentum of a body of mass 70 gm
moving with velocity of magnitude 432 km / hr .
Answer
( )
( ) ( )
2 1 1 2 2
1 1
1
2
2 2
5
v 432 120 m / sec . So m v m v
18
500 V 70 120 V 16.8 m / sec .
u 0 v 16.8 m / sec s ??
v u 2g S 16.8 2 9.8 S S 14.4
= × = ¬ =
= ¬ =
= = =
= + ¬ = ¬ = m .

Example (4)
1
A gun fires 300 bullets per minute,If the mass of each bullet is kg and its velocity at the opening
5
of the gun is 200 m / sec , Find the momentum of the bullets fired per second in gm.cm / sec
Answer
In order to find the momentum of bullets fired per second .
300
Number of bullets fired 5 bullets per second .
60
1
Each one of them has mass kg .
5
Then the mass of the bullets in one secon
¬ =
¬
7
ds is :
1
5 1000 gm 1000 gm .
5
Momemtum H mv 1000 200 100 2 10 gm .cm / sec .
× × ¬
¬ = ¬ × × = ×

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  919 
( )
( )( )
2 2 2
1 1
2
1 1
1
Let the positive direction be .
Before impact : u 0 s 16.9 m .
v u 2 g s v 2 9.8 16.9
v 331.24 v 18.2 x
And H is the momentum vector of the ball before

 = =
= + ¬ =
= ¬ =
( )( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
impact .
5460
5460 m 18.2 m 300 gm .
18.2
Momentum after impact : u ?? v 0 " as the ball will become finally at rest" s 4.9
v u 2 g s 0 u 2 9.8 4.9 u 9.8 m / sec . u
= × ¬ = =
 = = =
= ÷ ¬ = ÷ ¬ = ¬
2 1
9.8 x
The change of momentum before and after impact is : m v v 300 9.8 18.2 8400 x .
Its magnitude is 8400 gm .m / sec .
=
÷ ¬ + =
ve +
16.9 m
1
v
v 0 =
4.9 m
u ?? =
( )
1 2 2 1
2 1 2 1
It is the change of the velocity of an object from T to T H H
Rule : The change in momentum : H H m v v It is also called Impulse
¬ ÷
÷ = ÷ ¬
ve +
2
v
1
v
A rubber ball of mass 300 gm moves horizontally with uniform velocity 135 cm / sec . It collides
4
by a vertical wall , And rebounds in a perpendicular direction to the wall after loosing of the
5
magnitude of its velocity before collision, Find the magnitude of the ball change in momentum due
to collision with the wall .
u Not the same as V
the direction changed
=
u 0 =
( )
nd
1 1
2
let the positive direction be in the direction of the 2 velocity
v 135 m / sec . v 135 x
The velocity after , Collision is opposite to x
4 1
After loosing of its velocity v 135 27
5 5
= ¬ =
¬ = =
2 1 2 1
2 1
x
Change of momentum H H m v v
H H 300 27 135 x 48600 x Its magnitude 48600 gm . cm / sec
= ÷ = ÷
÷ = + = =

Example (5)
Answer

Example (6)
A ball is left to fall from a height of 16.9 m , And its momentum when it impinges with the
ground is 5460 gm . m / sec , Find its mass . If the ball rebounds to a height of 4.9 m , Then
Find the change of its momentum just before and after impact .
Answer
The change in momentum
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  911 
1
1
2
1
In this problem, we want to find the velocity of the bullet and the wood after impact
v be its velocity just before impact .
v 390 x
Let v be the velocity of the system after impact .
And m be
=
2
the mass of the bullet and m is the mass of the system .
As the momentum of the system does not change due to impact .
2
v
1
v
x
1
m 120 gm =
2
m 3120 gm =
( )
PT P
Let x be the unit vector in direction of the projectile :
H m v 5 350 x 1750 kg . m / sec .
1 The tank is moving away of the canon means , That are in the same direction .
V V V
= = × =
= ÷
( )
T
PT
PT P T
5
350 x 45 x 337.5 x
18
Its momentum H m v 5 337.5 x 1687.5 x
The magnitude of the moment of the projectile 1687.5 kg . m / sec .
2 v v v
35
= ÷ × =
¬ = = × =
=
= +
=
PT
5
0 x 45 x 362.5 x
18
Its momentum H m v 5 362.5 x 1812.5 x
The magnitude of its momentum is 1812.5 kg . m / sec .
+ × =
¬ = = × =
x
x
T
v
P
v
P
v
T
v
( )
( )
( )( )
1 2 1 1 2 2
2 2
H H m v m v
120 390
120 390 x 3000 120 v v 15 x
3120
Thus the system will move after impact with velocity 15 m / sec in the same direction of th bullet .
= ¬ =
× = + ¬ = =
Example (7)
A bullet of mass 120 gm is fired with a velocity of 390 m / sec towards a wooden body of mass
3 kgm .which is at rest . If the bullet is imbedded in it and the system moves after that with a
certain velocity . Find their velocity , Given that the momentum of the system doesnot change due
to impact .
Answer
]

Example (8)
A fixed cannon fired a projectile of mass 5 kg with a velocity of 350 m / sec in a horizontal
direction towards a tank moving with a velocity of 45 km / hr and it hit it , Find the absolute
value of the
( ) ( )
momentum of the projectile , Then Calculate the magnitude of the momentum
of the projectile relative to the tank if :
1 The tank is moving away of the canon 2 The tank is moving towards the canon .
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  911 
A car B sand
BA B A
Let x be a unit vector in direction of the sand , Also v v & v v .
v v v 36 x 45 x 81 x
The magnitude of the velocity of the grain of the sand relative to the
= =
= + = + =
BA
car is 81 km / hr
250
81 2250 cm / sec .
9
7.5
H m v 2250
1000
The momentum 16.875 gm . cm / sec .
× =
= = ×
=
ve +
x
Example (9)
A car moves along a straight road with velocity 45 km / hr , Facing a sandy storm in the opposite
direction to that of the car motion with velocity 36 km / hr , Find the momentum of the grain of the
sand relative to the car , Knowing that the mass of the grain of sand is 7.5 milligram .
Answer

Example (10)
Water vapour condinces on the surface of water drops , while it is falling at rate 10.5 milligram
/ sec , The mass of one falling water drop is 0.25 gm , Find the momentum in gm . m / sec of
one water drop when it reaches the surface of the ground from a height 1000 meters .
Answer
( )
2 2
10.5
Water condineces at rate 0.0105 gm / sec .
1000
So , To know the total mass of the water drop in the 1000 m : We must get the time then .
1 1 100
s u gt 1000 9.8 t t s
2 2 7
=
= + ¬ = ¬ = ec .
100
Then the time water drop travel from 1000 m till it reaches the ground is sec .
7
100
Then the mass of the water vapour at this time 0.0105 0.15 gm .
7
The total mass of the drop 0.15 0.25 0.4 gm .
100
To get the velocity : v u gt 9.8 140 m / sec .
7
The momentum H mv 0.4 140
= × =
= + =
= + = × =
= = × = 56 gm . m / sec .

B A
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  911 
5.4 m
u 0 =
t 1.5 sec =
x
a 2.7 =
( )
( )
First Find magnitude of the swimmer velocity directly before collision with water :
v u gt 0 9.8 1.5 14.7 m / sec
Let u be a unit vector directed vertically downwards .
The vel
= + = + =
( )
( )
1
2 2 2
2
2
ocity directly before collision v 14.7 x
Second Magnitude of swimmer velocity directly after collision with water :
v u 2as 0 u 2 2.7 5.4
u 5.4
= =
= + ¬ = ÷ × ×
= ¬
( )
2
2 1 2 1
u 5.4 meter / sec .
The velocity directly after collision v 5.4 x
Change of mometum due to collision H H m v v
=
= ==
= ÷ = ÷
40 5.4 x 14.7 x 372 x
Its magnitude 372 kgm . m / sec .
= ÷ =
=
V 0 =
V ?? =
u ?? =
Example (11)
A swimmer of mass 40 kgm jumped vertically from rest to the water surface of a swimming
pool , He collided with the surface after 1.5 sec , Then he douse vertically into the water in a
retarded motion
2
with uniform acceleration of magnitude 2.7 m / sec and covered a distance is
5.4 meter before he starts the ascending , Calculate magnitude of his change of momentum due
to collision with water .
Answer

Example (12)
( )
A rocket is projected vertically upwards with velocity 180 km / hr , If its mass at any instant
is m 25 0.001t kgm , Find the rate of change in its momentum after 15 seconds . = ÷
Answer
Very important note : When the mass of the body comes variable in the problem , we must use
the rule of derivative only .
( )( )
180
u km / sec u 0.05 km / sec .
3600
v u g t v 0.05 9.8 t
H m v 25 0.001t 0.05 9.8 t x
= ¬ =
= ÷ ¬ = ÷
= = ÷ ÷
( ) ( )( )
2
d H
9.8 25 0.001t 0.001 0.05 9.8t At t 15 sec .
d t
d H
244 853 0.14695 244.706 kg . m / sec .
d t
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬ =
= ÷ + =
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  911 
( )
A uniform motion on a horizontal plane under the
action of a horizontal force .
When a body of weight w moves horizontally by force F ,
You have
"Normal reaction of the road " " Wei
to know that it meets an opposite resistance called
" Resistance force " and it is denoted by R .
In this case F R Or F R 0
Also , We can say that : N W
= ÷ =
= ght "
A uniform motion of a body on a horizontal plane under
The action of an inclined force .
It a force is inclinedby angle to the horizontal .
Then : N F sin W
And R F cos
u
u
u
+ =
=
N
F
R
W
F sin u
Fcos u
u
Case (1)
Case (2)
F
R
W
N
Motion
Motion
Every body remains in its state of rest or uniform motion unless it is compelleted to change
that state by an external action called a force .
( )
( )
Discussion of the first law :
1 The law assumes that bodies which are at rest state or have uniform motion state is a
natural state of the body .
2 The law assumes that every body can not change any
( )
of its natural state by itself , So this law
is called the law of inertia .
3 The law assumes that the existence of an external action called a force can only change the
state of the body .



Newton’s first law
Cases of uniform motion of a body
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  911 
( )
Vertical uniform motion :
If a body of weight W moves uniformly vertically in a liquid ,
Then R W =
R
W
Direction of
motion
Uniform motion on an inclined plane :
N F sin W Cos
F cos R W Sin
o u
o u
 + =
 = +
F
W
u
u
Wcos u
o
Fcos o
F Sin o
N
Motion
Case (4)
Case (3)
R
WSinu


( )
( )
Notes :
1 The resistance of the plane to the moving body is always parallel to the plane and in the opposite
direction to the motion of the body .
2 The force generated by the motor of a car or a
( )
( )
( )
train is always in the same direction of the motion .
3 When we say that the body is moving with maximum velocity , This means that it is moving
with a uniform motion Then a 0
4 If the resultant o
=
f forces , Acting on a body , Vanishes at any moment during its motion , Then
it moves from this moment with a uniform motion . " So , Sum of forces 0 when the body moves
with a uniform moti
=
( )
1 1
2 2
2
2 2
1 1
2
2 2
on " .
5 In many times , The reaction R is variable as the velocity of the moving body .
R V
If R V , Then : R AV where A is constant
R V
R V
If R V , Then : R AV
R V
o
o
 = ¬ ¬ =
 = ¬ ¬ =

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  911 
( ) ( )
st
The train moves with a uniform velocity, then it will stop soon according to resistance
we have to use Newton's 1 law F R 2000
The resistance per ton 2000 250 8 kg .wt Case 1
¬ = =
= ÷ =
F 2000 kg . wt =
R
The train moves with a uniform velocity, then it will stop soon according to resistance
The mass of the whole system is : Mass of the locomotive Mass of number of wagons
The mass 6 3n
It moves
+
= +
( )
st
with a uniform velocity :
So we have to use Newton's 1 law
810
F R 900 6 3n 15 900 90 45n 45n 810 n 18 wagons .
45
= ¬ = + ¬ = + ¬ = ¬ = =
Motion
900 kg . wt
R
The body moves in a uniform velocity : F R
3 4 3
1350 cos W 1350 W W 1440 kg . wt
4 5 4
3
Also , N 1350 sin W N 1350 1440
5
N 630 kg.wt
u
u
=
= ¬ × = ¬ =
+ = ¬ + × =
=
N
W
1350 Sin u
1350 cos u
u
F 1350 =
3
w
4
u
4
3
5
3
Sin
5
u =
4
Cos
5
u =
A body is pulled along a horizontal straight road by a force of magnitude 1350 kgm . wt ,
3
And inclined at an angle of sine to the horizontal , So the body moved in a uniform motion
5
against the road
3
resistance which is equal to of its weight . Calculate the weight of the body
4
and the normal reaction of the road .
Example (1)
A train of mass 250 Ton moves with a uniform velocity along a horizontal plane . The force
of the engine is 2000 kg .wt ,Find the magnitude of the resistance for each ton of the mass .
Answer

Example (2)
A locomotive of mass 6 tons pulls a number of wagons the mass of each equals 3 tons
along a horizontal straight road with uniform velocity . If the magnitude of the driving force
of the locomotive equals 900 kgm .wt , And the resistance to the motion of the train equals
15 kgm . wt per each ton of its mass . Find the number of the pulled wagons .
Answer

