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SACRED SCROLLS: 40 HADITH NAWAWI
January 2009 | Toronto, Canada
For more information on this notes compilation please email Majd.Scribes@gmail.com
Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 6 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah.............................................................................................................. 6 Hadith 22................................................................................................................................................... 6 About the Narrator: Jabir ibn Abdillah.................................................................................................. 7 The Story of Jabir ibn Abdillah .............................................................................................................. 7 2 Special Qualities of Jabir ibn Abdillah ................................................................................................ 7 Jabir’s Maturity and Sacrifice ................................................................................................................ 7 The Sweetness of the and the Iman of Jabir ......................................................................................... 8 A Similar Narration................................................................................................................................ 9 The Promise of Allah t’ala ................................................................................................................... 11 Hadith 29................................................................................................................................................. 11 About the Narrator: Mu'adh ibn Jabal ................................................................................................ 12 Special Qualities of Mu’adh ibn Jabal ................................................................................................. 12 Explanation of the Hadith ................................................................................................................... 13 The 3 Doors of Good ........................................................................................................................... 15 Controlling Our Tongues ..................................................................................................................... 20 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! ................................................................................................................. 21 The Hadith............................................................................................................................................... 21 About the Narrator: Abu Malik al-Harith bin ‘Asim al-Ash’ari ................................................................ 22 Explanation of the Hadith ....................................................................................................................... 23 What is the meaning of Tahoor? ........................................................................................................ 23 The Meaning of Tahoor has a Number of Connotations .................................................................... 24 Alhamdulillah and the Scales .............................................................................................................. 25 Subhan Allah. What Does it Mean? .................................................................................................... 27 Kalimataani Thaqeelataani.................................................................................................................. 28 Anwaar – The Different Types of Light ............................................................................................... 30 As-Sadaqatu Burhan............................................................................................................................ 31 Patience is a Dhiyaa’ ........................................................................................................................... 32 The Qur’an and You ............................................................................................................................ 33 Every Single Human Being .................................................................................................................. 34
Hadith 27: The Golden Compass................................................................................................................. 35 Part 1 ....................................................................................................................................................... 36 About the Narrator: Nawaas ibn Sam’aan .......................................................................................... 36 Part 2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 37 About the Narrator: Wabisah ibn Ma’bad .......................................................................................... 37 Analyzing the Two Hadith ....................................................................................................................... 38 Theological Implication: Al-Fitrah ....................................................................................................... 38 Determining Good and Evil: Al-Birr vs Al-Ithm.................................................................................... 39 Refining Our Understanding of the Hadeeth ...................................................................................... 40 Hadith 28: Listen & Obey ............................................................................................................................ 41 About the Narrator: Abu Najih al-Irbaadh bin Saariyah ......................................................................... 41 The Muslim and the Political Leader....................................................................................................... 43 Ikhtilaaf? Here’s What to Do................................................................................................................... 45 Is 73 meant exactly or is it an expression? ......................................................................................... 46 Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah? .................................................................................................................. 47 What Makes a Sect a Sect? ..................................................................................................................... 49 What Makes a Group Leave the Fold of Islam? .................................................................................. 49 Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm ........................................................................................................... 50 “No Harm Should be Given, Nor Reciprocating of Harm” ...................................................................... 50 Al-Qawaa’id al-Fiqh ................................................................................................................................. 53 Principle 1: Al-Umooru bi Maqaasidihaa ............................................................................................ 53 Principle 2: Al-Yaqeenu La Yazoolu Bi Shakk....................................................................................... 54 Principle 3: Al-Mashaqatu Tajlibu At-Tayseer ..................................................................................... 55 Principle 5: Al-'Aadatu Muhakamma .................................................................................................. 57 Principle 5: La Darara wa laa Diraar .................................................................................................... 58 Did you know? ........................................................................................................................................ 58 When Selling your House .................................................................................................................... 58 When Selling Business Shares ............................................................................................................. 59 Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online ................................................................................................................... 59 About The Narrator: Umar ibn Al Khattab .............................................................................................. 59 There are two Meanings for Niyyah ....................................................................................................... 61 Synonyms of Niyyah from the Qur’an: ................................................................................................... 62
“Iraada” ............................................................................................................................................... 62 “Ibtighaa” ............................................................................................................................................ 62 Beneficial Acts Even without Niyyah....................................................................................................... 62 Niyyah 1: Al-Ikhlaas (Sincerity)............................................................................................................... 63 Hijrah can be Defined in Three Ways.................................................................................................. 64 Doing Something for a Reason Other Than for the Sake of Allah....................................................... 65 Niyyah 2: Defining Acts of Worship ........................................................................................................ 66 Example: Talaq .................................................................................................................................... 67 Niyyah is in the Heart not the Tongue .................................................................................................... 68 Hadeeth Terminology ............................................................................................................................. 69 Hadeeth Fard ...................................................................................................................................... 69 Hadeeth Ghareeb (Strange) ................................................................................................................ 69 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? ....................................................................................................... 70 Why is this Hadeeth the Second in Arba’een an-Nawawi? .................................................................... 71 About the Narrator: Umar ibn al-Khattab............................................................................................... 71 ‘Aam ar-Ramaada.................................................................................................................................... 72 The Bigger Picture: The Effects of Halal vs. Haraam ............................................................................... 72 The Details of the Hadith ........................................................................................................................ 73 Arkaan al-Eemaan ............................................................................................................................... 73 Allah is the Most Merciful to His Creation .......................................................................................... 77 What is the Difference between Islam and Eemaan?......................................................................... 78 Are the terms Islam and Eeman Interchangeable?............................................................................. 79 The 5 Conditions of a Sahih Hadith ......................................................................................................... 79 Shuthooth and the Hadith Jibreel ........................................................................................................... 79 What is Ehsaan? ...................................................................................................................................... 79 The Definition of Ihsaan ...................................................................................................................... 80 Ihsaan – The Best Circle ...................................................................................................................... 81 Al-Qadhaa wal Qadr and the Sects ......................................................................................................... 82 Istihlaal and Kufr ..................................................................................................................................... 82 Between Acts of Kufr and Takfeer .......................................................................................................... 84 Signs of the Day of Judgment.................................................................................................................. 85 Hadith 4: Which End are You Working For? ............................................................................................... 86
About the Narrator: Abu Abdurrahman Abdullah ibn Mas’ood ............................................................. 86 Explanation of the Hadith ....................................................................................................................... 87 The Written Qadr ................................................................................................................................ 88 What is the Significance of This? ........................................................................................................ 89 Al-Qadr is Recorded 3 Times ............................................................................................................... 90 The Wisdom of the 3 Writings of Al-Qadr........................................................................................... 90 The Second part of the Hadith ................................................................................................................ 91 Husn al-Khitaam .................................................................................................................................. 91 Reasons for Husn Al Khitam ................................................................................................................ 91 Reasons for Soo’ Al-Khitaam ............................................................................................................... 92 Ruling on Contraception ......................................................................................................................... 92 Q&A ............................................................................................................................................................. 93 What Can you do to Keep Your Niyyah Pure? ........................................................................................ 93 There are Two Harams ............................................................................................................................ 93 Hadith 12 & 13: The Muslim Seeks the Beneficial ...................................................................................... 93 Hadith 12................................................................................................................................................. 93 Definition Hassan Hadith .................................................................................................................... 93 Hadith Terms ....................................................................................................................................... 95 Hadith 13................................................................................................................................................. 96 Hasad - Envy ........................................................................................................................................ 97
In January 2009, the student body of AlMaghrib Institute in Toronto, Ontario a.k.a. Qabeelat Majd, were blessed with the opportunity to study Imam An-Nawawi’s 40 Hadith under the instructors Yasir Qadhi and Abdur-Rehman Al-Hijazy. In taking this course the students of Qabeelat Majd (QMajd) became among over 2000 students who studied the same material in cities across North America towards the end of 2008. What you are reading is an effort produced by some of the dedicated students who have gathered their notes, performed a validation of the material, and created this final production for your benefit. Please make an intention to read this until the end, and please make dua’ for the many students who put their time and effort into this project. May Allah make this of benefit to you and your community, and grant you the great success in the akhira!!
Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah
Abu ‘Abdullah Jabir bin ‘Abdullah al-Ansari, radiyallahu anhuma, reported that a man questioned the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam, saying: "Do you see, if I pray the prescribed (prayers), fast during Ramadhan, treat the lawful as permissible and treat the forbidden as prohibited, but do nothing more than that, shall I enter Paradise?” He (the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) answered: “Yes.” [Muslim]
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
7 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah About the Narrator: Jabir ibn Abdillah Jabir ibn Abdillah is among the four or five companions which have narrated the greatest number of ahadeeth from the Prophet Muhammad sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam. Abu Hurayah is the companion who has narrated the greatest number of hadith. There is some difference of opinion regarding who narrated the greatest number of hadith after him. The other companions who narrated the greatest number of hadith include: • • • Aisha (the wife the of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam), Ibn Umar (the son of Umar ibn al-Khattab), Jabir ibn Abdillah.
Unlike Qur’an, the Hadith are narrated from the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam according to meaning, not wording. This includes Hadith Qudsi which has also been preserved for us according to meaning, not wording.
The Story of Jabir ibn Abdillah While the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam was in Makkah he sent Mus’ab ibn Umayr to teach people Islam in Madinah. Jabir’s father was Abdullah ibn Haraam, one of the earliest converts in Medina during this time! Naturally, Abdullah’s family accepted Islam after his own conversion and so Jabir accepted Islam as a teenager before he even saw the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). Jabir ibn Abdillah was the youngest person who attended the Oath of Aqabah in the last year of the Makki period of the da’wah of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, before the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam made Hijrah (migrated) to Madinah. With this pledge, the people of Madinah (the Ansaar) promised to defend and protect the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam as they would their own families. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 Therefore understand that he was a young companion, who spent the better part of his youth with the Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam). He was 25-26 years old, when the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) passed away and lived a long time afterwards. 2 Special Qualities of Jabir ibn Abdillah 1. He was a Muslim before the Prophet even came to Medina. 2. He lives a long life after the death of the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). Jabir ibn Abdillah has many interesting stories, two of which stand above the rest. Jabir’s Maturity and Sacrifice Jabir participated in Badr only by giving water to the fighters as, being a teenager; he was himself too young to fight. Regarding the Battle of Badr, Abdullah ibn Haraam prohibited his son from fighting as he was the only son among 7 other sisters born to his parents. Jabir’s father, Abdullah ibn Haraam, said:
8 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah “I sense that I will die today (on the morning of Uhud), and I have no one else to take care of my daughters except you, so I forbid you from going to the battle”. And indeed his father was shaheed in the battle of Uhud. So at the age of 16-17, he was left to take care of 7 sisters. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam saw Jabir wearing some perfume and asked what the occasion was. Jabir responded that he had recently married. (From this incident we also learned that we give a Waleemah even if it with one goat). The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) asked Jabir if he married a virgin or a widow and Jabir told him he had married a widow. In his maturity and foresight, Jabir decided to marry a mature woman as he was now responsible for all his sisters and therefore would need an experienced woman to help rear them. The Sweetness of the and the Iman of Jabir The incident of Jabir selling his camel to the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) is a very long story. We will summarize briefly. Also, remember that there are many versions of it, and we will only discuss one. After the Battle of Uhud, the Muslims went on an expedition. When the Muslim army was returning to Madinah after this expedition, Jabir was fell behind as he had a very old, slow camel. Recall he had lost his father earlier in Uhud and had 7 sisters to take care of and his father hadn’t left behind much money and so Jabir had to take loans to take care of the family. And he’s a young boy and with all of this upon his shoulders, he was feeling under-the-weather. He noticed the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) slowing down to allow Jabir to catch up. Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “Why are you so sad?” Jabir said: “My father died, as you know, and I have debts, and I have sisters, and this is the only camel I have and look how slow it is.” Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 So the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “Ok, stop the camel.” The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) made du’aa and hit the camel with the stick that he had. And Jabir said: “It became the fastest camel I have ever seen!” And so the Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam) then said, “Oh Jabir will you sell me your camel?” [A camel, by the way is worth a lot of money! And this one had just been upgraded to a Lambourghini] Jabir said: “It is your gift ya Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam)” Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “No I will buy it for its proper price.” And then add: “Will you sell it for one dirham?” Jabir said: “That is too little: The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “May Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala forgive you O Jabir, will you sell it for two?”
9 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah Jabir: “That’s still too cheap” Jabir mentions they they kept going back and forth, with the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) increasing his price and asking Allah to forgive Jabir over 20 times. And truly this is all that Jabir wanted – the du’aa of the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). As we know, the du’aa of the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) is accepted by Allah. So they went back and forth, until finally they agreed upon a price. Jabir said: “I have only one condition that I am allowed to ride the camel until I get back to Madinah.”
Note: This Hadith is very important in many chapters of fiqh – one reason being that we understand that it is completely permissible for a seller to put a condition on the buyer regarding the item of sale.
So for example, say you have a toaster to sell. You can stipulate in your contract that you (the seller) can use this toaster for a week before the buyer claims it. Recall that this was the only camel his father had left Jabir and so he was depressed because he needed the camel. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) called Jabir when they returned to Madinah. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam told Bilal (who was his secretary) to weigh and pay Jabir the amount in wheat they had agreed to and to also give him extra. When Jabir took the quantity and he began to come away very sad. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam) then said: “Oh Jabir, haven’t you forgotten something?” Subhanallah the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “Take the camel and your bag!”
A Similar Narration Although there is the possibility that it might be a separate incident, this Hadith has been narrated by many different companions as well because it is a very famous incident We hear of a Bedouin barges into the masjid and says: “Which of you is Muhammad?”
Note: Why couldn’t he tell the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam apart from the other companions? Certainly, one would be able to recognize
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Contemplate this potent example of the wisdom of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam. He did not wish Jabir to feel like he was taking charity, but he still desired to help him out in his difficulty. And so he constructed this scenario so that he could achieve both ends. Subhan Allah, truly the greatest fitnah to afflict this ummah was the death of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam. And to Allah belongs all praise.
10 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah
Prince Charles in a crowd of Englishmen? But the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam did not dress differently from the Sahabah and did not sit on any raised platform.
The Sahabah pointed out the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). The Bedouin says: “O Muhammad (didn’t say ya Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) like the Sahabah as he is from the desert and has crude manners as it is a harsh/rough environment). I will ask you blunt questions, and they are going to be very straight forward, so do not get angry with me (intelligently making a disclaimer).” “I ask you by Allah, (I am asking you to be truthful for the sake of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala), who created the heavens.” The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam says: “Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala” The Bedouin: “Who created the earth?” The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam says: “Allah azza wa jal” The Bedouin: “Who created the mountains and river and valleys?” The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam says: “Allah azza wa jal” The Bedouin: “I ask you by the one that created the earth and the mountains and the rivers and valleys. Did this one send you as a Prophet?” The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam says: “Yes, He has sent me” The Bedouin: “What has he commanded you to tell us?” The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) mentioned the five pillars and told him to avoid the major sins. Then the Bedouin said: “Then I swear by Allah that I will, if I don’t do anything more than this- will I enter Jannah?” The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said: “Yes you will. Yes, if you are able to live up to your promise.” --So in this version of Jabir ibn Abdillah, we learn that a man questioned the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, but he preserves the answer of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam. Whereas in the second Hadith we learn that this man was a Bedouin. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
11 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah This Hadith shows us the simplicity of Islam and this is why Shaykh Yasir Qadhi chose it to be the first Hadith. Many times we get carried away with the details of some issues and lose sight of the big picture. For this Bedouin, the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) was content that he prayed and fasted But what about those people who do major sins while doing these five pillars? This is covered where the Bedouin said he would: “make the haram, haram (meaning will not commit a haram, i.e. major sin).” The Promise of Allah t’ala If you fulfill the pillars of Islam and avoid the major sins, there is a guarantee from Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala that this person will enter Jannah without touching the fire of hell. We are not speaking in specifics but in general. Meaning, one cannot say: “I or so-and-so will enter will Jannah, because we uphold the commandments and stay away from the prohibitions.” We cannot do so because we do not know whether Allah ta’ala has accepted our deedes. This Hadith is a primary Hadith that deals with the rights of Allah azza wa jal. For the majority of this ummah, all they need to do is be like the Bedouin. We should not seek to overburden people in their religion by commanding or instructing that they do what is beyond their capacity (i.e. Bedouin-like state).
From Mu'adh bin Jabal, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said: I said: "O Messenger of Allah, tell me of a deed which will take me into Paradise and will keep me away from the Hellfire." He said: "You have asked me about a great matter, yet it is, indeed, an easy matter for him to whom Allah
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
12 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah
Almighty makes it easy. (It is ) that you worship Allah without associating anything with Him, that you perform the prayers, that you pay the zakat, that you fast during Ramadan, and that you make the pilgrimage to the House." Then he said: "Shall I not guide you to the gates of goodness? Fasting is a shield; charity extinguishes sin as water extinguishes fire; and a man's prayer in the middle of the night." Then he recited: "Who forsake their beds to cry unto their Lord in fear and hope, and spend of that We have bestowed on them. No soul knoweth what is kept hid for them of joy, as a reward for what they used to do". [Qu'ran, Surah al-Sajdah (32): Ayah 16-17] Then he said: "Shall I not also tell you of the peak of the matter, its pillar, and its topmost part?" I said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah." He said: "The peak of the matter is Islam (submission to Allah), the pillar is prayer; and its topmost part is jihad." Then he said: "And shall I not tell you of the controlling of all that ?" I said:" Yes, O Messenger of Allah". So he took hold of his tongue and said: "Restrain this." I said: "O Prophet of Allah, will we be held accountable for what we say?" He said: "May your mother be bereft of you! Is there anything that topples people on their faces (or he said, on their noses) into the Hell-fire other than the jests of their tongues?" [Related by Al-Tirmidhi, who said it was a fine and sound hadith
About the Narrator: Mu'adh ibn Jabal He is one of the most famous companions of the prophet, an Ansari from Medina like Jabir ibn Abdillah, a young bright handsome man. But unlike Jabir, who was a teenager, he was a man when he accepted Islam. Special Qualities of Mu’adh ibn Jabal He participated in badr and was likely in his early 20s at the time. He memorized the entire Qur'aan during the lifetime of Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam. This is a particularly special point as there were not as many companions who memorised the entire Qur’an during the lifetime of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam as we learned in Route 114: Uloom alQur’an.
Mu’adh was appointed governor of Yemen by the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam), towards the end of his sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam’s life. When Mu’adh was leaving for Yemen, the prophet accompanied him alone outside the city to bid him farewell and give him advice. He (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “O Mu’adh, this is probably the last time that I will see you”. What do you imagine Muadh is going to do when the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) tells him this? He burst into tears. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “Oh Muadh wAllahi (“by Allah,” i.e. an oath) I live you for the sake of Allah”.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Note: to request Uloom al-Qur’an notes, email firstname.lastname@example.org with Uloom al-Qur’an Request in the subject line.
13 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah
The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam loved many people but Mu’adh is one of the few people that the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said this to directly and explicitly. How special does this make him?
And the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) informed us that the most knowledgeable of halal and haram of my ummah is Muadh ibn Jabal. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) also told us that when the scholars will be resurrected on the Day of Judgment - they will be headed by Muadh. In another narration – the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “He will be ahead of them (i.e. the scholars) by a certain distance.” Mu’adh ibn Jabal He died very young, 34 years old, when he died; therefore, he narrated very few Hadeeth. This is one of those Hadith Explanation of the Hadith Mu’adh ibn Jabal asked the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam: “O Rasool Allah, I want to ask you about something that has caused me to fall sick thinking about it and it has given me very much grief.” Here is Muadh telling the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) that there is an issue causing him a lot of anguish and he has been thinking about it for a very long time and has fallen sick. Can you imagine what he is thinking about? Think about the things that cause you anguish in your own life that you cause you sleepless nights and restless days? And contrast it with the concerns of this Companion. Mu’adh said: “What is it that will cause me to enter Jannah and save me from the fire of hell?” Subhanallah. Also notice the comprehensiveness of this question. This is the gist of the whole matter of creation! This is the reason we exist on this earth: to earn Allah’s pleasure and thereby Jannah, and save ourselves from Hellfire. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) responded: “This is a very grave matter.” Meaning this is a big matter. You have basically hit the jackpot in terms of questions. “But it is easy for those whom Allah has made it easy for.” Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
14 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah But if Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala wants to make this really big matter easy for you, then indeed He will make it easy for you. No matter how big any matter for you, if Allah wants to make it easy for you then He will make it easy for you Anytime the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) faced a difficult matter he would say:
‘O Allaah, there is no ease except in that which You have made easy, and You make difficulty, if You wish, easy.’ Translitteration: “Allaahumma laa sahla illaa maa ja’altahu sahlan, wa anta taj’alul hazna ithaa shi-ta sahlan” [From: www.makedua.com]
Remember this du’aa anytime you’re faced with any sort of difficulty: big or small. So the Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam) told Mu’adh the five pillars of Islam. Many of us are familiar with the Hadith of Jibraeel in which the five pillars are listed: “One day we were sitting in the company of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, when there appeared before us a man dressed in pure white clothes, his hair extraordinarily black. There were no signs of travel on him. None of us recognized him. He sat with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. Resting his knees against his and the palms of his hands on his thighs, he said, ‘O Muhammad, tell me about Islam’.The Messenger of Allah replied, ‘Islam is to testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to establish the prayer, pay the zakat, observe the fast of Ramadan, and perform the pilgrimage to the House if you are able to do so’.He said, ‘You have spoken the truth,’ and we were amazed at him asking and then verifying that he had spoken the truth. He then said, ‘Inform me about Iman’.He replied, ‘It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, the Last Day, and in the divine destiny of both good and evil’. He said, ‘You have spoken the truth’. He then said, ‘Tell me about Ihsan’.He said, ‘It is to worship Allah as if you see Him, for though you do not see Him, surely He sees you’.He then said, ‘Inform me about the Hour’.He replied, ‘The one who is asked knows no more than the one who is asking’.He said, ‘Tell me some of its signs’.He said, ‘That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, and barefoot, destitute shepherds will compete with one another in the building of magnificent buildings’.Then he (the questioner) went on his way but I stayed with him (the Prophet) for a long while.He said to me, ‘Umar, do you know who this questioner was?’I replied, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best’.He said, ‘He was Gabriel. He came to instruct you in your religion’.”[Related by ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab in Sahih Muslim]
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
15 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah And these same five pillars are listed in many Hadith. That is why there is NO difference of opinion (ikhtilaaf) about these five pillars because they have been narrated through soo many different ahadeeth and the hadith of Mu’adh is also one of the them. Thus the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam told Muadh, who is the greatest scholar in Islam, the exact same thing that he told the Bedouin in Hadith 22 narrated by Jabir ibn Abdillah (recall we are studying them in conjuction, i.e Hadith 22 & 29). Note: The minimum level, for a scholar or Bedouin, is the same, it is universal and applies to everyone. But the question arises: is Muadh at the same level as the Bedouin? Certainly, not. Therefore, the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam wants to encourage Muadh to do more than the bare minimum, because it is within his capacity. Notice the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam did not do that with the Bedouin. He sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, like a true leader, recognizes there are differences in people and they must be tasked accordingly. Treat the Bedouin like the Bedouin and Mu’adh like Mu’adh. The 3 Doors of Good The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam asks Mu’adh: ‘Should I not inform you of the doors that lead to good?’ This shows us the succinctness of the Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam). As we learned in Route 114: Uloom al-Qur’an, he was recognized as having: “jawami al-kalam.” If the Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam) had wanted, he could have said: should I not inform you of another “level” of good. The meaning of a door, however, is that there are higher and higher levels that you can go - like a stairway. So he told him of three issues, from which you can take as much as you want or as little. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 As-Saumu Junnah a) The root of Junnah is Jeeem-Noon-Noon and any time a word has this root it has something to do with the concept of something being hidden. Jannah means garden – because it is hidden by a wall or tall trees (not the Jannah of the hereafter, we’re talking in this life that one owns and protects by walls). Majnoon is the Arabic term for someone who is insane/mentally impaired. What is missing or hidden in this person? Mental faculties! b) Junnah means a protection, something which cannot be pentrated. It is a barrier. Against what? Literally everything which is why the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam did not specify anything in particular. In another Hadith, a very beautiful one, the Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam) quoted the Prophet Yahya the son of the Prophet Zakariyya when he said:“Yahya taught the children of many things, and of the things that he taught him was: fasting is like a fortress, that a fighter takes protection in and after that he doesn’t care from what side he is attacked’
16 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah Examples of the Protection of Fasting • The fire of hell. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said – fasting one day in the way of Allah increases the distance between you and the fire of hell by 70 years! • The anger and punishment of Allah • From falling into sins – when we fast, we are better Muslims. We make a conscious effort to avoid sins so as not to nullify our fast and so we can uphold the purpose of fasting: to come closer to Allah • It’s a protection from your own desires – O young men and women, if you can’t get married, what should you do? Fast. It will cause you to lower your gaze and control your desires. We know the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam encouraged many Nafl/Sunnah fasts and they include: • • • • • • • Three days of every month: 13th, 14th and 15th of the Islamic calendar (check www.islamqa.com for the relevant date of the Islamic calendar or the site Shaykh Yasir recommended as a calendar converter http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/hijri.htm) 9 and 10 of the Islamic month of Muharam Very frequently in the month of Muharram (1st month of the Islamic year) 10th of Dhul Hijjah (i.e. when the pilgrims are on ‘Arafah, one can fast even if they are not participating in the rites of Hajj) Mondays and Thursdays Frequently in the beginning of shawwal – the 6 days of shawwal before Ramadan
Charity a) It extinguishes sins like water extinguishes fire is an example of another door. b) Notice that fasting and charity have been mentioned before in the five pillars, yet Mu’adh is encouraged to do more than the bare minimum and perform extra or Nafl/Sunnah fasts and charity.. In the Qur'aan, charity is always combined with praying to Allah azza wa jal. We always read and listen to ayaat (verses) stating: Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Who believe in the Ghaib (the Unseen) and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and spend out of what we  have provided for them [i.e. give Zakât , spend on themselves, their parents, their children, their wives, etc., and also give charity to the poor and also in Allâh's Cause - Jihâd, etc.]. [Surah Baqarah ayah 3]
The Benefits of Charity We know from the hadith of 7 (of many other) people who will be shaded by the shade of Allah on the Day in which there will be no shade besides the shade of Allah - is the one whose his left hand didn’t know what his right hand gave (an expression meaning he gave soo much charity).
