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Chap19-336-351 20/06/02 10:42 Page 336

• 19 • A.C. Motor Protection

Introduction 19.1
Modern relay design 19.2
Thermal (Overload) protection 19.3
Start/Stall protection 19.4
Short circuit protection 19.5
Earth fault protection 19.6
Negative phase sequence protection 19.7
Wound rotor induction
motor protection 19.8
RTD temperature detection 19.9
Bearing failures 19.10
Undervoltage protection 19.11
Loss-of-load protection 19.12
Additional protection
for synchronous motors 19.13
Motor protection examples 19.14
Chap19-336-351 20/06/02 10:42 Page 337

• 19 • A.C. Motor P rotection


19.1 INTRODUCTION
There are a wide range of a.c. motors and motor
characteristics in existence, because of the numerous
duties for which they are used. All motors need
protection, but fortunately, the more fundamental
problems affecting the choice of protection are
independent of the type of motor and the type of load to
which it is connected. There are some important
differences between the protection of induction motors
and synchronous motors, and these are fully dealt with
in the appropriate section.
Motor characteristics must be carefully considered when
applying protection; while this may be regarded as
stating the obvious, it is emphasised because it applies
more to motors than to other items of power system
plant. For example, the starting and stalling
currents/times must be known when applying overload
protection, and furthermore the thermal withstand of
the machine under balanced and unbalanced loading
must be clearly defined.
The conditions for which motor protection is required
can be divided into two broad categories: imposed
external conditions and internal faults. Table 19.1
provides details of all likely faults that require protection.

External Faults Internal faults


Unbalanced supplies Bearing failures
Undervoltages Winding faults
Single phasing Overloads
Reverse phase sequence

Table 19.1: Causes of motor failures

1 9 . 2 M O D E R N R E L AY D E S I G N
The design of a modern motor protection relay must be
adequate to cater for the protection needs of any one of
the vast range of motor designs in service, many of the
designs having no permissible allowance for overloads. A
relay offering comprehensive protection will have the
following set of features:
a. thermal protection
b. extended start protection
c. stalling protection

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d. number of starts limitation heat at a rate proportional to temperature rise. This is


the principle behind the ‘thermal replica’ model of a
e. short circuit protection
motor used for overload protection.
f. earth fault protection
The temperature T at any instant is given by:
g. winding RTD measurement/trip
T = Tmax (1 - e-t/τ)
h. negative sequence current detection where:
i. undervoltage protection Tmax = final steady state temperature
j. loss-of-load protection τ = heating time constant
k. out-of-step protection Temperature rise is proportional to the current squared:

l. loss of supply protection T = KI R2 (1 − e −t τ


)
m. auxiliary supply supervision where:
(items k and l apply to synchronous motors only) IR = current which, if flowing continuously, produces
In addition, relays may offer options such as circuit temperature Tmax in the motor
breaker condition monitoring as an aid to maintenance. Therefore, it can be shown that, for any overload current
Manufacturers may also offer relays that implement a I , the permissible time t for this current to flow is:
reduced functionality to that given above where less
comprehensive protection is warranted (e.g. induction  
motors of low rating).  1 
t = τ log e 
The following sections examine each of the possible
failure modes of a motor and discuss how protection may  { 2 
 1 − (I R I ) 
 }
be applied to detect that mode. In general, the supply to which a motor is connected may
A.C. Motor Protection

contain both positive and negative sequence


1 9 . 3 T H E R M A L ( O V E R L O A D ) P R OT E C T I O N components, and both components of current give rise to
heating in the motor. Therefore, the thermal replica
The majority of winding failures are either indirectly or should take into account both of these components, a
directly caused by overloading (either prolonged or typical equation for the equivalent current being:
cyclic), operation on unbalanced supply voltage, or single
phasing, which all lead through excessive heating to the
deterioration of the winding insulation until an electrical
I eq = (I 1
2
+ KI 22 )
fault occurs. The generally accepted rule is that where
insulation life is halved for each 10° C rise in I1 = positive sequence current
temperature above the rated value, modified by the
length of time spent at the higher temperature. As an I2 = negative sequence current
electrical machine has a relatively large heat storage and
capacity, it follows that infrequent overloads of short
negative sequence rotor resistance
• 19 • duration may not adversely affect the machine. K = ———————————————————---------—
positive sequence rotor resistance
However, sustained overloads of only a few percent may
result in premature ageing and insulation failure.
at rated speed. A typical value of K is 3.
Furthermore, the thermal withstand capability of the
motor is affected by heating in the winding prior to a Finally, the thermal replica model needs to take into
fault. It is therefore important that the relay account the fact that the motor will tend to cool down
characteristic takes account of the extremes of zero and during periods of light load, and the initial state of the
full-load pre-fault current known respectively as the motor. The motor will have a cooling time constant, τr ,
'Cold' and 'Hot' conditions. that defines the rate of cooling. Hence, the final thermal
model can be expressed as:
The variety of motor designs, diverse applications, variety
of possible abnormal operating conditions and resulting
modes of failure result in a complex thermal relationship. (
t = τ log e k 2 − A 2 ) (k 2
−1 ) …Equation 19.1
A generic mathematical model that is accurate is
therefore impossible to create. However, it is possible to
develop an approximate model if it is assumed that the
motor is a homogeneous body, creating and dissipating