Example (3)
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  918 
( )
R 4 3 12 kg . wt
The component of W in the plane direction downwards
1 1 1
is W sin 3 Ton . wt 1000 50 kg . wt
60 20 20
The car moves uniformly With a uniform velocity
F R W sin F 12 50 62 kg . wt
u
u
= × =
= × = = × =
= + ¬ = + =
N
F
W
Wsin u
Wcos u
u
R
( )
The engine stopped while moving downwards means
that the car is moving by its weight only No force exists
1 1
R 5 sin 5 ton . wt
100 20
1
R 1000 50 kg . wt
20
50
So ,The resistance for each ton's is
5
u = = × =
= × =
10 kg . wt =
5
u
u
5 cos u
R
N
Motion
5 sin u
u
Example (4)
A car of weight 3 ton.wt ,moves with a uniform velocity up a plane inclines to the horizontal
1
at an angle where sin . If the resistance of the plane is 4 kg . wt per ton , Find the
60
driving forc
u u =
e of the car in kg . wt .
Answer

Example (5)
The engine of a car of weight 5 ton . wt is stopped while it is moving downwards a road
1
inclined to the horizontal at an angle where sin with a uniform velocity ,
100
Calculate the resistance for
u u =
each ton of its mass in kg . wt .
Answer

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  911 
( )
( )
( )
4.5 ton .wt 4.5 1000 4500 kg . wt
Case 1 : When car engine is stopped and the car moves downward
The car moves with its weight only
1
R 4500 sin 4500 90 kg . wt
50
Case 2 : W
u
¬ × =
= = × =
hen the car engine is turned on and the car is moving upwards .
1
F 90 4500 180 kg . wt
50
= + × =
u
u
4500 cos u
Motion
4500sinu
u
u
Motion
4500
N R
4500 sin u
4500 cos u
R 90 =
F
4500
Example (6)
A car of weight 4.5 ton . wt moves along the line of the greatest slope of a plane inclined
1
at an angle of sine , If the engine of this car is stopped when moving downwards with
50
uniform velocity . If the car engine is turned on , Find the magnitude of the driving force of
this car such that it ascends this plane with uniform velocity given that the resistance of the
plane to the car is unchanged in the two cases of motion .
Answer

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
2
2 1
When the car moved in the inclined plane :
First : You have to know that : no force downward .
Then the car is moving with its weight only
1
So , R 2500 sin 2500 78.125 kg . wt
32
3
And R R
8
u

= = × =
=
( )
1
1 1
8 1
R 78.125 208 kg . wt
3 3
1
From 1 F R 208 kg . wt
3
= × =
= =
2500 sin u
Motion
Motion
N
N
W 2500 =
R
2500 cos u
u
2500
Ramp
1
F
1
R
u
( )
2 1
1 1
3
Given : R R
8
When the car moves in the horizontal road with uniform velocity :
Then : F R 1
=

= ÷
Example (7)
A car of weight 2.5 ton . wt moves on a straight horizontal road with a uniform velocity
1
when it reached a ramp inclined to the horizontal at an angle whose sin is , The driver
32
stopped the motor of the car . So , It moved down the ramp with a uniform velocity , Given
3
that the resistance of the ramp is equal to of the resistance of the horizontal road .
8
Calculate the driving force of the motor ofthe car along the horizontal road measured in kg .wt
Answer

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  119 
( )
From the figure : R 30 sin 20 1
When the tension of the force reduced to 10 kg . wt ,
The body moved downwards and the 10 kg . wt
Became another resistance .
So , R 10 30 sin
u  + = ÷ ÷ ÷

+ =
( )
( ) ( )
R 30 sin 10 2
Substitute 2 in 1 : 30 sin 10 3 sin 20
1
60 sin 30 sin
2
30
u
u
u u
u u
u
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ + =
= ¬ =
= °
u
u
Motion
u
u
Motion
Example (8)
A body of mass 30 kg is placed on a plane inclined to the horizontal at an angle and is
pulled by a force of 20 kg . wt acting along the line of the greatest slope up the plane , It
moves uniformly u
u
( )
p the plane against resistance of R kg . wt , When the tension is
reduced to 10 kg . wt . The body can move down the plane uniformly , Find the measure of
the angle of inclination of the plane , Given that the resistance of the plane doesn't change
in the two cases .
Answer

Example (9)
A body of weight 16 kg.wt is placed on a plane inclined to the horizontal at an angle of measure
30 ,the body is pulled by a rope of force F kg . wt upwards and this force inclined to the greatest
sl
°
ope at an angle 30 , If the body moves uniformly upwards the plane when the resistance of the
plane to the body is 4 kg . wt , Find F and the pressure of the body on the plane .
°
Answer
( )
( )
o o o
o
F cos 30 4 16 sin 30 F cos 30 12
12
F 8 3 kg . wt
cos 30
N F sin 30 16 Cos 60
1 3
N 8 3 16
2 2
N 8 3 4 3 4 3 kg . wt
= + ¬ =
= =
+ ° =
+ × = ×
= ÷ =

30sinu
N
R
30cosu
30
30sinu
30
30cosu
N
20
10
R
o
16 sin30
N
Fcos 30°
30°
30°
30°
16
F
4
o
16cos30
F sin30°
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( )
Let F be the resultant of the two tensions
F 2 T cos " Static "
2
F 2 200 cos 60 200 gm .wt
The line of action of F bisects of the angle between the two ropes .
R F 200 gm . wt
o
=
= ° =
= =
2
o
2
o
( )
( )
1
1 1
2 2
1
1
R W R 30 gm.wt
R V
And R V 1
R V
R 25 gm.wt when V 12cm/ sec
30 V 30 12
from 1 : V 14.4 cm/sec
25 12 25
o
= ¬ =
¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
= =
×
= ¬ = =
30
Example (10 “important”)
A body of mass 5 kg is placed on a horizontal plane and is attached to two horizontal ropes ,
The measure of the angle between them is 120 , When the two ropes are pulled by a force of
200 gm . wt ea
°
ch then the body moves on the plane uniformly , Find the magitude and the
direction of the force of resistance of the plane against the motion of the body .
Answer

Example (11)
A mettalic ball of weight 30 gm.wt is left to fall down in long vertical tube full of a viscial liquid.
If the resistance of the liquid to the motion of the ball varies directly as the magnitude of the
velocity of its motion in the tube , And given that the magnitude of the resistance of the liquid to
the ball equals 25 gm . wt , When the magnitude of the velocity of the ball equals 12 cm / sec ,
Calculate the magnitude of its velocity when it is uniform .
Answer

N
F
R
T
T
5
R
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2 2
2
1
2
When the train moves with a uniform velocity :
R 6250 kg . wt
R V
R V 1
R V
R 25 45 1125 kg .wt when V 15 :
6250 V
from 1 : V 25 2 km / hr .
1125
15
o
=
¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
= × = =
= ¬ =
( )
( )
( )
3
3
1 1
3
2 2
1
3
3
1
3
Let the weight of the man and the parachute is W kg . wt
The man moves with uniform velocity
R V
R W and R V 1
R V
8
And R W when V 20 km / hr
125
W V
from 1 : V
8
20
W
125
o = ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
= ¬ =
= ¬ = 125000 V 50 km / hr . ¬ =
Example (12)
A train of mass 45 tons moves on a straight horizontal road and the driving force of the engine
equals 6.25 tons . wt , Find the uniform velocity with which it moves , Gives that the resistance
to its motion is proportional to the square of its velocity and the resistance equals 25 kg . wt for
each ton of its mass when its velocity equals 15 km / hr .
Answer

Example (13)
An Aviator is tied to a parachute descends vertically downwards . Given that the air resistance
8
is directly proportional to the cube of its velocity at any time , This resistance is equal to the
125
weight of the man and the parachute when its velocity is 20 km / hr . Find the maximum velocity the
man descends with .
Answer

R
45
R
W
6250
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( )
1 2
The forces acting on the body are :
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
F 4i 3 j F i 2 j
ˆ
W The weight of the body 7 j
ˆ ˆ
N N j And R Ri
= + ¬ = +
=
= =
2
F
R
N
1
F
ˆ
j
ˆ
i
W
1
F
Y
X
Y '
X '
5 3
o
u
ˆ
i
ˆ
j
o
5
( ) ( )
1 2
The body moves with a uniform velocity :
Thus the resultant " Sum of forces " Zero
F F W R N 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
4i 3 j i 2 j 7 j N j Ri 0 4 1 R i 3 2 7 N j 0
=
+ + + + =
+ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ¬ ÷ ÷ + + ÷ + =
4 1 R 0 R 3 Newton . ÷ ÷ = ¬ =
Example (14)
1
2
ˆ ˆ
A body of weight 7 Newton , Is suspended on a horizontal plane . Two forces F 4i 3 j
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
And F i 2 j , i and j are two unit vectors , The first in the direction of the plane
and the other in
= +
= +
the perpendicular direction to the plane upwards , Act on the body . Find the
resistance vector R and the reaction of the plane to the body N , Knowing that the body
moves with a uniform velocity .
Answer

Example (15)
1 2
3 4
ˆ ˆ
A body moves in a straight line with a uniform velocity under the forces : F & F 3i 2 3 j
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
F 4i 3 3 j and F 6i 10 3 j . The magnitude of these forces are in Newton . Find
The ma
= +
= + = ÷
1
ˆ ˆ
gnitude and direction of F Where i and j are two perpendicular unit vectors .
Answer
( )
( )
( )
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1
1 1
The body moves with uniform velocity
The sum of forces 0
F F F F 0 F  F F F
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
F  3i 2 3 j 4i 3 3 j 6i 10 3 j
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
F  5i 5 3 j F 5i 5 3 j
Then
=
+ + + = ¬ = + +
= + ÷ + + ÷
= ÷ ¬ = +
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1
1 o
o o o
the magnitude of F 5 5 3 10 Newton
5 3
And Tan  3 Tan 3 60 neglect negative
5
180 60 120 " we must start from The x  axis "
o o
u
÷
= + =
= = ¬ = =
= ÷ =
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( )
( )
nd
Two rules are formed :
1 Vector form of the 2 law when the mass is Constant .
m a F Where a is the acceleration vector .
2 Algebraic f
= ¬
nd
nd
orm of the 2 law when the mass is Constant .
ma F
: In our problems, Newton 2 law is the basic rule which will we use always
=
Note
F R ma Or F R ma ÷ = = +
Rate of change of momentum with respect to the time is proportional to the impressed
force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts .
  ( ) 1 The sympolic form of the second law Equation of motion :
Suppose a force F acts on a body of mass m for a time t , and causes its velocity to change fromu to v
This changing in velocities lead the appeare
( )
nce of acceleration.
d
The second law states that : m v F ma K F
d t
And if the unit of the force magnitude is that which produces one unit of acceleration magnitude
When Acts on a body
o ¬ =
with one unit vector of mass 1 1 K 1 K 1 ¬ × = × ÷ =

Very important note : The force vector F Or its algebraic measure F and the acceleration a
Must have the same direction
So from the opposite figure :
We can say :

Newton’s first law Newton’s second law
(1) Uniform velocity (Motion) Or
Maximum velocity exists without changing
“Special case of Newton’s 2
nd
law”
(1) Uniform Acceleration Or changing the
uniform velocity due to force or resistance
“The original rule which will be always used”
(2) This means that a =0 (2) This means that a 0 =
(3)
F R Or F R 0 = ÷ =
(3)
Or F R ma F ma R ÷ = = +
Newton’s Second law
F R
a
+
Differences between Newton’s first law and Newton’s second law
F
R
F
R
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
G
W
M
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
a Newton kg.m/sec
It is the magnitude of the force which while acting on a body of mass one kilogram it
produces an acceleration of magnitude 1 m / sec .
b Dyne gm.cm / sec
It is the magnit
¬
¬
( )
2
5
5
ude of the force which while acting on a body of mass one gram it
produces an acceleration of magnitude 1 cm / sec .
Note 1 Newton 10 Dyne .
Dyne 10 Newton .
So
=
=
2
when applying our Rule : F ma
Dyne gm Cm / sec
F M a
Newton K
=
  
= ×
+ + +
2
g m / sec
( )
( )
BY
If a body of mass m is left to fall , It desends vertically by a uniform acceleration g because
the earth attracts it by a force W called weight .
We replace F ma w mg = ÷÷÷ =
If the mass of a body m 15Kg Its weight : W mg 15 9.8 147 N
If the mass of a body m 3 Ton Its weight : W mg 3 1000 9.8 29400 N
If the mass of a body m 200 gm Its weight : W mg
 = ¬ = = × =
 = ¬ = = × × =
 = ¬ = = 200 980 196000 Dyne.
w 117.6
The body whose weight 117.6 N Its mass : m 12 Kg
g 9.8
× =
 = ¬ = = =


Example (1)

Fundamental units of forces
The relation between the weight of a body and its mass
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
6 6
Ton . wt 1000 Kgm . wt 10 gm . wt 1000 9.8 N 980 10 Dyne
Note :
If the mass of a body X gm
980
1000
Also , Kg gm dyne
1000 980
= ¬ = ¬ = × = ×
÷÷÷÷÷ ÷÷÷÷÷
÷÷÷÷÷ ÷÷÷÷÷
= ¬
×
×
÷ ÷
Its weight X gm.wt
If the mass of a body X Kgm Its weight X Kgm.wt
Proof :
7 9.8
If m 7 Kgm W 7 9.8 Newton W 7Kgm . wt
9.8
=
= ¬ =
×
= ¬ = × ¬ = =
( )
1 Kgm .w t 9.8 Newton =
1
Newton Kgm . wt
9.8
=
( )
2 gm .w t 980 Dyne =
1
Dyne gm . wt
980
=
( )
5
3 Kgm .w t 9.8 10 Dyne = ×
5
1
Dyne Kgm.wt
9.8 10
=
×

