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DOI: 10.1051/epjap:2007160 THE EUROPEAN

PHYSICAL JOURNAL

APPLIED PHYSICS

with two missing bonds

J.H. Asad1,a , R.S. Hijjawi2 , A.J. Sakaji3 , and J.M. Khalifeh4

1

Tabuk University, Teachers’ College, Department of Sciences (Physics), PO Box 1144, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

2

Department of Physics, Mutah University, Jordan

3

Department of Physics, Ajman University, UAE

4

Department of Physics, University of Jordan, 11942 Amman, Jordan

Received: 22 April 2007 / Received in ﬁnal form: 17 July 2007 / Accepted: 7 September 2007

Published online: 13 December 2007 – c EDP Sciences

Abstract. The capacitance between any two arbitrary lattice sites of an inﬁnite square network consisting

of identical capacitors is studied analytically and numerically for a perturbed network. The perturbation

is as a result of removing the bonds (i0 j0 ) and (k0 l0 ) from the perfect network. The equivalent capacitance

is expressed in terms of the Lattice Green’s Function (LGF) of the perturbed network. Solving Dyson’s

equation we express the LGF and the capacitance of the perturbed network in terms of those of the

inﬁnite perfect network. The asymptotic behavior of the perturbed capacitance is also studied. Finally,

some numerical results are presented for the perturbed inﬁnite square lattice, and a comparison is carried

out for those of the perturbed and perfect inﬁnite square network.

PACS. 02.70.Bf Finite-diﬀerence methods – 05.50.+q Lattice theory and statistics – 61.72.-y Defects and

impurities in crystals; microstructure

of inﬁnite lattices, where they used diﬀerent methods (i.e.

A classic and important problem in the electric circuit as an example; superposition of current distribution [5,6],

theory that has attracted the attention of many authors and random walk theory [7]).

over many years is analyzing the electric circuit and

the consideration of network resistances and impedances. Later on, an important method [12–17] was used to

Kirchhoﬀ’s [1] was the ﬁrst one who formulated and stud- calculate the eﬀective resistance between any two arbi-

ied the electric networks more than 150 years ago. The trary lattice points in many inﬁnite lattices. The method

electric circuit theory is discussed in detail in a classic is based on the LGF and it was introduced by Cserti [12].

book by Van der Pol and Bremmer [2]. The basic prob- The importance of this method lies in the facts that:

lem in studying the electric circuit is the evaluation of the (i) it can be used straightforwardly for complicated lat-

equivalent resistances and impedances which; in principle; tice structure (i.e. Body Centered Lattice-BCC-, and Face

can be carried out using traditional, but often tedious, Centered Lattice-FCC-). (ii) The results presented by

analysis such as Kirchhoﬀ’s and Ohm’s laws, there has this method reﬂect the symmetry of the lattice structure.

been no fundamental solution. (iii) Some recurrence formulae for the resistance in inﬁnite

In their book Van der Pol and Bremmer [2] derived lattices can be derived using the LGF equations. (iv) Fi-

the resistance between nearby points on the square lattice. nally, the LGF method can be applied for both perfect

Aitchson [3] gives an elegant and elementary solution for inﬁnite lattices, and for perturbed inﬁnite lattices. Re-

the problem of ﬁnding the resistance between two adja- cently, Wu [18] obtained the resistance between two arbi-

cent grid points of an inﬁnite square lattice in which all trary nodes in a resistor network in terms of the eigenval-

the edges represent identical resistances R, and the result ues and eigenfunctions of the Laplacian matrix associated

given in his work is R2 . Bartis [4] introduced how com- with the network. Explicit formulae for two point resis-

plex systems can be treated at the undergraduate level tances are deduced in his paper for regular lattices in one,

and he showed how to calculate the resistance between two, and three-dimensions under various boundary con-

adjacent nodes of many lattices of 1-ohm resistors. Dur- ditions. Osterberg and Inan [19] extended Aitchison [3]

ing the 30 years that followed Bartis [4] work many au- and Bartis [4] work to the general problem of ﬁnding the

eﬀective resistance between two adjacent nodes of any d-

a

e-mail: jhasad1@yahoo.com dimensional inﬁnite resistive lattice.