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where: 1 9 . 4 S TA R T / S TA L L P R OT E C T I O N
τ = heating time constant When a motor is started, it draws a current well in excess
I eq of full load rating throughout the period that the motor
k = takes to run-up to speed. While the motor starting
I th current reduces somewhat as motor speed increases, it is
A 2 = initial state of motor (cold or hot) normal in protection practice to assume that the motor
current remains constant throughout the starting period.
Ith = thermal setting current
The starting current will vary depending on the design of
Equation 19.1 takes into account the ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ the motor and method of starting. For motors started
characteristics defined in IEC 60255, part 8. DOL (direct-on-line), the nominal starting current can be
Some relays may use a dual slope characteristic for the 4-8 times full-load current. However, when a star-delta
heating time constant, and hence two values of the starter is used, the line current will only be 1 3 of the
heating time constant are required. Switching between DOL starting current.
the two values takes place at a pre-defined motor
current. This may be used to obtain better tripping Should a motor stall whilst running, or fail to start, due
performance during starting on motors that use a star- to excessive loading, the motor will draw a current equal
delta starter. During starting, the motor windings carry to its’ locked rotor current. It is not therefore possible to
full line current, while in the ‘run’ condition, they carry distinguish between a stall condition and a healthy start
only 57% of the current seen by the relay. Similarly, solely on the basis of the current drawn. Discrimination
when the motor is disconnected from the supply, the between the two conditions must be made based on the
heating time constant τ is set equal to the cooling time duration of the current drawn. For motors where the
constant τr. starting time is less than the safe stall time of the motor,
protection is easy to arrange.
Since the relay should ideally be matched to the
protected motor and be capable of close sustained However, where motors are used to drive high inertia
loads, the stall withstand time can be less than the

A.C. Motor Protection


overload protection, a wide range of relay adjustment is
desirable together with good accuracy and low thermal starting time. In these cases, an additional means must
overshoot. be provided to enable discrimination between the two
conditions to be achieved.
Typical relay setting curves are shown in Figure 19.1.

100 000 19.4.1 Excessive Start Time/Locked Rotor Protection


A motor may fail to accelerate from rest for a number of
reasons:
10 000 loss of a supply phase
Te1 =60min
e2
mechanical problems
Te1 Te2=54min
Te1=T
Te2=48min low supply voltage
1000
T =T =42min excessive load torque • 19 •
e1 e2
=36min etc.
100 A large current will be drawn from the supply, and cause
extremely high temperatures to be generated within the
motor. This is made worse by the fact that the motor is
not rotating, and hence no cooling due to rotation is
Operating time (seconds)

10 T =T
Te22=30min
available. Winding damage will occur very quickly –
Te1=T
Te2=24min
Te1
either to the stator or rotor windings depending on the
=12min thermal limitations of the particular design (motors are
Te1 e2=6min said to be stator or rotor limited in this respect). The
1
Te1 e2=1min method of protection varies depending on whether the
starting time is less than or greater than the safe stall
time. In both cases, initiation of the start may be sensed
0
1 10 by detection of the closure of the switch in the motor
Ieq in terms of the current feeder (contactor or CB) and optionally current rising
thermal threshold Iθ>
above a starting current threshold value – typically
Figure 19.1: Thermal overload characteristic curves
Cold curves. Initial thermal state 0%

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200% of motor rated current. For the case of both successful start is used to select relay timer used for the
conditions being sensed, they may have to occur within safe run up time. This time can be longer than the safe
a narrow aperture of time for a start to be recognised. stall time, as there is both a (small) decrease in current
drawn by the motor during the start and the rotor fans
Special requirements may exist for certain types of
begin to improve cooling of the machine as it
motors installed in hazardous areas (e.g. motors with
accelerates. If a start is sensed by the relay through
type of protection EEx ‘e’) and the setting of the relay
monitoring current and/or start device closure, but the
must take these into account. Sometimes a permissive
speed switch does not operate, the relay element uses
interlock for machine pressurisation (on EEx ‘p’
the safe stall time setting to trip the motor before
machines) may be required, and this can be conveniently
damage can occur. Figure 19.3(a) illustrates the principle
achieved by use of a relay digital input and the in-built of operation for a successful start, and Figure 19.3(b) for
logic capabilities. an unsuccessful start.
19.4.1.1 Start time < safe stall time
Protection is achieved by use of a definite time Figure 19.3. Relay settings for start time> stall time
1
overcurrent characteristic, the current setting being CB Closed
0
greater than full load current but less than the starting Time
1
current of the machine. The time setting should be a Current
0
little longer than the start time, but less than the Speed 1
Time
Switch
permitted safe starting time of the motor. Figure 19.2 Information 0
Time
illustrates the principle of operation for a successful Trip 1

start. Command 0
(a) Successful start

1
CB Closed
Figure10019.2. Relay setting for successful start: start 0
Time
time<stall time 1
A.C. Motor Protection

Current
0
Relay current setting Speed 1
Switch
0
Information Time
Stall time
Motor starting current Trip 1
setting
Relay time setting Command 0
10 Time
(b) Unsuccessful start

Figure 19.3: Motor start protection


Time (s)