Example (2)
( ) ( )
2
A body of mass 8.4 Kgm is moving in a straight line with uniform acceleration of magnitude
350 cm / sec . Find the magnitude of the force acting on that body .
First In Newton Second In Kgm
( )
.wt Third In dyne
Answer
2
5
m 4.8 Kgm a 350 100 3.5 m / sec
F ma F 8.4 3.5 29.4 Newton
F 29.4 10 2940000 Dyne F 29.4 9.8 3 Kgm .wt
= ¬ = ÷ =
= ¬ = × =
= × = ¬ = ÷ =

( )
( )
( )
From now on:
1 If the resistance is not mentioned in the problem, then F ma only
2 If the force is not mentioned in the problem, then R ma only
3 If the engine is stopped, then F 0
=
=
=

Summary of units
Very important note
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  118 
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
5
u 27 7.5 m / s s 9 m R ?? V 0
18
25
V u 2as 0 7.5 2 9 a a m / sec
8
And F R ma But there is no driving force mentioned :
25 6125 6125 1
 R 245 Newton 9.8 R 9.8 78 kg.wt
8 8 8 8
= × = = = =
= + ¬ = + ¬ =
÷ =
= × = ÷ ¬ = ÷ =
Example (1)
A car of mass 245 kg moves with uniform velocity 27 km / hr , the brakes are used to stop the car
after covering a distance 9 meters , then find the magnitude of the force of the brakes in kg.wt
Answer
( )
( ) ( )
final
the uniform velocity changed when the brakes are used, then F 0 There is no driving force
and resistance R , acceleration appear retardation and V 0
=
=

Example (2)
7
2
A force of magnitude 4.2 10 dyne acts on a body in the state of rest to move it in a straight
line with uniform acceleration of magnitude 6 m / sec , find the magnitude of momentum of
this body after
×
1
a minute from the instant of start in kg .m / sec .
2
Answer
7 5
from now on, if the resistance is not mentioned in the problem, then F ma only
F 4.2 10 10 420 Newton F ma 420 m 6
m 70 kgm
A
=
= × ÷ = ¬ = ¬ = ×
=
1
nd u 0 And t 60 30 sec
2
V u at 0 6 30 180 m / sec
Magnitude of momentum mv 70 180 12600 kgm . m / sec
= = × =
= + = + × =
= = × =

We have three cases in this chapter
Case I : Motion under a single force
F R
a
+
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
4
2
2
2 2
So F R ma  R ma 5 10 1.6 1000 a
125
a m / sec
4
5 25
And u 45 m / sec , V 0
18 2
25 125
So v u 2as 0 2 S S 2.5 m
2 4
÷ = ¬ = ¬ × = × ×
=
= × = =
 
= + ¬ = + × × ¬ =

\ .
R F
x
a
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
2
u 7 m / s V 0 S 10 m
V u 2as 0 7 2 10 a
a 2.45 m / sec brakes
And F R ma But there is no driving force mentioned : R ma
 R 2.45 m R 2.45 m 1
And W mg m
= = =
= + ¬ = +
=
÷ = =
= ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
= ¬ =
( )
W
9.8
W 1
Substitute in 1 : R 2.45 W
9.8 4
= × =
( ) ( )
( )
final
When the brakes are used , then F 0 There is no driving force And resistance R appears
acceleration appear retardation and V 0
=
=
Example (3)
A car of mass 1.6 tons moves along a horizontal straight road , And when it is moving with
velocity of magnitude 45 km / hr , The driving force of the car is stopped , And the brackes are
used so the ca
4
r stopped after a small interval of time , find the distance which the car travelled
in this interval if the total resistance to the car is constant and its magnitude 5 10 N . = ×
Answer

Example (4)
A car moves with velocity 7 m / sec , if it stopped by using brakes after it covered 10 meters ,
Then prove that the brakes force is equal to
1
4
the weight of the car .
Answer
let x be a unit vector in the direction of F F and a have the same direction ¬

F R
a
+
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  191 
( )
2
5
u 63 17.5 m / s V 0 R 500 kg.wt 9.8 4900 Newton
18
And F R ma But there is no driving force mentioned :
7
 R ma  4900 7000a a m/ sec
10
7
And V u at 0 17.5 t t 25 sec
10
= × = = = × =
÷ =
= ¬ = ¬ =
= + ¬ = ÷ ¬ =
( )
( )( )
2
2 2 2
S 0.9 m V 0 Comes to rest u ??
And F R ma  R ma
 2940 1200a a 2.45 m/ sec
And V u 2as 0 u 2 2.45 0.9 u 2.1m / sec
= = =
÷ = ¬ =
= ¬ =
= + ¬ = ÷ ¬ =
Retreats a distance here means that : R 300 kgm.wt 9.8 2940 Newton = × =
nd
2
there is change in velocities acceleration appears use Newton's 2 law
1
R 600 150 kg.wt R 150 9.8 1470 Newton
4
49
And  R ma 1470 600 a a m / sec
20
5
u 864 240 m / sec t 40 sec
18
49
V u at V 240
2
¬ ¬
= × = ¬ = × =
= ¬ = × ¬ =
= × = =
= + ¬ = + 40 V 142 m / sec.
0
 
× ¬ =

\ .
Example (5)
When a train was moving along a straight road with velocity 63 km / hr , its last wagon whose
mass is 7 ton is separated so it stopped due to a constant resistance of magnitude 500 kg.wt ,
find the time taken until it came to rest
Answer
let x be a unit vector in the direction of F F and a have the same direction ¬

Example (6)
When a cannon of mass 1.2 tons fires a projectile , it retreats on a horizontal ground a distance
of 90 cm , if the resistance of the ground to its motion is 300 kgm . wt , Then find the velocity
with which the cannon starts retreating.
Answer

Example (7)
A body of mass 600 kg moves horizontally in the space with uniform velocity of magnitude
864 km / hr . It intered a dusty cloud which acted upon by a resistance , Its magnitude equals
1
kgm . wt per each
4
kilogram of the body mass . Find the velocity of the body at the instant of
getting out of the cloud , If it remained 40 sec through it .
Answer
F R
a
+
F R
a
+
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  199 
( )
( )
we have two kinds of bullet problems:
1 If the bullet penetrated the body with given thickness , the we will solve the problem from
the begining of the body .
2 If the bullet penetrated the body wi
nd
thout given thickness , the we will solve the problem far
from the body .
In our problem , we will use the 2 option
1 1
u 40 , V 40 8 m / sec , t sec
5 100
1
So V u at 8 40 a a 3200 m / se
100
= = × = =
= + ¬ = + × ¬ =
( ) ( )
2
3
2
2 2
c
F R ma  R 35 10 3200 R 112N
V u 2as 0 8 2 3200 S S 0.01m
÷
÷ = ¬ = × × ¬ =
= + ¬ = + ¬ =
u 40 =
v 8 =
1
t
100
=
v 0 =
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
3
In this problem, thickness of wood is given , then we will solve the problem from the begining
of the wood u 100 , V 0 , S 0.16 m
So V u 2aS 0 100 2 0.16 a a 31250 m / sec
F R ma  R 32 10 31
÷
¬ = = =
= + ¬ = + ¬ =
÷ = ¬ = × ×
( )
( ) ( )( )
2
2
2 2 2
250
5000
R 1000 Newton 9.8 kg.wt
49
When the target is of thickness 7 cm
u 100 , V ?? , S 0.07 m , a 31250 m / sec
V u 2as V 100 2 31250 0.07 V 75 m / s
= ÷ =
= = = =
= + ¬ = + ¬ =
u 100 = v 0 =
S 0.16 m =
Example (8)
Abullet of mass 35 gm is fired horizontally with velocity of magnitude 40 meter / sec towards a
4
fixed vertical target of wood ,it penetrated the target , and lost of the magnitude of its velocity
5
a
1
fter sec , calculate the magnitude of the target resistance assuming that it is constant ,
100
And find the distance which the bullet moves through the target before it comes to rest .
Answer

Example (9)
Abullet of mass 32 gm is fired horizontally with velocity of magnitude 100 meter / sec towards a
fixed target of wood to embed through it a distance 16 cm before coming to rest, find the magnitude
of the wood resistance in kg.wt assuming that it is constant , and if the same bullet is fired with the
same velocity at another fixed target made of the same wood of the first target and its thickness is
7 cm only, find the magnitude of the velocity with which the bullet gets out of this target.
Answer

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  191 
a
A
B C
A
U 74 =
B
V ?? =
C
V 0 =
f .g wood
Example (10)
Abullet of mass 49 gm is fired horizontally with velocity of magnitude 74 meter / sec at a body
which is at rest and formed of two adjacent layers , one of which is fiberglass andthe other is
wooden , if the bullet passes through the layer of fiberglass which is of thickness 7 cm , then it
is embedded in the wooden layer at a distance of 10 cm before it stops , if the resistance of the
wood is three times that of the fiberglass , then find the resistance of each in kgm.wt .
Answer

0.07 0.1
( )
A B
the problem mentioned the thickness which the bullet penetrated , then we will start our
problem from the begining of the wood
* Motion from A B Inside the fiberglass :
u 74 m / s V ?? S 0.0
¬
= = =
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
B A B
1 1 1
2
2
B 1 1
2 1 1
7 m
V u 2as V 74 2 0.07 a 1
49 1000
 R ma  R a a R 2
1000 49
1000 20
V 74 2 0.07 R 5476 R 3
49 7
* Motion from B C Inside the wood :
49 3000
 R ma' 3R a' a' R 4
1000 49
Also
= + ¬ = + ÷ ÷ ÷
= ¬ = ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
 
= + = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

\ .
¬
= ¬ = ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
( )
B
B B C
2 2 2
C B B 1
1 1 1 1
1
V here is the initial velocity between B C
V u ?? V 0 S 0.1 m
20
V V 2a' s 0 V 2 0.1 a' 0 5476 R 0.2a'
7
20 3000 20 600
0 5476 R 0.2 R 0 5476 R R
7 49 7 49
740
R 5476 R
49
¬
= = = =
= + ¬ = + ¬ = ÷ +
 
= ÷ + ¬ = ÷ ÷

\ .
= ¬
( )
1
2
5476 49 1813
Newton 9.8 37 kg.wt
740 5
R 3 37 111 kg.wt
×
= = ÷ =
= × =
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  191 
( )
( ) ( )( )
2
2
2
B B
B
Body A moves with F 600 dyne
F ma 600 60a a 10 cm/sec
u 30 cm / s a 10 cm/sec t 5 sec
1 1
So S ut a' t S 30 5 + 10 25
2 2
S 275 cm
=
= ¬ = ¬ =
= = =
= + ¬ =
=
Then the distance between the two bodies after 5 seconds is 275 150 125 cm ÷ =
Example (11)
A body of mass 12 kg is at rest , a force of magnitude 3 kg.wt acts on the body for 12 seconds ,
and after this time , the driver force stopped and the body moved with uniform velocity , then
find the distance the body covered after 30 seconds from the beginning .
Answer