17 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah It is an act of worship encouraged at all times and circumstances: • Allah praises giving charity publically and secretly. People should see you so that they are motivated, and you should give it in secret as well as one should always strive to be even better in secret, when no one can see them except Allah, than they are in the plain view of others. When you have money and when you are strained for it. Even if you are poor, you should give in charity. Remember, wealth is a trust and test from Allah ta’ala and it is never increased in spending – that is a promise of Allah. Whatever you give, Allah will increase you in this life and the hereafter, provided you do so with a sincere heart seeking reward from Allah alone. Being charitable all the time is a part of being a good Muslim. The best charity a man can give is to his family.
Tahajjud A man’s praying in the middle of the night. a) Notice that in this door, the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, specifies exactly what type of nafl. When he talked about fasting – there are so many types, and he didn’t specify. Same with charity, there are so many types, but he didn’t specify. But with nawafil prayer, he sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam specified tahajjud.
Why is this?
b) The scholars say: No one perfects tahajjud except that he is already doing the rest of the Nafl and Sunnah prayers of the day (besides the compulsory 5 daily prayers). It makes no sense for sometime to pray Tahajjud and yet miss the 2 Sunnah before Fajr, or Fajr itself! c) So the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) commanded Mu’adh to what scholars refer to as the “Queen of all Sunnah prayers.” And then the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) recited this verse: Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Their sides forsake their beds, to invoke their Lord in fear and hope, and they spend (charity in Allâh's Cause) out of what We have bestowed on them (Surah Sajdah ayah 16) “Tatajaafaa” has the connotation that they are battling against their beds. There is extra effort involved – meaning it’s not easy to get out. But finally they win over this battle and stand up in tahajjud. In another Hadith where the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “The best prayer after the fardh prayers is Qiyam ul Layl/Tahajjud.” Note: Tahajjud carries the meaning sleeping and then waking from sleep in order to pray. Qiyaam al-Layl literally means the “standing of the night.”
18 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah The Hadith of Salaam – so called as it is narrated by Abdullah ibn Salam and talks about spreading salaam in this life and entering Jannah in Salaam: Abdullah ibn Salam (he was the greatest Jewish Rabi of Medina and converted to Islam in the first week he that the Prophet salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam was in Madinah) said: “The first words that I heard from the prophet were: Spread the salaam, give food to the poor, and pray at night when everyone else is when sleeping and you will enter Jannah with peace” How to Pray Tahajjud Tahajjud can be 2, 4, 6 or 8 rak’at (because the sunnah prayers of the day and night are prayed in twos) but the Prophet salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam generally prayed 11 raka’at: a) 8 rakat nawafil b) Followed by 3 raka’at of witr to a total of witr. Tahajjud can even be done before Fajr Salah What is important is quanity, not quality. When you pray Tahajjud, your focus should be to pray with humility and concentration, prolonguing the recitation of Qur’an (you can read from a Mushaf as it is a prolonguing Nafl, not Fardh or obligatory prayer). One of the tricks of shaytaan is to get you to think that because you cannot pray regularly every night, you have to abandon tahajjud altogether. But focus on praying But consistently, for example, once every week or every 3 days. This is better than praying every day for 2 weeks and then leaving Tahajjud alltogether. Surah Muzzamil, one of the first surahs reveal, Allah says in the last verse:
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
19 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah
Verily, your Lord knows that you do stand (to pray at night) a little less than two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and so do a party of those with you, And Allâh measures the night and the day. He knows that you are unable to pray the whole night, so He has turned to you (in mercy). So, recite you of the Qur'ân as much as may be easy for you. He knows that there will be some among you sick, others travelling through the land, seeking of Allâh's Bounty; yet others fighting in Allâh's Cause. So recite as much of the Qur'ân as may be easy (for you), and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât) and give Zakât, and lend to Allâh a goodly loan, and whatever good you send before you for yourselves, (i.e. Nawâfil non-obligatory acts of worship: prayers, charity, fasting, Hajj and 'Umrah, etc.), you will certainly find it with Allâh, better and greater in reward. And seek Forgiveness of Allâh. Verily, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful [Surah Muzzammil ayah 20]
If the average night is approximately 8 hours long, a little bit less than 2/3rds of the night is nearly 6 hours of tahajjud!
Then the Prophet salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam went on to tell Mu’adh: “Should I not inform of you of the foundation of the matter, and its pillar, and its pinnacle?”
Notice the Prophet salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam has told Muadh the three doors to good, but he wants Muadh to go even more, and this is what we expect of Muadh. In this beautiful image, Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) is laying out three other very very fundamental issues of our religion:. 1. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) says the “foundation of the matter” and this is in reference to the religion of Islam.This is what it is all about at the end of the day. Meaning whatever you build, your deen and dunya, your religion and your society, is Islam. Look at everything from the lens of Islam. We hear this all the time -Islam is not just a religion, it’s a way of life - thiis Hadith clarifies how. 2. And its pillar (i.e. the pillar of the foundation, we’ve already established the foundation is Islam, therefore, the pillar of Islam is) upon which everything stands is salah. And with the importance of salah we can go on and on about. Many ulema have said – if you want to see how religious you are and what is your status in the eyes of Allah– look at your prayer. How punctual and observant are you. How humble are you. Are you praying as a routine? Or are you praying with spirituality? If you don’t have the salaah, you don’t have religion. The Shaykh paraphrased a saying by Umar Ibn Al Khattab to the effect of: “Whoever doesn’t pray does not deserve to be called a Muslim.” 3. And its pinnancle (literally the top of the hump of the camel) is jihad. In the treaty of Aqabah (recall: when Ansaar took pact to protect the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) it was the first time that Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) had a large armed group of men, 75 men (all stationed outside Mina). And in front of them were the tents of the Pagan Hujjaj (pilgrims on hajj), all of the people of Quraysh, including Abu Lahab who had tortured the Muslims unimaginably. At this point, one of the Ansar asked: “Ya Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam), should we not now attack the peoples in front of us?” If the answer had been yes – the leadership of Quryash would have been wiped out completely at that point. But the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “No I have not been commanded to do this.”
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
20 Hadith 22 & 29: Stairway to Jannah Realize that Islam does not condone senseless violence and bloodshed. There is a spiritual element to Jihad; we face it every day in waking for Fajr or holding our tongues from backbiting and lies. But no one can doubt or deny that there is a political element of Jihad which is legislated to uphold the crux of Islam – to spread and establish the worship of the One True God. Realise, when people commit acts of random and senseless violence, they are making it difficult for Muslims to establish their faith and this runs contrary to the purpose of the term “Jihad” some people use to justfify their wrongs. Jihad isn’t a bad word. It is one means among many permissible; with conditions that brings the Word of Allah and the teachings of the Messenger to people. We cannot do justice to this topic in a few lines here but this much is sufficient. Controlling Our Tongues When the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam had finished these 3 doors to good, he informed Mu’adh to control his tongue. Muadh was shocked, and he said: “Ya Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam), and will Allah call us to task to what we say?” (Remember this is early in Islam) The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “May your mother lose you” (this is a literal translation, but it is an Arabic expression – it means “Woe to you”, i.e. it was not a wise thing to say). “Is there any other reason (i.e. is there anything that is more common) that will cause people to be dragged to hell on their faces (or on their noses), then that which their tongues reaped (i.e. metaphor of a farmer and his field: whatever you say - you are planting seeds, and whatever seeds you plant you are going to harvest that. If you plant apple seeds, don’t be surprised when apples come out. If you plant a bitter fruit, don’t be surprised when you get bitter fruit).
Of the greatest causes for which people will go to the fire of hell, is because of what they say.
In another Hadith, the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “A person says a word and he doesn’t pay attention to it – because of that he will be thrown into the fire of hell. And another one says a word and he doesn’t think too much of it, because of it he will enter jannah. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 In another Hadith we understand this better – when the Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam) told us of two men of the past, one was more righteous than the other. The righteous man, every time he would see other – he would advise him against some sin he was doing (i.e. drinking). He would always do this over and over again. One day, the sinning man became irritated with the righteous man and said:“Woe to you, has Allah appointed you to be my monitor? (i.e. get off my back!)”. This caused the righteous man to say something much worse, and he said “Wallaahi, Allah will never forgive you”. Na’outhu billah – we seek refuge in Allah. Basically this ‘righteous’ man got irritated and his arrogance got the better of him. That sin of arrogance is far worse than drinking. He took his arrogance to such a level that he dictacted what Allah would do and what He wouldn’t (i.e. Allah will not forgive you).
Realize righteousness is in quotations, because righteousness and arrogance cannot co-exist in the same heart.
And Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala said: ‘And who are you to swear with my name and say what you did. All of your good goes to vain, and I have forgiven this man’ Subhan Allah.
21 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! Indeed, this is a mighty parable to remind us to guard our tongues another being that the angels record every utterance of ours:
(Remember!) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive (each human being after he or she has attained the age of puberty), one sitting on the right and one on the left (to note his or her actions) [Surah Qaf ayah 17] And on the Day of Judgement we will be presented with this record and we will behold all that it will contains. The Shaykh concludes with a very simple advice: notice the Hadith of the Bedouin and of Muadh, and compare the two. Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) was satisfied with a little from the Bedouin but not with Muadh. The bare minimum did not change: it was still the five pillars for both as it is for everyone of us. But Muadh had to go higher so the Prophet salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam advised him to take these paths to good.
So when interacting with people, do not make Islam more difficult than it is for them. Make things easy, don’t make them difficult. Give people don’t good news, and don’t make them think Islam requires more of them than it actually does. Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today!
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
22 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! On the authority of Abu Malik al-Harith bin 'Asim al-Ash'ari, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said: The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said: "Purification is half of iman (faith). Saying 'Al-Hamdulillah' (Praise be to Allah) fills the scales. Saying 'Subhanallah wa al-Hamdulillahi' (Exhalted be Allah and Praise be to Allah) fills the space between the heavens and the earth. Salah (prayer) is a light. Sadaqah (charity) is a proof. Sabr (patience) is a shining glory. The Qur'an is an argument either for you or against you. Everybody goes out in the morning and sell themselves, thereby setting themselves free or destroying themselves." [Muslim] This Hadith is a very eloquent and profound Hadith that combines between many different principles and branches of faith and worship.
About the Narrator: Abu Malik al-Harith bin ‘Asim al-Ash’ari
It is narrated by Abu Malik ibn al-Asharee – there are over 10 differences about his name. He was so well-known by his kunya that people forgot his name! The strongest opinion is that of ibn Hajar, that his name is Ka’b bin Asim. We don’t know very much Abu Malik ibn Asharee – the majority of the companions, we don’t know much about them and we don’t even know their names. It has been estimated that over 100,000 people saw the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) while they believed in him (i.e. they were Muslim) and everyone who saw him (when he was alive, not in a dream) while believing in him is considered a Sahabi or Sahabiyaat (male or female Companion).Of these 100, 000 - we barely have the names of 5000. Of that 5000, we only have biographies of about 100 and the detailed biographies of them number less than 100. Abu Malik al-Ash’aree only narrated three Hadith in the six famous books of Hadith (Kutub as-Sitta listed below in no particular order): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Saheeh Al-Bukhari Saheeh Al-Muslim Sunan ibn Maajah Sunan An-Nisaa’ee Sunan Abi Dawood Sunan At-Tirmidhi Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
This is the most famous haidth that Abu Malik al-Asha’aree ever narrated. It is possible that he is narrating many Hadith together in this Hadith – in that he is narrating phrases that he heard from the prophet in one Hadith something which is permissible for the Sahabah (i.e. to narrate more than 1 hadith they heard together). Similarly, it is permissible for the scholars who collect and compile these Hadeeth to narrate portions of one hadith and not the whole hadith at any one time.
23 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! Therefore, you will find in Bukhari, for example, you have phrases or parts of the same Hadith narrated in different chapters and then find the whole hadith listed under one chapter. It is possible that Abu Malik heard a of these phrases throughout the course of his accompanying the all Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam), and it is also possible that he heard this Hadith as a block. The point is, whatever the case, both modes of narration are acceptable.
Explanation of the Hadith
Purity is half of faith – At-Tahooru Shatrul Em Tahooru Emaan. What is the meaning of Tahoor? ahoor? There are 3 main opinions: 1. It carries 2 meanings a. That which is pure in and of itself. b. That which purifies. So there are both meanings of tahoor here. c. And it is said by some scholars that the meaning of Tahoor in this Hadith is spiritual purity. It is as if this Hadith is saying – spiritual purity (i.e. not commiting sins) is half of emaan. And therefore, the other half of emaan is performing the commandments and doing good things. And they base this interpretation in a verse in Surah Muzzammil about keeping your clothes clean:
And your Lord (Allâh) magnify! And your garments purify! [Surah Muzzamil ayaat 3-4] 3 Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 The scholars who uphold this opinion state that one cannot be concerned or even disgusted by physical impurity without holding spiritual impurity at a higher level, i.e. it is even more disgusting and worthy of our attention to fix. We are more disgusted at the concept of Allah seeing our spiritual impurity than we are of others seeing our physical impurity. 2. Other scholars object that this is not the meaning of this Hadith here. And what is being referenced is a physical purity – being clean. And they base this on the fact that the rest of the Hadith indicates that – it talks about salaah for example, and you need to have Wudhoo to Pray. So the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) is saying that making Wudhoo/ghusl/being clean is half of your emaan. 3. Some scholars say Shatrul Eman =Half of your eman. Because performing salaah is the other Because half. Meaning, since you cannot pray without making Wudhoo (your Salah is not accepted without Wudhoo), the act of purification is half of your faith. This is objected to by others who said – the meaning of shatr doesn’t mean half, but a large fraction. So it is as if the Prophet mean
24 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) is saying that purity is an integral part of faith – i.e. a good chunk of faith, not necessarily half of faith. The Meaning of Tahoor has a Number of Connotations 1. The primary meaning of at-Tahoor is making Wudhoo. It is an integral part of being pure – because making Wudhoo is a form of physical and spiritual purity. It is the degree of purity that allows you to do some acts that you cannot do without Wudhoo. There are 3 acts that you must have Wudhoo’ before doing: a) Salaah, b) Physically touching the Qur'aan, c) Tawaaf [note: you don’t have to have Wudu’ to do sa’ee and there is no ikhtilaaf about this, although there is ikhtilaaf regarding the necessity of Wudhoo before making Tawaaf]. 2. The Share’ee or Legal bath – al-Ghusl. You must do it after the state of janabah in order to exit the state and it must be done before the next prayer. And for the sisters, as soon as their monthly cycles are finished (i.e. as soon as the white discharge appears without delay). If the person is in any one of these 2 major states of impurity and they delay making Ghusl until the time for prayer has ended and they pray the prayer late, they are considered blameworthy. There are times in which it is Sunnah or highly recommended to make ghusl: a) Every Friday (i.e. for men before going to Jum’ah salah) b) Before Eid Salah c) Before going into the state of Ihram (i.e. for hajj, umrah, etc) d) Ghusl at conversion (there is ikhtilaaf as to whether it is obligatory or encouraged) 3. The forth category of purity is to abstain from having Najs (impurity) on your body or clothes, such as urine or stool. It is haraam to leave these substances on your clothes where you can help it. Not only is it filthy and disgusting but you cannot pray, and your prayer will not be accepted if you know you have Najs on your body or clothes. Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala praises those who purify themselves in Surah Baqarah ayah 222: Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: that is an Adha (a harmful thing for a husband to have a sexual intercourse with his wife while she is having her menses), therefore keep away from women during menses and go not unto them till they have purified (from menses and have taken a bath). And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allâh has ordained for you (go in unto them in any manner as long as it is in their vagina). Truly, Allâh loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and loves those who purify themselves (by taking a bath and cleaning and washing thoroughly their private parts, bodies, for their prayers, etc.).
25 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! Allah also praises those who purifying themselves in a proper manner in Surah Tawba ayah 108:
Never stand you therein. Verily, the mosque whose foundation was laid from the first day on piety is more worthy laid that you stand therein (to pray). In it are men who love to clean and to purify themselves. And Allâh loves those who make themselves clean and pure pure.
This verse was revealed regarding the Muslims of Masjid Quba. Allah loves the people of this Masjid because they . have in it men who love to clean themselves. Some of the Physical Purity is an Sahabah asked the people of Quba – what they did that Indication of Spiritual Purity. Allah would praise them and reveal an ayah about them over others? They said: “After we use the restroom, we always wash ourselves with water. Note: It is not obligatory to use water, it is encouraged. But it is obligatory to wipe oneself such that there are no remains of urine or stool left on the body. self
The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) encouraged making Ghusl. In one Hadith the prophet said that whoever takes a bath on Friday and then goes early to the Masjid, he gets the reward of giving an entire camel in sadaqah.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 And just so we know, a camel feeds about 100 people! And if you go a little bit after that, then they get little the reward of a cow, and a sheep and so forth. Alhamdulillah and the Scales “Al hamdulillah tamla’ul mizaan” –saying alhumdulillah fills up the scales. saying What is alhumdulillah, and what does it mean to fill up the scales? This religion revolves around four dhikr phrases, and they come together in many times in many Hadith. They are: a) b) c) d) Alhumdulilah Subhanallah La ilaaha ilallaah Allahu akbar
These four phrases are the fundamental pillars upon which the dhikr of Allah is built. There are many other adhkar but these are the four primary adhkars.
26 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today!
Hamd: praise that is done by the tongue. You do not do hamd with your limbs. It can only be done with the tongue. And it is done not as a response to something, it is done regardless of what the ot other party has done to you or not.
What does Alhumdulillah mean? It means – Allah is deserving of being praised. Hamd means praise that is done by the tongue. You do not do hamd with your limbs (i.e. hands, legs, etc). It can only be done with the tongue. And it is done not as a response to something, it is done regardless of what the other party has done to you or not. And this is in contrast to shukr. Shukr is similar to hamd, but it is also very different. If someone gives you something, you say “shukran” gives in return. This is not hamd. Hamd is done because of the perfect qualities in the one whom you are praising, regardless of what that person has done or not done. Therefore, hamd is higher than shukr. Shukr is response. Hamd is not like this. Even if Allah did not create us, He would still be worthy of being praised.
Even if Allah did not create us - He is worthy of being worshipped because of who He is, not because of what He has done for us. We thank and we praise Al Allah, and we praise him because of his perfect nature and his Perfect Names and Divine Attributes.
The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) referred to the scales – but what are they? They are mentioned phet in many verses in the Qur'aan. One such place is Surah Al-Qari’ah:
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
27 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today!
Al-Qâri'ah (the striking Hour i.e. the Day of Resurrection), What is the striking (Hour)? And what will make you know what the striking (Hour) is? It is a Day whereon mankind will be like moths scattered about, And the mountains will be like carded wool, Then as for him whose balance (of good deeds) will be heavy, He will live a pleasant life (in Paradise). But as for him whose balance (of good deeds) will be light, He will have his home in Hawiyah (pit, i.e. Hell). And what will make you know what it is? (It is) a hot blazing Fire!
It is a fundamental belief of Ahlul Sunnah Wal Jama’aah that there is something known as scales that we believe in and which we will see on the Day of Judgment. On that Day, Allah will establish the scales and s no human will be shown any injustice. If there is an atoms weight of good or evil, it will be brought forth. And Allah the Most High is sufficient as a Judge between people. Of the supplications or du’aa of the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasalla to Allah, was to make the scales wasallam) heavy. So if the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam made du’aa for this, we must do so also. . Subhan Allah. What Does it Mean? It is the complementary opposite of alhumdulilah. Alhumdulilah means we praise Allah for who He is and we thank Him. And subhanllah means, Allah is above any negative attribute associated to him. Allah is not worthy, Allah denies, or we deny any negative description to Allah azza wa jal. Allah. He is too majestic to have any evil associated with him.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
28 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! That is why in Qur’an when Allah quotes the claims of the Christians, that Allah has a son – Allah says “Subhan Allah” and then negates their false claim:
And they (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: Allâh has begotten a son (children or offspring) Glory be to Him offspring). (Exalted be He above all that they associate with Him). Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and all surrender with obedience (in worship) to Him. [Surah Baqarah ayah 116]
Recap: “Alhumdulilah” is praise and recognizes the perfection of Allah. And “Subhanallah” is when you recognizes negate anything and everything negative which is attributed to Allah (which is itself a positive). That is why alhumdulilah and subhanallah are complementary and they occur together in the Qur' Qur'aan many times and in the Sunnah of Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). Kalimataani Thaqeelataani “Kalimataani Thaqeelataani ala Mezaani, Khafeefataani ‘ala Lisaani, Habeebataani ‘alar Rahmaani: Subhan Allah wa bihamdihi, Subhan Allah al al-‘Adheem” There are two words: heavy on the scales, light on the tongue, beloved to ar Rahman: subhanallahi wa ere ar-Rahman: bihamdihi & subhanallahil adheem adheem. As for “Allahu Akbar,” its meaning is that – Allah is always greater and more majestic and more ,” magnificent and more knowledgeable and more seeing than anything that you can imagine. It is not dgeable specified in what – so it applies it everything And there is nothing that is greater than Him. everything. And “la ilaaha ill Allah” – The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) informed us every Pro Prophet informed us after Mi’raj (the Prophet’s ascension to the heavens): I met my father Ibrahim (alayhi salaam), and he said to me: ‘Give my salaams to your ummah. And tell them that jannah has a pure soiland a very sweet water to drink from. And it is flat land (not flat mountainous, you can see everywhere) and its “ “Ghiraas” is “la illaha ill Allah.” What is Ghiraas? It is like a baby tree (the type we plant in the ground so that it can grow larger). Lesson: Have your tongue moving with the dhikr of Allah. It is the sign of a Mu’min (a true believer) that he has his tongue moist with the remembrance of Allah azza wa jal. Allah loves the people of Dhikr, and He commands us to do Dhikr many times in Qur’an Allah says in the Quran in Surah Ahzab ayah 41-42:
O you who believe! Remember Allâh with much remembrance. ou
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
29 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today!