Start time > Safe stall time

19.4.2 Stall Protection


Should a motor stall when running or be unable to start
1
because of excessive load, it will draw a current from the
supply equivalent to the locked rotor current. It is
obviously desirable to avoid damage by disconnecting
• 19 • the machine as quickly as possible if this condition
arises.
0.1 Motor stalling can be recognised by the motor current
0.1 1 10 exceeding the start current threshold after a successful
Current (p.u. )
start – i.e. a motor start has been detected and the motor
Figure 19.2: Motor start protection current has dropped below the start current threshold
start time < safe stall time
within the motor safe start time. A subsequent rise in
motor current above the motor starting current
19.4.1.2 Start time => safe stall time threshold is then indicative of a stall condition, and
tripping will occur if this condition persists for greater
For this condition, a definite time overcurrent
than the setting of the stall timer. An instantaneous
characteristic by itself is not sufficient, since the time
overcurrent relay element provides protection.
delay required is longer than the maximum time that the
motor can be allowed to carry starting current safely. An In many systems, transient supply voltage loss (typically
additional means of detection of rotor movement, up to 2 seconds) does not result in tripping of designated
indicating a safe start, is required. A speed-sensing motors. They are allowed to re-accelerate upon
switch usually provides this function. Detection of a restoration of the supply. During re-acceleration, they

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Motor start detection

0
Time

No. of starts

0
Time
Supervising time

Supervising time

Start lockout

A.C. Motor Protection


0
Time

Inhib. start time

Figure 19.4: Start lockout information.

draw a current similar to the starting current for a period 19.4.3 Number of Starts Limitation
that may be several seconds. It is thus above the motor
Any motor has a restriction on the number of starts that
stall relay element current threshold. The stall
are allowed in a defined period without the permitted
protection would be expected to operate and defeat the
winding, etc. temperatures being exceeded. Starting • 19 •
object of the re-acceleration scheme.
should be blocked if the permitted number of starts is
A motor protection relay will therefore recognise the exceeded. The situation is complicated by the fact the
presence of a voltage dip and recovery, and inhibit stall number of permitted ‘hot’ starts in a given period is less
protection for a defined period. The undervoltage than the number of ‘cold’ starts, due to the differing
protection element (Section 19.11) can be used to detect initial temperatures of the motor. The relay must
the presence of the voltage dip and inhibit stall maintain a separate count of ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ starts. By
protection for a set period after voltage recovery. making use of the data held in the motor thermal replica,
Protection against stalled motors in case of an ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ starts can be distinguished.
unsuccessful re-acceleration is therefore maintained.
To allow the motor to cool down between starts, a time
The time delay setting is dependent on the re- delay may be specified between consecutive starts (again
acceleration scheme adopted and the characteristics of distinguishing between ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ starts). The start
individual motors. It should be established after inhibit is released after a time determined by the motor
performing a transient stability study for the re- specification. The overall protection function is illustrated
acceleration scheme proposed. in Figure 19.4.

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1 9 . 5 S H O R T- C I R C U I T P R OT E C T I O N It is common, however, to provide both instantaneous


and time-delayed relay elements to cater for major and
Motor short-circuit protection is often provided to cater
slowly developing faults.
for major stator winding faults and terminal flashovers.
Because of the relatively greater amount of insulation
between phase windings, faults between phases seldom
19.6.1 Solidly-Earthed System
occur. As the stator windings are completely enclosed in
grounded metal, the fault would very quickly involve Most LV systems fall into this category, for reasons of
earth, which would then operate the instantaneous earth personnel safety. Two types of earth fault protection are
fault protection. A single definite time overcurrent relay commonly found – depending on the sensitivity required.
element is all that is required for this purpose, set to For applications where a sensitivity of > 20% of motor
about 125% of motor starting current. The time delay is continuous rated current is acceptable, conventional
required to prevent spurious operation due to CT spill earth fault protection using the residual CT connection
currents, and is typically set at 100ms. If the motor is fed of Figure 19.5 can be used. A lower limit is imposed on
from a fused contactor, co-ordination is required with the setting by possible load unbalance and/or (for HV
the fuse, and this will probably involve use of a long time systems) system capacitive currents.
delay for the relay element. Since the object of the
protection is to provide rapid fault clearance to minimise
damage caused by the fault, the protection is effectively
Upstream
worthless in these circumstances. It is therefore only a
Figure 19.5. Residual CT connection for earth fault
provided on motors fed via circuit breakers.
protection
Differential (unit) protection may be provided on larger HV
c b
motors fed via circuit breakers to protect against phase- a b c
phase and phase-earth faults, particularly where the
Flow of
power system is resistance-earthed. Damage to the motor current Ia
in case of a fault occurring is minimised, as the differential
A.C. Motor Protection

protection can be made quite sensitive and hence detects


faults in their early stages. The normal definite time Ib
overcurrent protection would not be sufficiently sensitive,
and sensitive earth fault protection may not be provided.
Ic
The user may wish to avoid the detailed calculations
required of capacitance current in order to set sensitive
non-directional earth fault overcurrent protection Ia+Ib+Ic
correctly on HV systems (Chapter 9) or there may be no
MiCOM
provision for a VT to allow application of directional P241
sensitive earth fault protection. There is still a lower limit Downstream
to the setting that can be applied, due to spill currents Figure 19.5: Residual CT connection
from CT saturation during starting, while on some motors, for earth fault protection
neutral current has been found to flow during starting,
Care must be taken to ensure that the relay does not
• 19 • even with balanced supply voltages, that would cause the
operate from the spill current resulting from unequal CT
differential protection to operate. For details on the
application of differential protection, refer to Chapter 10. saturation during motor starting, where the high
However, non-directional earth fault overcurrent currents involved will almost certainly saturate the
protection will normally be cheaper in cases where motor CT’s. It is common to use a stabilising resistor in
adequate sensitivity can be provided. series with the relay, with the value being calculated
using the formula:
I st
1 9 . 6 E A R T H F A U LT P R OT E C T I O N R stab =
IO
( Rct + kR l + R r ) …Equation 19.2
One of the most common faults to occur on a motor is a
stator winding fault. Whatever the initial form of the where:
fault (phase-phase, etc.) or the cause (cyclic overheating, Ist = starting current referred to CT secondary
etc.), the presence of the surrounding metallic frame and I0 = relay earth fault setting (A)
casing will ensure that it rapidly develops into a fault Rstab = stabilising resistor value (ohms)
involving earth. Therefore, provision of earth fault Rct = d.c. resistance of CT secondary (ohms)
protection is very important. The type and sensitivity of
Rl = CT single lead restistance (ohms)
protection provided depends largely on the system
earthing, so the various types will be dealt with in turn.