Example (12)
A force of 600 Dynes acts on two bodies (A) and (B) placed at rest on a horizontal smooth
plane , the masses of them are 60 gm , 40 gm respectively and attached together by a string .
After 5 seconds from the action of the force , the body (B) is separated moves with a uniform
velocity and the body (A) only remains under the action of the force , Calculate the distance
between the two bodies 5 seconds after the instant of braking the string .
Answer
F
A
B C
A
u 0 =
F
a
+
F
B
u ?? =
A
B
A
B
A
u ?? =
S
t 12sec =
t 18sec =
u 0 =
uniform motion
No acceleration
( )
( )
2
2
* When the two bodies are connected :
F ma 600 60 40 a
600
100 a 600 a 6 cm/ sec
100
Thus the bodies move with acceleration 6 cm / sec
At t 5 sec V u a t 6 5 30 cm/sec
After 5 seconds the string cut and t
= ¬ = +
= ¬ = =
= ¬ = + = =
( )
B
he two bodies separated when their velocities u 30cm / s :
Body B move without force F a 0
Then B moves with uniform motion :
S vt 30 5 150 cm
=
¬ = =
= = × =
st
If the resistance is not mentioned in the problem, then F ma only
* For the 1 12 seconds " during the action force "
Motion from A B
t 12sec u 0 F 3 kg.wt 9.8 29.4 Newton
And F R ma F ma
=
¬
= = = × =
÷ = ¬ =
( )( )
( )
2
2
2
B A B
29.4
29.4 12a a 2.45 m/sec
12
1 1
So S u t at S 2.45 12 176.4m
2 2
So V u at V 2.45 12 29.4 m / sec
Motion from B C : When the driver force stopped , it means that F 0 and there i
¬ = ¬ = =
= + ¬ = =
= + ¬ = =
¬ = s no
acceleration body moves with uniform velocity for the next 18 seconds
S V t 29.4 18 529.2 m the total distance after 30 seconds 176.4 529.2 705.6 m = = × = ¬ = + =
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  191 
( ) If the engine force stopped steam shutt off .
If the resistance are neglected .
If the body moved with uniform velocity or maximum V .
o
F
FCoso
F Sino
N
R
mg
u
F Sinu
FCosu u
u
mg
N
F
x
mg
Ground surface
R
x
R
mg
F
x
x
F
R
mg
mg R F ma ÷ ÷ =
R Opposite to direction of motion mg Always Downwards
F According the given direction
 ÷  ÷
 ÷
Inside
the ground
acceleration appears
inside the ground
acceleration appears in the
air when there is another
force act on the body
Equations of motion of famous applications :
Application Drawing Equation
Motion on a horizontal plane
under a horizontal force F
and a and resistance R
F R m a ÷ = ×
Motion on a horizontal plane
under a force F inclined at an
angle With the horizontal and
a resistance R .
o
Fcos R ma
F sin N mg 0
o
o
÷ =
+ ÷ =
Motion on a horizontal plane
under a force F inclined at an
angle with the vertical u
F sin ma
N Fcos mg 0
u
u
=
÷ ÷ =
( )
( )
Motion vertically downward
through a Ground under
the weight mg and the earth
resistance R
No driver force except
Its weight
m g R ma ÷ =
Motion vertically upwards
under a driving force F
and weight
F R m g ma ÷ ÷ =
Motion vertically downwards
under the weight mg and a
resistance R and a lifting
force F
Very important Notes
F 0 =
R 0 =
a 0 =
Case 2 : Motion under more than two forces
R
F
x
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  191 
2
Let u be a unit vector in the direction of motion .
u 0 V 39.2 m / sec t 2 60 120sec.
49
V U at 39.2 0 120a a m / sec
150
Equation of motion of the car is resul
= = = × =
= + ¬ = + ¬ =
tant of the forces acting on the car ma
49
F R ma F R ma F 50 9.8 3 1000
150
F 490 980 1470 Newton 9.8 150 kgm . wt
=
÷ = ¬ = + ¬ = × + × ×
= + = ÷ =
R
x
+
2
We have two methods to get acceleration :
1260 2520 0 30
V 2520 m / min V 42 m/ sec and t 15sec
0.5 60 2
42
V u at Then : 42 15a a 2.8 m/ sec
15
And the equation of motion of train is : F R ma
R F ma R 3000
+
= = ¬ = = = =
= + ¬ = ¬ = =
÷ =
= ÷ ¬ = ×
( )
9.8 5.6 1000 2.8 13720 Newton 9.8 1400 kg.wt
Magnitude of the resistance per ton 1400 5.6 250 Kg .wt .
÷ × × = ÷ =
= ÷ =
x
R
F
+
a
a
Example (13)
A car of mass 3tons starting from rest along a horizontal straight road with uniform
acceleration and against constant resistance of magnitude 50 kg . wt , If the magnitude
of the car velocity is 39.2 m / sec after 2 minutes from the starting, calculate the magnitude
of the driving force of the car in kg . wt
Answer

Example (14)
A train of mass 5.6 ton moves from rest with a uniform acceleration along a horizontal straight
1
road, it travelled a distance 1260 meter during a minute from the starting, find the magnitude
2
of the resistance per each ton of its mass if the magnitude of the driving force 3000kgm . wt . =
Answer

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  191 
The train moved from O to A under the driving force F and the resistance R and from
A to B only under R .
If U is a unit vector in the direction of motion .
Equation of the train d
( )
( )
2
a
uring OA is : F R ma
6750 9.8 25 9.8 30 30 1000a
9.8 6750 750 3000a
9.8 6000 30000a a 1.96 m / sec
Magnitude of the velocity at A : V U at 0 1.96 5 60 588 m / sec.
Equation of motion during AB
÷ =
× ÷ × × = ×
÷ =
× = =
= + = + × × =
( ) ( )
2
2 2
B A
:
when engine stopped and u 588 changed to V 0 F 0 and acceleration must change
R ma' , where a' is the algebraic measure of the acceleration during AB
 25 30 9.8 30 1000 a' a' 0.245 m / sec
And V V 2
= = ¬ =
=
× × = × ¬ =
= +
( )
( )
2
2
as 0 588 2 0.245S
0.49S 588 S 705600 m .
¬ = ÷ ×
= ¬ =
u
R
F
O
B
R
a'
a
A
1 1 1
Uniform velocity means a 0 F R F R w mg 0.5 9.8 0.98 N
5 5 5
0.98 1
F R kg.wt 1000 100 gm.wt , And when force increased with 15 gm.wt :
9.8 10
Then F R ma 115 980 100 980 0.5 1000a
= ¬ = ¬ = = = = × × =
= = = × =
÷ = ¬ × ÷ × = ×
2
14700 500a a 29.4 cm/sec = ÷ =
Example (15)
A train of mass 30 ton started from rest and moved with uniform acceleration along a straight
horizontal road under the action of a driving force of magnitude 6750 kg.wt and a resistance
its magnitude is 25 kg.wt per each ton of its mass, and after 5 minutes of the start, the driving
force is stopped and the resistance still constant , find the distance which the train moved after
that instant before it comes to rest .
Answer

Example(16)
1
A car of mass kg moves along a horizontal st. road with uniform velocity and the magnitude of
2
1
the resistance to its motion equals of its weight, find magnitude of the driving force of the car mot
5
or
in gm.wt. And if the force increases with magnitude 15 gm.wt , find magnitude of this acceleration .
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  191 
Before separation : The train is moving with uniform velocity this means that :
F R 5 9.8 160 7840 Netwon driving force for all train .
After separation : The wagon moves
= = × × =
( )
( )
with no force Resistance only and the train.
goes force Resistance
The initial veocity of the locomotive and the wagon at the instant of sparation was u 45 km / h
So , Aft
÷
=
er separation regard to wagon :
Its initial velocity directly after separation was:
5
u 45 12.5 m / s
18
offcourse its acceleration is decreasing
So F R ma  R ma
5 9.8 16 16 1000a
= × =
÷ = ¬ =
× × = × ÷
( ) ( )( )
2
2
2
2
1 1 1
a  0.049 m/s
u 12.5 m/sec a 0.049 m/s t 2 60 120sec
So , lets find the distance of the wagon after 2 minutes :
1 1
S ut at S 12.5 120 0.049 120 S 1147.2 meters
2 2
After separatio
=
= = = × =
= + ÷ = + ¬ =
( )
n regard to the locomotive train :
Hence there is a driving force still and resistance , the train has initial velocity
u 12.5 m/s after separation directly , off course , Its acceleration will increas =
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
e
as it becomes lighter F R ma' 7840 5 9.8 160 16 160 16 1000a'
784 49
784 144000 a' a' m / sec
144000 9000
49 1 49
u 12.5m/s a' m / s t 120sec S 12.5 120 120 1539.2 m
9000 2 9000
Then the di
¬ ÷ = ¬ ÷ × × ÷ = ÷ ×
= ¬ = =
 
= = = ¬ = + =

\ .
2 1
stance between them after 2 min. covered by each of them :
S S 1539.2 1147.2 392 meters ÷ ¬ ÷ =
R
F
F
R R
a
1
S
2
S
u 12.5 m/sec =
u 12.5 m/sec =
Example (17)
A locomotive pulls a train moves horizontally in a straight road with a uniform velocity
45 km / h, the mass of the locomotive and the train together is 160 ton andthe assistance force
is 5 kg.wt for each ton of the mass ,calculate the driving force of the locomotive. If the last
wagon is separated from the train, given that the mass of the wagon is16 ton , find the
distance between it and the rest of the train 2 minutes after theinstant of separating .
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  198 
( ) ( )
Note : the acceleration appears in the air beside the gravity as the helicopter changes its velocity
F R mg ma
F 750 9.8 2 1000 9.8 2 1000 4.9
F driving force 36750 Newton 9.8 3750 kg.wt
If the h
÷ ÷ =
÷ × ÷ × × = × ×
= ÷ =
elicopter rises with uniform velocity :
F R mg 0 F R mg
F 750 9.8 2 1000 9.8 26950 Newton 2750 kg.wt
÷ ÷ = ¬ = +
= × + × × = =
The train is uniform F R
The driving force F 10 9.8 60
F 5880 Newton is the driving force of the train
after sepration with respect to the cap
 R ma 10 9.8 1 1 1000a a 0.0
÷ =
= × ×
=
= ¬ × × = × ¬ =
( )
2
98m/s
5
u 44.1 12.25 m/s a 0.098 V 0
18
V u at 0 12.25 0.098t t 125 seconds
After seperation with respect to the train : Its acceleration increased
F R ma' 58
= × = = =
= + ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷
( ) ( )
( )
` 2
2
49
80 10 9.8 60 1 60 1 1000a' a' m/s
29500
49
When u 12.25 m/s & a' m/s t 125 sec
29500
49 27
V u a' t 12.25 125 12 m/s
29500 59
÷ × × ÷ = ÷ × ¬ =
= = =
= + ÷ + =
F
R R
a'
u 12.25 m/sec =
u 12.25 m/sec =
F
R
R
m g
a
F
Example (18)
A train of mass 60 tons moves with a uniform velocity 44.1 km / h against a resistance of
magnitude 10 kg.wt . for each ton of the mass of the train . If the last cab is separated from
the train , given that the mass of the cab is one ton , find the time taken by the separated
cab till it comes to rest and the velocity of the train at this moment .
Answer

Example (19)
2
A helicopter of mass 2 tons rises vertically with acceleration of magnitude 4.9m / s against
resistances of air of magnitude 750 kg.wt , find the driving force of the engine of the helicopter,
also find the force of the engine if the helicopter riseswith a uniform velocity assuming that the
resistance does not change .
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  191 
( )( )
( )( )
2 2 2
B B
B
2
2 2
c B
u 0 S 22.5 m
V u +2 g s V 2 9.8 22.5 441
V 21 m/s
From B C "Inside sand acceleration appears"
mg R m a 0.5 9.8 372.4 0.5 a
a 735 m/s
V V
= =
= ¬ = =
=
÷ ¬
÷ = ¬ ÷ =
=
=
( )
2as 0 441 2 735 S
S 0.3m 30 cm
+ ¬ = ÷
= =
22.5
B
C
c
v 0 =
a
sand
m g
372.4
2
2 2
c B
In sand, there is no driving force except body' s weight .
So from B C : "Inside ground acceleration appears"
mg 6.44 9.8 0.04 a 0.04 9.8 6.44 9.8 0.04a
a 1568 m/s
V V
÷÷÷ ¬
÷ × = ¬ × ÷ × =
=
=
( )( )
( )
2
B
2
B
B
2
2 2
2as 0 V 2 1568 0.04
V 125.44 V 11.2 m/sec
u 0 V 11.2 S ?
V u 2g s 11.2 2 9.8S S 6.4 m
+ ¬ = +
= ¬ =
= = =
= + ¬ = × ÷ =
B
S
B
V ? =
C
c
V 0 =
a
sand
m g
6.44
B
u 0 =
0.04 m
Example (20)
A body of mass 500 gm fell vertically downwards from a height of 22.5 metersabove the
surface, it embedded through the ground. Find the distance which the body covered through
the ground before coming to rest given that magnitude of the ground resistance is constant
and equals 372.4 Newton .
Answer

Example (21)
A body of mass 40 gm fell vertically downwards from a certain height above thesurface of a
sandy ground , Then penetrated through the ground 4 cm before coming to rest , given that
magnitude of the ground resistance is constant and equals6.44 kgm.wt . Find the height
from which the body fell.
Answer

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
o
60
R
o
T cos60
a
o
T sin 60
m g
o o
18
S 18m during 30 sec. V 0.6 m / s
30
0 30
And t 15 sec
2
0.6 1
V u at 0.6 15a a m / sec
15 25
1
T cos60 R ma T cos60 w ma
5
1 1 1 1 1
T mg ma T 9.8 5 5
2 5 2 5 25
1 1
T
2 5
= ¬ = =
+
= =
= + ¬ = ¬ = =
÷ = ¬ ÷ =
÷ = ¬ ÷ × × = ×
=
o
o
9.8 T 20 Newton
To get the normal reaction: T sin60 N mg
20sin60 N 9.8 5 N 31.68 32 Newton
+ ¬ =
+ =
+ = × ¬ =
T
2 2 2
We will deal with this problem as if a body is fell vertically downwards
From A B : u 0 S 0.4m
And V u 2g s V 2 9.8 0.4 7.84
V 2.8 m / s
From B C : "Inside
÷ = =
= + ¬ = × × =
=
÷
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
B c
2
2 2
2
iron acceleration appears"
V 2.8 m / s V 0 S 0.01
V u 2as 0 2.8 2 0.01 a
a 392 m / sec
mg R ma R m g a 500 9.8 392
R 200900 Newton 9.8 R
¬
= = =
= + ¬ = +
=
÷ = ¬ = ÷ = ÷
= ÷ ¬ 20500 kg.wt =
A
m g
0.4 m
0.01 m
C
a
v 0 =
B
u 0 =
R
A hummer of mass 500 kg fell down from a point 0.4 meters high above a pieceof iron, It was
embedded in it a distance one centimetre . Find the magnitude of the pressure of the hummer
on the piece of iron.
Example (22)
Answer

Example (23)
o
A body of mass 5 kgm is placed on a horizontal plane, and pulled by a string which is inclined
at angle of measure 60 to the horizontal so it moved on the plane along a straight line with
uniform acceleration, where it covered a distance 18 meters during half a minute starting from
1
rest. Given that magnitude of the resistance to its motion equals of its weight , find the magnitude
5
of the tension in the string and magnitude of the normal reaction of the plane on the body.
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  119 
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
3 2
2 3 2
2 2
1 d s
S t 2t i V t 2 i
3 d t
The momentum vector H m V H 3t 2 t 2 i 3t 2t 6t 4 i
d H
Force F 9t 4t 6 i And its magnitude F 9t 4t 6
d t
: we used
 
= + ¬ = = +

\ .
= = ¬ = + + = + + +
= = = + + = + +
Note
( ) ( )
this rule as mass is variable m f t =
( )
( )
( )
( )
If a force F acted upon a particle of mass m , And it acquired an acceleration a , And the
displacement vector of the particle during an interval " t" from instant of start of motion , and V
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
is the velocity vector at the end of this interval , then :
The equation of motion of the particle is :
d H d mv
1 F we use this rule if the mass of the body is variable m f t
d t d t
2 m a
= = ¬ =
× ( ) F we use this rule if the mass of the body is scalar m any number
d s d v
where v and a
d t d t
= ¬ =
= =
( ) ( )
( )
1 2 3
The resultant force acting on the particle : F F F F
F 3m i 7m j 5m i 2m j m i 6m j F 7m i m j
But F ma 7m i m j ma m 7 i j ma
a 7 i j
= + +
= ÷ + + ÷ + ¬ = +
= ¬ + = ¬ + =
= + ¬
o
y 1
a 49 1 50 5 2 Tan 8 8'
x 7
u u = + = = ¬ = = ¬ =
( )
1
2 3
A particle of mass m is moving under the action of 3 coplaner forces F 3m i 7m j ,
F 5m i 2m j , F  m i 6m j , where i , j are 2 perpendicular vectors in
the plane of t
= ÷
= + = +
he forces , Find the acceleration vector of this particle . Determine its magnitude
and its direction .