258 The European Physical Journal Applied Physics

diﬀerent directions, and a comparison is carried out with

the capacitances of the perfect network.

2 Perfect case

In this section, we review the formalism of the perfect

inﬁnite d-dimensional network using Dirac’s notation.

Consider a perfect d-dimensional inﬁnite lattice con-

sisting of identical capacitors of capacitance C each, and

take all the lattice points to be speciﬁed by the position

vector r given in the form:

r = l1a1 + l2a2 + . . . + ldad (2.1)

where l1 , l2 , . . . , ld are integers (positive, negative or zero),

and a1 , a2 , . . . , ad are independent primitive translation

Fig. 1. Perturbation of an inﬁnite square lattice consisting of vectors.

identical capacitances C by removing the bond between the Let the potential at the site ri be V (ri ) and assuming

sites ri0 , rj0 and the bond between the sites rk0 , rl0 . The ca- a charge +Q enters the site ri and a charge −Q exits the

pacitance C(i, j) is calculated between arbitrary lattice sites ri site rj , while the charges are zero at all other lattice sites.

and rj . Thus, we may write:

Qm = Q[δmi − δmj ] for all m. (2.2)

The analysis of the capacitance of an inﬁnite net- Then, according to Ohm’s and Kirchhoﬀ’s laws we may

work of identical capacitors has been investigated re- write:

cently [20–24]. The impedance of a standard ladder net- Q(ri )

work of capacitors and inductors is studied by Van = [V (ri ) − V (ri + n)] (2.3)

C

Enk [20], where the behavior of the impedance of a stan-

n

dard ladder network of capacitors and inductors is ana- where n are the vectors from site r to its nearest neighbors

lyzed as a function of the size of the network. This behav- (n = ±ai , i = 1, 2, . . . , d). One can form two state vectors,

ior may be unstable in the absence of dissipation so that V and Q at the site ri such that:

the limit of an inﬁnite network is not well deﬁned. Stan-

dard textbooks do not always treat this case correctly. In V = |i Vi

a previous work [21], we used the LGF method to cal- i

culate the capacitance between arbitrary lattice sites in a Q= |i Qi (2.4)

perfect inﬁnite square lattice consisting of identical capac- i

itors, some numerical results were given and the asymp-

totic behavior was also studied when the separation be- where Vi = V (ri ) and Qi = Q(ri ).

tween the two sites goes to inﬁnity. We have also [22] used Here we assumed that |i, associated with the site ri ,

the superposition of charge distribution in calculating the forms

a complete orthonormal set, i.e. i|k = δik and

capacitance between two points in an inﬁnite square grid |ii| = 1. Using equations (2.4) and (2.3) one gets:

of identical capacitors. Tzeng and Wu [23] introduced a i

sites in an impedance network, where some numerical ex- (zδij − ∆ij ) j| V = (2.5)

C

amples were given. In a recent work [24], we introduced j

the perturbed network of identical capacitors, where the

z is the number of neighbors of each lattice site (e.g.

LGF method is used to calculate the capacitance between

arbitrary lattice sites in a perturbed inﬁnite square lattice z = 2d for a d-dimensional hypercubic lattice) and ∆kl

consisting of identical capacitors. is deﬁned as:

This work is organized as follows. In Section 2, we re- 1, rk , rl are nearest neighbors

view the perfect case of an inﬁnite square network of iden- ∆kl = (2.6)

zero, otherwise.

tical capacitors using Dirac’s notation. In Section 3, the

capacitance between arbitrary lattice sites ri and rj in The summation in equation (2.5) is taken over all lat-

the perturbed network is investigated. As an example (see tice sites. Multiplying equation (2.5) by |i and summing

Fig. 1), consider an inﬁnite square lattice consisting of over i, one gets:

identical capacitances C. Removing two bonds from this

−Q

perfect lattice results in a perturbed lattice. The prob- |i (∆ij − zδij ) j| V = . (2.7)

lem is ﬁnding the equivalent capacitance C(i,j) C . Finally, i,j

C

J.H. Asad et al.: Inﬁnite 2D square network of identical capacitors with two missing bonds 259