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k = CT connection factor If a more sensitive relay setting is required, it is necessary


(= 1 for star pt at CT to use a core-balance CT. This is a ring type CT, through
= 2 for star pt at relay) which all phases of the supply to the motor are passed,
plus the neutral on a four-wire system. The turns ratio
Rr = relay input restistance (ohms)
of the CT is no longer related to the normal line current
expected to flow, so can be chosen to optimise the pick-
The effect of the stabilising resistor is to increase the up current required. Magnetising current requirements
effective setting of the relay under these conditions, and are also reduced, with only a single CT core to be
hence delay tripping. When a stabilising resistor is used, magnetised instead of three, thus enabling low settings
the tripping characteristic should normally be to be used. Figure 19.7 illustrates the application of a
instantaneous. An alternative technique, avoiding the use core-balance CT, including the routing of the cable
of a stabilising resistor is to use a definite time delay sheath to ensure correct operation in case of core-sheath
characteristic. The time delay used will normally have to cable faults.
be found by trial and error, as it must be long enough to
prevent maloperation during a motor start, but short
enough to provide effective protection in case of a fault. Cable gland

Co-ordination with other devices must also be considered. Cable box


A common means of supplying a motor is via a fused
contactor. The contactor itself is not capable of breaking
fault current beyond a certain value, which will normally be
Cable gland /sheath SEF
below the maximum system fault current – reliance is ground connection
placed on the fuse in these circumstances. As a trip
command from the relay instructs the contactor to open, (a) Connection
care must be taken to ensure that this does not occur until
the fuse has had time to operate. Figure 19.6(a) illustrates

A.C. Motor Protection


incorrect grading of the relay with the fuse, the relay
operating first for a range of fault currents in excess of the
contactor breaking capacity. Figure 19.6(b) illustrates
correct grading. To achieve this, it may require the use of
an intentional definite time delay in the relay.

No operation
SEF

(b) Incorrect wiring

Time
Fuse Contactor
breaking
capacity

E/F relay
• 19 •

Current
(a) Incorrect
Operation
SEF

(c) Correct wiring


Time
Fuse Contactor Figure 19.7: Application of core-balance CT
breaking
capacity

E/F relay 19.6.2 Resistance-Earthed Systems


These are commonly found on HV systems, where the
Current intention is to limit damage caused by earth faults
(b) Correct through limiting the earth fault current that can flow.
Two methods of resistance earthing are commonly used:
Figure 19.6: Grading of relay with fused contactor

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19.6.2.1 Low resistance earthing sensitivity that is possible using a simple non-directional
In this method, the value of resistance is chosen to limit earth fault relay element is limited to three times the
the fault current to a few hundred amps – values of steady-state charging current of the feeder. The setting
200A-400A being typical. With a residual connection of should not be greater than about 30% of the minimum
line CT’s, the minimum sensitivity possible is about 10% earth fault current expected. Other than this, the
of CT rated primary current, due to the possibility of CT considerations in respect of settings and time delays are
saturation during starting. For a core-balance CT, the as for solidly earthed systems.

Ia1

Ib1

IR1
-jXc1
A.C. Motor Protection

IH1

Ia2

Ib2

IR2
-jXc2

IH2
• 19 •
Ia3

Ib3

IH1+IH2+IH3

IR3
-jXc3

IR3=IH1+ IH2+ IH3-IH3:-

IR3= IH1+ IH2

IH3
IH1+IH2

Figure 19.8: Current distribution in insulated-earth system for phase-earth fault

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19.6.2.2 High resistance earthing applying earth faults at various parts of the system and
measuring the resulting residual currents.
In some HV systems, high resistance earthing is used to
limit the earth fault current to a few amps. In this case, If it is possible to set the relay to a value between the
the system capacitive charging current will normally charging current on the feeder being protected and the
prevent conventional sensitive earth fault protection charging current for the rest of the system, the
being applied, as the magnitude of the charging current directional facility is not required and the VT can be
will be comparable with the earth fault current in the dispensed with.
event of a fault. The solution is to use a sensitive
The comments made in earlier sections on grading with
directional earth fault relay. A core balance CT is used in
fused contactors also apply.
conjunction with a VT measuring the residual voltage of
the system, with a relay characteristic angle setting of
+45° (see Chapter 9 for details). The VT must be suitable
for the relay and therefore the relay manufacturer should Vaf
be consulted over suitable types – some relays require Restrain
that the VT must be able to carry residual flux and this IR1 Vapf
rules out use of a 3-limb, 3-phase VT. A setting of 125% Ib1
of the single phase capacitive charging current for the
whole system is possible using this method. The time Ia1 Operate
delay used is not critical but must be fast enough to Vbf
disconnect equipment rapidly in the event of a second
Vcpf
earth fault occurring immediately after the first. Vbpf
Minimal damage is caused by the first fault, but the
second effectively removes the current limiting Vres

resistance from the fault path leading to very large fault (=-3V
Vo)
currents.