Example (1)
Answer

Example (2)
3
A body of variable mass moves along a straight line, where its mass: m 3t 2 and its displacement
1
vector S t 2t i where i is a unit vector in the direction of motion and t dentes time.
3
F
= +
 
= +

\ .
ind the force vector on the body and find its magnitude.
Answer
Case 3 : Vector form of the equation of Motion
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
Example (3)
2
A particle of mass 4.2 units , a force F acted upon this particle , its displacement due to this
2
force during a time "t" was S t 5t i where i is a unit vector in the direction of
3
m
 
= +

\ .
otion . Find the momentum vector of this at any instant , and its magnitude when t 3 , find
also the vector F and its magnitude when t 3.
=
=
Answer
( )
( )
2
2 ds 4 d v 4
S t 5t i V t 5 i a i
3 d t 3 d t 3
At the instant "t" , the momentum vector H m V
4
H 4.2 t 5 i 5.6t 21 i
3
when t 3 H 5.6 3 21 i 3
   
= + ¬ = = + ¬ = =
 
\ . \ .
= =
 
= × + = +

\ .
= ¬ = × + = 7.8 i H 37.8
4
F m a Where: F 4.2 i F 5.6 i F 5.6
3
¬ =
= ¬ = × ¬ = ¬ =

Example (4)
A particle of mass 6 units , A force F 24 i acted upon this particle , where i is a unit
vector in the direction of motion , if the velocity vector of this particle at the end of the time "t"
=
( )
is
V 3k t b i where k , b are constants , find the momentum vector of this body when t 2,
if the initial velocity vector 9 i .
= + =
=
Answer
( )
( )
V 3k t b i
Initial velocity means the velocity at t 0 V 3k 0 b i b i
But initial velocity vector 9 i b i 9 i b 9
d v
F m a Where a 3k i
d t
24 i 6 3k i 24 i
= +
= ¬ = × + =
= ¬ = ¬ =
= × = =
= × ¬
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
24 4
18k i 24=18k k V 4t 9 i
18 3
And H mv 6 4t 9 i At t 2 : H mv 6 4 2 9 i 102 i
= ¬ ¬ = = ¬ = +
= = + ¬ = = = + =
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
x y
2 2
o
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
V 4 4i and V 9.8t 4 j V 4i 9.8t 4 j
ˆ ˆ
Initial velocity means the velocity at t 0 at t 0: u 4i 4 j
4
Its magnitude is u 4 4 4 2 m / s its direction : Tan 1 45
4
dv
ˆ
a 9.8 j and F ma 1.
dt
u u
= = = + ¬ = + +
= ¬ = = +
= + = ¬ = = ¬ =
= = ¬ = =
( )( )
ˆ ˆ
5 9.8 j 14.7 j =
( ) ( )
( )
3 2
3 2 2
4 1
ˆ ˆ
m 1 unit , S Lt mt i , H 69i And F 47i When t 3
3 2
4 1 d s d v
S Lt mt i V 4 Lt mt i a 8 Lt m i
3 2 d t d t
When t 3 : V 4 L 9 m 3 i 36 L
 
= = + = = =

\ .
 
= + ¬ = = + ¬ = = +

\ .
= = × + × = +
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
3m i
Momentum at that instant : H m V 1 36 L 3m i 69 i
36 L 3m 96 12L m 23 1
When t 3 : a 24 L m i
Equation of motion is : F m a 47 i 1 24 L m
= = × + =
+ = ¬ + = ÷ ÷ ÷
= = +
= ¬ = × +
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
3 2
i
24 L m 47 2
Substracting 2 1 : 12L 24 L 2
From 2 : 48 m 47 m 1
4 1
Then by Substituting in : S 2t 1 t i
3 2
+ = ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = ¬ =
+ = ¬ =
 
= × + × ×

\ .
3 2
8 1
t t i
3 2
8 1
When t 3 : S 27 9 i 67.5 i
3 2
 
= ÷

\ .
 
= = × ÷ × =

\ .
Example (5)
3 2
The mass of a particle one unit , a force F acted upon this particle so its displacement during
4 1
the time t is given by S Lt mt i , where L , m are constants and i is a unit vec
3 2
 
= +

\ .
tor
in the direction of motion , If the momentum vector 69 i when t 3 and F 47 i at the
same instant . Determine the displacement vector at the same instant .
= = =
Answer

Example (6)
( )
x y
A body of mass 1.5 kg moves such that the two algebraic components of its velocity in the horizontal
and the vertical directions are V 4m / sec and V 9.8t 4 m/sec, determine the magnitude
and the direc
= = +
tion of the initial velocity of this body and also the force vector acting on it.
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( )
3 2
After 2 seconds, the dust accumulates will be 0.5 2 1gm
Then the mass of the ball its mass mass of dust accumulates after 2 seconds 7 1 8 gm
1 d s
ˆ ˆ
S t 4t 2 C V t 4 C a
3 d t
× =
= + = + =
 
= ÷ + ¬ = = ÷ ¬

\ .
( )
( )
d v
ˆ
2t C
d t
ˆ ˆ
We can get the force vector F m a F 8 2t C 16t C
ˆ ˆ
At t 2 seconds: F 16 2 C 32 C its magnitude is 32 Dyne
= =
¬ = ¬ = =
= = = ¬
Example (7)
1 2
3
A particle of mass one unit moves under 3 coplaner forces F L i 3 j , F 2 i j
F 5 i m j , Where i , j are 2 perpendicular unit vectors in the same plane of the
forces whe
= ÷ = +
= +
2
re L , m are constants , given that the displacement vector of this particle given by :
3
S 2t i t t j after a time "t", determine the values of the constant L, m .
2
 
= + +

\ .
Answer
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 2 3
1
2
Resultant of the forces acting on the particle F F F F
F L i 3 j 2 i j 5 i m j L 3 i m 2 j 1
3 d s
S 2t i t t j v 2 i 3t 1 j
2 d t
= = + +
= ÷ ÷ + + + = + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
= + + ¬ = = + + ¬

\ .
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
d v
a 0 i 3 j
d t
Equation of motion of the particle is F m a
From 1 , 2 : L 3 i m 2 j 1 0 i 3 j 0 i 3 j
L 3 0 and m 2 3 L 3 And m 5 .
= = × +
=
+ + ÷ = + = +
+ = ÷ = ¬ = =

Example (8)
A ball of mass 7 gm moves along a straight line inside air loaded with dust, such that dust
accumulates on its surface at a rate 0.5 gm/sec and the ball displacement is given as a function
of the time
( )
3
1
ˆ ˆ
t by S t 4t 2 C , where C is a unit vector in the direction of the motion
3
of the ball, then find the force vector acting on the ball and find its magnitude at t 2 seconds.
 
= ÷ +

\ .
=
Answer

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
Example (9)
( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
2
ˆ ˆ
If the position vector P of a particle after t is given by P 2t 1 t 2 C , where C is a
constant unit vector , the magnitude of P in cm and t in seconds. Determine the velocity
vector and if the
= + ÷
( ) ( )
1
mass of the body is variable and given by m t 2 gm after time t , then
2
find the force vector acting on the particle and calculate its magnitude when the particle stops.
= +
Answer
( )
( )
( )
o o
We have two methods to get S :
1 The first method is to find: S P P where P is the position when t 0
d S
Then V directly
d t
d p
2 The second method is to find: V directly which i
d t
= ÷ =
=
=
( )( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 3 2
2
2
s offcourse the easiest method
ˆ
So P 2t 1 t 4t 4 2t 7t 4t C
d p 1
ˆ
V 6t 14t 4 C And m t 1 which is variable
d t 2
d H d v 1
ˆ ˆ
So we must used F m t 1 12t 14 C 6t 5t 14 C
d t d t 2
To ge
= + ÷ + = ÷ +
= = ÷ + = + ¬
 
= = = + ÷ = + ÷

\ .
( )
( )( )
2 2
2
t the magnitude of the force vector when the particle stops :
So, particle stops when V 0 6t 14t 4 0 2 3t 7t 2 0
1
So 3t 1 t 2 0 t sec Or t 2 sec
3
1 1 1
When t sec : F 6 5
3 3 3
= ¬ ÷ + = ÷ ¬ ÷ + =
÷ ÷ = ¬ = =
   
= = +

\ . \
( ) ( )
( )
2
35 35
ˆ ˆ
14 C C Its magnitude is
3 3
ˆ ˆ
When t 2sec : F 6 2 5 2 14 C 20 C Its magnitude is 20
 
÷ = ¬



.
\ .
= = + ÷ = ¬

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
of the body on the plane P vertically downward
Opposite force acts on the body T vertically upward
1 P and T
=
=
Placing of a body on a plane :
a Action: Pressure
b Reaction:
( )
( )
( )
are equal in magnitude.
2 P and T are opposite in direction.
3 P and T have the same line of action.
Suspension of a body by a spring balance :
a Actio
( )
( ) ( )
( )
force of the body on the plane T vertically upward
force acts on the body T vertically downward
1 P and T are equal in magnitude.
=
=
n: Tension
b Reaction: Tension
( )
( )
2 P and T are opposite in direction.
3 P and T have the same line of action.
T
P
T
T
Spring balance
For every action, there is a reaction equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
( )
The third law studies only the mutual effect between two connected bodies, where one of them
acts upon the other one by force F called the ACTION, Then the other body will react on the
first one by f
( )
( )
orce F called the REACTION.
This means that the resultant of the two forces vanishes F F 0 + =
Explanation of the law

Newton’s Third law
Motion of a body in a lift
moving vertically
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( ) ( )
Lift is moving up
Acceleration up 
( ) ( )
Lift is moving down
Acceleration down +
( )
Lift is at rest
a 0 =
( )
T m g a And T mg = + >
( )
T m g a And mg T = ÷ >
T mg And T mg = =
T
T
T
mg
mg
mg
a
a
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
Notes: 1 T Apparent weight Spring balance Balance reading records
2 mg Common weight Pressure balance Pressure reading records
If the lift is moving up with acceleration or moving down with re
= = =
= = =
( )
( ) ( )
tardation
The equation of motion: T mg ma T mg ma
T m g a
Then The apparent weight T Common weight mg
÷ = ¬ = +
= +
>
Rules

( )
( ) ( )
If the lift is moving down with acceleration or moving up with retardation
The equation of motion: mg T ma T mg ma
T m g a
Then Common weight mg The apparent weight T
÷ = ¬ = ÷
= ÷
>

( ) ( )
If the lift is at rest or moving with a uniform velocity
The equation of motion: T mg 0
T mg
Then The apparent weight T Common weight mg
÷ =
=
=