Or one may write: As the separation between the sites ri and rj goes to in-

ﬁnity then one ﬁnds that

−Q

L0 V = (2.8)

C C0 (i, j)

→ 0. (2.15)

where C

L0 = |i (∆ij − zδij ) j| The above result can be explained as a parallel capacitance

i,j with inﬁnite potential diﬀerence between its plates, which

L0 is the so-called lattice Laplacian. is obvious due to the large separation between the two

Similarly to the deﬁnition used in Economou [25], the sites which means that the potential diﬀerence goes to

LGF for an inﬁnite perfect lattice can be deﬁned as: inﬁnity (C = Q/V ).

L0 G0 = −1. (2.9)

The solution of equation (2.9), which is a Poisson-like 3 Perturbed case

equation, in its simple form, can be given as:

In this section, the capacitance between the sites ri and rj

L−1

0 Q G0 Q in an inﬁnite networks consisting of identical capacitors is

V =− = . (2.10) derived when two bonds from the perfect inﬁnite network

C C

are removed (i.e. the network is perturbed as in Fig. 1).

Inserting equation (2.2) into equation (2.10), we obtained: The charge contribution δQi1 at the site ri due to the

bond (i0 j0 ) is given by:

k| G0 Q

Vk = k| V = ,

C δQi1

1 = δii0 (Vi0 − Vj0 ) + δij0 (Vj0 − Vi0 )

= k| G0 |m Qm , C

C m = i|i0 (i0 | − j0 |)V + i|j0 (j0 | − i0 |)V

Q = i| (|i0 − |j0 )(i0 | − j0 |)V

= [G0 (k, i) − Go (k, j)] (2.11)

C δQi1

= i| L1 V (3.1)

where G0 (l, m) = l| G0 |m is the matrix element of the C

operator G0 in the basis |l. where the operator L1 has the form

Finally, the capacitance between the sites ri and rj in

an inﬁnite d-dimensional network is then given as: L1 = (|i0 − |j0 ) (i0 | − j0 |) (3.2)

1 Vi − Vj 2 and n|m = δnm is used.

= = [G0 (i, i) − G0 (i, j)]. (2.12)

C0 (i, j) Q C Replacing the bond (i0 j0 ) by (k0 l0 ) then, the charge

contribution δQi2 at the site ri due to the bond (k0 l0 ) can

The above formula can be rewritten as:

be given according to equation (3.1) as:

C

C0 (i, j) = (2.13) δQi2

2[G0 (i, i) − G0 (i, j)] = i| L2 V (3.3)

C

where we have make used of the symmetry of the LGF.

Note that the above formalism is valid for any inﬁnite where the operator L2 has the form

network consisting of identical capacitors.

Using the above result, the equivalent capacitance be- L2 = (|k0 − |l0 ) (k0 | − l0 |) . (3.4)

tween the origin and the site (l, m) in an inﬁnite square Now, removing the bonds (i0 j0 ) and (k0 l0 ) from the inﬁ-

network can easily be calculated by expressing G0 (l, m) in

nite perfect network then, one can write the charge Qi at

terms of G0 (0, 0) and its derivatives [26]. Or, by using the

the site ri as:

so-called recurrence formulae presented in reference [22].

The same results are obtained using the charge distribu- δi1 δi2 Qi

tion method [23]. (−L0 V )i − − = . (3.5)

C C C

For comparison reasons some of the calculated values

in reference [22,23] are presented in Table 1. Or, simply;

To study the asymptotic form of the capacitance for Qi

LV = − (3.6)

large separation between the two lattices sites ri and rj C

in an inﬁnite square network one can write [24]: where L = L01 + L, and L01 = L0 + L1 .