A.C. Motor Protection


An alternative technique using residual voltage detection An RCA setting of +90° shifts
IR3 H1+ IH2)
is also possible, and is described in the next section. the MTA to here

19.6.3 Insulated Earth System Figure 19.9: Relay vector diagram

Earth fault detection presents problems on these systems


since no earth fault current flows for a single earth fault. 19.6.3.2 Residual voltage method
However, detection is still essential as overvoltages occur
on sound phases and it is necessary to locate and clear A single earth fault results in a rise in the voltage
the fault before a second occurs. Two methods are between system neutral and earth, which may be
possible, detection of the resulting unbalance in system detected by a relay measuring the residual voltage of the
charging currents and residual overvoltage. system (normally zero for a perfectly balanced, healthy
system). Thus, no CT’s are required, and the technique
19.6.3.1 System charging current unbalance may be useful where provision of an extensive number of • 19 •
Sensitive earth fault protection using a core-balance CT core-balance CT’s is impossible or difficult, due to
is required for this scheme. The principle is that detailed physical constraints or on cost grounds. The VT’s used
in Section 9.16.2, except that the voltage is phase shifted must be suitable for the duty, thus 3-limb, 3-phase VT’s
by +90° instead of -90°. To illustrate this, Figure 19.8 are not suitable, and the relay usually has alarm and trip
shows the current distribution in an Insulated system settings, each with adjustable time delays. The setting
subjected to a C-phase to earth fault and Figure 19.9 the voltage must be calculated from knowledge of system
relay vector diagram for this condition. The residual earthing and impedances, an example for a resistance-
current detected by the relay is the sum of the charging earthed system is shown in Figure 19.10.
currents flowing in the healthy part of the system plus Grading of the relays must be carried out with care, as
the healthy phase charging currents on the faulted the residual voltage will be detected by all relays in the
feeder – i.e. three times the per phase charging current affected section of the system. Grading has to be carried
of the healthy part of the system. A relay setting of 30% out with this in mind, and will generally be on a time
of this value can be used to provide protection without basis for providing alarms (1st stage), with a high set
the risk of a trip due to healthy system capacitive definite time trip second stage to provide backup.
charging currents. As there is no earth fault current, it is
also possible to set the relay at site after deliberately

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19.6.4 Petersen Coil Earthed System loading, loss of a single phase, or single-phase faults.
The latter will normally be detected by earth fault
Earthing of a HV power system using a reactor equal to
protection, however, a fault location in a motor winding
the system shunt capacitance is known as Petersen Coil
may not result in the earth fault protection operating
(or resonant coil) earthing. With this method, a single
unless it is of the sensitive variety.
earth fault results in zero earth fault current flowing (for
perfect balance between the earthing inductance and The actual value of the negative sequence current
system shunt capacitance), and hence the system can be depends on the degree of unbalance in the supply voltage
run in this state for a substantial period of time while the and the ratio of the negative to the positive sequence
fault is located and corrected. The detailed theory and impedance of the machine. The degree of unbalance
protection method is explained in Section 9.17. depends on many factors, but the negative sequence
impedance is more easily determined. Considering the
19.7 NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE PROTECTION classical induction motor equivalent circuit with
Negative phase sequence current is generated from any magnetising impedance neglected of Figure 19.11:
unbalanced voltage condition, such as unbalanced

S R F
E
Z Z
S L
N

Z
E

A-G
A.C. Motor Protection

S
S V S V
A-G A-G
R R
G,F
G,F G,F

V V V V V
C-G B-G C-G V C-G
B-G
B-G

• 19 •

V V V
RES RES RES
V V V
B-G B-G B-G

V V V
A-G A-G A-G

V V V
C-G C-G C-G

Z +3Z
SO E
V = x3E
RES
2Z +Z +2Z +Z +3Z
S1 SO L1 LO E

Figure 19.10: Residual voltage earth fault protection for resistance-earthed system.

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Motor positive sequence impedance at slip s leading to excessive heating. For the same motor,
negative sequence voltages in excess of 17% will result
0.5

( ) ( )
2 in a negative sequence current larger than rated full load
(2 − s )
2
=  R1 p + R 2' p + X 1 p + X 2' p 
 current.

Hence, at standstill (s=1.0), impedance Negative sequence current is at twice supply frequency.
Skin effect in the rotor means that the heating effect in
0.5 the rotor of a given negative sequence current is larger
(
=  R1 p + R 2' p ) + (X )
2 2
1p + X 2' p  than the same positive sequence current. Thus, negative

sequence current may result in rapid heating of the
The motor negative sequence impedance at slip s motor. Larger motors are more susceptible in this
0.5
respect, as the rotor resistance of such machines tends to
(
=  R1n + R 2' n s ) + (X )
2 2
+ X 2' n be higher. Protection against negative sequence currents

1n  is therefore essential.
and, at normal running speed, the impedance Modern motor protection relays have a negative
sequence current measurement capability, in order to
0.5
(
=  R1n + R 2' n 2 ) + (X )
2 2 provide such protection. The level of negative sequence
1n + X 2' n 
 unbalance depends largely upon the type of fault. For
loss of a single phase at start, the negative sequence
where: current will be 50% of the normal starting current. It is
suffix p indicates positive sequence quantities more difficult to provide an estimate of the negative
sequence current if loss of a phase occurs while running.
and This is because the impact on the motor may vary widely,
suffix n indicates negative sequence quantities from increased heating to stalling due to the reduced
torque available.