And glorify His Praises morning and afternoon [the early morning ( (Fajr) and 'Asr prayers].
He told us that it is only through the dhikr of Allah that our hearts find tranquility in Surah Ra’ad ayah 28-29:
Those who believe (in the Oneness of Allâh - Islâmic Monotheism), and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allâh Verily, in the remembrance of Allâh do hearts find rest Allâh,
Those who believe (in the Oneness of Allâh - Islâmic Monotheism), and work righteousness, Tûbâ (it means all kinds of happiness or name of a tree in Paradise) is for them and a beautiful place of (final) return. So Allah tells us that of the characteristic of the Believer that enters Jannah is that they remember Allah a lot. And Allah says in Surah Baqarah ayah 152:
Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying, etc.). I will remember you, and be grateful to Me (for My countless Favours on you) and never be ungrateful to Me.
And the proper dhikr is not just done with the tongue, not just a bead in your hand, but with your heart – conscious of what you are saying. Don’t just zoom through your 33x2 and 34 after salaah. Think. Contemplate. Not just parroting. This is not the real dhikr. The real dhikr is done with the heart and tongue, conscious of what you are saying. heart In analyzing the Hadith you realise, that right after purification we are told to make Dhikr of Allah.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
30 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! Anwaar – The Different Types of Light he The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam then mentioned: 1. Salaat is a Noor 2. Sadaqah is a Burhan 3. Sabr is a Dee’yaa And these three words are all related, each having a connotation of light. But they are 3 different words with very distinct meanings in Arabic. So, there must be a difference between them even though they a all mean light in some way. A. Prayer is a noor. A noor is a bright shinning light that has no heat in it. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam) described the Salaah as a noor and that it also brings about a light. i. In one Hadith, the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said – the prayer is the light for the belivers. lahu That is why of the names of Allah is Noorus Samawati wal Ardh. Allah is that pure light. Meaning that Allah is the One who Guides from the darknesses of misguidance to the light of guidance as is often guidance parabled in the Qur’an, where light represents guidance and darkness misguidance. Prayer Will Give you Light: How? 1. In this world: you will have a purpose. What does a light do? A light enables you to see where you are going. It shows you your destination. With prayer you have a destination and you know how to get there. He who prays has a purpose to life and he who abandons the prayer has no purpose of living. He who doesn’t pray, he isn’t worthy of living – meaning he is living with no purpose and direction 2. Salah is a light on the Day of Judgment. On the Day of Judgment, Allah will destroy the sun, and cause it to collapse as the Qur'aan tells us, and there shall be no light at all on that day:
When the sun Kuwwirat (wound round and lost its light and is overthrown) [Surah Takwir ayah 1] lost There will be complete darkness. Do you know what that feels like? And you have to find your own way to Jannah. But there is the Siraat between you and Jannah. This Siraat (bridge) is sharper than a ra razor and thinner than a hair, and you will be in utter darkness on top of that. And what is below as as-Siraat: Jahannam (Hellfire). Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Realise it is impossible to cross such a bridge (for starters: it’s thinner than a hair!). You will only be able to pass if Allah allows you to pass. Allah
Where will you get light from? Your body will exude like light on that day. You will become your own flashlight depending on your level of Eman; the strength of your light will be proportional to that. And the strength of your eman is directly linked to your salaah. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: n “Whoever guards the salaah will have a light on the Day of Judgment and whoever does not do so, he shall have no light” (Musnad Imam Ahmed). This Hadith intrinsically links the salaah to this light on the Day of Judgment. If you want to have that light, you have better perfect your noor (now is the time to plan for your next prayer).
31 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! As-Sadaqatu Burhan Charity is a burhan. A burhan generally means – a ray of light that indicates the presence or existence of cates the sun. It refers to the morning ray that one sees and indicates that the sun has risen. Because it was meant to indicate the rising of the sun, eventually it came to have the connotation of very strong evidence. Nowadays if you use the word burhan, it means irrefutable evidence – rock solid. ys You cannot refute it. Giving charity is irrefutable evidence. Of what? Of your faith in Allah azza wa jal. Just like the burhan shows you the sun is out. When you see sunlight do you doubt that there is a sun? No.Charity is a you Burhan of emaan, indicating its presence in a Muslim. That is because man loves money greatly, as Allah states in Surah Fajr ayah 20:
And you love wealth with much love! The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “If a man had a valley full of gold, he would want another wasallam) valley and he would never be satisfied no matter how much he had.” It doesn’t matter how little quality time he has, he always wants more and more money. No one is ever satisfied with the quantity of money that he has. e So giving charity is a burhan indicates that you love Allah with a greater love than that of your money. Allah talks about the believers who are saved from the Terror of the Day of Judgement in Surah Insaan ayah 8, as Allah says:
And they give food, inspite of their love for it (or out of their Love for Allah), to Miskin (poor), the orphan, and the captive,
Aseer is a prisoner of war. And who is a prisoner of war? It’s someone who was fighting against you in the hope of killing you until you caught him. Therefore, they give their money to people who had desired to kill them.
If we are to treat the prisoner of war in this manner, imagine how much more deserving of kind ess are our mothers, fathers, and fellow kindness Muslims?
So giving charity is a burhan that indicates that you truly believe in Allah azza wa jal o
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
32 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! Patience is a Dhiyaa’ Dhiyaa’ is a light that has heat associated with it – unlike Noor (light without heat). So these are the burning rays of the sun. Allah also mentions in the Qur’an that the Moon is a Dhiyaa and the Sun is a mentions Noor (i.e. the moon does not give off heat because it reflects the light of the sun). The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said that Sabr is Dhiyaa’. Light and heat together. Look at the beauty here. Patience is a dhiyaa’. There is a sense of friction. To be patient you have to really strive. auty Once you have it you have a burning light – a light that is able to conquer other lights.
Patience is a requirement of our faith.
Sabr, the Arabic word for patience has an interesting meaning: d The root, Sa-Ba-Ra, means to restrain yourself. Because when you are patient you restrain yourselves , from acting in ways you shouldn’t act. You stop yourself. You pull back. Instead of going wild, you control yourself. And Allah commands us to be patient for His sake. self. In Surah Muddaththir, one of the earliest Surahs revealed, Allah tells us that you need to be patient for His sake:
And be patient for the sake of your Lord (i.e. perform your duty to Allâh)! Be patience for the sake of your Lord”. patience [Surah Muddaththir ayah 7]
There are three types of patience and all 3 are a requirement of our religion: 1. Patience at times of distress. A loved one dies. You lose your job. In that, you restrain yourself from doing what? From verbalizing what you shouldn’t verbalize. You put your trust in Allah that ? whatever happens. You say: “Inna lillaahi wa inna elaihi raji’oon.” 2. The second level of patience is higher than this – and that is patience from committing sins. So you control your body from committing sins. ol 3. And the highest form of patience is to be patient in the worship of Allah azza wa jal. To restrain yourself from worldly pursuits and to be regular and dedicated and sincere in it. Of the rewards of being patient is that Allah loves those who are patient and He will be with those who are patient, as Allah says in Surah Baqarah:
O you who believe! Seek help in patience and As-Salât (the prayer). Truly! Allâh is with As-Sâbirin (the patient Sâbirin ones, etc.). (Surah Baqarah ayah 153)
“Wastaeeno bis sabri was salaat” seek help through patience and salah
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
33 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! Seek help for what? • • • • To overcome the problems you are facing in life. To overcome shaytan. To save yourself from jahannum. Turn and be sincere to Allah azza wa jal.
The Qur’an and You After telling us about these three fundamentals, the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) then said: ‘The Qur'aan is an evidence for you or evidence against you’ A “Hujjah” is a testimony. When you go to the courts of law, they enter a “Hujjah” evidence, an argument – for or against the witness or prosecution. The Qur’an will be an evidence for you or against you. Those are the only 2 options (absolutely nothing besides. No “comme-si, comme-ça” option exists). The Qur’an will either: a) Seek intercession for you on the Day of Judgement claiming that you recited, believed, and acted upon it. b) Or it will be a witness against you, stating the truth of how you did not believe, recite, or do justice to its commandments. The Qur'aan will have its day in court with each and every person on the Day of Judgment. Nobody will be neutral when it comes to the Qur'aan. Every person will have the Qur'aan working for him or against him. And the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) told us that the Qur'aan is an intercessor whose intercession will be accepted. Of the ways to save yourself from the fire of hell is to attach yourself to the Qur'aan.
For more details: check the AlMaghrib Student forums: www.forums.almaghrib.org. For a detailed list of all Al-Huda Qur’an course offerings, go to: http://farhathashmi.com/dn/AboutAlHuda/AlhudaCourses/tabid/583/Default.aspx. There is a weekend course for sisters starting March 21st. If the Qur’an is a Hujjah for you or against, will you move to devote a few hours once a week to its study and comprehension? Insha’Allah, take decisive action to solidify your relationship with the Qur’an now.
The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said in Sahih Bukhari: “Read Surah Baqarah and Ale’ Imraan because they will come on the Day of Judgment like big clouds and will intercede for those who used to recite them. Surah Baqarah and Ale Imran have a special status but the whole Qur'aan is a Hujjah.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Note: A practical way to do this in Toronto is through the Al-Huda Institute, one dedicated to teaching the Qur’an with full understanding in the English-language, with whom AlMaghrib will be hosting a special workshop in May.
34 Hadith 23: Free Yourself Today! Every Single Human Being The last phrase of the hadith deals with the reality of being a human being. “Yaghdoo” – means waking up early to go to work. Everyone does that. Everybody has to get his bread at the end of the day. Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) is giving a beautiful metaphor, just like asool we have to go out every single day – realize that there is another dimension of your life as well. Each man is selling himself every day when he goes out. The Arabic language has a category of words that contain exactly opposite meanings depending on the e wordscontext. “Baa-i” belongs to this category, therefore, it can mean: i” 1. Buyer 2. Seller (i.e. opposite of buyer) Which one is being referred to here? It is difficult to say for certain. So does a person sell himself, or certain. every person buy himself each day. Most scholars say – every person sells himself. Most sahabah would go out and FIND work, so they are selling their effort and strength. Similarly, that is what we do when we go to work. We sell our time to our companies/employers in exchange for a salary. What happens when they sell themselves? Either he saves himself (becomes a free man) or destroys himself. What is the Meaning of this Concept? oncept? Of the motifs in the Qur'aan is the motif of buying and selling, just like the motif of light and darkness. ‘Allah has purchased from the believers themselves and their money, and in return they will get jannah as Allah says in Surah Tawbah ayah 111:
Verily, Allâh has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the price that theirs shall be the believers Paradise. They fight in Allâh's Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and the Qur'ân. And who is truer to his covenant than Allâh? the Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success.
And the Believers willingly sell themselves to Allah:
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
35 Hadith 27: The Golden Compass
Sell Your self to Allah! When you turn to Allah, Allah will give you an Infinite amount, more than you deserve.
And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allâh. And Allâh is full of Kindness to (His) slaves. (Surah Baqarah:207)
You sell yourself short if you sell yourself to anyone or anything besides themself, except for selling yourself to Allah azza wa jal. Only Allah can give you what you truly deserve and more than it. As Allah mentions in Surah Baqarah ayah 103 regarding those who sold themselves for the sake of learning Sihr (Magic) in exchange for belief in Allah (and obedience to him as Sihr is absolutely Haram):
And if they had believed, and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allâh, far better would have been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew!
If you sell yourself to Allah azza wa jal, you have freed yourself. You are not a worker anymore. If you sell yourself to anyone other than Allah then all of your efforts and talents have gone to vain. And when Allah purchases you, your time, and your effort -Allah gives you that which is far better than what you deserve, and far better than what anyone else can give you.
If you sell yourself for this world, you get an enjoyment for a few days and then an eternity in jahannum. You sell yourself to Allah for Jannah. Hadith 27: The Golden Compass
This Hadith is one of the Sheikh’s favorite from the 40 Nawawi as it has many theological implications. It talks about the conscience. How do we know what is right or wrong. AnNawawi himself puts two Hadith in this chapter.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Every day that you wake up, there is a new dawn and a fresh start – forget the past. Let it be. Every day, everyone wakes up – whether you committed sins yesterday or not, that shouldn’t affect you. Get your sins forgiven. If you didn’t earn money yesterday, that doesn’t mean you don’t go out looking for work today.
36 Hadith 27: The Golden Compass Hadith 27 is technically composed of 2 separate parts (so there are more than 40 hadith in the collection).
“Righteousness is good character and sin is that which wavers in your heart and which you do not want people to know about.” This Hadith is narrated by An-Nawaas ibn Sam’aan and is the first part (the second is similar). About the Narrator: Nawaas ibn Sam’aan He spent an entire year in Madinah as a visitor and the only reason he didn’t intend to immigrate to Madinah (i.e. set up house with his family) was because of the rule of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam that visitors were granted priority over the Sahabah when it came to asking questions. If you think about it, this is brilliant as an outsider would have a difficult time accessing the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam because the Sahabah who lived among him would have greater familiarity and if you are staying for a short time, you cannot benefit as much if you also have to compete with the people of Madinah. So Nawaas did not move to Madinah but lived in Masjid An-Nabawi, just because he was eager to increase his knowledge of Islam. Imagine his Eman that he would lead a difficult life for the sake of knowledge? But in this one year he gained a lot of knowledge. Why? Imagine the university of Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam? Having the honour of studying directly from him and graduating? So Nawaas came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and asked him this very comprehensive question: what is good and evil (i.e. how to recognize them)? Think about how comprehensive this question is. Just like the question of Mu’aadh ibn Jabal - how do I save myself from Jahannum and get to Jannah? The Prophet (peace be upon him) used the word Al-Birr, which comes from the root “barra” (land)– this is the opposite of Bahr or ocean (and these 2 words are often used together in Qur’an). From this original meaning of “vast land,” Al-Birr came to be used to indicate a large or infinite amount. And the connotation of piety in this root comes from the fact that there are many ways of being pious and righteous. There are an infinite number of paths to follow to come closer to Allah azza wa jal. Allah defines Al-Birr in ayah 177 of Surah Baqarah:
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
37 Hadith 27: The Golden Compass
It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and each and every act of obedience to Allâh, etc.) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allâh, the Last Day,  the Angels, the Book, the Prophets and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al-Masâkin (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and gives the Zakât, and who fulfill their covenant when they make it, and who are As-Sâbirin (the patient ones, etc.) in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are AlMuttaqûn (pious).
“I came to the Messenger of Allah, sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, and he said: “You have come to ask about righteousness?” “Yes,” I answered. He said: “Consult your heart. Righteousness is that about which the soul feels tranquil and the heart feels tranquil, and sin is what creates restlessness in the soul and moves to and fro in the breast, even though people give you their opinion (in your favour) and continue to do so.” About the Narrator: Wabisah ibn Ma’bad From the Seerah, we know the 9th year of Hijrah is known as “Aam al-Wufood” or the “Year of Delegations.” After Fath Al-Makkah (the Conquest of Makkah), which was a cause of the acceptance of the Quraysh of Islam, all the Arabian tribes of the Peninsula also had to choose whether or not they would also accept Islam, which they did. Therefore, theses tribes that had accepted Islam would send ambassadors to the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam to inform him of their conversion. Wabisah was chosen as the representative of his tribe. Because of this year was filled with delegations meeting with the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, Wabisah ibn Ma’bad essentially had one chance to ask a question before returning to his tribe. Therefore, as he was traveling to meet the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam he was thinking of what to ask – wondering what would be most beneficial. He finally comes to the conclusion he should ask about righteousness and piety. Consider these 2 different companions, who probably never met in their lives, coming to ask the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam the same comprehensive question: what is the mark of something being good versus evil?
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
38 Hadith 27: The Golden Compass
When Wabisah came forward, the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, having received the news from Jibreel, asked Wabisah: “Should I tell you why you came or should you tell me?” Wabisah said: “You tell me ya Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam.” And the prophet salAllahu 'alayhi wa salaam said: “Seek counsel from your heart’ and repeated this two more times (note: repetition was a teaching method of the Prophet in order to make things absolutely clear or to emphasize them). He then continued: “Righteousness is that about which the soul feels tranquil and the heart feels tranquil, and sin is what creates restlessness in the soul and moves to and fro in the breast, even though people give you their opinion (in your favour) and continue to do so.” nion
Analyzing the Two Hadith
As mentioned, both Hadith center on the nature of good and evil. In the first Hadith, good is defined: i.e. acting righteously and having good ikhlaq In the second, we are informed how to recognize righteousness or its hallmark: that one’s heart will find tranquility in the matter. Theological Implication: Al-Fitrah Fitrah Allah has created each one of us upon the Fitrah. This is an internal monitor per se within each and every one of us that, inherently, allows us to perceive or know what is good and what is evil. In English, at, we might call it our “conscience” or “intuition.” This Fitrah is something inside of our souls and which clarifies certain things intuitively, like good and evil, with without study. Al-Fitrah is referenced in both Qur’an Fitrah and Sunnah. Room In Surah Ar-Room ayah 30, Allah describes everything as being created upon Fitrah:
So set you (O Muhammad SAW) your face towards the religion of pure Islâmic Monotheism Hanifa - Allâh's Fitrah, ) with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in Khalqillâh (i.e. the Religion of Allâh Islâmic Monotheism), that is the straight religion, but most of men know not not.
The Prophet Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam informs us every child is born upon Al-Fitrah:
Abu Huraira narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon said) said: "No child is born except on Al-Fitra and then his parents make him Jewish, Christian or Magian, as an animal Fitra produces a perfect young animal: do you see any part of its body amputated?" [Sahih Al Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 6 Hadith 298]
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
39 Hadith 27: The Golden Compass What Do We Know Because of the Fitrah? 1. We know that there is a God – no complicated proofs required. This is one of the biggest differences between the methodology of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah and Philosophy (i.e. we don’t need the ontological proof to determine the existence of Allah). There has never been a society of Atheists. Every single society in human history has been a religious society. It is irrational to deny the existence of a higher being. The Fitrah also indicates to us that we need to worship this creator. 2. The basic issues of morality. We all know that being good to the poor is a good virtue. We know that taking care of the orphans is a positive value. We know stealing and killing is wrong – and we realise anyone who denies this is corrupt. Why does humanity agree on all of them? 3. The Fitrah likes to be good - it likes to do good things and doesn’t like to do evil. Certain groups within Christianity believe that man is inclined towards evil (and even born upon sin). In our religion, it is the exact opposite. We believe hat man, by nature or Fitrah loves and wants to do good. In Islam, we believe doing evil goes against the nature of man. That Allah created us in a perfect manner – upon goodness. So the fitrah commands us to do good and leads us to do good. 4. When we do good the fitrah is at ease! So there is a double monitor, the first is the compass, and the second is when you follow that compass, you feel that peace and serenity. And the opposite also applies, when you don’t follow that compass, you will feel a sense of dirtiness and regret (and i.e. you will feel guilty and suffer internal discomfort). Your conscience will trouble you. Why does a person feel guilty for doing a sin? We believe that this is the fitrah that Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala created us upon. The Shayateen are the ones who encourage the corruption of our Fitrah but you have to condition yourself to be evil because our nature commands goodness. And there are people that have conditioned themselves such that they take pleasure from doing evil; they are not born this way rather they have corrupted their fitrah. Determining Good and Evil: Al-Birr vs Al-Ithm The Hadith of Nawaas ibn Sam’aan talks about the actions that are the essential characteristics of being righteous. It tells us what is the primary action that constitutes righteousness: good character. This proves one cannot be righteous unless they have good character. Even if you pray and fast, without good character, you are not a righteous person. This does not mean however that good akhlaq is the only sign of being a righteous person. But rather that having good manners is a fundamental or integral sign. However, the Hadith of Wabisah ibn Ma’bad talks about the sign or signal of any good deed. How do you know something is good? It is when your heart finds spiritual tranquility in it – not physical tranquility.
Note: that the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not say good is that which you “enjoy.” Because why do we commit sins? Because there is a temporary enjoyment or physical fulfillment involved! I.e. one enjoys spending haram money – that is why they fall into the sin etc. But we all know that when we commit a sin, we do not get any spiritual pleasure.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
40 Hadith 27: The Golden Compass That your heart does not enjoy the sin, that it feels a sense of guilt and displeasure - this is what Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam is referring to. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said righteousness is that which your heart enjoys, and grants it contentment. The opposite of Al-Birr is impiety or evil, referred to us Al-Ithm. Ithm is defined as that which halts you, it pulls you back and it irritates your conscience. And this is mentioned in both ahadeeth. “Haaka min nafs” – scratching at your conscience, even if other people give you the Fatwa that it is allowed. Also, you don’t want people to find out about that sin (first hadith). You are embarrassed that your sins become public. This should not make us understand that all of humanity is like this. The Prophet (peace be upon him) is talking about the people whose Fitrah is not corrupted and who do not seek out evil. There are some people that boast about their sins –they are proud of their evil being publicized. We are not talking about those that have lost all self respect. In our society, any respectable person, Muslim or non Muslim, does not want his/her sins to be made public. And the Hadith not talk about those acts that would embarrass you because they are natural private acts, but those acts that some people commit as sins – if you feel guilty that this is spread in public, then this itself is indication that it is a sin. It is interesting that the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not praise the opposite. He did not say that if you an action is good because of the absence of guilt or irritation of the conscience because it is possible: a) That you don’t feel guilty and it is still a sin. b) You have become accustomed to that sin and don’t feel guilty about it. c) You did not know that something was haram, and therefore, have no reason to (and consequently do not) feel any guilt for doing that act. Also understand that it is possible in very rare occasions for feeling guilty for something that is not sin – and that is done out of ignorance and only out of ignorance. You may feel guilty for something because you do not know it is permissible. For example, you don’t know that it is permissible to wipe over your socks for wudu’. So the first time you do it, you feel kind of guilty. You cannot apply this Hadith in this case. Because wiping over the socks is a Sunnah (i.e. the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam used to do it) and it is something that the Qur’an in fact refers to (in Surah Maa’idah according to one Qira’at), and one might feel guilty but only out of ignorance. Feeling guilty when there is a difference of opinion over an issue: For example, the controversial issue of music, if you find your heart feeling guilty about this such that you don’t want other people to know that you are listening to music. Even if people give you fatwa after fatwa that it is ok, and you don’t feel ok with it, then this is a sign! Refining Our Understanding of the Hadeeth Another important point is that the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam is talking to people that have reached a respectable level of emaan. This internal compass or conscience is proportional to your level of emaan.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
41 Hadith 28: Listen & Obey IMP: “Seek the fatwa from your heart” – Mystical groups use this phrase to justify haraam or immoral practices. These hadith are not to be used in issues of fiqh! This is not what the Hadith says, i.e. this is how to derive a religious fatwa! Rather, it relates to conscience and morality (not halal and haram). The more emaan you have the more fine tuned your conscience will be and the opposite holds true. So this Hadith is meant to be applied when you have God-consciousness (i.e. Taqwa)! The primary purpose of this Hadith is to resolve gray areas in your life.