Similarly to the case of an inﬁnite perfect lattice, the

C0 (i, j) 1

= . LGF for the inﬁnite perturbed lattice (i.e. the lattice

C 1 Ln8 formed after removing two bonds) can be written as:

Ln (jx − ix )2 + (jy − iy )2 + γ +

π 2

(2.14) LG = −1. (3.7)

260 The European Physical Journal Applied Physics

Table 1. Calculated values for the capacitance of an inﬁnite square lattice between the origin and the site j = (jx , 0), for a perfect

square lattice (C0 (i, j)/C); perturbed square lattice due to removing only the bond between (0, 0) and (1, 0)−(C01 (i, j)/C)−;

perturbed square lattice due to removing the bonds between (0, 0), (1, 0) and (1, 0), (2, 0)−(C1 (i, j)/C)−; perturbed square

lattice due to removing the bonds between (0, 0), (1, 0) and (2, 0), (3, 0)−(C2 (i, j)/C)−; and ﬁnally, perturbed square lattice

due to removing the bonds between (1, 0), (2, 0) and (2, 0), (3, 0)−(C3 (i, j)/C).

j = (jx , 0) C0 (i, j)/C C01 (i, j)/C C1 (i, j)/C C2 (i, j)/C C3 (i, j)/C

(10, 0) 0.8014 0.7195 0.7163 0.7171 0.7195

(9, 0) 0.8238 0.7362 0.7304 0.7324 0.7300

(8, 0) 0.8502 0.7556 0.7459 0.7498 0.7527

(7, 0) 0.8822 0.7785 0.7625 0.7693 0.7709

(6, 0) 0.9223 0.8063 0.7797 0.7911 0.7887

(5, 0) 0.9748 0.8408 0.7956 0.8129 0.8000

(4, 0) 1.0482 0.8849 0.8029 0.8227 0.7817

(3, 0) 1.1620 0.9421 0.7745 0.7502 0.6398

(2, 0) 1.3759 1.0092 0.6124 0.9922 0.9537

(1, 0) 2 1 0.8999 0.9651 0.9706

(0, 0) ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

(−1, 0) 2 1.8610 1.7145 1.8273 1.8395

(−2, 0) 1.3759 1.2597 1.2142 1.2496 1.2565

(−3, 0) 1.1620 1.0601 1.0391 1.0554 1.0599

(−4, 0) 1.0482 0.9563 0.9454 0.9537 0.9563

(−5, 0) 0.9748 0.8902 0.8845 0.8888 0.8896

(−6, 0) 0.9223 0.8433 0.8404 0.8425 0.8417

(−7, 0) 0.8822 0.8076 0.8064 0.8072 0.8049

(−8, 0) 0.8502 0.7793 0.7789 0.7792 0.7754

(−9, 0) 0.8238 0.7561 0.7560 0.7561 0.7509

(−10, 0) 0.8014 0.7365 0.7365 0.7366 0.7303

To ﬁnd the equivalent capacitance between any lattice Note here that G(i, i) = G(j, j) since that the transla-

sites ri and rj , we assume the charge distribution to be as tional symmetry is broken due to the removed two bonds

in equation (2.2). (i0 j0 ) and (k0 l0 ), but G(i, j) = G(j, i).

Now, the simplest solution of equation (3.6) is According to Cserti et al. [13], the perturbed Green’s

Qi −1 function is given by:

V =− L . (3.8)

C

G01 (i, j) = i| G01 |j = G0 (i, j)

Using equation (3.7), then equation (3.8) becomes:

V =

Qi

G. (3.9) [G0 (i, i0 ) − G0 (i, j0 )] [G0 (i0 , j) − G0 (j0 , j)]

+ . (3.13)

C 1 − 2 [G0 (i0 , i0 ) − G0 (i0 , j0 )]

To obtain the potentials at diﬀerent sites, insert equa-

tion (2.10) into equation (3.9) one gets; The matrix elements of G for two removed bonds can be

expressed in terms of the matrix elements of G01 by iter-

Q ation procedure:

Vk = [G(k, i) − G(k, j)]. (3.10)

C

Using equations (2.10) and (2.11), the capacitance be- G(i, j) = G01 (i, j)

tween the two lattice sites ri and rj can be written as

1 Vi − Vj [G01 (i, k0 ) − G01 (i, l0 )] [G01 (k0 , j) − G01 (l0 , j)]

= . (3.11) + .