A.C. Motor Protection


R1 + R '2 j(X1 + X '2) A typical setting for negative sequence current
protection must take into account the fact that the
motor circuit protected by the relay may not be the
[(1-s)/s] x R'2 source of the negative sequence current. Time should be
allowed for the appropriate protection to clear the
(a) Positive phase sequence equivalent circuit source of the negative sequence current without
introducing risk of overheating to the motor being
considered. This indicates a two stage tripping
R1 + R '2 j(X1 + X'2)
characteristic, similar in principle to overcurrent
protection. A low-set definite time-delay element can
[(s-1)/(2-s)] x R '2 be used to provide an alarm, with an IDMT element used
to trip the motor in the case of higher levels of negative
sequence current, such as loss-of-phase conditions at
(b) Negative phase sequence equivalent circuit start, occurring. Typical settings might be 20% of CT
rated primary current for the definite time element and • 19 •
Figure 19.11: Induction motor equivalent circuit
50% for the IDMT element. The IDMT time delay has to
be chosen to protect the motor while, if possible, grading
Now, if resistance is neglected (justifiable as the with other negative sequence relays on the system.
resistance is small compared to the reactance), it can be Some relays may not incorporate two elements, in which
seen that the negative sequence reactance at running case the single element should be set to protect the
speed is approximately equal to the positive sequence motor, with grading being a secondary consideration.
reactance at standstill. An alternative more meaningful
way of expressing this is:
1 9 . 8 F A U LT S I N R OTO R W I N D I N G S
positive seq. impedance starting current
—-———————————---------— = ——————---------—
negative seq. impedance rated current On wound rotor machines, some degree of protection
against faults in the rotor winding can be given by an
and it is noted that a typical LV motor starting current is instantaneous stator current overcurrent relay element.
6xFLC. Therefore, a 5% negative sequence voltage (due As the starting current is normally limited by resistance
to, say, unbalanced loads on the system) would produce to a maximum of twice full load, the instantaneous unit
a 30% negative sequence current in the machine, can safely be set to about three times full load if a slight

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time delay of approximately 30 milliseconds is Motors fed by contactors have inherent undervoltage
incorporated. It should be noted that faults occurring in protection, unless a latched contactor is used. Where a
the rotor winding would not be detected by any specific undervoltage trip is required, a definite time
differential protection applied to the stator. undervoltage element is used. If two elements are
provided, alarm and trip settings can be used. An
interlock with the motor starter is required to block relay
1 9 . 9 R T D T E M P E R AT U R E D E T E C T I O N operation when the starting device is open, otherwise a
start will never be permitted. The voltage and time delay
RTD’s are used to measure temperatures of motor settings will be system and motor dependent. They must
windings or shaft bearings. A rise in temperature may allow for all voltage dips likely to occur on the system
denote overloading of the machine, or the beginning of during transient faults, starting of motors, etc. to avoid
a fault in the affected part. A motor protection relay will spurious trips. As motor starting can result in a voltage
therefore usually have the capability of accepting a depression to 80% of nominal, the voltage setting is
number of RTD inputs and internal logic to initiate an likely to be below this value. Re-acceleration is normally
alarm and/or trip when the temperature exceeds the possible for voltage dips lasting between 0.5-2 seconds,
appropriate setpoint(s). Occasionally, HV motors are fed depending on system, motor and drive characteristics,
via a unit transformer, and in these circumstances, some and therefore the time delay will be set bearing these
of the motor protection relay RTD inputs may be factors in mind.
assigned to the transformer winding temperature RTD’s,
thus providing overtemperature protection for the
transformer without the use of a separate relay. 1 9 . 1 2 L O S S - O F - L O A D P R OT E C T I O N
Loss-of-load protection has a number of possible
functions. It can be used to protect a pump against
1 9 . 10 B E A R I N G F A I L U R E S becoming unprimed, or to stop a motor in case of a
There are two types of bearings to be considered: the failure in a mechanical transmission (e.g. conveyor belt),
A.C. Motor Protection

or it can be used with synchronous motors to protect


anti-friction bearing (ball or roller), used mainly on small
against loss-of-supply conditions. Implementation of
motors (up to around 350kW), and the sleeve bearing,
the function is by a low forward power relay element,
used mainly on large motors.
interlocked with the motor starting device to prevent
The failure of ball or roller bearings usually occurs very operation when the motor is tripped and thus preventing
quickly, causing the motor to come to a standstill as a motor start. Where starting is against a very low load
pieces of the damaged roller get entangled with the (e.g. a compressor), the function may also need to be
others. There is therefore very little chance that any inhibited for the duration of the start, to prevent
relay operating from the input current can detect maloperation.
bearing failures of this type before the bearing is The setting will be influenced by the function to be
completely destroyed. Therefore, protection is limited to performed by the relay. A time delay may be required
disconnecting the stalled motor rapidly to avoid after pickup of the element to prevent operation during
consequential damage. Refer to Section 19.2 on stall system transients. This is especially important for
• 19 • protection for details of suitable protection. synchronous motor loss-of supply protection.
Failure of a sleeve bearing can be detected by means of
a rise in bearing temperature. The normal thermal 1 9 . 1 3 A D D I T I O N A L P R OT E C T I O N
overload relays cannot give protection to the bearing F O R S Y N C H R O N O U S M OTO R S
itself but will operate to protect the motor from
The differences in construction and operational
excessive damage. Use of RTD temperature detection, as
characteristics of synchronous motors mean that
noted in Section 19.9, can provide suitable protection,
additional protection is required for these types of motor.
allowing investigation into the cause of the bearing This additional protection is discussed in the following
running hot prior to complete failure. sections.