The primary benefit of this Hadith is that it informs us that Allah has created us in the best of all manners and forms, and that He has given us an internal monitor/compass. Imagine if Allah had created us without a conscience? Subhan Allah
Always take advantage of salaatul istikhara for any major decision that you make because this too is a part of our conscience. Hadith 28: Listen & Obey
About the Narrator: Abu Najih al-Irbaadh bin Saariyah
This hadith is narrated by Abu Najih al-Irbaadh bin Saariyah radhiAllahu anhu who prefaces it by stating that Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam gave the Sahabah a Maw’idhah (an emotional advice). This shows us that Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam was very eager to benefit the companions, and the speaking style of the Prophet (peace be upon him) was a very emotional one in order to move them to action or righteousness. Note: Other speaking techniques of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam included raising his voice. The Sahabah said when he would stand up to give the khutbah, his voice would go up and down – and speech experts tell us to do the same. Good speaking also requires that you move your hand. When he would speak, the Prophet (peace be upon him) would move his hands, sometimes so much so that the Minbar would be shaking, and the Sahabah wondered that it would fall down. Irbaadh bin Saariyah narrated only a few ahadeeth; he was from the tribe of Sulam. He was of the Ahlus Suffah (those poorer companions who lived in Masjid an-Nabawi and studied under the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam). Irbaadh was of those Companions that cried because he did not have any money to go for Jihad (i.e. weapons, mount, etc) during Tabuk and whom Allah honours in Surah Tawbah ayah 92: Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
42 Hadith 28: Listen & Obey
“Our Hearts Trembled and Our Eyes Cried”
There is no blame on those who are weak or ill or who find no resources to spend [in holy fighting (Jihâd)], if they resources (  are sincere and true (in duty) to Allâh and His Messenger. No ground (of complaint) can there be against the Muhsinûn (good-doers - see the footnote of V.9:120). And Allâh is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful. Oft-Forgiving,
Nor (is there blame) on those who came to you to be provided with mounts, and when you said: "I can find no mounts for you," they turned back, while their eyes overflowing with tears of grief that they could not find anything to spend (for Jihâd).
well-known This Hadith is so famous and well known to have been narrated by Irbaadh that it has referred to as: “The Hadith of Irbaadh bin Saariyah The Saariyah.”
‘Our Hearts Trembled and Our Eyes Cried’
These were grown men and they were crying when Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam gave them a lecture. This shows us not only the effectiveness of the Prophet (peace be upon him) as a speaker but also the emaan of the Sahabah. The more emaan you have, the more you are affected by goodly speech such as the Qur’an and the Hadith of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam. That is why we are commanded to remind one another because reminding benefits the believers. The Sahabah said: “O Messenger of Allah, it is as if this speech is your farewell speech.” Irbaadh having accepted Islam very late, it is very likely that he heard this Maw’idhah from the Prophet slam sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam in the 8th or 9th year of Hijrah. Therefore, it would make sense for them to as for “Al-Wasiyyah” (literally, one’s last will or legacy) as it is nearing the time of death of the Prophet sal Wasiyyah” nearing Allahu alayhi wa sallam.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
43 Hadith 28: Listen & Obey So the Prophet (peace be upon him) is asked to give a comprehensive advice – i.e. what is the most important aspect of this religion that you want us to remember, what he wanted the Sahabah to remember. This shows us the eagerness of the Sahabah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) has just given them a lecture, and at the end of the lecture they don’t look at their watches and say they want to go home, instead they say they want more advice to benefit themselves. So the Prophet (peace be upon him) responded to this by saying: “My Wasiyyah to you is the Taqwa of Allah.” The root of the word ‘Taqwa” is to protect or to build a barrier. Similarly, you build a barrier with Taqwa because it is a barrier one builds between themselves and the punishment of Allah. It is your defense. It is a wall not built of bricks and stones, because how then can you protect yourself from a fire whose fuel is men and stones? It is a wall that is built with your emaan. It is a wall that is built with piety. Of the implications of taqwa is always being conscious of Allah - this is the pinnacle of Taqwa called ehsaan
The Muslim and the Political Leader
The second advice that Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam gave, “And that you hear and you obey” o o This is in reference to your rulers. In another Riwaaya or narration, the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam even if an (Abysinian) slave becomes your leader you are charged with following him (i.e. think about it. A slave cannot become a ruler, so this emphasizes the point of following the ruler). The point of this Hadith is, even if it is somebody that you yourself don’t like, even if it is somebody that others of society look down upon, even if it is somebody that should not be a Khalifah (note: a slave cannot be a ruler until they free themselves). This leads us to a deep topic, which is of Islamic political science which we cannot do justice to in the scope of this course or these notes. In Islam, generally speaking, we obey the rulers, we don’t revolt against them – this is Sunni Islam. Islam recognizes that an evil ruler is better than chaos or revolt in society (how many violent revolutions or coup d’etat has humanity witnessed?). And this is very controversial in our time. And the reference is to a legitimate Khalifah and no such Khalifah exists today. It is natural for all of our minds to apply these concepts to the real world, but we cannot do so as we no longer have a Khilaafah. This is an area that requires more research by specialized Islamic scholars.
For now, realize that classical Sunni theology held the position that a legitimate ruler, even if he came to power through illegitimate means must be heard and obeyed as long as that ruler was following the laws of Allah at his current state (not how he got to power). Because, common sense dictates if every person went against a leader there would be a chaos. “Whoever lives long amongst you (i.e. after me) will see a lot of difference of opinion” o This is an amazing predication as during the lifetime of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, the Sahabah never differed over issues of Aqeedah (Muslim theology/belief system), Fiqh, or anything issue besides. How could they when the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam lived amongst them and would resolve any issues as they arose? They always had an authority to turn
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
44 Hadith 28: Listen & Obey to. If they disagreed or revolted against the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, this would be Kufr (disbelief). If one reflects on the first Fitnah to afflict the Sahabah, it went back to this very issue mentioned before this advice: listening and obeying your leader. When a group of new Muslims criticized the rule of Uthman radhi Allahu ‘anh, they neither heard nor obeyed, but went to such an extreme as to rebel and murder him. In return, this revolt against the established leadership triggered a series of splits and battles wherein more Muslims killed one another than all those killed by non-Muslims before. All because this important counsel of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam was not implemented by everyone (there is an excellent lecture by Sh. Kamal AlMekki recommended by Sh. Waleed Basyouni entitled: “The Fitnah” which discusses this topic in great detail). Note: the ikhtilaaf of the Sahabah was only political. The companions never different in theology! After the companions, differences started in theology. In our time, there is hardly any issue except that there is an ikhtilaaf whether Fiqh or Aqeedah. So the prophet salAllahu 'alayhi wa salaam predicted that one of the problems of this group would be that there would be lots of divisions.
So the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam told them of a disease/problem that would happen, one that they had before witnessed: al-ikhtilaaf. After telling them the problem, he told them the solution. He said: ‘When you see this ikhtilaaf, I command you to follow my Sunnah along with the Sunnah of Al-Khulafaa’ Ar-Raashideen Al-Mahdiyeen” o o o o Khulafaa’ is the plural of Khaleefah, literally one who takes charge (of affairs) after another Raashideen is the plural of Raashid, one who guides to the truth Mahdiyeen is the plural of Mahdi, one who is himself guided Abu Bakr as-Sideeq, the first Khaleefah in Islam, was referred to as Khaleefat ar-Rasool Allah. When Umar Ibnul Khattab became Khaleefah after him, he was referred to as “Khaleefat al-Khaleefat arRasool Allah.” At which point Umar changed the title of Khaleefah to “Ameer al-Mu’mineen” (the leader of the Believers) as you can imagine the title would otherwise have gotten very long, very soon.
If you analyze the words used to describe those who rule the Muslims after the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam you quickly realize it means that there is was an era in our political history where the rulers were the best of the best. They were rightly guided and they guided others to righteousness. But who are al-Khulafaa’ ar-Rashideen al-Mahdiyeen? By unanimous consensus of the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah, they are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Abu Bakr as-Sideeq Umar ibn al-Khattab Uthman bin ‘Affan Ali ibn Abi Talib
Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (who ruled for 6 months before he voluntarily gave power over to Mu’awiyyah) is also included by many scholars.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
45 Hadith 28: Listen & Obey Never in our history have we had greater Khulafaa who were also the most righteous and pious of the entire Ummah (Muslim nation). And it will not happen until the end of time before the Day of Judgment with the coming of Al-Mahdi (see: lecture by Sh. Yasir Qadhi, “Al-Mahdi: Between Fact and Fiction” which discusses the realities of Al-Mahdi according to Ahlus Sunnah in great detail).
Ikhtilaaf? Here’s What to Do
This shows us that at time of ikhtilaaf – what do we do? We try to find out what the methodology of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam on the matter is. But the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam wisely did not end his advice there. Consider this: it has only been in recent times that any group has claimed to seek anything opposing the methodology of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam (i.e. each claims his methodology)! Therefore, the Prophet (peace be upon him) didn’t just say follow my Sunnah, but he commanded us to follow his Sunnah along with that of al-Khulafaa’ ar-Raashideen al-Mahdiyeen. The only people who added this condition (i.e. of following the rightly guided Khulafaa’) and of taking from the practice and understanding of the Sahabah generally are the Sunni Muslims. When you hear the term - “Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’aah” – this is exactly what it is referring to: a) Following the guidance and example of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam b) Following the guidance of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, according to the understanding and practice of the Sahabah The Prophet sal Allahu 'alayhi wa salaam advised us wherever and whenever we find ikhtilaaf to refer it back to his Sunnah and the Sunnah of his Sahabah and find a solution therein. “Bite onto it with your molar teeth and I caution you against new ideas” This is an expression which closely resembles - ‘Cling onto it for dear life’ – in English. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 “Because all new ideas are misguidance and all misguidance lead to the fire of hell” The concept of the ummah splitting up into groups and factions, as is the reality today; this was predicated by the Prophet sal Allahu 'alayhi wa salaam. He is giving us a statement of fact. Naturally this question arises: which is the right group? The Hadith of Mu’awiyyah, the prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said: “The Jews split into 71 groups, all of them are misguide except one. The Christians split into 72 groups; all of them are misguided except one. And my ummah will split into 73 and all of them are misguided (in another narration: all are going to hell fire) except for one.” So the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam is saying that his ummah split even more than that of the Jews and Christians. Very important to note: the one group mentioned in the hadith does not exist anymore for either Jews or Christians and that was why the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam was sent by Allah (recall: the story of Salman al-Farisi). When the true message of the Prophets Musa (Moses) and
46 Hadith 28: Listen & Obey Isa (Jesus) were no longer taught or practiced (but corrupted entirely), Allah ta’ala sent the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam bringing mankind out of the darkness of misguidance. Is 73 meant exactly or is it an expression? Scholars have differed, but it seems it is an expression and that numbers like 7, 70, and 700 are used to indicate a great quantity but not a specific one. So what do we do regarding this tradition and these ahadeeth when every very group says we are the rightly guided? There are a number of issues to discuss: 1. The fact that 72 groups are misguided in our ummah, does this mean that the majority of the ummah is misguided? Because 72/73 is a very high percentage, correct? No, the scholars never understood this from the Hadith. Just because the majority of the groups is misguided does not mean that the majority of the ummah is misguided. Groups can be composed of different numbers of people (i.e. 1000, 10, 000 or greater vs. more than 1 billion Muslims alive today). As Muslims we believe that the majority of the ummah will always be upon the correct guidance. The evidence for this is that the Prophet (peace be upon him) commanded us to follow the Jamaa’ah (i.e. larger group of Muslim). He told us don’t break away. Bottom line: All 72 groups added altogether will comprise a very small percentage of the ummah and if you look historically at the ummah, add up all of the differing groups, and you do not get more than 15%, whereas 85% (roughly speaking) have always been upon the Sunnah of Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam and respecting the Sahabah. 2. Regarding those who are misguided (i.e. 72 groups) - does this mean that they are not Muslims? This is the most common misconception but it is the understanding of many of the ignorant people of the Muslim masses. But all of these 73 are within Islam. That is why the prophet said: “My Ummah.” These are people that he is ascribing to himself – because there is a direct relationship even if they are wrong and are not fully in sync with the message of Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wa sallam. Therefore, these other groups are still Muslims. And what that translates into is that even if they are wrong, they still have some rights over you as Muslims (i.e. they still have some relationship with you). 3. We extrapolate from the last point that if the 72 groups are those within Islam, those whose ideologies comprise extreme deviations to the extent that they are not considered Muslims – such groups are thus are not included among the 72. This includes groups like the Baha’i, Druze, and Qadiyaanis (therefore, they do not have the rights of a Muslim upon you). Any group that believes in a Prophet (peace be upon him) after the prophet salAllahu 'alayhi wa salaam, such a group does not constitute a part of the 72. In other words, if their beliefs are in complete contradiction to the Kalimah - i.e. there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is (final) Messenger of Allah - then they are no doubt non-Muslim. This is because this aspect of the message is so clear that no doubt is acceptable. The point is that these 72 groups are Muslim, even if they are wrong they are within the pale of Islam. Does that mean that they will go to the fire of hell permanently? No, if they were Muslim they will go to the fire of hell for a temporary period of time. Does this mean that every single person that belongs to these 72 groups will necessarily go to the fire of hell, and every person that belongs to that one group will go to Jannah? NO, because the verdict is being pronounced on a theology and not on a human being that follows that theology. No one can say that they will go to Jannah or Jahannam or claim that someone else will – this knowledge and judgment is reserved for Allah alone. Rather, for the human being, Allah will weigh
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
47 Hadith 28: Listen & Obey the good and the bad (i.e. judge the person as a whole). And while the incorrect theology undoubtedly rests on the bad side, how about the good that the man has done? Suppose that the man had emaan and taqwa, and he had some wrong beliefs, Allah will judge it all together. Bottom-line: The verdict is on the theology and not on the person. If misunderstood, this Hadith sometimes leads some people or groups to develop a cultish mentality or an extremism which is very dangerous. The fact that a theology is wrong does not mean that all those that subscribe to that theology are definitely going to the fire of hell. We believe as Muslims that Allah excuses ignorance. True or legitimate ignorance is an excuse. If you didn’t know you are forgiven. As Allah directs us to say in Surah Baqarah ayah 286:
Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned. "Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error, our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians); our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maulâ (Patron, Suppor-ter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people Therefore, if a Muslim grows up in an environment where he does something and believes innocently that it is the message of Islam as revealed to and spread by the Prophet Muhammad sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam and he does not have the knowledge or resources to verify its accuracy - then such ignorance is an excuse on the Day of Judgment. Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala will not call him to task about something he did not have knowledge regarding the finer aspects of faith so long as it fulfills the condition we mentioned before.
That this ignorance does not lead to the level of Major Kufr meaning it goes against the Kalimah
Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah?
Where does the term “Ahlus sunnah wal Jama’aah” come from? This term is taken from the ahadeeth of the prophet salAllahu 'alayhi wa salaam. According to the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, the first person to coin it was the cousin of the Prophet (peace be upon him), Ibn Abbaas radhiAllahu anhu. Realize when there is only one Muslim ummah; there is no need to use additional terms and adjectives to describe one’s faith. But the more the ummah splits up, then the need for adjectives arises.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
48 Hadith 28: Listen & Obey
In fact, Allah has named us Muslims, as Allah says in Surah al al-Hajj ayah 78:
And strive hard in Allâh's Cause as you ought to strive (with sincerity and with all your efforts that His Name should be superior). He has chosen you (to convey His Message of Islâmic Monotheism to mankind by inviting them to His religion, Islâm), and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship, it is the religion of your father Ibrahim (Abraham) (Islâmic Monotheism). It is He (Allâh) Who has named you Muslims both before and in this (the Qur'ân), that the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) may be a witness over you and you be witnesses over mankind! ) mankind So perform AsSalât (Iqamat-as-Salât), give Zakât and hold fast to Allâh [i.e. have confidence in Allâh, and depend ), upon Him in all your affairs] He is your Maula (Patron, Lord, etc.), what an Excellent Maula (Patron, Lord, etc.) and what an Excellent Helper!
And while this is our name, it is not impermissible to describe or qualify that name with an adjective. cribe In fact, sometimes this makes a lot of sense.
How proudly would you declare you are a Muslim when you know Allah chose this name th for you and chose you for His religion?
Ibn Abbas got this term directly from a hadeeth of Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wa sallam in at at-Tirmidhi where the Prophet sal Allahu 'alayhi wa salaam said that the ummah would split into all of these groups. So he asked which of these is right or upon guidance. And the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam indicated: those that follow him and what his Companions are upon today (i as-Sunnah wal (i.e. Sunnah Jamaa’ah). Al-Jamaa’ah definitely refers to the way of the Sahabah (the Companions) and as we studied Jamaa’ah before, it definitely refers to the legitimate ruler (i.e. Khalifah, which does not exist today). In other another Hadith the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam was asked which of these groups is the right one and he said: I command you with the Jamaa’ah. In this Hadith of Irbaadh, the Wasiyyah is that we follow the Sunnah (the term “al Jamaa’ah” is not “al-Jamaa’ah” mentioned specifically). But as established, the terms Sunnah and Jamaa’ah occur together in various s other Hadeeth.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
The first split to occur in Muslim history occurred during the time of the Sahabah with the formation of the Al-Khawarij. When you have two groups, then you have a need to identify which group Khawarij. you belong to, so when there was a need Ibn Abbas coined the term “Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah.”
49 Hadith 28: Listen & Obey
What Makes a Sect a Sect?
What makes a group, a group? In some countries, people of different legitimate Fiqh madhaahib are considered as following a sect or even as being Kuffar. But most all of the differences of fiqh do not constitute sectarian differences. Why? Because the Sahabah themselves differed over fiqh and they never considered one another to be misguided, even if they thought the other was mistaken over a Fiqh issue. Rather, what constitutes sectarian differences; scholars say is differing theologically about one of the fundamental issues of Islam. Not trivial but a integral issue such as one of the 6 pillars of faith, like AlQadr. For example, someone who believes that Allah does not control the creation – is a kaafir as this is a very considerable ‘Aqadi difference. This is the primary determination among others (that are beyond the scope of this course). Over the course of our 14 centuries, we have always recognized the 6 Pillars of Eman or Faith but each of these 6 pillars have been understood in different ways according to the methodology of the group. The 3 most controversial issues regarding the 6 Pillars of Eman have been the following: 1. Belief in Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala. I.e. what does it mean to believe in Allah? How do we understand Allah’s names and attributes? 2. Al-Qadr. I.e. what does it mean Allah controls. Allah knows. Allah wills. (note: to receive Rays of Faith notes on al-Qadr, email email@example.com with “Al-Qadr Request” in the subject field) 3. What is the reality of Eman? I.e. does it increase or remain stagnant? What Makes a Group Leave the Fold of Islam? And What makes a group so deviated that they go out of these 73 groups considered Muslim (i.e. become Kuffar/Disbelievers)? It is that they deny or reject something that is an integral component of the religion (not misinterpret, but to deny or reject it). For example: a) To deny the Day of Judgment. You cannot be a Muslim and believe that there is no Day of Judgment. b) To deny the finality of the message/messengership of Muhammad sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam. This is something that is well known in the religion and an essential component of belief. To claim that other humans are messengers of Allah after Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wa sallam is Kufr (disbelief). c) To believe that Allah ta'ala comes down to this earth in the form of a human being (na’outhu billah) – many are the groups that believe this such as the ‘Alawis (belief of ruling part of Syria) and not one of them is considered Muslim. Historically, very few groups have reached this level. In our time, less than 1% of those who call themselves Muslims would reject or believe in any one or more aspects of the examples given above among others. According to Shaykh Yasir Qadhi’s studies in Heresiology, today the primary groups in existence that are not considered to be a part of Islam are 5:
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
50 Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Druze The ‘Alawi Qadiyaanis Agha Khanis Some branches of the Isma’eeli Shias.
Therefore these groups cannot be considered as being within Islam nor are their followers considered Muslims.
Remember: This Hadith talks about Ikhtilaaf and what to do when it occurs, that is, to go back to the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the way of the Sahabah. It always warns us to be aware of newly invented ideas in Islam as they only lead to the hellfire.
Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm
“No Harm Should be Given, Nor Reciprocating of Harm”
Madinah at the time of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam was composed of Arab tribes who would often suffer great conflicts before he arrived and united them upon Islam. These tribes were: 1. Al-Khazraj 2. Al-Aws This hadith is narrated by Abu Sa’eed Sa’d ibn Maalik bin Sinaan who was from the tribe of Khazraj. He was amongst the youth who wanted to fight in the battle of Uhud, but he was rejected because of his young age being 12 or 13 years old at the time but participated in all the subsequent battles. His father, however, died Shaheed (a Martyr) at Uhud. He was barely 20 years old when the Prophet (peace be upon him) died. He lived a very long and full life, and became one of the scholars of the Sahabah. He died very late in the 64th year of Hijrah. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
“There should be neither harming nor reciprocating harm.”
This wording is very difficult to translate. There is no dharar and there is no dhirar. What is the difference between darar and dirar? They both come from the same root ض - ر- رwhich means to cause suffering or to cause harm. So what is the difference between the two structures? Scholars have differed and below are their opinions as to the similarities or differences between Dharar and Dhiraar: 1. The two mean the exact same thing and are repeated by way of emphasis. 2. Dharar is a noun and Dhiraar is a verb. Where Dharar is the abstract concept of harm and Dhiraar are two people acting to harm one another.
51 Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm
The hadith translates as the following: it is not allowed to cause harm to somebody else. It is said as a else. statement of fact: i.e. “there is no harming.” However, it is not a statement of fact. Rather, the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said it this way to emphasize how things should be. For example, a parent telling their child “there is no dessert before bed” – it is not a statement declaring the non-existence of non desert before dinner, but one enforcing that no desert will be eaten, i.e. it is prohibited. So, the Hadith translates as the Prophet (peace be upon him) commanding us against the harming of against one person by another (i.e. let no person be harmed). And this is a general principle of Islam that it one is not allowed to cause inconvenience or hardship to other people. This principle shows us that one of the overarching principles of Islam is to remove principles hardship from mankind and therefore, to make things easier for people. Allah explicitly mentions this in Surah al al-Hajj ayah 78:
Allah also mentions in Qur’an in Surah Maa’idah ayah 6 that He does not wish to make things difficult for us, but rather Allah desires to purify us and to perfect His blessings on us so that we become truly grateful to Him. Allah explicitly states He desires ease for us and not difficulty in Surah Baqarah ayah 185:
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
And strive hard in Allâh's Cause as you ought to strive (with sincerity and with all your efforts that His Name should be superior). He has chosen you (to convey His Message of Islâmic Monotheism to mankind by inviting them to His religion, Islâm), and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship it is the religion of your father Ibrahim. It is hardship, Ibrahim He (Allâh) Who has named you Muslims both before and in this (the Qur'ân), that the Messenger (Muhammad Allâh) SAW) may be a witness over you and you be witnesses over mankind! So perform AsSalât (Iqamat ) Iqamat-as-Salât), give Zakât and hold fast to Allâh [i.e. have confidence in Allâh, and depend upon Him in all your affairs] He is your confidence Maula (Patron, Lord, etc.), what an Excellent Maula (Patron, Lord, etc.) and what an Excellent Helper!