Summary of rules
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  118 
( )
( )
( ) ( )
The reading mg 3.8 9.8 37.24 Newton 1 also m 3.8 kg
The reading T 3.99 9.8 39.102 Newton 2
From 1 and 2 : T mg Th
= = × = ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬ =
= = × = ÷ ÷ ÷
> ¬
I n the case of using the common balance:
I n the case of using the spring balance:
( )
2
e lift is moving upwards
Then the rule will be in that case : T m g a mg ma
where m real weight 39.102 37.24 3.8a a 0.49 m / sec
= + = +
= ¬ = + ¬ =
Example (1)
( )
A woman of mass 56 kgm stands on the floor of the lift . Calculate in kgm.wt the pressure of the
floor of the lift in each of the following cases:
1 If the lift is moving vertically with uniform veloc
( )
( )
( )
2
2
ity.
2 If the lift is moving upwards with uniform acceleration of magnitude 1.05 m / sec .
3 If the lift is moving downwards with uniform acceleration of magnitude 1.05 m / sec .
4 If the lift is moving upwa
2
rds with uniform retardation of magnitude 1.05 m / sec .
Answer
Question Answer
( )
1 If the lift is moving vertically with
uniform velocity.
T mg T 56 9.8 548.8 Newton
T 548.8 9.8 56 kg.wt
= ¬ = × =
= ÷ =
( )
2
2 If the lift is moving upwards with
uniform acceleration of magnitude
1.05 m / sec .
( ) ( ) T m g a T 56 9.8 1.05 607.6 Newton
T 607.6 9.8 62 kg.wt
= + ¬ = + =
= ÷ =
( )
2
3 If the lift is moving downwards with
uniform acceleration of magnitude
1.05 m / sec .
( ) ( ) T m g a T 56 9.8 1.05 490 Newton
T 490 9.8 50 kg.wt
= ÷ ¬ = ÷ =
= ÷ =
( )
2
4 If the lift is moving upwards with
uniform retardation of magnitude
1.05 m / sec .
2
This is the same as lift is moving downwards with
uniform acceleration of magnitude 1.05 m/ sec ,
which is the same as the third 50 kg.wt =

Example (2)
A t moves vertically with uniform acceleration, and during the motion a body is weighted by
a fixed to the lift then by . In the first case, the reading is
3.99 kgm.wt a
lif
spring balance common balance
nd in the second case, the reading is 3.8 kgm.wt. Then find the direction and
the magnitude of the lift acceleration
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( ) ( )
( )
: if the acceleration is unknown, find the apparant weight T and the common weight mg
a T 8.5 9.8 83.3 Newton & mg 10 9.8 98 Newton
So, mg T Then the lift moves downward
Its ru
= × = = × =
> ¬
Note
( )
( )
2
le : T m g a mg ma 83.3 98 10a
14.7
10a 98 83.3 10a 14.7 a 1.47 m / sec
10
b T 10.5 9.8 102.9 Newton & mg 10 9.8 98 Newton
So, T mg Then the lift moves upward
= ÷ = ÷ ¬ = ÷
= ÷ ¬ = ¬ = =
= × = = × =
> ¬
( )
( )
2
Its rule : T m g a mg ma 102.9 98 10a
4.9
10a 102.9 98 10a 4.9 a 0.49 m / sec
10
c T 10 9.8 98 Newton & mg 10 9.8 98 Newton
So, T mg Then the lift is at
= + = + ¬ = +
= ÷ ¬ = ¬ = =
= × = = × =
= ¬ rest a 0 ¬ =
T
mg
mg
T
( )
m m' g +
T
( )
( ) ( )
( )
First To find the pressure on the base of the box:
The box bear a mass 280 kgm
Then the pressure: T m g a 280 9.8 0.7 2940 Newton
Second To find the tension on the rope:
The rope bear a mass
= + = + =
( ) ( )
( )
2
280 kgm and 700 kgm
Then the tension: T m g a 980 9.8 0.7 10290 Newton
Third After cutting the rope:
After cutting the rope, the box will move downward according to
acceleration 9.8 m / sec
Then the tension:
= + = + =
( ) ( )
T m g a 280 9.8 9.8 0 = ÷ = ÷ =
a
a
Example (3)
A body of mass 10 kgm is suspended to the hook of a spring balance fixed to the ceiling of a
If the lift is moving vertically with uniform acceleration, then find the acceleration and its
directio
lift ,
( ) ( ) ( )
n when the of the body is :
a 8.5 kg.wt b 10.5 kg.wt c 10 kg.wt
apparent weight
Answer

Example (4)
2
A body of mass 280 kgm is placed on the base of a box of mass 700 kgm and the box is
by a vertical rope to move with a uniform acceleration of magnitude 70 cm / sec . Find the
magnitude of the bo
lifted
dy pressure on the box base and the magnitude of the tension in the rope
which liftes the box and if the rope is cut , find the pressure on the box base.
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
mg
T
T
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
Let the mass of the body is m kg and the balance reading is T
The lift is moving upwards with a uniform acceleration a :
T m g a 7.5 9.8 m 9.8 a 1
The lift is moving downwards with a unif
= + ¬ × = + ÷ ÷ ÷
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
orm acceleration 2a :
T m g a 6 9.8 m 9.8 2a 2
5 9.8 a
From 1 and 2 and by division:
4 9.8 2a
By cross multiplication: 39.2 4a 49 10a
9.8
14a 9.8 a 0.7 m / sec
144
The
= ÷ ¬ × = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+
=
÷
+ = ÷
= ¬ = =
( ) ( )
( )
n subtitute in 1 : 7.5 9.8 m 9.8 0.7 m 7 kg
Let the mass of the lift containing the maximum cargo be m'
1.5 1000 9.8 m' 9.8 0.7 m' 1400 kg
Then the maximum cargo can be loaded is 1400 500 900 k
× = + ¬ =
× × = + ¬ =
÷ = g
mg
a
a
( )
T 5 1000 5000 kgm.wt 9.8 49000 Newton & mg 4 1000 9.8 39200 Newton
So, T mg The lift is upwards
And : T m g a mg ma 49000 39200 4000 a
4000a 49000 39200 4000a 980
= × = × = = × × =
> ¬
= + = + ¬ = +
= ÷ ¬ =
2
2 2 2
9800
0 a 2.45 m / sec
4000
1 1
And S ut at 19.6 2.45t t 16 t 4 sec
2 2
¬ = =
= + ¬ = × ¬ = ¬ =
Example (5)
( )
2
A body is suspended from the end of a spring balance fixed in the ceiling of an elevator, when
the lift is moving upwards with a uniform acceleration of magnitude a m / sec . The balance
reading was 7.5 k
( )
2
g.wt and when the lift is moving downwards with a uniform acceleration
of magnitude 2a m / sec . The balance reading was 6 kg.wt. Find the mass of the body and
magnitude of a. If the chain holding the ele
vator can not support a tension greater than the weight
1.5 tons , find the maximum load the elevator could raise while ascending with acceleration a
given that the mass of the elevator when empty is 500 kg
Answer

Example (6)
A crane a mass of 4 tons and its chains bears a maximum tension of 5 tons.wt. Find the
maximum acceleration which the crane can lift the body without breaking the chains, and
find the time taken
lifts
to lift the body with the acceleration a distance of 19.6 meters.
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  119 
( ) ( )
2
* When the lift is at rest and its reading is 70 kg.wt :
Then T mg 70 9.8 9.8m m 70kg
* When the lift ascends with uniform acceleration 2.45 m / sec :
Then T m g a T 70 2.45 9.8 857.5 Ne
= ¬ × = ¬ =
= + ¬ = + =
857.5
wton T 87.5 kg.wt
9.8
* When the lift moves with uniform velocity :
686
Then T mg 70 9.8 686 Newton T 70 kg.wt
9.8
* When the lift ascends with retardation : Means it moves downward wit
¬ = =
= ¬ × = ¬ = =
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
h acceleration
Then T m g a 1
So, in order to find a , we have to get the velocity in this part.
So, from the begining: u 0 At rest S 10 m a 2.45 m / sec
And V u 2aS 2 2.45 10 49 V 49 7 m
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
= + = × × = ¬ = =
( )
2 2
/s
Then this velocity will be the initial velocity at the last part:
Then u 7 m / sec V 0 S 35 10 5 20 m
49
V u 2aS 0 49 40a a
40
49
By substituting in 1 : T 70 9.8 600.25 New
40
= = = ÷ ÷ =
= + ¬ = + ¬ =
 
= ÷ =

\ .
( )
ton 9.8 61.25 kg.wt ÷ =
Example (7)
lift A has a balance on its floor is loaded with coal when it is at rest in the bottom of a mine 35
meters deep under the ground. The reading of the balance is 70 kg.wt , then the lift ascends with
unif
2
orm acceleration 2.45 m / sec a distance of 10 meters, then with uniform velocity a distance
of 5 meters. Then with retardation till it stops at the top of the mine. Find the reading of the
balance measured in kg.wt during the three distances.
Answer

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( ) ( )
( )
1 If F mg Sin , Then the motion is with uniform acceleration a
and is determined: F mg Sin ma
2 If F mg Sin , Then the motion is wi
u
u
u
>
÷ =
<
Notes: From the above relations:
upward
downward
( )
( )
( )
th uniform acceleration a
and is determined: mg Sin F ma
3 If F mg Sin , Then the motion is and a 0
4 If F 0 , and the motion is upwards the plane
u
u
÷ =
= =
= ¬
at rest or with uniform velocity
( )
a  g Sin ظ ف ح ي
5 If F 0 , and the motion is downwards the plane a g Sin ظ ف ح ي
u
u
=
= ¬ =
Note : you have to know that “smooth plane” has no resistance
( ) ( )
1 If the motion the plane : 2 If the motion the plane : upward downward
( )
( )
( )
( )
F mg Sin ma 1 mg Sin F ma 1
R mg Cos 2 R mg cos 2
u u
u u
÷ = ÷÷÷ ÷ = ÷÷÷
= ÷÷÷ = ÷÷÷

Note : if the word “smooth” is not mentioned in the problem, then we deal
with a rough inclined plane
Then :if the motion is upward F R mg Sin ma u ¬ ÷ ÷ =
And : if the motion is downward F mg Sin R ma u ¬ + ÷ =
Motion of a body on a smooth inclined plane
Motion of a body on a non smooth inclined plane
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
A body of mass 2.5 kg placed on a plane inclined to the horizontal at an angle where
3
Sin moves under the action of force F acting along the line of the greatest slope. Find
5
the magnitude an
u
u =
smooth
( ) ( ) ( )
d the direction of the acceleration of the motion of the body and the normal
reaction of the plane to the body if:
a F 9.7 Newton b F 1.5 Kgm.wt c F 17.2 Newton = = =
o
60
o
60
o
60
o
o
12 3 Sin60
mg Cos60
mg
o
mg Sin60
o
12 3 Cos60
R
12 3
( )
( )
b When F 1.5 kg.wt : F mg Sin
a 0
5 4
And R mg Cos R 9.8 19.6 Newton 2kg.wt
2 5
c When F 17.2 Newton : F mg Sin
u
u
u
= =
=
= ¬ = × × = =
= >
Then the body moves with a uniform velocity:
Then the motion is d
2
F mg Sin ma 17.2 14.7 2.5a a 1m / sec
5 4
And R mg Cos R 9.8 19.6 Newton 2kg.wt
2 5
u
u
÷ = ¬ ÷ = ¬ =
= ¬ = × × = =
ownward:
o
o o
o o
2
12 3 9.8 Cos60 101.84 Newton
98 3
And mg Sin60 4 9.8Sin60 33.95 Newton
5
12 3 9.8 Cos60 4 9.8Sin60 4a
a 16.97 m / sec
3 1
R 12 3 9.8 4 9.8 196 Newton
2 2
× ×
= × =
× × ÷ × =
=
= × × + × × =
Then the motion is upward
R 196 9.8 20 kg.wt = ÷ =
Example (1)
Answer
[

Example (2)
o
A body of mass 4 kg placed on a plane inclined to the horizontal at an angle 60 , a
horizontal force of magnitude 12 3 kg .wt towards the plane acts on the body. Find the
magnitude and the direct
smooth
F
ion of the acceleration of the motion of the body and also find the
normal reaction of the plane to the body .
Answer
( )
2
3
mg Sin 2.5 9.8 14.7 Newton 1.5kg .wt
5
a When F 9.7 Newton : F mg Sin
mg Sin F ma 14.7 9.7 2.5a a 2m / sec
5 4
And R mg Cos R 9.8 19.6 Newton 2kg.wt
2 5
u
u
u
u
= × × = =
= < ¬
÷ = ¬ ÷ = ¬ =
= ¬ = × × = =
then the motion is downward
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
2 2
5
S 225 cm 2.25 m t sec u 0
7
1 1 25
S ut at 2.25= a a 8.82m / sec
2 2 49
And FCos mg sin ma
12 3
F 40 9.8 40 8.82 F 637 Newton
13 5
And N F Sin mgCos 0
4
N 40 9.8 637
5
o u
o u
= = = =
= + ¬ × ¬ =
÷ =
÷ × × = × ¬ =
+ ÷ =
= × × ÷
5
68.8 Newton
13
× =
a
mg Sin u
u
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
F 0 a  g Sin 9.8 0.49 m/sec
20
u 1.96 m / sec a 0.49 V 0
V u 2aS 0 1.96 2 0.49 S S 3.92 m
When the motion is downward :
1
F 0 a g Sin 9.8 0.49 m/sec
20
u 0 a 0.49 S 3.92
1 1
And S ut at 3.92 0.49 t t 4 se
2 2
u
u
= ¬ = = × =
= = =
= + ¬ = ÷ ¬ =
= ¬ = = × =
= = =
= + ¬ = ¬ = conds
Example (3)
A body of mass 40 kg is placed on a inclined plane whose inclination with the horizontal
3
is , where Sin . An inclined force whose inclination with the greatest slope to the plane is
5
where Si
u u o =
smooth
5
n , acts on the body upwards the plane. The body moves upwards the plane, a
13
5
distance 225 cm in sec starting from rest. Then find the magnitude of the force and the normal
7
reaction of the plane to
o =
the body .
Answer