1 9 . 11 U N D E R V O LTA G E P R OT E C T I O N 19.13.1 Out-of-Step Protection


Motors may stall when subjected to prolonged A synchronous motor may decelerate and lose
undervoltage conditions. Transient undervoltages will synchronism (fall out-of-step) if a mechanical overload
generally allow a motor to recover when the voltage is exceeding the peak motor torque occurs. Other
restored, unless the supply is weak. conditions that may cause this condition are a fall in the

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applied voltage to stator or field windings. Such a fall A low forward power relay can detect this condition. See
may not need to be prolonged, a voltage dip of a few Section 19.12 for details. A time delay will be required
seconds may be all that is required. An out-of-step to prevent operation during system transients leading to
condition causes the motor to draw excessive current momentary reverse power flow in the motor.
and generate a pulsating torque. Even if the cause is
removed promptly, the motor will probably not recover 1 9 . 1 4 M OTO R P R OT E C T I O N E X A M P L E S
synchronism, but eventually stall. Hence, it must be
disconnected from the supply. This section gives examples of the protection of HV and
LV induction motors.
The current drawn during an out-of-step condition is at
a very low power factor. Hence a relay element that
19.14.1 Protection of a HV Motor
responds to low power factor can be used to provide
protection. The element must be inhibited during Table 19.2 gives relevant parameters of a HV induction
starting, when a similar low power factor condition motor to be protected. Using a MiCOM P241 motor
occurs. This can conveniently be achieved by use of a protection relay, the important protection settings are
definite time delay, set to a value slightly in excess of the calculated in the following sections.
motor start time.
The power factor setting will vary depending on the rated Quantity Value
power factor of the motor. It would typically be 0.1 less Rated output 1000kW CMR
than the motor rated power factor i.e. for a motor rated Rated Voltage 3.3kV
at 0.85 power factor, the setting would be 0.75. Rated frequency 50Hz
Rated power factor/efficiency 0.9/0.92
Stall withstand time cold/hot 20/7s
19.13.2 Protection against Starting current 550% DOL
Sudden Restoration of Supply Permitted starts cold/hot 3/2
CT ratio 250/1

A.C. Motor Protection


If the supply to a synchronous motor is interrupted, it Start time@100% voltage 4s
is essential that the motor breaker be tripped as quickly Start time@ 80% voltage 5.5s
as possible if there is any possibility of the supply Heating/cooling time constant 25/75 min
being restored automatically or without the machine System earthing Solid
operator’s knowledge. Control device Circuit Breaker

This is necessary in order to prevent the supply being Table 19.2: Motor data for example
restored out of phase with the motor generated voltage.
Two methods are generally used to detect this condition,
in order to cover different operating modes of the motor. 19.14.1.1 Thermal protection
19.13.2.1 Underfrequency protection The current setting ITH is set equal to the motor full load
The underfrequency relay element will operate in the current, as it is a CMR rated motor. Motor full load
case of the supply failing when the motor is on load, current can be calculated as 211A, therefore (in
secondary quantities):
which causes the motor to decelerate quickly. Typically, • 19 •
two elements are provided, for alarm and trip 211
indications. I TH = = 0.844
250
The underfrequency setting value needs to consider the
power system characteristics. In some power systems, Use a value of 0.85, nearest available setting.
lengthy periods of operation at frequencies substantially
below normal occur, and should not result in a motor The relay has a parameter, K, to allow for the increased
trip. The minimum safe operating frequency of the heating effect of negative sequence currents. In the
motor under load conditions must therefore be absence of any specific information, use K=3.
determined, along with minimum system frequency. Two thermal heating time constants are provided, τ1 and
19.13.2.2 Low-forward-power protection τ2. τ2 is used for starting methods other than DOL,
otherwise it is set equal to τ1. τ1 is set to the heating
This can be applied in conjunction with a time delay to time constant, hence τ1=τ2=25mins. Cooling time
detect a loss-of-supply condition when the motor may constant τr is set as a multiple of τ1. With a cooling time
share a busbar with other loads. The motor may attempt constant of 75mins,
to supply the other loads with power from the stored
kinetic energy of rotation. τr = 3 x τ1

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19.14.1.2 Short circuit protection resulting characteristic is shown in Figure 19.13. The
motor thermal protection, as it utilises a negative
Following the recommendations of Section 19.5, with a
sequence component, is used for protection of the motor
starting current of 550% of full load current, the short-
at low levels of negative sequence current.
circuit element is set to 1.25 x 5.5 x 211A = 1450A. In
terms of the relay nominal current, the setting value is
1450/250 = 5.8IN.
Cold Thermal
Hot Thermal
There is a minimum time delay of 100ms for currents up S/C
to 120% of setting to allow for transient CT saturation Locked Rotor
Stall
during starting and 40ms above this current value. These Start Current (100%V)
settings are satisfactory. Start Current (80%V)
Motor tripping characteristics.
1000
19.14.1.3 earth fault protection
It is assumed that no CBCT is fitted. A typical setting of 100
30% of motor rated current is used, leading to an
earth fault relay setting of 0.3 x 211/250 = 0.25IN. A 10