52 Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm
The month of Ramadân in which was revealed the Qur'ân, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadân i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Allâh intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allâh [i.e. to say Takbîr (Allâhu-Akbar; Allâh is the Most Great) on seeing the crescent of the months of Ramadân and Shawwâl] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him
No doubt this Hadith prohibits causing harm to others out of malice and anger. In fact, to do so is a sign of hypocrisy and a sign of weak faith. A true Muslim makes others feel safe that he will not harm them in any way whether through the tongue, hands, etc. You cannot even cause fear in another Muslim. Although the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam is speaking to a Muslim community at the time, it does not mean that you are allowed cause harm to non-Muslims. But of course, there is a higher priority to Muslims as a Muslim always has a greater right on another Muslim. Many specific scenarios come under this rule. For example, being unjust in your Wasiyyah (last will and testament, one of the most unjust things you can do) or physically harming somebody etc. - the scholars have agreed that such acts are a major sin. The difference of opinion arises regarding the question of harming someone unintentionally. Not wanting to harm another by doing something for your own good. For example: how much right do you have to build something on your property that causes harm to your neighbor? Your intention is not to harm your neighbour by benefiting yourself but indirect harm is caused. The scholars of Fiqh discuss when this would be allowed to be overlooked. A lot of these issues are applicable in modern law as well, for example civil law. For example, noise pollution is an established disturbance or harm within the law. In other words, you are allowed to make certain noises at certain volumes at certain times but not at others. This is civil law but more importantly this is something that the Shariah takes into account. While we will not go into the details of these laws, this Hadith “Laa Dharara wa Laa Dhiraar” leads us to al-Qawaa’id al-Fiqh or Legal Maxims.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
53 Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm
Usool al-Fiqh: Science used to determine the legal ruling of matters. I.e. how do we know and how can we derive that something is haram, halal, makrooh, mustahabb, mubah, etc in Islam. Qawaa'id al-Fiqh: Legal maxims that are universal and applied in every area and situation. I.e. A Muslim Jurist has a situation regarding which there is no specific verse of Qur'an or Hadith applicable. They use these legal maxims to shed light on the issue. All the Sunni Madhabs have agreed upon 5 of al-Qawaa’id al-Fiqh, as they are clear in the Sunnah. They are referred to as "Qawaa'id al-Kubra" Al-Qawaa’id al-Kubra can be applied to all areas of Shariah, i.e fiqh of Wudhoo, salah, marriage, divorce, etc. We will discuss them below. Note 1: under each of these 5 principles, there are dozens of sub-rulings that fine-tune the general ruling (i.e. so they are not misused such that the haram is made halal or Shari’ah is misinterpreted, etc) Note 2: These rules apply in an Islamic state and are not to be applied arbitrarily by laymen! Principle 1: Al-Umooru bi Maqaasidihaa Matters are judged based upon the intentions behind them Evidence: numerous ayaat and hadith talking about importance of having a proper intention. Why? Because a person's intentions play a crucial role in judging someone's action. If you did something wrong but intention is pure, Allah will take you into account for it. This rule comes into play for certain vague transactions or sayings. Example 1 Ambiguous divorce in Islam. I.e. the Husband says to the wife: "I have nothing to do with you anymore" or something to this effect. The husband’s words comprises 2 meanings: a) A phrase out of anger. I.e. the love I had for you is gone, etc. b) I divorce you The Muslim Judge judges by the apparent so he asks the man: what did you intend by your words? If he intended divorce, then it counts as divorce. Example 2 If a man marries a woman who has been divorced 3 times from the same man and another man marries her in order to make her halal for her first husband, then this is Zina. Because the intention is not to marry the woman to make a life with her (i.e. nikahu shahwa) but to marry her for a certain period of
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
54 Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm time and then divorce her so that her former husband can marry her [i.e. this is Mut'a (temporary marriage) and therefore, Zina and haram]. Note: if the woman in question truly did not know the intention of the man marrying her was dishonourable, then the matter is between the man and Allah. Example 3 The famous story from Qur'an of the group of fisherman from Bani Isra'eel who were prohibited from ur'an working or fishing on Saturday as Allah mentions in Surah ‘Araaf ayah 163:
SAW) And ask them (O Muhammad SAW) about the town that was by the sea, when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday): when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did r not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We made a trial of them for they used to rebel (see the Qur'ân: V.4:154) As Allah references in the verse, every Saturday they were tested by seeing a large group of fish in the e, ocean, and the next day (i.e. Sunday) the fish would vanish. Therefore, their test was to see if they would still uphold the Sabbath that Allah had legislated. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 So they set up all the fishing nets right before Maghrib Friday (this is when our day starts in Islam - at e Maghrib), and left them there so the nets can catch the fish and would pick them up on Sunday. But their goal was to pick the fish on Saturday! Example 4 Similarly, be wary of some forms of "Islamic Mortgages" who change terms to present something haram ary using halal terms like "rent" instead of "mortgage." Their intention is not to find a halal alternative, but alternative to twist and find loopholes in the Shari’ah. Principle 2: Al-Yaqeenu La Yazoolu Bi Shakk Yaqeenu What is known for certain is not rejected because of doubt Most commonly used for issues of Taharaah.
55 Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm Example 1 You clearly remember making Wudhoo' for Maghrib and praying. But an hour later the time for Isha’ has set in and you are now doubtful whether you still have your Wudhoo or broke it. Apply the principle. Doubt does not cancel Yaqeen. The last certain thing you remember is making Wudhoo and therefore, you can pray Isha without making Wudhoo (note: sunnah is to make "fresh" or "renewed" Wudhoo for each one of your prayers but the point is you are not obligated to renew your Wudhoo because “al-yaqeenu la yazoolu bi shakk”). Note: Yaqeen cancels Yaqeen: If you remember having made Wudhoo before Maghrib (Yaqeen 1) but know you used the washroom between Maghrib and Isha (Yaqeen 2) but you are not certain whether you made Wudhoo afterwards, then you must make Wudhoo before praying Isha! Example 2 You then start praying Isha but after a time you find you are uncertain whether you prayed 3 or 4 raka'at. You are certain of the lower number (3) but not of the higher (i.e. there is doubt, you don’t know if you prayed 4). Therefore, you pray another raka'at to be certain of 4 and pray Sujood as-Sahw at the end. Example 3 We are all certain the average individual is innocent. Therefore, in order to accuse them you have to bring enough evidence to remove any and all reasonable doubt that they are innocent (i.e. "proof beyond the shadow of a doubt"). In other words, you must establish Yaqeen that they committed a crime. Example 4 We have Yaqeen that everything is permitted in this world (i.e. is halal) in terms of transactions, eating, etc unless proven otherwise. Therefore, in order to prove something haram, you must bring forth relevant and acceptable evidence. Example 5 Scholars say if you wake up in Ramadhan one morning to eat Suhoor and it later becomes clear that the time for Suhoor has actually passed, this is forgiven because it is considered Yaqeen that you woke up because it was before fajr. Conversely, if you broke your fast early then the Yaqeen is that it is not Maghrib time (i.e. it is still daytime) and you were hasty. Therefore, you would have to make-up this fast. Note: The above is based on the opinion of 1 Madhab and others differ. Whereas others state that if you honestly were unaware the time for Maghrib had not yet arrived, you are not blameworthy and therefore, would not have to make-up your fast. Principle 3: Al-Mashaqatu Tajlibu At-Tayseer Hardships Beget Ease Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
56 Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm The more difficulty a situation becomes the more options the Shari’ah extends you to get out of the situation. Classic Example If you are dying and your only option is haram food to survive, then it becomes halal for you because of your constrained situation. Example 2 Eases in travel. Even if the travel itself is not difficult for you in your situation, travel generally is not easy. Therefore, you can shorten prayer, fasting is no longer obligatory, you can wipe over socks for 3 days etc. Example 3 Illness. If you are physically unable to pray standing, you pray sitting, etc. If making Wudhoo will aggravate illness, then you can make Tayammum. If you are physically or mentally unable to do something then you are excused from it. Example 4 Upon the death of her husband, a woman is required to remain in her home for 4 months and 10 days. But what if the woman was traveling in a foreign land with her husband when he died or she is in her own home but has no source of income? Shari'ah would not force a woman to remain in a strange house without a mahram. The Shari'ah is one of ease and wherever there is a true difficulty, the Shari'ah permits options out of it. Example 5 When someone is taking advantage of his power of you, i.e. customs officer, by forcing you to give a bribe. Then you are not compelled by such a situation to pay it if it means you are otherwise unable to enter or exit a place. Example 6 Some people use this principle to justify making Interest or Mortgages halal for Muslims living in America or Canada. However, the level of Mashaqah or difficulty of renting is not one which would justify taking a (Haram) Riba loan. Realise these principles are valid but they can be misused by some. Sub-rules of this ruling Ad-Darooratu Tuqaddaru bi Qadarihaa Necessities are measured according to their needs I.e. If someone is dying and they only have haram meat available. They are only allowed to eat enough meat to last them until such time as they can get to the next service station or food supply. I.e. A male dentist who is examining a woman, this does not permit him to look upon a sister without hijab or for her to expose any other part of her body, etc.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
57 Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm Being in a difficult situation does not allow you to take the rights of others I.e. If a robber comes into your house and says if you don't kill your brother, I will kill you. You are not mes allowed to kill him, because his life is not worth any less than yours. You cannot infringe his right to life. However, if the robber told you to make sujood to an idol or you would be killed then it is within your idol right that Allah has extended to you, either to: a) To make sujood to the idol as long as your heart remains firm on the truth (i.e. in the belief of Allah and Islam). This is a concession for the Ummah of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam the alone, as the previous nations were never allowed to recant their faith under duress (recall: Surah Burooj and the Companions of the Ditch). b) To refuse to make sujood to the idol and consequently be killed. Principle 5: Al-'Aadatu Muhakamma 'Aadatu What is understood by custom is accepted by Law In other words, where the Shariah has not dictated something specific but culture and custom have havethen culture and custom become law in Islam. Many of us from the second generation, in our rejection of our parent's culture, sometimes go into an extreme in this respect. Here are some examples that will help clarify: Example 1 When you make an oath in Islam (i.e. swearing by Allah that you will do something. This is not encouraged in Islam), one Kaffaarah (Expiation of an oath) is that you must feed 10 people the average amount of food you would feed your family as Allah says in Surah Maa’ida ayah 89:
Allâh will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate punish oaths; for its expiation (a deliberate oath) feed ten Masâkin (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
58 Hadith 32: The Eradication of Harm
with which you feed your own families; or clothe them; or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn. And protect your  oaths (i.e. do not swear much) . Thus Allâh make clear to you His Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) that you may be grateful.
This amount would depend on the culture, the place, and time where you live. I.e. In Canada you could feed 10 burgers and French fries to the poor – and this would constitute an expiation of your oath. If it was Pakistan you might feed them "Biryani" or in Somalia "Bariis iyo Hilib", etc. Example 2 What is extravagance or flamboyance? The Shari'ah prohibits it but it has not defined it. But this differs from culture to culture, i.e. what is considered a staple dress item in one region might be considered extravagance in another. And even within cultures, common sense dictates that the Shari'ah allows a person to purchase things according to his level. Therefore, extravagance is relevant and depends on time, place, region, and class to which you belong. IMP: Note this principle refers to culture where the Shari'ah is silent and not matters or issues Shari’ah has dictated. I.e someone claiming proper hijab is not considered a part of their “culture” and therefore, they do not have to wear it because “al-‘aadatu muhakkama.” The Qur'an and Sunnah are clear on the matter of the obligation of Hijab – this principle only applies to issues where the Shari'ah is silent! Principle 5: La Darara wa laa Diraar The principle derived from this hadith Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 Commonly used in reference to husbands to wives by divorcing them unnecessarily or through tactics and tricks Example If you bought an item that was defective and it was sold detective –even if the seller did not know, the Shari'ah says you have the right to return because you have been harmed: i.e. you have bought a useless item. Note: You are not allowed to emotionally blackmail someone to sell you something. Such a transaction is invalid in Shari'ah!
Did you know?
When Selling your House In Islamic law, when you intend to sell your house, your neighbour has a right to purchase your house (at your asking price) above and beyond anyone else (i.e. even if a family member wanted to buy it).
59 Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online Your neighbour can even go to the Islamic courts if you deny him this right. Your neighbour is like your family and the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam would seek refuge from a bad neighbour. Since you are moving out, your neighbour has more of a right to buy the property and choose who will live next to him. He can be harmed if you sell your house to someone that is unsuitable. When Selling Business Shares Similarly, this also applies to business partners so that if you wanted to sell your share of a business, then your current business partner has more of a right to buy it for the same reasons: a poor choice of buyer will be a source of harm to him.
Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online
It is narrated on the authority of Amirul Mu'minin, Abu Hafs 'Umar bin al-Khattab, (radiyallahu 'anhu), who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, (sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam), say: "Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah), so each man will have what he intended. Thus, he whose migration (hijrah) was to Allah and His Messenger, his migration is to Allah and His Messenger; but he whose migration was for some worldly thing he might gain, or for a wife he might marry, his migration is to that for which he migrated." [Al-Bukhari & Muslim]
About The Narrator: Umar ibn Al Khattab
This Hadeeth, as we can see, was narrated by Umar ibn Al Khattab (radhiAllahu anhu), and was recorded in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. Although Imam An Nawawi has reported more than this one
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
60 Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online Hadeeth of Umar ibn Al Khattab (radhiAllahu anhu), it was only in the first one where he said: al Amir ul Mu’mineen Abu Hafs (i.e. The Leader of the Believers, the Father of Hafs). Umar ibn Al Khattab, as we all know, the second best person after Abu Bakr (radhiAllahu anhu), and Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) has praised him in so many Hadeeth. In one Hadeeth, Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said that ‘In each nation that came before us, there were people of ilham, and if there was anyone in this ummah, it would be Umar (radhiAllahu anhu’)
What does Ilham mean? It is the ability to make decisions in the right way, even if they do not have prior knowledge to do it, Allah (azza wa jal) will give them the guidance to always make the right decisions and stay on the right path.
In a Hadeeth in Bukhari, we see that Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) praised Umar (radhiAllahu anhu) by saying: “Oh the son of Al Khattab, I swear by Allah that the Shaytaan will never see you on a path except that the Shaytaan will go on a different path” The only reason that anyone would hate Umar (radhiAllahu anhu) would be out of their own hypocrisy. Umar (radhiAllahu anhu) was also the first Khalifah in Muslim history to be assassinated. His killer was not motivated by a personal agenda, but there was a huge power behind him. In one of the authentic Hadeeth in Sahih Muslim and Bukhari, Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) was telling his companions about things in aqeedah. So he told them ‘A man was using his cow or ox to carry his luggage (as if he was using it like a horse/camel/donkey). The cow looked at him and said: I was not created to carry things rather I was created for something else.’ Now the Sahabah (radhiAllahu anhum) said: A cow speaking? They were very amazed at this. And guess what Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said? He said: “but I believe in this, and Abu Bakr and Umar do too” The narrator of this Hadeeth was Abu Hurayrah, (radhiAllahu anhu), and he said: when in this gathering Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) mentioned this Hadeeth, there were neither Abu Bakr or Umar (radhiAllahu anhum) present at that time, and this was the first time that Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) was telling the Sahabah of this incident! This just shows us how confident Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) was in terms of relying on these two companions SubhanaAllah, that they would never challenged or questioned Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). As long as it comes from the Prophet (salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam), for them it was 100% true and they would take it and that was amongst the main unique characteristics that Allah (azza wa jal) blessed these two people with – that they were amongst the most believing Companions. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
“Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah), so each man will have what he intended.” Imam Ash-Shafi’ee has said that this Hadeeth constitutes 1/3rd of knowledge.
Imam Ahmad said the same and he also said that this Hadeeth along with the 4th Hadeeth and the 5th Hadeeth - these 3 Hadeeth together constitute the whole spectrum of Islamic knowledge, because: a) You must have the correct intention – i.e. “inna mal ‘amaalu bin niyaat” (hadith 1)
61 Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online b) As for following Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) you need to first of all, do what is wajib and refrain from what is haram – i.e. “al-halaalu bayyin wal haraamu bayyin” (hadith 2) c) You must do your ibaadaat in the way that Allah (azza wa jal) likes and that is where the 5th Hadeeth comes in – i.e. “man ahdatha fi amrinaa haatha ma laysa minhu fa huwwa radd” (hadith 3) What do we understand from this Hadeeth – we understand that actions will not be considered accepted by (Allah azza wa jal) except if they have the intentions behind them. A quick example of this is: say for example you are sleeping and while you are sleeping you got up and prayed two rakaah WHILE SLEEPING! And then your father/mother/daughter or whoever wakes you up and says it’s time for salaatul Fajr. And when you prayed your two rakaah it was the time for salaatul Fajr, but you were sleep while doing it. And whoever has woken you up and asked you to pray fajr – can you consider the two rakaah you pray a part of salaatul Fajr? You can’t! Even if you want to consider them for Qiyaam ul Layl, they wouldn’t be considered that either. So this shows that any act has to be preceded by intention otherwise it is not considered an act of worship. So if you ever want to seek reward for doing something, then you have to make the intention to do So we are not talking about drinking water or eating Shawarma – rather we are talking about acts for which we seek the reward from Allah (azza wa jal). Imam Ahmed was asked: how do I make intention. And he said: you have to treat yourself in a way that you are doing an action for no other reason but for obtaining the pleasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). This is just one aspect of niyyah. Niyyah can be used in more than one meaning. Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) has said: 1. Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah) so 2. Each man will have what he intended. Many people think that these two statements are equivalent. In fact they are not. 1. The first one tells you that the acts will not even be considered except if you have intention for them. 2. The second one says – the type of reward you will be getting is really dependent on your intention and how sincere you were – and that is if you define intention as sincerity. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
There are two Meanings for Niyyah
1. Ikhlaas – sincerity – working for Allah vs. working for someone else. 2. Differentiate between the acts of worship – ex: you want to pray salaatul 'Asr. You came to the Masjid and for some reason you thought it was salaatul Dhur. So you started praying Dhur and after you finished that you were supposed to be praying ‘Asr and you had already prayed Dhur. This niyyah has nothing to do with sincerity. You are praying for nothing but Allah (azza wa jal) anyway. But you have to have the intention/niyyah to differentiate between salaatul Dhur and salaatul ‘Asr. Another example is, when you are giving charity – you have to differentiate if you
62 Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online are giving for Sadaqah (voluntary charity) or Zakah (obligatory charity) – because in both you are giving wealth (in money or food) but the difference can only be determined by the Niyyah.
Synonyms of Niyyah from the Qur’an:
Allah did indeed fulfill His promise to you when ye with His permission Were about to annihilate your about enemy,-until ye flinched and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed it after He brought you in until sight (of the booty) which ye covet. Among you are some that hanker after this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then did He divert you from your foes in order to test you but He forgave you: For Allah is full of grace to those who believe. (Surah Ale Imran, 3:152)
Not upon you, [O Múhammad], is [responsibility for] their guidance, but Allah guides whom He wi wills. And whatever good you [believers] spend is for yourselves, and you do not spend except seeking the countenance of Allah. And whatever you spend of good - it will be fully repaid to you, and you will not be wronged. (Al Baqarah, 2:272)
Beneficial Acts Even without Niyyah
When people talk with each other, there is no goodness or khayr in what they speak the best amongst the speeches that command for and which Allah did not associate with Niyyah because they are good regardless:
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
63 Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online a) Mitigating between two disputing parties. b) Or a speech that causes people to donate for the needy. Now the ‘Ulema have talked about this ayah – and sometimes acts of worships are good even if you don’t have intentions for them. Say someone donates for the needy, and say his intention is to show off; he is still helping the needy people. So there is something good coming out of it. So there are acts, even if someone does not have the correct niyyah for them, they will still be beneficial. If someone prays Qiyaam al-Layl and his intention is to show off - his prayer has no value, i.e. he will be losing everything – he will not be rewarded in aakhirah and will not be praised in dunyah either. But there are other acts like giving sadaqah, and even if someone is not sincere in doing it, he will not be rewarded for it on the Day of Judgment but there is some good coming out of it (i.e. the poor are benefited).
Niyyah 1: Al-Ikhlaas (Sincerity)
We know that being sincere in any act of worship that you do, it is mandatory for Allah to accept your Qa’mal. The Salaf have said that there is nothing more difficult on a Muslim than making sure that he is sincere in his acts. Some of them went very far to the extent that they would be asked to do something good, and they would refrain from the time they are told until they make sure that the only motivation they have towards doing this is for the sake of Allah (azza wa jal). This happens all the time here. Say your friend has called you saying – there is a lecture right now why don’t we go together. Perhaps if it were that you heard this from the internet or from an email, you wouldn’t have come to that halaqaat but now that your friends have called you, you feel shy about not going. So you will go and do it. Now, you have to correct your intention and you have to make sure that when you go to this halaqaat for nothing but the sake of Allah. And this is the code of every sincere believer; that everything you do something for the sake of Allah (azza wa jal), you will challenge your intention and make sure that whatever you are doing is for the sake of Allah and nothing but the sake of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). When you are doing your prayer, when you are paying for charity, when you fast or do hajj, or any other good deeds, you have to have a sincere intention. Say you would like to go to eat Shawarma do you need to have an intention for this? Ulema have said no you don’t need to have a good intention for this because this is a worldly thing. But many of the Salaf would make intentions for purely halal dunyah things- but what would their intention be? It would be – O Allah the only reason I am eating this is to get more strength to worship you more. If you have this intention because you go to bed/drink/eat/before you do anything – and your intention is that you are: a) using the halal and avoiding the haram, and b) doing it because it is going to give you better strength and mood to practice the Deen of Allah (azza wa jal) Then you will be rewarded for this. It was reported that Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) has sent Mu’adh ibn Jabal and Abu Musa al Ash'aree to Yemen. Each one went to a different place. They used to meet every once in a while to feel Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
64 Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online the good company they used to have before. Abu Musa al Ash’aree has said to Mu’adh ibn Jabal that – I am not as high in my emaan as I used to be when I was with Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). And Mu’aad ibn Jabal told him – but you know what, for me, I do nothing in my daily life except that I make the correct intention for it, and that brings me closer to Allah just like how I was when we were together with Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). Thus, he whose migration (hijrah) was to Allah and His Messenger, his migration is to Allah and His Messenger; but he whose migration was for some worldly thing he might gain, or for a wife he might marry, his migration is that for which he migrated. Here Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) is talking about the hijrah. Hijrah can be Defined in Three Ways 1. Hijrat al-Makaan - main definition of Hijrah, as in this Hadeeth – you leave the land where Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) is being disobeyed. Remember the man who killed 100 people (Qaatil alMi’ah)? He was advised to leave the land where Allah (azza wa jal) was disobeyed and go to another land where people were practicing. This is where the hijrah from Mecca to Medina comes in, when Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) and the Companions (radhiAllahu anhum) left Mecca where people were worshipping idols and went to Medina and established an Islamic state there. This is mandatory on every Muslim, no exceptions. 2. Hijrat al-‘Amal - to leave the bad deeds and to do that which pleases Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). When someone repents to Allah then this person should stop whatever bad deeds s/he was doing, and unless s/he does this, they have not fully repented to Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). This is mandatory on every Muslim, no exceptions. 3. Hijratal ‘Aamil - leaving the one that does the bad deeds or does shirk or disobeys Allah in some way. Not mandatory. This is from the Hadeeth where Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) went for the Battle of Tabuk and three of the Sahabah did not make it even though they were commanded to make it. These three Sahabah were Ibn Rabi’ea, Ka’ab bin Malik, and Hilal bin Umayyah. And when Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) came back, he said that Allah (azza wa jal) has commanded the companions to boycott those three companions, and this was for them to realize how much a big sin they had committed. But then Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) revealed the ayaat in Surah Tawbah (read the last 4 pages) where Allah has accepted their repentance, and when these ayaat were revealed, these three Sahabah came back to Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) and everything was back to normal. Ulema have said that in case boycotting a person will cause that person to realize his mistake, then this is something we are recommended to do. To give an example from real life – say that you have your own children, and one of your children does something wrong and you have warned your child to not do this - then you choose not to talk to that child for one day. This is such a huge punishment for the child as it makes him feel regretful. If this works for the child, and it works fine – then you do it. But sometimes it doesn’t work fine. For example, say your sister or brother who is a teenager, and s/he becomes corrupt in some way, and if you don’t talk to them … then you will see that they will leave the house and find worse company, and that would make the problem even worse. So in this case, boycotting them becomes haram. So boycotting people has two rulings depending on the situation: a. Either it is mustahab b. Or it is haram Nowadays we see that people don’t realize this and start boycotting people thinking that this Hijrah is mandatory, and this actually pushes those people even further away from Allah. This makes that
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
65 Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online person actually stick with their false opinion or behavior even stronger than ever before – because he now sees his opponents being so harsh on him so he wants to prove himself correct more than ever before. There is a Hadeeth called ‘Muhajir Ummu Qays” who used to live in Mecca during the time of Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). He wanted to get married to Ummul Qays, who had made the condition that she would not marry him unless he migrated to Medina. So this person immigrated to Medina not because Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) wanted him to but because he wanted to marry this lady. Some of the Ulemah have said that part of the reason that this Hadeeth was said by Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) … “whoever migrates to get something from this worldly life or to marry a woman”- then his hijrah is for whatever he went for. And some of the Ulema have said that this Hadeeth came after the incident. So he lost his reward, but he was called a muhajir. In front of the people he was a Muhajir but in front of Allah he did not get anything of that reward that was for the Muhajireen. Many of the Ulema have said that even though this narration is correct, it has nothing to do with the Hadeeth. But either way, it really doesn’t matter because it does not change the way we understand this Hadeeth. There are three conditions for it to be permissible for someone to have in order for someone to stay in a land in which Allah is not being worshipped: 1. There is a legitimate reason that justifies your stay in this land a. Ex: We have no other land to go to, giving da’wah, need something for health reasons; this is where we get our provision, we are doing something to benefit the Muslims or humanity at large etc. 2. Having enough knowledge that will protect you from anything that harms you in your Aqeedah and in your Deen. 3. You yourself have enough emaan and fear of Allah that you will practice Islam properly despite all of the obstacles, haraam, and distractions that this land presents you with. We Muslims in the non-Muslim lands must meet all three of these conditions otherwise we are sinning. Doing Something for a Reason Other Than for the Sake of Allah 1. You do an act solely for other than Allah’s sake, either shirk or Riyaa. For example, someone is worshipping a grave – clear shirk. Or Riyaa – when someone is praying for no other reason than to be known as someone who is pious. - Ruling: HARAM! This is minor shirk. Realise shirk converts your good actions with bad intentions into bad actions (we seek Allah’s refuge from shirk). - Du’aa for fear of Shirk: Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
‘O Allaah, I take refuge in You lest I should commit shirk with You knowingly and I seek Your forgiveness for what I do unknowingly.’