C(i, j) Q 1 − [G01 (k0 , k0 ) + G01 (l0 , l0 ) − 2G01 (l0 , k0 )]

(3.14)

Inserting equation (3.10) into equation (3.11) we obtain:

C Finally, inserting equation (3.14) into equation (3.12)

= [G(i, i) − G(i, j) + G(j, j) − G(j, i)] . (3.12) then, the equivalent capacitancebetween any two lattice

C(i, j)

J.H. Asad et al.: Inﬁnite 2D square network of identical capacitors with two missing bonds 261

sites ri and rj in the perturbed network (i.e. two bonds Part III is:

are removed) can be written as:

Part III = [G01 (i, k0 )−G01 (i, l0 )] [G01 (k0 , i)−G01 (l0 , i)]

C

= G01 (i, i) + G01 (j, j) − 2G01 (i, j)

C(i, j)

+ [G01 (j, k0 ) − G01 (j, l0 )] [G01 (k0 , j) − G01 (l0 , j)]

1

+

1 − [G01 (k0 , k0 ) + G01 (l0 , l0 ) − 2G01 (k0 , l0 )] − [G01 (i, k0 ) − G01 (i, l0 )] [G01 (k0 , j) − G01 (l0 , j)]

× [G01 (i, k0 ) − G01 (i, l0 )] [G01 (k0 , i) − G01 (l0 , i)] − [G01 (j, k0 ) − G01 (j, l0 )] [G01 (k0 , i) − G01 (l0 , i)] =

2

+ [G01 (j, k0 ) − G01 (j, l0 )] [G01 (k0 , j) − G01 (l0 , j)] [G01 (i, k0 ) − G01 (i, l0 )] − [G01 (j, k0 ) − G01 (j, l0 )] .

(3.19)

× [G01 (i, k0 ) − G01 (i, l0 )] [G01 (k0 , j) − G01 (l0 , j)]

Insert equation (3.13) into equation (3.19), one gets after

+ [G01 (j, k0 ) − G01 (j, l0 )] [G01 (k0 , i) − G01 (l0 , i)] . some straight forward but lengthy algebra:

(3.15)

Part III = G0 (i, k0 ) + G0 (j, l0 ) − G0 (i, l0 ) − G0 (j, k0 )

Equation (3.15) consists of three parts, part I is

1

Part I = G01 (i, i) + G01 (j, j) − 2G01 (i, j), + (G0 (i, i0 ) + G0 (j, j0 )

1 − 2[G0 (i0 , i0 ) − G0 (i0 , j0 )]

and after some lengthily but straight-forward algebra it

becomes: − 2G0 (i, j0 ))(G0 (j0 , l0 ) + G0 (j0 , k0 )

2

C 1 − G0 (i0 , l0 ) − G0 (i0 , k0 )) . (3.20)

Part I = =

C01 (i, j) C0 (i, j)

2 Inserting equation (2.12) into the above equation and

1 1 1 1 making use of the symmetry of the perfect LGF, one gets:

+ − −

C0 (i, j0 ) C0 (j, i0 ) C0 (i, i0 ) C0 (j, j0 )

+

. ⎡⎧

1 1

4 1− ⎪

⎪

1 1 1

C0 (i0 , j0 ) ⎢⎨ C0 (j, k0 ) + C0 (i, l0 ) − C0 (j, l0 ) − C0 (j, k0 )

(3.16) Part III = ⎢

⎣⎪

⎪ 2

⎩

Equation (3.16) is exactly the same as that in refer-

ence [24], which is due to removing the bond (i0 j0 ).