Time (sec)
stabilising resistor is required, calculated in accordance
with Equation 19.2 to prevent maloperation due to CT 1
spill current during starting as the CT’s may saturate.
With the stabilising resistor present, instantaneous 0.1
tripping is permitted.
The alternative is to omit the stabilising resistor and use 0.01
0.01 1 10
a definite time delay in association with the earth fault Ith/I (pu)
element. However, the time delay must be found by trial
and error during commissioning. Figure 19.12: Protection characteristics
A.C. Motor Protection

for motor protection example


19.14.1.4 Locked rotor/Excessive start time protection
The current element must be set in excess of the rated
10
current of the motor, but well below the starting current
of the motor to ensure that a start condition is
recognised (this could also be achieved by use of an
Time (sec)

auxiliary contact on the motor CB wired to the relay). A 1


setting of 500A (2 x IN) is suitable. The associated time
delay needs to be set to longer than the start time, but
less than the cold stall time. Use a value of 15s.
0.1
19.14.1.5 Stall protection 10 Current (A) 10000

The same current setting as for locked rotor protection Figure 19.13: Motor protection example-
can be used – 500A. The time delay has to be less than negative sequence protection characteristic

• 19 • the hot stall time of 7s but greater than the start time by
a sufficient margin to avoid a spurious trip if the start 19.14.1.7 Other protection considerations
time happens to be a little longer than anticipated. Use
a value of 6.5s. If the relay can be supplied with a suitable voltage signal,
stall protection can be inhibited during re-acceleration
The protection characteristics for Sections 19.14.1.1-5 after a voltage dip using the undervoltage element (set to
are shown in Figure 19.12. 80-85% of rated voltage). Undervoltage protection (set
19.14.1.6 Negative phase sequence protection to approximately 80% voltage with a time delay of up to
several seconds, dependent on system characteristics)
Two protection elements are provided, the first is definite
and reverse phase protection can also be implemented to
time-delayed to provide an alarm. The second is an IDMT
provide extra protection. Unless the drive is critical to the
element used to trip the motor on high levels of negative
process, it is not justifiable to provide a VT specially to
sequence current, such as would occur on a loss of phase
enable these features to be implemented.
condition at starting.
19.14.2 Protection of an LV Motor
In accordance with Section 19.7, use a setting of 20%
with a time delay of 30s for the definite time element LV motors are commonly fed via fused contactors and
and 50% with a TMS of 1.0 for the IDMT element. The therefore the tripping times of a protection relay for

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overcurrent must be carefully co-ordinated with the fuse where


to ensure that the contactor does not attempt to break a In = motor rated primary current
current in excess of its rating. Table 19.3(a) gives details Ip = CT primary current
of an LV motor and associated fused contactor. A
MiCOM P211 motor protection relay is used to provide Hence, Ib = 5 x 132/150 = 4.4A
the protection. With a motor starting current of 670% of nominal, a
setting of the relay thermal time constant with motor
Parameter Value Unit initial thermal state of 50% of 15s is found satisfactory,
Standard IEC 60034 as shown in Figure 19.14.
Motor Voltage 400 V
Motor kW 75 kW
Motor kVA 91.45 kVA
Motor FLC 132 A 250A
Starting Current 670 %
Starting Time 4.5 s Contactor
Contactor rating 300 A
Contactor breaking capacity 650 A P211 CT
Fuse rating 250 A
(a) LV motor example data Cable
Parameter Symbol Value Unit
Overcurrent Disabled -
M
Overload setting Ib 4.4 A
Overload time delay I>t 15 s (a) LV Motor Protection - contactor fed example
Unbalance I2 20 % 1000
Unbalance time delay I2>t 25 s
Loss of phase time delay <Ip 5 s
(b) Relay settings 100

A.C. Motor Protection


Table 19.3: LV Motor protection setting example
Time

19.14.2.1 CT ratio 10

The relay is set in secondary quantities, and therefore a


suitable CT ratio has to be calculated. From the relay
1
manual, a CT with 5A secondary rating and a motor rated 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
I/IIb
current in the range of 4-6A when referred to the trip time
(b) Relay trip characteristic start current
secondary of CT is required. Use of a 150/5A CT gives a
motor rated current of 4.4A when referred to the CT
Figure 19.14: Motor protection example -
secondary, so use this CT ratio. contactor-fed motor
19.14.2.2 Overcurrent (short-circuit) protection
The fuse provides the motor overcurrent protection, as the 19.14.2.4 Negative sequence
protection relay cannot be allowed to trip the contactor on (phase unbalance) protection • 19 •
overcurrent in case the current to be broken exceeds the The motor is built to IEC standards, which permit a
contactor breaking capacity. The facility for overcurrent negative sequence (unbalance) voltage of 1% on a
protection within the relay is therefore disabled. continuous basis. This would lead to approximately 7%
19.14.2.3 Thermal (overload) protection negative sequence current in the motor (Section 19.7).
As the relay is fitted only with a definite time relay
The motor is an existing one, and no data exists for it element, a setting of 20% (from Section 19.7) is
except the standard data provided in the manufacturers appropriate, with a time delay of 25s to allow for short
catalogue. This data does not include the thermal high-level negative sequence transients arising from
(heating) time constant of the motor. other causes.
In these circumstances, it is usual to set the thermal 19.14.2.5 Loss of phase protection
protection so that it lies just above the motor starting
current. The relay has a separate element for this protection. Loss
of a phase gives rise to large negative sequence currents,
The current setting of the relay, Ib , is found using the and therefore a much shorter time delay is required. A
formula definite time delay of 5s is considered appropriate.
Ib = 5 x In/Ip The relay settings are summarised in Table 19.3(b).

Network Protection & Automation Guide • 351 •