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(Taken from: www.makedua.com)
2. You make your intention such that a part of it is for the sake of Allah, while another part of it is Riyaa. For example, your friend has asked you to go for Qiyaam ul Layl. You really want to go to Qiyaam ul Layl, but you also want your friends to be like – mash Allah what good company I have. So you are mixing between the two intentions. - Ruling: if this feeling of people watching and being aware of that takes precedence, then this is pure Riyaa and this is shirk and will nullify all the good that you are doing. Not only that, it will make the good deed that you are doing into a bad deed. - Ulema have differentiated between i. Another intention coming to you before you start an act vs. during the action ii. While you are doing an act of worship you get the second intention – either way, as long as you are challenging and fighting against yourself then you should be fine Insha’Allah. 3. You may do things for the sake of Allah, but at the same time you have the intention other than that – not to please someone else, but a worldly intention. Say there is someone with a weight problem and he wants to control his weight, so he thinks – I can do supererogatory fasts and I can please Allah and also lose weight. So now you have two intentions at the same time. - Ruling: it is permissible but your reward will be not as much as having the intention purely and only for the sake of Allah.
Niyyah 2: Defining Acts of Worship
We know that we have to have the right intention before Salah. So say for example you prayed two rakaah while sleeping, clearly this does not count. When people do sadaqah - many times they’ll ask: I paid $1000 to the needy people and now it is the time of my Zakah, can I consider that $1000 as my Zakah? No, because you did not have that intention when you first did that act of sadaqah. Do we have to have intentions in any acts that we do that are related to worship? The answer: It depends. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 Ex: do we have to have the intention before we do wudu’ that we are doing wudu’? Say someone does wudu’ just to refresh himself in the right way, would that be an acceptable wudu’? Ulema have two different opinions: 1. Wudu’ is a precursor to Salah being acceptable. - Another example of this: you came to your house and wanted to make your prayer, do you have to have the intention that the place you are praying at is pure and has no najasah, or do you have to have the intention before praying that you are facing the Qiblah? No, even though one of the conditions of your Salah being accepted is that you pray at a place that is free of najasah and you are facing the Qiblah. - So wudu’ can be thought of as similar to facing the Qiblah or praying in a pure place free of najasah. 2. Wudu’ is an act that you will be rewarded for in and of itself. a. Ulema use the Hadeeth where Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) talks about the reward of wudu’ where your sins are forgiven as the drops are falling off of you. So because
67 Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online there are rewards for doing this, it becomes an act of worship and all acts of worship require the right intention.
Any act of worship where you are seeking reward from Allah (azza wajal) requires an intention. Otherwise it is not considered for reward because you did not intend it for reward.
Ex: Many people nowadays will say something where a party will understand something different than what you attend – i.e. “Tawriyyah.” So what you say is not a lie but the other person comes away with a different meaning from what you intended. People do this to protect themselves from saying a lie. This is fine so long as you do not take someone else’s right! Things become a little bit trickier when you are in front of a judge. Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “your oath should be on something that the other party will understand” In this situation, doing “Tawriyyah” is not permitted. Even if someone cheats you, you cannot cheat this person. So when you make the oath, you have to make it according to the intention of the one that asked you to make the oath, not according to your own intention. Example: Talaq “I swear if you do this, then you will be divorced” Many scholars have said that if someone does say this, and his wife commits whatever he has warned her not to do, then the Talaq will happen no matter what. The sound opinion about this is that it goes back to the person’s intention when he said that oath. If this husband has made this statement just to warn his wife, and not actually to divorce her, then the ruling is that his statement will not result in divorce but he has to give a Kaffaarat Al-Yameen- i.e. that of one who breaks his oath – meaning he has to feed 10 needy people or to provide them with clothes, or to free a slave. If you cannot do any of these three, then the next alternative is to fast three days (note: the exact verse was quoted earlier, do you remember what it was? Hint: it’s in Surah Maa’idah). Now say if someone says to his wife “You are divorced” while being drunk. Does Talaq take place here? No it does not. Because the intention at that time was not related to divorce, and the person did not really mean what he said because he was intoxicated (and we seek refuge in Allah from this). But if someone is just kidding with his wife and said “I divorce you”. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) has made these words such that they apply even if the person is just joking. ‘Whether you say them while being serious or joking, they are considered valid/binding/in place.’ In Islam, there is no “joking” when it comes to 3 matters and what you say is considered serious regardless of your intention: a) Marriage – i.e. saying you will marry such and such a woman b) Divorce – mentioned above Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
68 Hadith 1: The Muslim is Online c) Freeing a slave (subhan Allah, can you imagine the effect on a person in joking to give them freedom?)
Niyyah is in the Heart not the Tongue
Someone has the intention to pray Salatul Dhur, and says: I make my intention to pray ‘Asr behind this Imam and so on and so forth (note: we do not verbalize intentions for prayer and most all acts of worship). But he said the wrong thing; his intention in his heart was to pray salaatul Dhur. The intention is in your heart, not necessarily what is on your tongue. So he does not have to repeat the prayer. At the time of Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) people did not say their intentions by their tongue, but nowadays people have a hard time purifying/solidifying their intentions All of the Imams of the four madhab (i.e. Shafi’i, Maliki, Hanbali, and Hanafi) have said that intentions must be in the heart and cannot be made by words.
Why is it so spread now that people are intentions made by words?
The main reason for this innovation is when people come from a background other than an Islamic one. When we translate the word niyyah into other languages, sometimes it loses its meaning. Many people who were converts to Islam later on and didn’t know Arabic well. Imam Al Bukharee was a non-Arab but his Arabic was better than all of the Ulema right now. Note: Arabs from our perspective does not mean from the ethnic background but one who has mastered or speaks the language. Intention according to the Shari’ah means that which you have in your heart and that is what Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) and all of the Sahabah and all of the Khulafah and all of the Imams have said – that an intention is that which is in your heart about what you are going to do. Some of the Shukyooh have said how come when you go to hajj, why do you say: “labayak allahumma hajjan?” These Shukyooh have said, when you say this, you are saying your intentions. But in reality, what you are doing is “Talbiyyah.” Talbiyyah means that you say the same word that Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) has said at the time of hajj. The Ulema have said that the intention that someone does for hajj has nothing to do with this statement, because if it did have to do with your intention, then you would have had to say “allahumma nawaytu hajjan.” Nawaytu: this means that you are talking about your intention. Labayka: a statement that you say to follow Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) in the dhikr that you are doing. Imam Ahmed was once asked: “Should someone say anything before Takbirat al-Ihraam (the first Takbir in the Salah)?” The Imam responded: “No, nothing except du’aa.” So you never say anything like “Nawaytu Usallee (i.e. I intend to pray)”, etc
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
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Hadeeth Fard If you are looking at chain of narrators for a Hadeeth (for example, from Bukhari to Rasool Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) - this is called Sanad. At one point of this Sanad, there was a Shaykh who was the only one at his time narrating this Hadeeth. For this hadith, it was Imam Al Ansari, between Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) and Imam Bukhari. Al Ansari heard it from his Shaykh all the way to Umar ibn Al Khattab (radhiAllahu anhu) and Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). From Imam Al Ansari to Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) there was only one path. After Imam Al Ansari, there were so many students that got this Hadeeth from him, and it spread further and further all the way until it came to Imam Al Bukhari. So think broom or hour glass. A Hadeeth Fardh is such a Hadeeth; it is a type of Ahaad Hadeeth. In the science of Hadeeth we have a Sanad, which as we said is the chain of narration. Ulema look at the chain and how this chain goes between the two ends: a) End 1- Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) b) End 2 - the one who compiled the book. If there ever comes a point where there is one Shaykh and there is a bottleneck, this Hadeeth is called Hadeeth Fard. Hadeeth Ghareeb (Strange) Many people read Hadeeth and the footnotes say “Qaala Tirmidhiyun Hasanun Ghareeb” and they think that Tirmidhi is making a comment about the Hadeeth - that it is strange in terms of its content. This is not the correct understanding at all! When the Ulema of Hadeeth say that a Hadeeth is Ghareeb, they mean that at one point of the chain there were only two people that narrated this Hadeeth all the way up to Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam (so think Hadith Fard times 2). This Hadeeth is not strange in terms of its content, but that the narration itself has gone to a point where there were only two people that had narrated it and you only get the hadith from one side or the other (i.e. so no matter who gets the hadith, you are getting it from one narrator or the other).
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
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Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion?
Also on the authority of 'Umar, (radi Allahu 'anhu), who said:
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
71 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion?
"While we were one day sitting with the Messenger of Allah, (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam), there appeared before us a man dressed in extremely white clothes and with very black hair. No traces of journeying were visible on him, and none of us knew him. He sat down close by the Prophet, (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam), rested his knee against his thighs, and said, O Muhammad! Inform me about Islam." Said the Messenger of Allah, (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam), "Islam is that you should testify that there is no deity save Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger, that you should perform Salah (ritual prayer), pay the Zakah, fast during Ramadan, and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah), if you can find a way to it (or find the means for making the journey to it)." Said he (the man), "You have spoken truly." We were astonished at his thus questioning him and telling him that he was right, but he went on to say, "Inform me about Eeman (faith)." He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, "It is that you believe in Allah and His angels and His Books and His Messengers and in the Last Day, and in fate (Qadar), both in its good and in its evil aspects." He said, "You have spoken truly." Then he (the man) said, "Inform me about Ihsan." He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, “It is that you should serve Allah as though you could see Him, for though you cannot see Him yet He sees you." He said, "Inform me about the Hour." He (the Messenger of Allah) said, "About that the one questioned knows no more than the questioner." So he said, "Well, inform me about the signs thereof (i.e. of its coming)." Said he, "They are that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, that you will see the barefooted ones, the naked, the destitute, the herdsmen of the sheep (competing with each other) in raising lofty buildings." Thereupon the man went off. I waited a while, and then he (the Messenger of Allah) said, "O 'Umar, do you know who that questioner was?" I replied, "Allah and His Messenger know better." He said, "That was Jibril. He came to teach you your religion."" [Muslim]
Why is this Hadeeth the Second in Arba’een an-Nawawi?
Imam An-Nawawi put the Hadith detailing intention first for that very reason, i.e. to stress the important of niyyah. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 We learn from the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam that for any deed to be accepted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) it has to match two conditions: 1. Sincerity, 2. Correctness according to the Sunnah of the Prophet Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam Hadeeth #1 talks about the first condition while Hadeeth #2 and #3 cover the second condition. But why did Imam An-Nawawi mention this Hadeeth Jibreel as the second Hadeeth in his collection? It was because this Hadeeth talks about the whole spectrum of the religion of Islam.
About the Narrator: Umar ibn al-Khattab
One day during the Khilafah of Umar radhiAllahu anhu (may Allah be pleased with him), it was extremely hot and a camel that was brought for sadaqah around noontime, Umar (radhiAllahu anhu) was told that one of the camels escaped. So he left his house and went in this very hot desert to go after it. Uthman (radhiAllahu anhu) saw him from a distance. Now this is the Khalifah going by himself with no helpers or
72 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? guards in the hot desert and trying to get this camel that had escaped. Uthman (radhiAllahu anhu) said: you can go back home and ask someone else to do it – you’re the Khalifah. Umar (radhiAllahu anhu) said: are you going to be asked about this on the Day of Judgment, or is it going to be me who is asked?
This shows us the amount of fear that Umar( radhiAllahu anhu) had towards his Lord. It was so extraordinary that sometimes you couldn’t even understand what he was doing.
Abdullah ibn Umar, the son of Umar ibn Al Khattab, narrates the third Hadeeth, which is very similar to the second Hadeeth. Abdullah was one of the most pious zahid Sahabah. During the time of Umar (radhiAllahu anhu), there was widespread starvation in what is known as ‘Aam ar-Ramaada. Umar (radhiAllahu anhu) was trying to get people to donate for the needy. Umar (radhiAllahu anhu) went to the market and saw a healthy camel at a time when everyone else was starving. So Umar asked ‘Whose camel is this?’ and he was told that this camel belongs to his son, Abdullah. Umar (radhiAllahu anhu) got very angry at that and called for Abdullah to be brought him. Umar ibn al Khattab (radhiAllahu anhu) asked Abdullah where and how he got this camel. Abdullah knew how strict regarding the truth and righteousness his father was, and he said: “I swear by Allah that I bought this camel from my own wealth, and it was very skinny, and it eats from here and there’ But Umar responded: You leave it in front of the people and people will say – this camel belongs to the son of the Khalifah and they do you that favour not because they love you but because you are the son of the Khalifah. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 He commanded his son to go and sell this camel, and take his own capital and to have all of the profits distributed to the poor Muslims in his area. Umar ibn al Khattab (radhiAllahu anhu) could not even live with the slightest chance of doubt with what he brought home for his family. This was among the amazing characteristics of the Sahabah.
The Bigger Picture: The Effects of Halal vs. Haraam
This Hadeeth is in Sahih Muslim, and the previous Hadeeth (Hadeeth 1) was in Sahih Bukhari. Imam Bukhari’s father, whose name is Isma’il, was once asked: “How did you raise this man to become this ‘alim when you yourself are no Alim?” Isma’il kept quiet for a while and then he said: “I don’t think I did anything extra except that I made sure throughout my whole life that not a single dirham came to my home from a haram source. That everything that came to my home, whether it is money or food came from halal. So the barakah on that child was because of the barakah of the halal he was raised on since he was born.”
73 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? We see that most of the time in our situations, we don’t really mind. People say – you got this money, go and benefit from it. Sometimes we give justifications for what we do even though we get our money from doubtful places, and the way we justify that money is to spend it in a way that will please Allah azza wa jal. But we have to understand that even if you use the haram money in a great cause, it is still haram. If you get a single penny from a non-permissible source, then you will be asked about this money on the Day of Judgment. Umar (radhiAllahu anhu) gave us the best example of how a common person should be of what he earns, t even if he is in the position of Khalifah, this fear should in fact be magnified more in him.
The Details of the Hadith
This Hadeeth is well known. Here Umar (radhiAllahu anhu) said that while we were sitting with Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) a man came all of a sudden to us. They used to live in such a small city that everyone knew each other. None of them knew him, yet they saw no sign of travel on him either. This man came to Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) and proceeded to sit. This shows us the etiquette of Talib-al-Ilm, how you sit in front of your teacher to learn knowledge. When we come to learn Islam, not only do we have to respect the teacher but we also have to respect the knowledge that is being passed to us. What you are taking from the teacher is not just any knowledge, but a part of your religion. He sat with his knees folded and with his hands on his thighs. Ulema have said that this is the best way to learn Islam from a teacher. Akhlaaq or manners is an important element when seeking knowledge. The ‘Ulamaa’ (plural term for Scholars or ‘Aalim) have said that they would spend years and years learning from their teachers, and they would learn their Aklaaq before learning knowledge from them. Any knowledge that is beneficial for Muslims, the Muslims should seek it. Islamic knowledge is the highest form of knowledge because it encompasses the words of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) and then the words of his Messenger (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). So give respect to it and realize that while you are attending AlMaghrib seminars or reading these notes, you are being taught the words of Allah and the words of Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). Then he asked him about Islam. And the Prophet (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) told him the five pillars of Islam. Arkaan al-Eemaan In the Qur'aan, the pillars of Eeman have been mentioned several times including Surah Baqarah ayah 285 (which we read every night before sleeping along with ayah 286):
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
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The Messenger (Muhammad SAW) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allâh, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, "We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers" - and they say, "We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all)."
But this ayah only mentions 5 pillars of Eemaan or Belief. In Islam, there are 6 Arkaan al-Eemaan or Pillars of Belief– the sixth is Qadha wal Qadr (note to receive Rays of Faith notes on al-Qadr, email: firstname.lastname@example.org with “Al-Qadr Request” in the subject field). What Motivated ibn Umar to Narrate this Hadith? The reason that Ibn Umar mentioned this Hadeeth was because some people came to him from Basra in Iraq. This was the first fitnah ever to occur in the History of Islam. There was a man by the name of Ma’bad that said that Allah does not know about things until they happen. Why did he say this? Because this man adopted a wrong methodology – he developed his own opinion and then sought to mold the religion to fit his opinion or belief. Ma’bad thought that Allah would never like for people to go to hell and if Allah knew that people would do bad then Allah would not allow it (we seek Allah’s refuge from this false belief). So he thought, I cannot say that people will go to Hell and Allah will allow it, so this must mean that Allah does not know about it until happens (note how he developed an idea then molded religion to it). If you learn more about Aqeedah, you will come to know that many of the Muslim sects have evolved not because they wanted to be bad in the first place but the actually wanted to be good. But because they did not follow the footsteps and teachings of Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) they went astray. So Ma’bad justified his opinion by saying that I can’t believe that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) would know that people would do bad or sin and still let it happen. So what he said meant that Allah is not Al Khabeer, not Al Baseer, that He is not All Knowing. And by denying that, by denying these Attributes of Allah that comprise our Tawheed in him (something clearly taught us) someone becomes kaafir. So these peoples of Basra went for Hajj and met with Abdullah ibn Umar, the son of Umar ibn Al Khattab, and told him what was happening back in Basra with Ma’bad. That is when Abdullah ibn Umar said this Hadeeth to show them that emaan includes 6 pillars, and not just the 5 pillars that was incorrectly claimed.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
75 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? So Abdullah ibn Umar said to let him and everyone know that anyone who uses this ayah 285 of Surah Baqarah (i.e. that does not mention Qadhaa wal Qadar) to mean that Allah does not know what is going to happen until it happens – he is not one of us (i.e. is not Muslim). What is the Essential Difference Between al-Qadha’ and al-Qadar? • Qadar: The decree plan of Allah for everything. • Qada’: When Qadar occurs this is Qadha’ For example, Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has the Qadar for you to read these notes. When you actually read them as you are doing now, it has become al-Qadha’. Eemaan in Qadaa’ and Qadar requires belief in the following four things: 1. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) knows about everything before it happens, even before He Created us. He knows exactly what we will be doing. Allah (azza wa jal) has the ultimate knowledge about everything that will happen and has happened. 2. Not only does Allah know what will happen, but that He has commanded it to be written that in al-Lawh al Mahfoodh (the Preserved Tablet) 50, 000 years before creation. 3. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has allowed these things to happen. Not only does He know about them, but that He did not object to them taking place. Nothing in the world may happen against the Will of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). This does not necessarily mean that Allah likes it, but that Allah allows for it to happen. i. For example, Allah does not like kufr, but that does not mean that Allah will not allow people to become kaafir. Allah will give people the ability to choose, and Allah knows ahead of time what their choice will be - this is part of His complete knowledge. 4. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has created the act itself when the time comes for it. Not only has He allowed it to happen but He has created the act. Allah has created me and has created my actions and words. ii. For example, as we know the Qur’an is not a creation of Allah, but rather it is the Divine Speech of Allah. But when we recite the Qur’an, our recitation (not the words) is a Creation of Allah. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Shaitân (Satan) threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahshâ (evil deeds, illegal sexual intercourse, sins etc.); whereas Allâh promises you Forgiveness from Himself and Bounty, and Allâh is AllSufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower. [Surah Baqarah ayah 268]
Many people wonder how one is allowed to go astray when we know Allah ta'ala likes for us to be in Jannah and it is Shaytaan who likes for us to end up in Hellfire? Allah ta’ala is the Creator and He does whatever He wants and we the creation, with our deficient knowledge and wisdom, cannot ever seek to judge Him or ask Him regarding His Qadar. Here’s an example to help illustrate this point and to Allah is the Highest and Best Example: Say you work in a huge company at the entry level. Then you hear that the CEO of this company has made a new policy in terms of the company spending. You yourself don’t like it. Would it be fair for you
76 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? to say such a thing? You are someone who has no knowledge about the policy, or the company, or the economy – you are just a data-entry person. Can you judge the actions of the CEO? No, you can’t! Why? Because you don’t have complete knowledge about the decision - you have no idea of the bigger picture. So for you as someone who is humbly non-important, have to take the decision as it is coming from someone who has the necessary knowledge and experience to make the right decision, while you yourself do not have this. Wisdom in Shari’ah, in Qada and Qadar, has something to do with knowledge. We are just small creatures of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala), we cannot judge what Allah (ubhanahu wa ta'ala) says and commands. In Surah Kahf, we read about Khidr and Moosa (alayhi salaam) and their time together (read Surah Kahf this Friday for the full details). Moosa (alayhee salaam) lacked the knowledge, and that is why he could not understand what Kheedar (alayhee salaam) was doing. Whereas Khidr was inpired by Allah and therefore given the knowledge to understand the greater wisdom behind those acts. Similarly, we as humans do not know about this dunyah. Think about it, we know nothing. We cannot judge Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). But we always have to believe, not only that: 1. Allah (azza wa jal) has the Full Wisdom, and that 2. He has the Ultimate Mercy is the most fair in all that He does. Refining Our Understanding of Al-Qadr People say that if Allah knows about our actions before He created us, then why bother? Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) was asked the same question, and he said: “Do your best in achieving Allah’s pleasure, and Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) will make you a path for that which He has planned for you”
Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah uses this beautiful analogy:
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Imagine a teacher and his five students, whom he teaches for an entire year. The teacher knows for the whole year that four students are always there, always pay attention, they always do their homework and know the answers – but there is one student that is not doing any of that. This student sleeps in class and doesn’t know answers to anything, and doesn’t bother to do his homework. Now in the final exam, the teacher knows that this guy will fail because of his knowledge of his studies and behaviour. Now if the teacher tells this student that he will fail, can the student tell his teacher: “you made me fail?” No, certainly not.