Example (4 “important”)
1
A plane inclined at an angle of Sin to the horizontal, a body is projected upwards with
20
velocity 196 cm/sec along the line of the greatest slope of this plane. Find the maximum distance
which
smooth
the body moves before it comes to rest, and the time taken to descend to the same point of
projection
Answer

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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
u
( )
2
In this problem, the "smooth" plane is not mentioned , so resistance appears
So, F R mg Sin ma
360 1
0 9.8 24 9.8 24a
1000 40
1176
24a a 0.392m / sec
125
So, u 14m / sec
u ÷ ÷ =
 
÷ × ÷ × =

\ .
= ¬ =
=
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2 2
a 0.392m / sec
V 0 S ??
So, V u 2as 0 14 2 0.392 S
S 250m
When the body returns back :
1
mg Sin R ma' 24 9.8
40
u
=
= =
= + ¬ = +
=
 
÷ = ¬ ×
\
( )( )
2
2
2 2 2
360
9.8 24a'
1000
a' 0.098 m / sec
So, S 250 m a' 0.098 m / sec u 0
So, V u 2as V 2 0.098 250
V 7 m /
÷ × =

.
=
= = =
= + ¬ =
= sec
u
u
u
Example (5)
A body of mass 24 kgm is projected with velocity of magnitude 14 m/s in the direction of the
1
line of the greatest slope upwards of a plane inclined at an angle of Sin to the horizontal.
40
If the magnitude of the resistance to the motion of this body equals 360 gm.wt. Find the distance
which this body covers before it comes to rest, and if this body returned along the same line under
the same resistance. Then find the magnitude of the velocity of the body when it reaches the same
point of projection.
Answer

R
F
N
mg Sinu
mg Cosu
mg
a
motion
R
N
a
mg Sinu
mg Cosu
mg
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
u
u
A
In this problem, the "smooth" plane is not mentioned , so resistance appears
Motion from A B :
1 1
u 0.14m / sec S 3 m R W mg 0.049m
200 200
1
So mg Sin R ma 9.8m 0.049m ma
100
u
÷
= = = = =
 
÷ = ¬ ÷ =

\ .
( )
( ) ( )( )
2
2 2
B A
2
2
B
B
B B C
m
9.8
a 0.049 0.049m / sec
100
So V u 2aS
V 0.14 2 0.049 3 0.3136
V 0.56 m / sec
Motion from B C :
u V 0.56 m / sec V 0
 R ma' 0.049m ma' a' 0.0
÷
= ÷ =
= +
= + =
=
÷
= = =
= ¬ = ¬ =
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
49m / sec
So V u 2aS 0 0.56 2 0.049 S S 3.2m = + ¬ = + ¬ =
Example (6)
1
An inclined plane of length 3 meters and inclined at an angle of Sin to the horizontal. A body
100
started motion from the top of the incline with velocity of magnitude 14 cm / sec, and when it
reached the bottom of the incline, it continues its motion on a horizontal plane along the straight
line. If the body is moving with a uniform acceleration in each of the two distances and the
magnitude of the velocity of the body does not change when the body leaves the inclined to the
1
horizontal plane and magnitude of the resistance in each stage equals of the weight of the
200
body. Find the distance which the body moves on the horizontal plane before it comes to rest.
Answer

R
N
mg Sinu
mg Cosu
mg
a
motion
A
R
B C
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
.
( )
( )
( )
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
V V
H H I
change in momentum : H H m V V I m
t t t
H H I
And F F I F t
t t
from what we have proved above : I m V V F t
÷
÷
÷ = ÷ = ¬ = =
÷
= ¬ = ¬ = ×
= ÷ = ×
Proofof the rule
If a constant force acts on a particle for an interval of time , then the change in the momentum
during the interval is equal to the impulse of the forces and is denoted by I : I =F ×t
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 1
2 1
dH
when the motion is horizontal resistance is neglectd
t dt
dH
when the motion is horizontal resistance exists
t dt
m V V
F ma
m V V
F R ma
I
t
I
t
=
=
÷
= = =
÷
÷ = = =
ball
R F mg = +
( )
( )
: 1 when a ball is projected to the ground surface, then its
pressure on the floor is R F mg
2 when a ball is projected
= +
Special case downward
upwar to ceilling,
then its pressure on the ceilling is R F mg
: we use this special case when the problem
mentioned the pressu
= ÷
d
I mportant note only
re or reaction of the body
ball
R F mg = ÷
(a) I mpulse ع فاد
Definition of Impulse

From all the definitions of forces we have taken till now , we can get the following relation:

I mpulse and Collision
I
F T
( )
t F
• Impact : the force F acting on an object usually when it hits something.
Or so there is a difference between Impact and Impulse Impulse may be I I F t = =
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  118 
nd
, so let the positive direction be
always in the direction of the 2 velocity
Important note : the magnitude of impact must be positive
( ) ( )
nd
1 2
2 1
let the positive direction be in the direction of the 2 velocity
5
V 7.3 m / sec V 9km / hr 9 2.5 m / sec
18
1
I m V V 2.5 7.3 4.9 Newton.sec
2
490
I Ft 4.9 F 0.01 F 490 Newton F 50 kg.wt
9.8
= = = × =
= ÷ = + =
= ¬ = × ¬ = ¬ = = .
The unit of measurement :

Example(1)
1
A smooth sphere of mass kg moves horizontally with velocity 7.3 m / sec, this sphere impinges
2
with a smooth vertical wall and reboundsafter impact with velocity 9 km / h .
Find the magnitude of the impulse of the wall on the sphere . If the time of contact is 0.01 sec .
Then find the average force with which the ball acts on the wall .
Answer

Example(2)
An airplane throws out fuel with velocity 6300 km / hr at rate of 3.5 kg / sec find in unit of
kg.wt the impulsive force by which airplane moves.
Answer
( )
( )
2 1
5
here the mass is 3.5 kg per each second V 6300 1750 m / sec
18
m V V 3.5
F F 1750 0 6125 Newton 625 kg.wt
T 1
= × =
÷
= ¬ = ÷ = =

( )
2 1
=
= = ÷
Newton second kg.m/ sec
I F × t m V V
Dyne seco = nd gm.cm/ sec
V
2
V
I
ve +
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
2
2 2 2
1 1
2
1 1
2
2
We calculate the velocity of the sphere before impact V :
V U 2gS V 8.4 2 9.8 1.1
V 49 V 7 m / sec.
We calculate the velocity of the sphere after impact u
1
S Ut gt 2.725 0.5u 0.5 9.8 0.5
2
0.5u
= ÷ ¬ = ÷ × ×
= ¬ =
= + ¬ = +
( ) ( )
( )
2 1
upwards
1.5 u 3 m / sec.
m V V 0.03 3 7 I
F F 3 Newton
1
T T
10
And R F mg 3 0.03 9.8 2.706 Newton
= ¬ =
÷ +
= = ¬ = =
= ÷ = ÷ × =
ve +
1.1 m
u 8.4 =
t 0.5sec =
floor
V ?? =
u ??? =
2.725 m
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1
2
1 1
2 1 2
We calculate the velocity of the sphere before impact V :
V U 2gS V 0 2 9.8 6.4
14 8
V V 11.2 m / sec.
10
We calculate the velocity of the sphere after impact u
m V V 0.05 V 11.2
I
F 1.05 9.8
1
T T
= + ¬ = + × ×
×
= ¬ =
÷ +
= = ¬ × =
( )
( )
2 2 2
2
2
max
10
1.029
0.05 V 11.2 1.029 V 11.2 20.58 V u 20.58 11.2 9.38 m / sec
0.05
9.38 u
To find the maximum height : S 4.489 m
2g 2 9.8
+ = ¬ + = = ¬ = = ÷ =
= = =
×
ve +
6.4 m
1
v
v 0 =
u ?? =
u Not the same as V
the direction changed
=
u 0 =
max
S
A smooth ball of mass 30 gm is projected vertically upwards with velocity of magnitude 840 cm/sec
from a point at a distance 110 cm below the ceilling of a room. It collides with the ceilling and
rebounds to the floor of the room during half of a second after the collison, find the magnitude of
the total on the ceilling given that the height of the room equals 272.5 cm and the time of
collisi
pressure
1
on is sec
10
Example (3)
A sphere of mass 50 gm falls from height of 6.4 meters above the surface of a horizontal ground
and it rebounds vertically upwards, given that the force of the ball on the ground is 1.05 kg.wt
and the time of contact with the ground is
1
10
sec, find the maximum height which the ball
attained after collision .
Answer

Example (4)
Answer
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
u
1
A smooth ball of mass 700 gm is placed at the top of a smooth plane inclined at an angle of Sin
5
to the horizontal, the ball is left to descend from rest along the line of the greatest slope, after
descending a distance 2 meters, it collides with a barrier fixed to the plane in a position
perpendicular to the line of motion of the ball, after collision the ball rebounded a distance
50 cm along the line of the greatest slope upwards before it comes to rest. Find the total pressure
1
of the ball on the barrier given that the time of contact of the ball with the barrier is sec.
20
( )
2
2 2 2
We calculate the velocity of the sphere before impact V :
we have to get acceleration :
1
so a g Sin 9.8 1.96 m / sec
5
V ??? S 2 u 0 a 1.96
V U 2aS V 2 1.96 2 7.84
V 2.8 m / sec.
We calculate the velo
u
 
= = =

\ .
= = = =
= + ¬ = × × =
=
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
2 1
city of the sphere after impact u
1
we have to get acceleration : so a g Sin 9.8 1.96 m / sec
5
u ??? S 0.5 V 0 a 1.96
V U 2aS 0 u 2 1.96 0.5
u 1.4 m / sec.
I m V V 0.7 1.4 2.8 2.94 Newton.sec
And
u
 
= = =

\ .
= = = =
= + ¬ = ÷ × ×
=
= ÷ = + =
( )( ) ( )
I
P F mg Sin where F 2.94 20 58.8 Newton
T
1
P 58.8 0.7 9.8 60.172 Newton 9.8 6.14 kg.wt
5
u = + = = × =
 
= + = ÷ =

\ .
Example (5)
Answer

mg Sinu
0.5 m
u 0 =
2 m
v ?? =
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  119 
1
M
1
V
( )
( )
Very important notes :
1 The Impulse of the first ball on the second is equal to the change of momentum of the second ball.
2 The Impulse of the second ball on the first is equal to the change of momentum o
( )
( ) ( )
2 1
f the first ball.
3 Take care of the direction of the velocities, so let the direction be
4 we use the law of impulse : I F t m V V to know what happened to a single body
due to impact But
©
© ÷÷÷
= × = ÷
( )
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
we use the law of collision : m V m V m V ' m V ' to know what
happened to the two bodies or more due to impact
+ = +
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
m V m V m V ' m V ' + = +
' '
'
after collision
after collision before collision =
( )
1 1 2 2 1 2
m V m V V' m m + = +
after collision before collision =
(b) Collision
If two spheres move on one straight line and their velocity
vectors are parallel to their line of centers and they collide , then
this kind of collide is called the direction impact .
Theorem
I f two spheres collide with each other, then the sum of their momentum before impact is
equal to the sum of their momentum after impact
Some types of collisions:
(1) Elastic collision : bodies are separated from each other after collision with different
velocities
Or
(2) I nelastic collision : after collision, bodies are moving with common velocities
2
M
2
V
Rule of Collision
Here the Rule of Collision
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( )
( )
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
1
1
Let the direction be
The sum of the momentum before impact The sum of the momentum after impact
For momentum : m V m V m V ' m V '
40 9 120 6 40 V ' 120 3
V ' 18m / sec
Then the velocity of t
©
© ÷÷÷
=
¬ + = +
× + × = × + ×
=
( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1
he first sphere after collision is
18 m/s in the opposite direction as the first
ii The Impulse of the first ball on the second is equal to the change of momentum of the
second ball I m V ' V ¬ ÷ = + =
( )
0.04 18 9 1.08 Newton.sec
I
F 1.08 18 19.44 Newton
T
+ =
= = × =
( )
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
2
2 2
Let the direction be
The sum of the momentum before impact The sum of the momentum after impact
For momentum : m V m V m V ' m V '
5 11 8 5 5 7 8V '
8V ' 55 40 35 60 V ' 7.5 m / sec
Then the ve
©
© ÷÷÷
=
¬ + = +
× + × = × +
= + ÷ = ¬ =
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
locity of the second sphere is in the same as the first
ii The Impulse of the first ball on the second
is equal to the change of momentum of the second ball
I m V ' V 8 7.5 5 20 kg.m / sec Or 20 N ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ewton sec.
Example (1)
Two smooth spheres of masses 5 kg and 8 kg are moving on a horizontal ground in the same
straight line, if the velocity of the first is 11 m/sec and the second is 5 m/sec and in the same
direction as the first. The two spheres collide and the velocity of the first after impact is 7 m/sec
in the same direction . find : (i) The velocity of the second after impact .
(ii) The magnitude of the impulse of the first on the second .
Answer