1

Taking j0 → i0 , equation (3.16) reduces to equa- +

1

tion (2.13). The perturbed problem is reduced into the 1−

perfect one. C0 (i0 , j0 )

Part II is:

⎛ ⎞

2 1 1

1 − −

⎜ C0 (i, j0 ) C0 (i, i0 ) C0 (j, j0 ) ⎟

Part II =

1 − [G01 (k0 , k0 ) + G01 (l0 , l0 ) − 2G01 (k0 , l0 )]

. ×⎜

⎝

⎟

⎠

2

(3.17)

Comparing part II with part I, we can write:

⎛ ⎞⎫2 ⎤

1 1 1 1 1 ⎪

⎪

1 − [G01 (k0 , k0 ) + G01 (l0 , l0 ) − 2G01 (k0 , l0 )]

= ⎜ C0 (i0 , k0 ) + C0 (i0 , l0 ) − C0 (j0 , l0 ) − C0 (j0 , k0 ) ⎟⎬ ⎥

⎜

×⎝ ⎟ ⎥

2 ⎠⎪ ⎦ .

⎪

⎭

1

. (3.18) (3.21)

1

1− (k , l )

C01 0 0

262 The European Physical Journal Applied Physics

C(i, j) 1

= ⎧ ⎫2 . (3.22)

C ⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎨ ⎪

⎬

1 1 1

+ CI (ij; k0 l0 ) + CII (ij; i0 j0 )CIII (ij; k0 l0 )

C01 (i, j) 1 ⎪

⎪ 1 ⎪

⎪

1− ⎩ 1− ⎭

C01 (k0 , l0 ) C0 (i0 , j0 )

C01 (k0 , l0 ) 1

=

2 (3.23)

C 1 1 1 1

+ − −

1 C0 (k0 , j0 ) C0 (l0 , i0 ) C0 (k0 , i0 ) C0 (l0 , j0 )

+

C0 (k0 , l0 ) 1

4 1−

C0 (i0 , j0 )

Finally, from equations (3.16), (3.18) and (3.21), equa- 4 Numerical results and discussion

tion (3.15) becomes:

In this section, numerical results are presented for an inﬁ-

see equation (3.22) above nite square lattice including both the perfect and the four

where C01

(k0 , l0 ) is the capacitance between the two ends perturbed cases (i.e. the bond between the sites (0, 0) and

of the second removed bond (k0 , l0 ) as aﬀected from the (1, 0) is removed alone, the two bonds between the sites

ﬁrst removed bond (i0 , j0 ): (0, 0), (1, 0) and (1, 0), (2, 0) are removed, the two bonds

between the sites (0, 0), (1, 0) and (2, 0), (3, 0) are removed

see equation (3.23) above and ﬁnally, the two bonds between the sites (1, 0), (2, 0)

and (2, 0), (3, 0) are removed). The capacitance between

where CI (ij; k0 l0 ), CII (ij; i0 j0 ), and CIII (i0 j0 ; k0 l0 ) are de-

the origin and the site j = (jx , 0) in both an inﬁnite per-

ﬁned as follows:

fect and perturbed square network is calculated.

For the inﬁnite square network, we [21,22] calculated

CI (ij; k0 l0 ) = the capacitance between the origin and the lattice site j =

1 1 1 1 (jx , 0) (i.e. (C0 (i, j)/C)) using two diﬀerent methods (i.e.

+ − −

C0 (j, k0 ) C0 (i, l0 ) C0 (j, l0 ) C0 (i, k0 ) LGF method and Charge distribution method); some of

(3.24) the calculated values are shown in Table 1 for comparison

2

reasons.

2 1 1 On the perturbed (i.e. only the bond between the

− −

C0 (i, j0 ) C0 (i, i0 ) C0 (j, j0 ) sites (0, 0) and (1, 0) is removed) square lattice the ca-

CII (ij; i0 j0 ) = (3.25) pacitance between the origin and the site j = (jx , 0) (i.e.

2

(C01 (i, j)/C)) has been calculated in reference [24] and

some of the calculated values are shown in Table 1 for

CIII (i0 j0 ; k0 l0 ) = comparison reasons.