And to Allah belongs the highest example. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) knows everything about us and knows what we will be choosing, but that does not mean that Allah has forced us to fail – and we seek refuge in Allah from this false belief. Just because Allah knows something does not mean that He has forced you to do it. That is where Allah (azza wa jal) has the Ultimate Wisdom. Allah gives the chance for everyone to do what he or she wants. See how Allah is fair with us?
77 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? Allah is the Most Merciful to His Creation o Allah has even given us: a) The Fitrah (we studied al al-Fitrah in great detail previously in these notes) – the natural inclination humans have to do want to do good and refrain from bad. In addition to the fitrah, b) Allah has given us intelligent minds and common sense/logic as well as the capacity to restrain our desires or to think before we act. And we know that if someone is mentally incapable, Allah will not hold this person accountable. c) Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has sent us Messengers who not only remind us of the Truth but they come with proofs and evidences to make our hearts firm upon it. With all of this in mind, fitrah, intellect, messengers and the evidences – after all of this how can anyone think that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) i unfair with them? Allah will never punish anyone until and is unless this person has been given all the proofs and all of the necessary knowledge. On the Day of Judgment, people who have rejected the truth will be punished no matter what, because they have rejected the truth after they have been given all the necessary means to accept and understand it. And Allah records the words of the people of Hellfire in Surah Mulk ayaat 6 6-11:
And for those who disbelieve in their Lord (Allâh) is the torment of Hell, and worst indeed is that destination.
When they are cast therein, they will hear the (terrible) drawing in of its breath as it blazes forth.
It almost bursts up with fury. Every time a group is cast therein, its keeper will ask: "Did no warner come to you?"
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They will say: "Yes indeed; a warner did come to us, but we belied him and said: 'Allâh never sent down anything (of revelation), you are only in great error.'"
And they will say: "Had we but listened or used our intelligence, we would not have been among the dwellers of been the blazing Fire!"
Then they will confess their sin. So, away with the dwellers of the blazing Fire.
What is the Difference between Islam and Eemaan? One of the issues that Ulema always talk about in this Hadeeth is the difference between the terms difference Islam and emaan. Islam in Arabic means to submit oneself to Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala): o In a way, Islam mostly talks about the acts of worship that you do physically, with your limbs such as Salah, Siyaam, Hajj etc. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Eemaan is the belief that one has in Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). ef o Eemaan refers the acts of worship that you do with your heart, like the fear of Allah and the belief in Messengers are things apparent in the heart etc
However, the two terms have been used interchangeably in the Hadeeth of Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) and in Shari’ah. Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) giving a description of a Muslim said: ‘A Muslim is the one from whom other Muslims are safe from the evil acts of his tongues and hand hands’ In another Hadeeth, Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) talked about Eemaan and said: ‘Eemaan verily can be divided/categorized into 60 or 70+ categories and the highest amongst them is saying <<la ilaaha ilallah>>. And the lowest of them is to remove something harmful from the street.”
79 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? Note: these are all acts that you do with your physical body, meaning it should be a part of Islam and not Eemaan according to the definition we have above. Are the terms Islam and Eeman Interchangeable? Amongst the sound opinions (and we should always respect, not necessarily follow, the other opinions): Islam and Eemaan are two terms can be used interchangeably: we can use both words to describe the acts of the hearts and the acts of the limbs. In other words, say that we are being taught about Islam, this would include both the physical and the actions of the hearts under Islam (i.e. not just the physical). But if we use both words in the same context, then each takes on the distinct meaning previously given and as they are used in Hadith Jibreel. But if each one is being used by itself independently of the other, then there is no problem in using them to mean the same thing.
The 5 Conditions of a Sahih Hadith
For a Hadeeth to be considered Sahih, it must meet the following five conditions: 1. The chain or Sanad must be connected or continuous 2. All the narrators in that Sanad or chain must be trustworthy 3. All the narrators must be “Daabit” or have strong memory and be known for it 4. There should be no “illa” in the chain or in the Matn (content) itself 5. There should be no “Shuthooth” – i.e. does not conflict with a hadith that is more authentic than it or there is no other hadith that is more sound than it.
Shuthooth and the Hadith Jibreel
Hadeeth #2 has been narrated in Muslim and also in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad. In the Musnad of Imam Ahmad, when referring to the same it says that the people heard the voice of theman but did not see him. But here in the version found in Muslim, we see that Umar (radhi Allahu anhu) described this man, i.e. Jibreel, whom he saw with his own eyes. So we conclude that the Hadeeth in Musnad of Imam Ahmed has “Shuthooth” in it. How is that possible? Does it mean that someone was lying? No, it might be that those who were present and later narrated the hadith could not see the man (i.e. Jibreel). No, but when two sound Hadith contradict one another (however slightly) and they cannot be used together or reconciled – this is Shuthooth. Therefore, we take the more authentic hadith and the one of lesser authenticity becomes weak.
What is Ehsaan?
Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has said in the Qur’an for those who are Muhsineen or do utmost good, there is Husna and “Ziyaadah.” The Mufassireen have difference of opinion about this, and the most sound one is that
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80 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? i. ii. Husna means Jannah Ziyaadah means Ru’yaa or that the Believers will see Allah (azza wa jal) with their own eyes in Jannah. The Ulamaa’ have said that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has made this a special reward for those who make Ihsaan that they will see Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) in Jannah and this is the best reward in Jannah.
The Definition of Ihsaan The definition of Ihsaan is – for someone to believe in Allah as if he sees Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) in front of him and when he doesn’t, he lives remembering Allah can see him. If you do nothing in your life except that you consider Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) in front of you. You do it as if you see Allah, knowing that you don’t and that He sees you. Seeing His punishment and seeing His reward. If someone were to see the hellfire in front of him, he would never ever sin! Think about it, no one will steal if the police officer is in front of him because he knows punishment will ensue. But because the hellfire and paradise are of the unseen, people forget or they pretend as though they are not a reality. If someone behaves in a way in which he is always watchful of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala), if someone gets to this level of Eemaan, as if he is seeing Allah (azza wa jal) - then Allah will reward him by allowing him to see Him in Jannah, insha’Allah. Subhan Allah. There is a Hadeeth in Sahih Muslim – the Sahabah came to Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) and asked – are we going to see Allah in the Day of Judgment. (This is very long Hadeeth and is in Kitaab al Eemaan). This Hadeeth says something very heart-touching. It says that when people gather together on the Day of Judgment Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) will bring the sun and the moon and all of these things that have been worshipped besides Allah, and there will be a call to peoples to go and follow that which they used to worship in the dunyah. So those that used to worship the sun will go and follow the sun, and those that worshipped taghut will go and follow taghut and so on and so forth. Amongst the peoples that will be left will the Munafiqeen. This is something that very few Ulema have talk about the interpretation of this Hadeeth. The Hadeeth continues and says that after all those who believe in other than Allah and go and follow whatever they believed in, they will be thrown in the hellfire. Who will be left will be those that believed in Allah along with the hypocrites. The Hadeeth says that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) will allow them to see Him. So every one of those will see him including the Munafiqeen, which will go to the lowest of the Hellfire. But this is still before asSiraat (which we covered previously) the bridge on top of Jahanum. And after they see Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala), they will go through the Siraat, and Allah will then give light to the believers and will give light to the Munafiqeen, and while they are going on this bridge on top of the two ends of Jahanum, the light of the Munafiqeen will turn and they will be cast in hellfire.
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81 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? After the believers will go through the Siraat, and Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) will allow them to go to Jannah, Allah will give them the chance to see Him in Jannah, and at that moment it will be the most joyful moment for them in the whole Jannah.
How come the Munafiqeen will get the opportunity to see Allah ta’ala?
The Ulema have answered this very clearly. Actually this is a reason for them to experience extreme regret because they saw Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) and after that they are prevented from seeing Him. So this is for them, when they see Allah and then they are prevented from seeing Him, it is more of a regret to them then not seeing Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) in the first place. When someone goes to the punishment without knowing what the other peoples are getting, this is easier than going to punishment while knowing what the believers are getting instead. So this is twice the punishment. It is the punishment of going to Jahanum, and the other punishment of regret of not being able to see Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) again. Seeing Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) once, and knowing what that means, and then being prevented from that is a punishment in and of itself. The kuffar are not given this. Because the Munafiqeen will have a more severe punishment than the kuffar themselves. Now the reason we have mentioned this Hadeeth even though it is not a part of the 40 Hadeeth of Imam An Nawawi is for us to know what it really means when someone gets to see Allah. And when you know that, you need to prepare yourself for this and to remember this is the reward for those who are steadfast in doing good. Some of the scholars have said a very nice statement: “Fear Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) so that you do not make Allah the least significant of those who watch you.” In other words, don’t think of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) being the easiest or the least significant when it comes to knowing about your evil acts. When someone does a sin that people dislike, what does this person usually do? He’ll do it by himself, not in front of others. By doing this, it is as if he cares about everyone except Allah. For him, there is a real problem of anyone else watching him, but there is no issue if Allah (azza wa jal) is watching him and is aware of his actions. And this contradicts with someone’s Ihsaan. That is why Ihsaan is at a higher rank. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 Ihsaan – The Best Circle Think of a huge circle, that is Islam, and within a circle is Eemaan, and within that is a smaller circle called Ihsaan. Islam contains all peoples that say “la ilaaha ilallah,” pray, fast, do their hajj. Within that circle of Islam, there are also those that do acts in private, those who believe sincerely in Allah, in al-Qada and Qadr, etc. And within that circle is an even smaller circle constituting people who worship Allah in every single act, every single minute in their lives, as if Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) is in front of them. Those are the best of the best. Those are the Muhsineen. This is what Ihsaan is all about. And remember what Allah has given al-Muhsineen: al-Husnaa wal Ziyaadah.
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Al-Qadhaa wal Qadr and the Sects
In terms of believing in Qada’ and Qadar, there are three main groups: 1. Qadariyyah – falsely claim that the creation does things of which Allah is unaware i. At the end of this Hadeeth Jibreel, in Sahih Muslim, you have the long story we covered earlier when people from Basra came to Abdullah ibn Umar informing about the movement occurring there regarding al-Qadr. These were the Qadariyyah that claimed Allah does not know what is going on until it actually occurs. 2. Al-Jabriyyah – falsely claim Allah forces us to do things without giving us freedom or the choice. i. The natural conclusion is that Allah is unfair (we seek refuge in Allah from this false belief). Because if Allah forces us to do things that are wrong, why would Allah punish us for them?
3. Ahlus Sunnah wal Jam’aah – the group that is always in the middle, believe that Allah knows about our acts but still gives us the chance to choose out of His Justice. Although Allah knows about our actions before they happen, that doesn’t mean that Allah forces us to do those actions as we studied in these notes before. Allah is the Al-‘Adl (the Always Most Just) and the Al-Aleem (The Always Most knowledgeable/wise).
What is the ruling if someone does not pray? Or if someone do not pay Zakah or Fast?
There are things in our belief that if someone does this person becomes kaafir no matter what. For example Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has told us about those peoples who curse Sahabah and mock Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) are non-Muslims. They said to Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) that – we were just playing with the words, we were just kidding. What did Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) say: don’t give excuses, you became kaafir after you have already believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala).
Istihlaal and Kufr
Some peoples say that unless someone makes istihlal of a sin, this person will not become a kaafir. Istihlal means to say something that is known to be haram that it is halal. So if someone comes now and says usury or Riba is permissible - this is Istihlaal. Istihlaal is amongst the most major sins and it brings people to kufr if they make istihlal regarding something that is known in Qur'aan and Sunnah to be unlawful. For example, if someone says that zinna is permissible, or those peoples that say that same sex marriage is permissible in Shari’ah - these individuals are undoubtedly doing kufr. Not only are they making the haram into halal and disobeying Allah in that sense, but also they are rejecting the authentic Sunnah and the explicit Qur'aan. When Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says in the Qur'aan something that is very explicit, and it is by the consensus of all of the Ulema that it is something that is haram, and then someone comes and says that it is permissible, not only is he committing the sin but he is also rejecting the Qur'aan. If someone rejects
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83 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? the Qur'aan even by a single letter, then this person is a kaafir (think about it: the entire Qur’an is from the same source – Allah –if you deny one part of it, you are denying all of it). if There is a group of people that are a descendent of the Murji’ah who say that – if you believe in Allah, it doesn’t matter what sins you commit. In other words, you are not blameworthy. For example, part of what is borrowed from the Murji’ah Aqeedah, is their claim there is no sin that e, makes someone Kaafir unless this person makes Istihlaal (make something that is known to be haram by explicit Qur’anic verses and Sunnah into halal). This is not true. The Murji’ah say this because they wanted to justify what the people in power do. A cursory study of human history will quickly show that people in power always desire to justify doing things their own way – they don’t care about pleasing Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). At the same time, the people that they are (subhanahu ruling are Muslims, so they can’t control peoples when they do things against Islam. So they wanted to use ‘knowledgeable people’ to justify what they were doing. One such justification as mentioned is the claim that any type of sin that does not make a person a Kaafir except Istihlaal. But remember Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has told us in the Qur'aan very clearly and explicitly that those that mocked Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wa sallam) comm committed Kufr. Even though they came to Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wa sallam) saying that they did not do it with the intention of Istihlaal or that making fun of Rasool Allah is not haram – yet Allah has recorded in Surah Tawbah ayah 66 that they had become disbelievers (note: not just committed Kufr – Allah calls become them Kuffar)”
If you ask them (about this), they declare: "We were only talking idly and joking." Say: "Was it at Allâh ( (swt), and His Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger (SAW) that you were (SAW mocking?"
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The hypocrites fear lest a Sûrah (chapter of the Qur'ân) should be revealed about them, showing them what is in their hearts. Say: "(Go ahead and) mock! But certainly Allâh will bring to light all that you fear." will
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Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed. If We pardon some of you, We will punish others amongst you because they were Mujrimûn (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, criminals, etc.).
As the Scholars have explained, there are many sins that people do that will be major sins but that do , not bring them to the state of kufr. For example committing zinna, interacting with Riba or killing others, etc –all of these are major sins in the Shari’ah. all But even those who do them, they are still considered Muslims at least in the way that we interact with em, them. Because not every single sin will have the same ruling, there are sins that take the person out of Islam right away and one of those is mocking at Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam). Allahu There are other things issues of Eeman and Kufr that many of the Ulema have mentioned as well. For example, if someone does not pray Salah at all. According to the majority of the Ulema, this will bring the person to the state of Kufr. While a difference Kufr. of opinion about this exists, the difference of opinion mainly concerns someone who prays occasionally (i.e. prays sometimes but not regularly). But someone who does not pray at all or for whom Salah is merely a tradition or somethin ridiculous something like that, this is an act of Kufr. People, when they hear the word Kaafir or Kufr, they don’t like to use it because they get scared. We should avoid talking about these issues unless we are trying to clarify things.
Between Acts of Kufr and T Takfeer
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 One very important thing about this is that if someone does an act of kufr, this does not necessarily mean that this person becomes a Kaafir right away. This is very important to realize. Perhaps he is doing the act of Kufr with some misunderstandi . Or perhaps when he did what he did, he did not mean it misunderstanding. the way in which it was interpreted or understood by others, etc.
We can say that something is an act of Kufr generally, but that doesn’t mean we can say the person who does it is a Kaafir.
For example, Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullah used to debate with people of different sects, and ample, he would say: “If I was to say the words that you are saying I would become Kaafir, but I am not saying that you are Kaafir.” This is because he knew what these words implied, and maybe the people that implied, were saying them don’t really understand what they are saying. Most of the time, people who have deviated from the true Aqeedah, their initial motive for that was not because they were bad people or they had evil intentions. Rather it was because they wanted to do something in a good way. But their lack of knowledge and neglect in following Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) made them assume certain things, then build upon them, and then deviate from the path.
85 Hadith 2: Do You Know Your Religion? Knowing more about Aqeedah is something that should bring us closer to each other and engenders humility among Muslims. However, many times people become more arrogant and isolationist the more they studied Aqeedah. If one is studying Aqeedah, this is the first Hadith they should study.
Signs of the Day of Judgment
The ending of this Hadeeth talks about some of the signs of the Day of Judgment. When asked about the Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) about the Day of Judgment he said: “The one who is being asked knows no more than the one asking.” This Hadeeth talks about some of the signs of the Day of Judgment but there are other Hadeeth that expound on this further and mention other signs beside. The signs mentioned in this Hadeeth: • Talida al-Amatu Rabatahaa: the servant woman will give birth to her master o Many Ulema have understood this sign in different ways o Amongst the explanations is that: a. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) will allow Islam to spread everywhere b. Allah will make Islam foremost and in authority or power o Some people wrongly believe that slavery began or was instituted by Islam. Rather, Islam encouraged the freeing of slaves and the most common Kaffaarah is the freeing of slaves (Tahreer ar-Riqaab). Islam also forbid the making of any free person into a slave. These practical and sustainable methods eventually lead to the widespread termination of slavery in the Muslim world. o So the servant woman will give birth to her master meaning, her child will gain freedom and then free her. Al-Huffaat al-‘Uraat al-‘Aalaa: the people that don’t have clothes to wear because of poverty and who have big families to support yet they are very poor. Re’aa ash-Shaa’: meaning they are shepherds watching over sheep. Yata’taawaloona Fil Bunyaan: o Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) would not like that people would make lofty buildings. Why? Whatever you do that is beyond what you need is going to attract you more to the dunyah. The more fancy buildings there are, the fancier your home, the fancier your car, the more this will cause you to love and be attracted to this life. o You will never like that this Ni’mah (blessing) to be taken away from you. The more you entertain yourself, the more you love the dunyah, the more you don’t want it to be taken away from you. But note that although this is not haram, it is permissible for this person in Shari’ah; will it lead to the greatest success in the Aakhirah? Remember what we studied in the hadith of Mu’adh ibn Jabal? o It is authentically narrated that the poor people will enter Jannah before the rich on the Day of Judgment. The people of money will be held until the poor peoples enter paradise. Why? One reason is that they will have to go through Hisaab of what they possessed in this life. o But note that Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not say that they will not go to paradise but that the others will go first. What is better for someone to be rich and also be thankful, or for someone to be poor and also be patient? o Ulamaa’ never agreed on this. They have always debated on this issue.
• • •
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86 Hadith 4: Which End are You Working For? o Each opinion has its own argument, and really it’s not an easy answer. However, most of the time people that are rich they get distracted from practicing their religion and this rich is a test that distracts them from the worship of Allah by attracting them to the dunyah. And Allah ta’ala knows best.
Hadith 4: Which End are You Working For?
About the Narrator: Abu Abdurrahman Abdullah ibn Mas’ood
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009 This Hadith was reported by Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (radhiAllahu anhu), who was the most well known companion in the recitation of the Qur'aan. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said: “Whoever wants to recite the Qur’an the way it was revealed, then let him recite in the manner of Ibn Ummi Abdullah (i.e. Abdullah ibn Mas’ud). “ Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (radhi Allahu anhu), was known for being really skinny. Once he was working in front of the Sahabah, it was windy and the Sahabah saw his tiny legs and they started laughing – but not mockingly. So Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Are you wondering about how tiny his legs are? I swear by Allah they are heavier in the sight of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) than the mountain of Uhud” He was one of the first Sahabah that would go in front of the public and recite the Qur'aan to them. During the Makki period of the Da’wah, when the Prophet (sal Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) would teach companions privately, some of the Sahabah said: “The Mushrikoon have never heard the Qur'aan out
87 Hadith 4: Which End are You Working For? loud except from Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam). We wish someone could go and recite Allahu Qur'aan to them.” Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (radhi Allahu anhu) said: “I will be the one to do this.” Abdullah (radhi Allahu anhu) didn’t have a strong tribe to defend him in case the Mushrikoon get angr angry with him. So the Sahabah thought someone else should do it. But he said that he would do it regardless. The next day he went to the Ka’bah, stood in front of the mushrikeen and started to recite Surah Ar ArRahmaan. While he was reciting it, the Mushrikoon were very provoked. They all beat him up until he was about to die. After they beat him, they left him and the Sahabah (radhi Allahu anhum) came to nurse him. When he became aware of what happened, they told him – we didn’t like that you would come here because no one is there is to defend you (because he did not have a strong tribe behind him). cause But Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (radhi Allahu anhu) said: “I would be willing to go tomorrow and do the same thing again.” This is why his legs were heavier than the mountain of Uhud, because he was a man of Qur’an and one mountain who always did what was pleasing to Allah regardless of how much worldly pain he would suffer in the process.
Explanation of the Hadith
The first half of the Hadeeth talks about how the fetus develops in the mother’s uterus and is divided in in 3 stages which Allah also mentions in Qur’an in Surah Mu’minoon ayat 13 13-14:
And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth).
Thereafter We made him (the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male and female sexual discharge) (and lodged it) in a safe lodging (womb of the woman).
Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation. So blessed be Allâh, the Best of creators
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
88 Hadith 4: Which End are You Working For? In Sahih Muslim, the narration says that within the first 40 days, these following three stages will occur which chronicle the entire development of the fetus: 1. For the first 40 days, it’s called a Nutfah. 2. Then it becomes an ‘Alaqah, which in Arabic means something that is hanging, for 40 days. 3. Then it becomes a Mutghah, which is something that you bite, for 40 days. You can see the teeth marks on it. And if you look at the fetus in its early age - it looks exactly like this. It looks like a kidney with some holes in it. It is after the first 120 days, when the Malak (Angel) comes and does what is in the second part of the Hadith. In Sahih Bukhari, the hadith is not explicit whether it is 120, where each stage comprises 40 days or whether the all three processes occur within the first 40 days. However, despite this clear lack of distinction most people understand the Bukhari hadith as meaning the processes take 120 – but the correct understanding is as we understand from this Hadith Muslim – i.e. all processes occur within the first 40 days. Obviously, no one could possibly have knowledge of this at the time of Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) and this is something confirming the truth of the Prophet’s message and that the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam did indeed receive Wahy (Revelation) from Allah. If the baby is miscarried and after the 120 days, you see the complete body –Takhallaq al-Janeen (Takhallaq means it has the shape of a human being). Many of the Ulamaa’ have talked about whether or not we need to pray Salatul Janaazah on the baby. If the baby takes more than 120 days until it is miscarried, then you give the child a name, perform the ‘Aqeeqah (usually performed on the 7th day after birth but permissible to delay) and pray Salatul Janaazah (you cannot never delay the Janaazah). We do this because that is when the angel comes to blow the Rooh (soul) into it and the baby becomes a human being. Therefore, it has the rights of the Muslims which include what we have mentioned before and a burial in a Muslim cemetery. Abortion is not allowed in Islam by any means except in one case – if the delivery of the baby will kill the mother that is the only time that abortion is allowed in Islam. In Islam, we cannot fix mistakes by making more mistakes. And we seek refuge in Allah, even if a woman is raped. This is a sin no doubt and a cause of indescribably suffering for the woman but taking the life of a child is not ever a solution (if you are oppressed or your right is taken, this does not give you the right to oppress or take the rights of others). The baby, however, will take the last name of his mother. The Written Qadr The Hadeeth then says that the angel is then commanded to write 4 decrees that he thus writes: 1. 2. 3. 4. his provision, his life span, his deeds, and whether he will be of the people of Jannah of Jahanum
Qadar, the writing of Qadar occurs in more than place: 1. Al- Lawh al Mahfoodh upon which all of the deeds of all human beings were written 50,000 years before the creation – these are final and will never change; it reflects Allah’s knowledge about all of His Creation.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
89 Hadith 4: Which End are You Working For? 2. This Hadith says that the angel will come and write again. This writing is not the same writing that happened a long time before we were created. What is the Significance of This? his? This is for the angels that are responsible for the human being. For every human, there are angels that are following him. Allah tells them from the Ghayb (the Unseen) as much He desires them to know. So the angels will know about the humans, what is happening until a certain time. Therefore, there is a chance that what t they write differs from what is in al-Lawh al-Mahfoodh. We know Mahfoodh. the hadith of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam that du’aa can change Qadr. The scholars have understood this hadith in 2 ways: 1. The Qadr that the angel knows could be changed by one’s du’aa so that what is written in al-Lawh du’aa al al-Mahfoodh will take precedence. The angels that are responsible for the human being will never Mahfoodh do what is written for them until they confirm with Lawh al Mahfoodh, but the will not have any al-Mahfoodh, knowledge of what is written in al tten al-Lawh al-Mahfoodh until such time as they have to make an Mahfoodh action. 2. Allah not only writes the deeds that are done by people, but what would occur if they did not do those deeds. Therefore Allah knows all of the Aqdaar of a human being but He know which Qadr knows will occur. I.e. you are reading these notes now, but Allah ta’ala knows what route you would take if you were not reading these notes right now. Your Qadr will not change until you make du’aa for it and Allah already knows that you would make du’aa and that Qadr would change. These are the 2 common opinions and they do not conflict. No one knows the future except Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala), and anyone who Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) allows to. Allah may allow some angels or Messengers etc. to have some knowledge of the Ghayb (unseen). But everything that is in Lawh al Mahfoodh is only within the knowledge of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). The point is no one knows al-Ghayb except Allah and anyone Allah reveals some of Al Ghayb to as Allah Ghayb Al-Ghayb mentions in Surah Jinn ayaat 26-27: 27: Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
"(Allah) the All-Knower of the Ghâ'ib (unseen), and He reveals to none His Ghâ'ib (unseen)." Knower
Except to a Messenger (from mankind) whom He has chosen (He informs him of unseen as much as He likes), and then He makes a band of watching guards (angels) to march before him and behind him. nd
90 Hadith 4: Which End are You Working For? Al-Qadr is Recorded 3 Times 1. We have the writing of the Qadar that has been done in the Lawh al Mahfoodh. 2. And we have writing when the angels breathe the soul into the Mutghah at 120 days. 3. Every human being, no matter what he does, there are angels that are writing down his actions, whether it is good or bad. We have three sets of writings down. Whatever someone does is exactly what Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) knew about and is written in th Lawh al Mahfoodh. the
Why do angels write after someone does something, when Allah azza wa jal already has this in the Lawh al Mahfoodh?