Example (2)
Two smooth spheres of mass 40 gm. and 120 gm are moving on a smooth horizontal surface in
an opposite direction . the velocity of the first is 9 m/sec and the second is 6 m/sec. the two
spheres collide and the second sphere rebounds after impact with velocity 3m/sec. find :
(i) The velocity of the first sphere after impact.
(ii) The averaged force, which the second sphere acts on the first , knowing that the time
during which they are in contact is
1
18
second.
Answer
before impact :
1
11 v =
5 kg
1
7 v ' =
2
? v ' =
I I
8 kg
2
5 v =
©
After impact :
before impact :
1
9 v =
40 gm
1
?? v' =
2
3 v' =
I
I
120 gm
2
6 v =
©
After impact :
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
2
2
I m V ' V 15 10 500 V ' 20 30 V ' 20 V ' 50 cm / sec
which is in the same direction before impact
Let the direction be
For momentum : m V m V m V ' m V '
500 50 200V ' 500 20 200 50
200V ' 
©
÷ = ÷ ¬ × = ÷ ¬ = ÷ ¬ =
© ÷÷÷
¬ + = +
× + = × + ×
=
2
5000 V ' 25 cm / sec
the second sphere moves after impact with velocity 25 cm/sec in the opposite direction of its
motion before impact.
¬ =
( ) ( )
( )
1 1 2 2 1 2
2
2 2
Let the direction be
For momentum : m V m V V' m m
70 30 210 0 V' 70 210 280 V' 2100
V' 7.5cm / sec in the same direction before impact
15 15
V U 2aS 0 2a
2 7
105 
a  cm / sec  R ma 280
8
©
© ÷÷÷
¬ + = +
× + × = + ¬ =
=
 
= + ¬ = + ×

\ .
= ¬ = = ×
( ) ( )
105
dyne
8
R the resistance of the table 3675 dyne 980 3.75 gm.wt = ÷ =
Example (3)
Two smooth spheres are projected on a smooth horizontal plane such that they move in the
same straight line and in the same direction. If the front sphere has a mass of 500 gm. and
velocity 20 cm/sec. and the back sphere has a mass of 200 gm and velocity 50 cm/sec, and the
impulse of the back sphere to the front one due to impact equals
3
15 10 × dyne. Sec. Find the
magnitude and the direction of the velocity of each sphere just after impact.
Answer

Example (4)
A smooth sphere of mass 70 gm moves in a straight line on a horizontal plane with velocity
30 cm/sec collides with another sphere being at rest and of mass 210 gm. and lying on the same
straight line and they move after impact as one body. Find their common velocity , and give
that this body covers a distance of 2
1
7
cm till it stops, find the resistance of the plane to the
motion of the body.
Answer

before impact :
1
30 v =
70 gm
v'
I I
210 gm
2
0 v =
©
After impact :
v'
before impact :
2
50 v =
200 gm
1
?? v' = 2
?? v' =
I I
500 gm
1
20 v =
©
After impact :
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2 1 2
12 1 2 12 12
12 12
3 3
12
Let the direction be
For momentum : m V m V V' m m 8 6 4 3 V' 8 4
12 V' 60 V' 5m / sec
Let m m m and v is the velocity of the body m
m 8 4 12kg V 5m / sec
m 3kg V 0
m V
©
© ÷÷÷
¬ + = + ¬ × + × = +
= ¬ =
= +
= + = =
= =
( )
( ) ( )
12 3 3 12 12 3 3
3
3 3
3 3 3
m V m V '' m V ''
12 5 3 0 12 4 3V ''
3V '' 108 V '' 36 m / sec
The impulse of the third sphere is :
I m V ' V 3 36 108 Newton.sec
+ = +
× + × = +
= ¬ =
= ÷ = =
( )
( )
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
1 1
A
A
A A C C A C
For momentum : m V m V m V ' m V '
10 200 4 800 10V ' 4 100 V ' 160 cm / sec
1
So sphere A after sec : V u gt
7
1
V 160 980 20 cm / sec
7
m V m V V'' m m
10 20 100 13 V'' 10 100 V'' 10 cm / sec dow
+ = +
× ÷ × = + × ¬ =
= ÷
 
= ÷ =

\ .
+ = +
× + × = + ¬ = nwards
A body A of mass 10 gm moves vertically downwards, it collides with another body B of mass 4 gm
moving vertically upwards when the velocity of A was 200 cm/sec and the velocity of B is 800 cm/sec
After impact, the body B rebounded vertically downwards with velocity 100 cm/sec, while A
1
rebounded vertically upwards, and after sec, the body A collided with a third body C of mass
7
100 gm moving vertically downwards with velocity 13 cm/sec, and they form one body, find the
magnitude and the direction of their common velocity after impact.
Example (5)
Two smooth spheres of masses 8 and 4 kgm move in the same straight line and in the same
direction. The first moves with velocity 6 m /sec. and the second with velocity 3 m/sec. the
faster sphere catches the slower one and collides with it and moves together as one body , then
they collide with a third sphere at rest and of mass 3 kg then the body rebounded with velocity
4 m/sec , find the velocity of the third sphere after collision and the impulse acting on it.
Answer

Example (6)
Answer
before impact :
1
6 v =
8 kg
v'
I I
4kg
©
After impact :
v'
before impact :
12
5 v =
8 kg
12
'' 4 v =
I I
3kg
3
0 v =
©
After impact :
3
'' v
4
2
3 v =
1
200 v =
4 gm 2
' 100 v =
10 gm
©
1
' v
A
B
2
800 v =
'' v
©
10 gm
100 gm
C
A
13
C
v =
20
A
v =
'' v
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
( )
( )
( )
st
2
A
Let the time taken by the second body to reach the first be t seconds from its projection instant
The time taken by the 1 body is t 1 seconds
for sphere A u 11.9 m/s T t 1
1
S ut gt 11.9 t 1
2
+
= = +
= ÷ = + ÷
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
A
2 2 2
B
1 2
1 2
4.9 t 1
S 11.9t 11.9 4.9t 9.8t 4.9
for sphere B u 16.1 m/s T t
1 1
S ut gt 16.1t 9.8 t 16.1t 4.9t 1
2 2
And S S 0 "No distance mentioned"
1
S S t seconds is the time they collide
2
This
+
= + ÷ ÷ ÷
= =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ =
= ¬ =
( )( ) ( )
A
1 1
means that the time of second body seconds and the time of first body 1 seconds
2 2
Velocity of sphere A before impact : u 11.9 m / sec t 1.5 sec
V U gt 11.9 9.8 1.5 2.8 m/s downward
Velocity of sphere
= =
= =
= ÷ = ÷ =
( )( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
B
1 1 2 2 1 2
B before impact : u 16.1 m / sec t 0.5 sec
V 16.1 9.8 0.5 11.2 m/s upward
After impact, both spheres have common velocity mV m V m m V'
1 2.8 1.5 11.2 1 1.5 V' V' 5.6 m/sec V' 5.6 m/sec upward
The maxim
= =
= ÷ =
+ = +
× ÷ × = + × ¬ = ¬ =
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
max
B
um height from the impact instant :
5.6
U
S 1.6 m from the instant they meet each other
2 g 2 9.8
from 1 : S 16.1 0.5 4.9 0.25 6.825 m
Then the maximum height from the ground is 1.6 6.825 8.425 m
= = =
= ÷ =
+ =
Example (7)
A body of mass one kg is projected vertically upward from the ground surface with velocity of
magnitude 11.9 m/s and after one second of the instant of its projection another body of mass
1.5 kg is projected vertically upwards from the same place with velocity of magnitude 16.1 m/s
if these two bodies formed one body after impact , find the maximum height which this body
reaches from the ground surface .
Answer
2.8
A
v =
. 1 5 kg
1 kg
©
A
B
11.2
B
v =
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
o
30
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
o 2
2 2
B
2
2 2
A
1 2
The distance done by sphere B u 7 m/s a  g Sin 9.8Sin30 4.9 m/sec
1 1
S ut at 7t 4.9 t 1
2 2
The distance done by sphere A u 0 a g Sin 4.9 m/sec
1 1
S ut at 4.9 t 2
2 2
And S S 8 mo
u
u
= = = =
= + = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
= + = ÷ ÷ ÷
+ =
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
B
2
B
ving in opposite direction
1 1 8
7t 4.9 t 4.9 t 8 t sec
2 2 7
Substitute in 1 : S 4.8 m from B
When the both spheres collide :
8
Velocity of sphere B before impact : u 7 m / sec t sec a 4.9 m/sec
7
V u at 7 4.
÷ + = ¬ =
=
= = =
= + = ÷
( )
( )
( )
2
A
1 1 2 2 1 2
8
9 1.4 m/s
7
8
Velocity of sphere A before impact : u 0 t sec a 4.9 m/sec
7
8
V 4.9 5.6 m/sec V' 5.6 m/sec
7
After impact, both spheres have common velocity mV m V m m V'
65 1.4 75 5.6 65
 
=

\ .
= = =
 
= = ¬ =

\ .
+ = +
× ÷ × = +
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2 2
75 V' V' 2.35 m/s V' 2.35 m/s downward
To find when the body reaches the bottom of the plane u 2.35 S 4.8 m a 4.9 m/sec
1 1
S ut at 4.8 2.35t 4.9 t 2.45t 2.35t 4.8 0 t 1 sec
2 2
× ¬ = ¬ =
= = =
= + ¬ = + ¬ + ÷ = ¬ =
o
AB is the line of the greatest slope of a smooth plane of length 8 m and inclined at an angle of
measure 30 to the horizontal. A body of mass 65 gm at the bottom of the plane B is projected
with velocity 7 m/sec along BA , and at the same instant another body of mass 75 gm at the top
of the plane A is left to slide along AB, state when and where the two bodies will collide and
if the two bodies form one body after collision, find when it reaches the bottom of the plane .
Example (8)
Answer
75
©
65
A
B
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Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  111 
Two smooth spheres A and B of masses 300 and 250 gm are moving along the same horizontal
line with velocities of magnitudes 15 m/sec and 9 m/sec respectively in the same direction, if
they collide and move in the same direction after impact such that the ratio between the
magnitude of their velocities immediatelty after impact is 2 : 3, find the magnitude of each. If
the sphere A continues its motion with constant velocity while B moves with constant deceleration
1
due to a constant resistance equal of its weight, find the distance between the two spheres after
5
5 seconds from the instant of their separation after collision .
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
1 2
A
After impact m V m V m V ' m V '
300 15 250 9 300 2x 250 3x
x 5 m / s V ' 10 m / sec and V ' 15 m / sec
The distance done by the two spheres after 5 seconds
for sphere A S V t 10 5 50 m
1 1
for sphere B R mg=
5
+ = +
× + × = × + ×
= ¬ = =
= = × =
=
( )
( ) ( )( )
2
2
2
B B
B A
250
9.8 0.49 Newton
5 1000
250
And  R ma 0.49 a a 1.96 m/sec
1000
So t 5 sec a 1.96 m/sec u 15m / sec
1 1
S ut at S 15 5 1.96 25 50.5 m
2 2
Then the distance between the two spheres S S moving in the
 
=

\ .
= ¬ = ¬ =
= = =
= + ¬ = + =
÷
( )
same direction 0.5 m =
Example (9)
Answer

1
15 v =
300 gm
©
2
9 v =
250 gm
1
' 2 v x =
2
' 3 v x =
A B
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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 – 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic – 3
rd
secondary Chapter five – Newton’s law  118 
Two smooth spheres each of mass 240 gm move along a straight line on a smooth horizontal
plane each with velocity 15 m/sec in the same direction, and there is a distance between them .
A barrier is fixed to the plane such that it perpendicular to the line of motion of the two spheres
if the front sphere collides with the barrier and rebounds along the same straight line and collides
with the back sphere and it rebounds once more with velocity 8 m/sec, find the magnitude of the
velocity of the back sphere after impact given that the magnitude of the impulse of the barrier to
the front sphere is 6.48 Newton.sec
( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2 2
2
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
1
1 1
1
240
I m V ' V 6.48 V ' 15
1000
V ' 12 m / sec
After impact m V m V ' m V '' m V ''
240 15 240 12 240V '' 240 8 240
15 12 V '' 8 V '' 5 m / sec
V '' 5 m / sec in the opposite direction
= ÷ ¬ = +
=
+ = +
× ÷ × = + × ÷
÷ = + ¬ =
=
A
m g
2.5 m
0.25 m
C
a
v 0 =
B
u 0 =
R
( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
1 1 2 2 1 2
we don't have the velocity of the hummer before impact
So V U 2g S V 0 2 9.8 2.5 49 V 7 m / sec
For momentum : m V m V V' m m
2.5 7 1 0 V' 2.5 1 V' 5 m / sec
Imbedded in the ground means that : mg R m
= + ¬ = + × × = ¬ =
¬ + = +
× + × = + ¬ =
÷ =
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
a
then we have to get the acceleration
V 0 when S 0.25 m and u 5 m / sec
So V U 2as 0 25 2a 0.25
a 50m / sec
2.5 1 1000 9.8 R 2.5 1 1000 50
149500 299
R 209300 Newton 9.8 kg.wt 1000
7
= = =
= + ¬ = + ×
=
+ × ÷ = + ×
= ÷ = ÷ = ton.wt
14
Example (10)
Answer

Example (11)
A hammer of mass 2.5 tons falls from a height of 2.5 meters on a body of mass 1 tons and form
one body after impact and are imbedded in the ground at a distance of 25 cm. Find the average
resistance of the ground, measured in units of ton .wt.
Answer
1
15 v =
240 gm
©
2
15 v =
240 gm
240 gm 240 gm
1
15 v =
2
' 12 v =
1
'' v
2
'' 8 v =
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