1 1 1 1 In this work, the site ri is ﬁxed (i.e. taken to be (0, 0))

+ − − while the site rj is moved along the line of the removed

C0 (i0 , k0 ) C0 (i0 , l0 ) C0 (j0 , l0 ) C0 (j0 , k0 )

. (3.26) bonds (i.e. [10]-direction). Here we considered three cases;

2

ﬁrst, when the two removed bonds are between the sites

From equation (3.22), one can see that C(i, j) is always i0 = (0, 0), j0 = (1, 0) and k0 = (1, 0), l0 = (2, 0), where,

less than C01 (i, j), and from equation (3.16) C01 (i, j) is our calculated values of the capacitances (i.e. (C1 (i, j)/C))

always less than C0 (i, j). This means that C(i, j) is always are arranged in Table 1. In the second case, the two

less than C0 (i, j). removed bonds are taken to be between i0 = (0, 0),

To check our result. Taking l0 → k0 and j0 → i0 , j0 = (1, 0) and k0 = (2, 0), l0 = (3, 0), again our cal-

then one can see that equation (3.16) reduces to equa- culated values of the capacitances (i.e. (C2 (i, j)/C)) are

tion (2.13). This means that the perturbed problem is re- arranged in Table 1. Finally, the two removed bonds are

duced to the perfect one. taken to be between i0 = (1, 0), j0 = (2, 0) and k0 = (2, 0),

Finally, to study the asymptotic behavior of the equiv- l0 = (3, 0), again our calculated values of the capacitances

alent capacitance C(i, j) as i or/and j goes to inﬁn- (i.e. (C3 (i, j)/C)) are arranged in Table 1.

ity, then from the deﬁnitions of CI (ij; k0 l0 ), CII (ij; i0 j0 ), In Figures 2–4 the capacitance for both the perfect and

CIII (i0 j0 ; k0 l0 ) and from equations (2.15) and (3.22) one the above three perturbed cases are plotted as a function

ﬁnds that: of jx . It is clear from these ﬁgures that the perturbed

capacitance is not symmetric along [10]-direction due to

C(i, j) → C01 (i, j) → C0 (i, j) → 0. (3.27) the fact that the inversion symmetry of the lattice is bro-

ken along this direction as a result of removing the two

This means, that the eﬀect of the removed bonds vanishes. bonds, while the perfect capacitance is symmetric along

J.H. Asad et al.: Inﬁnite 2D square network of identical capacitors with two missing bonds 263

Fig. 2. The capacitance on the perfect () and the perturbed Fig. 4. The capacitance on the perfect () and the perturbed

(•) square inﬁnite lattice between i = (0, 0) and j = (jx , 0) (•) square inﬁnite lattice between i = (0, 0) and j = (jx , 0)

along the [10]-direction as a function of jx . The removed bonds along the [10]-direction as a function of jx . The removed bonds

are between i0 = (0, 0), j0 = (1, 0) and k0 = (1, 0), l0 = (2, 0). are between i0 = (1, 0), j0 = (2, 0) and k0 = (2, 0), l0 = (3, 0).

from the ﬁrst broken bond (i0 j0 ), then the calculated ca-

pacitance C(i, j) increases and approaches those of the

calculated values for C01 (i, j) more rapidly and for large

separation between the two sites ri and rj then C(i, j) →

C01 (i, j) → C0 (i, j) more rapidly (i.e. see calculated val-

ues for C2 (i, j), C1 (i, j), C01 (i, j) and C0 (i, j)). Also, when

the two broken bonds are shifted away together from the

origin then the calculated capacitance C(i, j) increases

and approaches those of the calculated values for C01 (i, j)

more rapidly and for large separation between the two

sites ri and rj then C(i, j) → C01 (i, j) → C0 (i, j) more

rapidly (i.e. see calculated values for C3 (i, j), C1 (i, j),

C01 (i, j) and C0 (i, j)).

Finally, as moving along the site j = (−jx , 0) we can

Fig. 3. The capacitance on the perfect () and the perturbed see from Figures 2–4, that the calculated values C01 (i, j),

(•) square inﬁnite lattice between i = (0, 0) and j = (jx , 0) C1 (i, j), C2 (i, j) and C3 (i, j) are very close specially when

along the [10]-direction as a function of jx . The removed bonds the separation between the two sites ri and rj increases.

are between i0 = (0, 0), j0 = (1, 0) and k0 = (2, 0), l0 = (3, 0). This is due to the fact that there are no broken bonds

along this direction.