The answer to this is that on the Day of Judgment when Allah (azza wa jal) when makes the Hisaab, and we are brought forward for the judgment, Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) will judge us according to the ward books written by the angels, not according to the Lawh al Mahfoodh – even though they are the same thing. Why? Because of Allah’s fairness. Allah (azza wa jal) will judge peoples according to what they did, in the peoples days they lived (not what they would have done). Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) will make people accountable for what the angels have written so that no one will say that this is something that was written about me before I was born. But the writing that on before the Lawh al Mahfoodh is because of Allah’s Complete Knowledge of His Creation not because He compelled them to take a certain path. In fact, our own bodies will be sufficient witnesses against us on the Day of Judgment as Allah records in Judgment Surah Israa’ ayah 14:
(It will be said to him): "Read your book. You yourself are sufficient as a reckoner against you this Day." The Wisdom of the 3 Writings of Al Al-Qadr 1) Lawh al-Mahfoodh – which has everything that may happen in the infinite time, and the purpose in of this writing is that it reflects Allah’s knowledge as our Lord. There is no way for a Lord to be worthy of worship unless He had knowledge of what happened, what is happening and what will happen. We also believe that no one has this knowledge – for example of that the future – except Allah. That’s why Allah says in Qur’an in Surah A’raaf on the tongue of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam: 2) The writing done on the fetus in the mother’s womb by the Malaa’ikah is for them to take care them of people 3) The writing that is done after an action is performed is so that it can be used as evidence on the Day of Judgment.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
91 Hadith 4: Which End are You Working For?
The Second part of the Hadith
This Hadith was very difficult on the scholars, especially this part. However, the interpretation of it when it is easy to understand when studied in light of the whole Qur’an and Sunnah. This Hadith says that someone may do acts of a believer for his whole life until his last day when he will commit something that will bring him to the hellfire, and he will die on that status and he will enter Jahanum and vice versa. Ulamaa’ have looked at the different related Hadeeth. Another narration says: ‘as it may appear to the public’. In other words, that a man or a woman will continue to do the acts of the believers as it may appear to the people until their last days when they are doing the acts of the hellfire because they will be exposed to the people before their death. On the other hand, it also means that there is a possibility that peoples may have a bad thought about a person when he indeed is a man of righteousness. This is a lesson for all of us we should not judge peoples based on their appearance alone. One’s appearance tells us something and we have to take this into consideration but that does not mean that it tells you everything. We should not be judgmental. You will encounter in your life that many times peoples that you have not thought good about, that they will show something that will amaze you. This gives us a lesson that we should always invite people even if we see from them something that we may not like. We should always insist on calling all people regardless of who they are or see something in them we might not like. Husn al-Khitaam Al-Usayrin was a man at the time of Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam). This man came to battle of Uhud with the Mushrikeen, he was a non-Believer. He came to the battle of Uhud with the intention to kill the believers and to kill Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam). But Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) blessed his heart and guided him and he changed his religion during the battle. He accepted Islam during the battle of Uhud and he changed his position to the other side and he fought with the Muslims defending the Muslims. At the end of the battle he was about to die. And then the Sahabah came to him and they saw him about to die, and asked him: “what brought you here?” And he told them that: “I wish you can convey my salaam and my Shahadah to Rasool Allah (salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam) as this was my wish in my last day.” Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) took his soul right away. And perhaps this man was one of the few peoples that never made a single Sujood for Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) and Allah gave him this Husn al-Khitaam (a good ending). Reasons for Husn Al Khitam The Ulamaa’ have talked further about this and said that perhaps when someone looks at the incidents in his life, he will see that it is more common for people to be non practicing and then end up practicing – then people who continue practicing and end up non practicing. From the mercy of Allah, it is more common for people to have a Husn al-Khitaam (good ending) then Soo’ al-Khitaam (bad ending). Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
92 Hadith 4: Which End are You Working For? They also talked about people who do righteous good deeds in order to show off, to have peoples praise them. And those peoples as they appear to the public are very good and righteous, and when Allah takes their soul, Allah knows about them, and the angels will take their souls as being wrong-doers. Because what they did only looked good to the people but in fact it was not coming from their hearts such that they would deserve Jannah for it. Reasons for Soo’ Al-Khitaam Some of the Ulamaa’ have talked about the reasons for Soo’ al-Khitaam or a bad ending. There are a couple of reasons that this may happen: 1. Arrogance in the heart. Even if this happens in a low level, it may cause a bad ending for a Believer even if he has good intentions. Arrogance is one of the sins that will bring a bad ending to a human being. For example, the man that used to be a worshipper, a man of ibaadaat, and he used to worship Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) in his place of prayer, and every time he would get out of his place of prayer, he would see one of his relatives committing sins and he would tell this person to stop and fear Allah. And then one day he got out of his place of prayer and saw the same man doing a major sin, and he said: “I swear by Allah, Allah will never forgive you.” But who is He to speak on behalf of Allah? And actually Ulema when they interpreted this narration, they said that the reason that the “worshipper” said what he had was out of arrogance in his heart. He thought that because of the good deeds that he had been doing that he had some virtue that entitled him to say something about Allah’s decisions. Allah’s forgiveness is not in our hands regardless of who we are. And Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) said this to Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) too – that you can’t guide anyone you like. It’s not us that guides. No one can control Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). When someone thinks that he can do this, it’s an indication there is arrogance in his heart. 2. Lack of humility and looking down on others, i.e. a brother who shaves his beard or a sister who doesn’t dress modestly. If this causes us to feel superior to others then this is a cause of Soo’ alKhitaam
Ruling on Contraception
Contraception or ‘Azl was practiced at the time of Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) some Sahabah used to do ‘Azl. ‘Azl means having intercourse in such a way that the person fulfills their desires but in a way that does not bring children. The question was asked to Rasool Allah (sal Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) and he said, whether you do ‘Azl or you don’t, whatever Allah has written will happen. Bottom-line: If ‘Azl is being practiced to organize the process of producing children then it is permissible so long as it fulfills one condition: that the ‘Azl is not harmful to the one using it.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
93 Q&A For example, a woman says it takes me a while to get used to a new child and I want time to take the proper preparation of the child such that I can raise him or her in a way pleasing to Allah. Or young couples who are not against having children, but are engaged in full-time studies along with work then both cases are permissible. But if it is used in order to limit the number of children then it is not permissible (i.e. haram in Islam).
What Can you do to Keep Your Niyyah Pure?
1. Have good company that reminds you to check your niyyah. Human beings tend to forget, and unless we have people to remind us we will be easily strayed 2. You have to do things on your own without people looking at you. For example, something like Qiyam ul Layl when no one is there. When people only do their righteous deeds in front of people, that is where Riyaa’ gets into the picture and their sincerity starts getting messed. Do things in the privacy when no one else knows of them so as to purify yourself. In other words Seek to be even better in private when only Allah can see you then you are in private. Pray Qiyaam ul layl at least once a week, if not that often than at least once a month to keep your heart sincere. 3. Sadaqah – amongst those whom Allah will give shade on the Day of Judgment is someone who would give charity such that his left hand will not know what the right hand has spent. Giving charity in secrecy will help to make you and keep you attached to Allah (azza wa jal).
There are Two Harams
1. One that is between a person and Allah 2. One that is between two people. If someone steals from x, then this person has to return it to x. The children of this person cannot use this money that actually belongs to x.
Hadith 12 & 13: The Muslim Seeks the Beneficial
On the authority of Abu Hurairah, radhiAllahu anhu, who said: The Messenger of Allah, salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam said: Part of the perfection of someone’s Islam is his leaving alone that which does not concern him. (Hadith hasan, Tirmidhi) Definition Hassan Hadith One of the people in the isnaad has a slight weak memory, but the meaning of the Hadith is correct. This Hadith is one of the shortest ahadeeth in this collection. Most people have a superficial or shallow understanding of this Hadith. Insha’Allah, we’ll resolve that now. The way that most of the people understand this is that if there are two peoples that are talking to each other, and all of a sudden you come up to them asking what they are talking about, then the Hadith applies as you are being nosy or are prying. Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
94 Hadith 12 & 13: The Muslim Seeks the Beneficial
While this may be a part of the understanding of this Hadith, the crux of the Hadith is that in order for you to perfect your Islam, you are have to leave completely alone that which does not concern you. The Hadith is not referring to halal or haram. Examples of things you should not be concerned with: - Other peoples’ sincerity. You cannot judge someone else’s sincerity! This is reserved for Allah alone. - Knowledge that does not benefit us. Like the names or biographies of hockey players, rappers, actors, etc. Be conscious of this when reading du’aas such as: “Allahumma innee as’aluka ‘ilman naafi’an, wa rizqan tayyiban, wa ‘amalan mutaqabballan” [O Allah, I ask you for beneficial knowledge, a goodly provision, and deeds which are accepted]. See Hisn al-Muslim (Fortress of a Muslim) for similar du’aa. The ulema have said that not only should we not concern ourselves with Haram, but even things that are legally Halal. The point is not to involve ourselves unnecessarily in things which do not hold benefit for us. For example: A sahabi-style Muslim, if given the choice to go to a very nice restaurant and eat there or to just eat a piece of date and take his time to do other things, then this Muslim choose the date as it would free his time to do things of greater benefit, than sitting in a restaurant although there is nothing inherently Haram about this. Remember the young Sahabi fighting with the Prophet Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam? He had 3 dates and said : “If I were to live until I eat these, I have lived too long.” How long would it take you to eat 3 dates? Not long. But this Sahabi threw the dates aside and went to defend the Muslims. The point is not just to look at what is Halal and what is Haram. As Muslims we are followers of the Prophet Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam and our aim is to achieve the Pleasure of Allah and Jannah. Through the mercy of Allah, we will get there by always choosing what is better and not necessary what is permissible or keeping to the minimum requirement (although there is nothing inherently wrong with this). It was perfectly halal for the young Sahabi to eat his 3 dates in the heat of battle and gain strength for fighting, but he chose to spend all his time defending the Muslims. Imagine that you are a traveler, and you are going to Syria to visit a friend there for three days. Would you consider buying a home there for three days? Or a car? No, because you want to utilize your time in the best way you can. Think about your life like those three days that you will be spending in Syria. In reality, it is actually even more insignificant than that when compared to the eternity of the hereafter. The goal is to perfect our religion. Bottom Line: To get the closest you can to Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala, do not concern yourself with that which is of no benefit to you. That does not mean that all of those things are haram, but that there are better uses of your time (and we are our time).
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
95 Hadith 12 & 13: The Muslim Seeks the Beneficial Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam once came back to his home, and he asked his wife to bring him something to eat. She didn’t have anything to bring him except for a piece of bread that was very dry. She brought this piece of bread to him to eat. He salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam saw that it was really dry so he didn’t eat for a long time. So he asked her, do you have any dip or something. She brought him some vinegar. No one would dip bread in vinegar. Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam did not like to let her feel hurt. So what did he say? He said: ‘What a great dip is that of vinegar?’ Vinegar is indeed nutritional; but the praise here, (although some students of knowledge take it to the point of suggesting vinegar for people to eat) is that he wasn’t concerned about the quality of food— whatever was available and offered to him, he sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, would never even say a word against it, but rather would be grateful for it. Hadith Terms Who should be reporting the Hadith after Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam? A sahabi. Hadith Mursal When a Tabi’ee says that Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam said something, but didn’t say which sahabi gave him that knowledge.
Is this Hadith connected or disconnected? It is disconnected and therefore called Munqati’ (one which is cut off).
Mu’allaq For example, in this Hadith, the transmitter that is missing in this chain of narrators is right before Imam Bukhari. Mu’allaq means hanging. This chain is not connected to the compiler, it is hanging from the bottom but it is connected from the top, i.e. it is connected to Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam Recap: Imagine the chain of the Hadith with the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam at the top and Bukhari at the bottom. If the transmitter missing is a sahabi, its called Mursal. If the one missing is right before Bukhari, we call it Mu’allaq (hanging) because if you visualize it, the chain is hooked up from the top but hanging from the lower part. Like so: o o o o o Prophet
Missing person Bukhari or other Hadith Collector.
Mu’dhal if there are two people missing in the chain
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
96 Hadith 12 & 13: The Muslim Seeks the Beneficial Mudraj When the hadith narrator adds a word into the text of the Hadith. An example is the hadith of the starting of Wahi (Revelation). Aisha narrated that before the angel Jibreel came, the Prophet sal Allahu narrated alayhi wa sallam used to go worship Allah in cave Hira, and she said: “Wa huwa tahalluf.” This was mentioned in the body of the hadith, but this is not the saying of the Prophet, it is that of Aisha. Therefore, it is classified as Mudraj.
A thief came to one of the scholars to steal his money in the darkness of the night. Now this scholar was so poor that he didn’t have anything at his home. The thief was trying to find something to steal and he ng could not. The scholar was there and he was watching him but he pretended to be sleeping. After the thief gave up and he was about to leave the house, the Alim said: “You came here, and you found nothing, but I have something to give you you.” The scholar was a really old man. Th scholar said to the thief: “Why don’t you sit with me and spend This hy your life in something that will benefit you? you?” The thief said: “What will benefit you? This was the first time for him to think about this. The scholar you?” sc said: “Stay with me and you will see. tay see.” The scholar prayed Qiyam ul Layl (optional night prayer) and the thief prayed with him. When the scholar started to recite the Qur'aan, Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala softened the heart of the thief, and granted him Hidayaah (guidance). He spent the whole night the scholar. At the time of Salatul fajr, the . S scholar asked the thief if he wanted to come with him. So they went together to Salatul fajr, and he became one of his companions. The thief wa asked later on what happened, he said, “I went to steal was “ from him and I could not. But he stole my heart. ut heart.” Fudhayl ibn Riyaadh was a robber. He was one of the major thieves in the area and therefore, people used to be scared of him. One day he was trying to steal from someone’s house, and when he got to the ne someone’s house, he saw the person praying Qiyaam ul layl. The man was reciting from Surah Hadid ayah 16: Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Has not the time come for the hearts of those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) to be or affected by Allah's Reminder (this Qur'an), and that which has been revealed of the truth, lest they become as those who received the Scripture [the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] before (i.e. Jews and Christians), and the term was prolonged for them and so their hearts were hardened? And many of them were Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah).
97 Hadith 12 & 13: The Muslim Seeks the Beneficial When he heard him reciting this ayah, and the man was very sincere in his recitation, Hidaayah came into the heart of Fudhayl. And he said: “Yes indeed it is the time, it is the time.” And after that night, became one of the most devoted people to Islam.
The point of these narrations? You never know when Allah is going to guide someone.
This Hadith (#13) was narrated by Anas ibn Malik. Anas bin Malik radhiAllahu anhu who was the servant of Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam reported that the prophet salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:
None of you truly believes (in Allah and in His religion) until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself. (Bukhari and Muslim)
When Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam says – none of you will believe (this is the literal translation), some people interpret this to mean that one’s imaan (faith) will be completely nullified if someone doesn’t have the particular quality which is mentioned by the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa salalm But the correct interpretation is that you cannot reach the highest or the most complete state of Eman unless and until you have this quality AMONG others.
Anas bin Malik was one of the servants of Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam. Because he was a young boy during the life of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, he was amongst the Sahabah who lived for a long time after the death of Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam. He was amongst the last sahabah that passed away, radhiAllahu anhu. How does one reach this level of Eman in terms of loving for your brother what he loves for himself? What can one do to reach this level? Make du’a for your brother before you do it for yourself, or if you make du’a for yourself, make the same du’a for your brother. And we know from authentic narration that whoever makes du’aa for his brother in secret, the Angels will make du’aa to Allah that you are granted the same thing (i.e. “wa laka mithluhu”). Put yourself in the place of your brother, i.e. put yourself in his shoes and be empathetic Make sure your brother has already found his food before you eat yourself Stay away from materialism. Try to cut your attachment to this world because this will always distract you from thinking about your brothers and sisters Whatever makes you happy, do it for them Eethaar/Selflessness: think of your brother before you think of yourself Don’t get jealous!
Hasad - Envy o Did you know, Hasad is against your Aqeedah? That’s right. It goes against your Aqeedah in Qadr
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
98 Hadith 12 & 13: The Muslim Seeks the Beneficial
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o o Definition of Hasad: When you see someone being blessed with a Ni’mah (blessing) and you feel that you deserve this bounty more than them. What Hasad translates to is a disagreement with the Qadr of Allah because Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala executed His Will such that your brother will get a thing and you will not. If you are not happy with that this, then you are not happy with the Will and Decision of Allah azza wa jal. See how big of a sin being envy is? Remember: this life is for you to pass through it and all of the trials that come with it, and that Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala will give you a life in eternity in jannah bi ithnillah. True happiness and a lasting treasure is found only in Jannah. Everything on the face of this earth will perish, including the things we find we sometimes envy our brothers and sisters in faith for. But is our lust for these transient things worth the displeasure of Allah? Especially, when Allah promises us something so much greater in return for our submission and acceptance of His Will? Certainly not. If you think this way, not only would you love for your brothers what you love for yourself, but in fact you would love for them more than what you love for yourself. You are willing to give up everything you have because you are not worried about this Dunya. In fact, you would want to get Huge Ajr by helping them out – because your target is to please Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala and nothing else.
And to put into context, remember this: What is your ultimate goal in this life? To please Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala! Therefore, we should not be concerned with anything that will distract us from that. Similarly, we should not feel jealous of others when they enjoy a bounty that we don’t have because we don’t really concern ourselves with these things, because we are only asking Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala for that which will bring us closer to Him. Balance: Of course you need to worry about your well being and the well being of your family. Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam would ask Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala: “Allah’s mercy and bounties in duniya and aakhira” but in a way that it does not cause us pain or bother us if you we don’t receive it. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, rahimahullah, was asked once: “Is it possible to find a person who is wealthy and is a Zahid (one that refrains from this dunya) at the same time?” Imam Ahmad said, “Yes, if the wealth is in his hand and not in his heart.” Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
Meaning, that regardless of what money he will gain or what money he will lose, he will feel no concern regarding this, he will not be bothered.
When someone’s heart is so attached to this dunya, not only will he not get the best in the aakhira, but even in the dunya he will not enjoy himself. But the more you get yourself involved in this dunya, the more you feel that you cannot do things for the sake of the Hereafter. They are two opposite poles. Building dunya or treasures, will take you away and distract you from building similar for akhirah. But if you build for Akhirah, you will claim the dunya for yourself also.
99 Hadith 12 & 13: The Muslim Seeks the Beneficial Categorizing the Hadith according to how many narrators have narrated the hadith: Mutawatir Hadith If there were a very big group of people who would never agree upon falsehood /lying/making up a Hadith (such a big group, impossible to come together and lie) and this big group has heard the same Hadith from another group, and that group from another big group and so on and so forth, all the way to Rasool Allah salAllahu 'alayhi wasallam – then this is Mutawaatir. This is how each and every verse of the Qur’an has been transmitted to us and it is the highest form of authenticity of narration (i.e. greatest Sahih Hadith). Note: a sahih hadith does not need to be mutawatir. But if it is then this is the highest level of Ahadith. Ex: whoever tells a lie against me (i.e. the prophet salAllahu 'alaihi wa sallam), deliberately then let him choose his position in the hellfire. Aahad Hadith is any non-Muttawaatir Hadith. Amongst Aahad hadith is hadith Fardh (bottle neck), and hadith Ghareeb (bottle neck with two peoples). Note: Next course offered at Majd is Chain of Command - where we learn about these concepts and more in Hadith sciences in full detail. In order for a hadith to be authentic (Sahih), we have to meet the five conditions we talked about earlier. Those five conditions have nothing to do with the hadith being Muttawaatir or Aahad. If the transmitter that constitutes the bottleneck is trustworthy and has a strong memory, then this hadith is authentic. In other words, we should not try to relate the two terms - Aahad & Muttawaatir - with Sahih or Da’eef, except in noting that: 1. Every hadith that is Muttawaatir is Sahih (Muttawaatir=Sahih). 2. A Aahad hadith can be: a) Sahih b) Hasan c) Da’eef, or d) Mawdoo’ (fabricated).
That an ahad hadith can also attain the status of Sahih is a very important concept to understand. Some people claim that if a hadith is not Muttawaatir, then they will not use this hadith to derive our Aqeedah (or belief system). But this view is impractical and rather dangerous as the majority of our hadith are Aahad and not Muttawaatir. Furthermore, the majority of Aahad hadith are Sahih having met the 5 conditions discussed earlier.
Rasulullah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam sent Mus’a ibn Umayr to Madinah to teach the people there Islam. How many transmitters, if you will, were there between the people of Madinah and the Prophet sal Alllahu alayhi sallam? Just one, Mus’ab ibn Umayr! Meaning, everything the people of Medina heard from Mus’ab was a Hadith Fardh.
Qabeelat Majd – January 2009
100 Hadith 12 & 13: The Muslim Seeks the Beneficial Similarly, the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam also sent Mu’ad ibn Jabal to Yemen, to teach people there Islam also in the ‘Aahad’ fashion. Yet this was sufficient in the sight of Allah ta’ala and His messenger sal Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam that the message had reached the people and they were accountable for it based on that Aahaad transmission. If it was sufficient for Allah ta’ala and His Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, certainly it is enough to base our religion upon also.
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Qabeelat Majd – January 2009