We feel that the content of this manuscript is help-

that direction since there is no broken bond along this di- ful for electric circuit design and the method is instruc-

rection. Also, one can see that the capacitance when two tive for electrical engineering. The method presented in

bonds are broken is always smaller than that when one this manuscript demonstrates a clear way for evaluating

bond is broken which in turn is always smaller than the the equivalent capacitance of a network. Estimation of the

perfect capacitance as mentioned before. In general, one edge contribution remains as a challenging problem, to be

can say that as the number of broken bonds increases in considered in future work.

an inﬁnite square lattice the perturbed capacitance de-

creases (i.e. approaches the perfect one, but never de-

creases than it). Remember that the capacitance between

the two ends of the removed bond (i.e. in the case where

References

one bond is removed) is equal to C, and this is explained

1. G. Kirchhoﬀ, Ann. Phys. und Chime 72, 497 (1847)

in reference [21]. While the capacitance between the ends

2. B. Van der Pol, H. Bremmer, Operational Calculus Based

of the broken bond (i0 j0 ) in the present of any other re- on the Two-Sided Laplace Integral (Cambridge University

moved bond is never equal to C, this can be explained as Press, England, 1955)

in the ﬁrst case there is an inversion symmetry around the 3. R.E. Aitchison, Am. J. Phys. 32, 566 (1964)

broken bond, but in the second case the inversion symme- 4. F.J. Bartis, Am. J. Phys. 35, 354 (1967)

try around the broken bond (i0 j0 ) is now broken due to 5. D. Atkinson, F.J. Van Steenwijk, Am. J. Phys. 67, 486

the presence of the another broken bond. (1999)

From the calculated values and Figures 2–4, one can 6. G. Venezian, Am. J. Phys. 62, 11 (1994)

see that as the second removed bond (k0 l0 ) is shifted away 7. M. Jeng, Am. J. Phys. 68, 1 (2000)

264 The European Physical Journal Applied Physics

8. L. Lavatelli, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1246 (1972) 18. F.Y. Wu, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37, 6653 (2004)

9. P.E. Trier, Bull. Inst. Math. Appl. 21, 58 (1985) 19. P.M. Osterberg, A.S. Inan, Am. J. Phys. 72, 972 (2004)

10. D. Camermon, Math. Scientists 11, 75 (1986) 20. S.J. Van Enk, Am. J. Phys. 68, 854 (2000)

11. F.J. Van Steenwijk, Am. J. Phys. 66, 90 (1998) 21. J.H. Asad, R.S. Hijjawi, A.J. Sakaji, J.M. Khalifeh, Int. J.

12. J. Cserti, Am. J. Phys. 68, 896 (2000) Mod. Phys. B 19, 3713 (2005)

13. J. Cserti, G. David, A. Piroth, Am. J. Phys. 70, 153 (2002) 22. J.H. Asad, R.S. Hijjawi, A.J. Sakaji, J.M. Khalifeh, Eur.

14. J.H. Asad, Ph.D. thesis, University of Jordan (2004) (un- Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 149 (2005)

published) 23. W.J. Tzenj, F.Y. Wu, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 8579

15. J.H. Asad, R.S. Hijjawi, A.J. Sakaji, J.M. Khalifeh, Int. J. (2006)

Theo. Phys. 43, 2223 (2004) 24. R.S. Hijjawi, J.H. Asad, A.J. Sakaji, J.M. Khalifeh, Int. J.

16. J.H. Asad, R.S. Hijjawi, A.J. Sakaji, J.M. Khalifeh, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 21, 199 (2007)

Theo. Phys. 44, 471 (2005) 25. E.N. Economou, Green’s Function in Quantum Physics

17. J.H. Asad, A.J. Sakaji, R.S. Hijjawi, J.M. Khalifeh. Eur. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983)

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