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File Transfer Protocol (FTP) enables file sharing between hosts. FTP uses TCP to create a virtual connection for control information and then creates a separate TCP connection for data transfers. The control connection uses an image of the TELNET protocol to exchange commands and messages between hosts. The key functions of FTP are: 1) to promote sharing of files (computer programs and/or data); 2) to encourage indirect or implicit (via programs) use of remote computers; 3) to shield a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts; and 4) to transfer data reliably and efficiently FTP, though usable directly by a user at a terminal, is designed mainly for use by programs. FTP control frames are TELNET exchanges and can contain TELNET commands and option negotiation. However, most FTP control frames are simple ASCII text and can be classified as FTP commands or FTP messages. FTP messages are responses to FTP commands and consist of a response code followed by explanatory text.
HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol with the lightness and speed necessary for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World-Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. HTTP allows an open-ended set of methods to be used to indicate the purpose of a request. It builds on the discipline of reference provided by the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), as a location (URL) or name (URN), for indicating the resource on which a method is to be applied. Messages are passed in a format similar to that used by Internet Mail and the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME). HTTP is also used as a generic protocol for communication between user agents and proxies/gateways to other Internet protocols, such as SMTP, NNTP, FTP, Gopher and WAIS, allowing basic hypermedia access to resources available from diverse applications and simplifying the implementation of user agents. The HTTP protocol is a request/response protocol. A client sends a request to the server in the form of a request method, URI, and protocol version, followed by a MIME-like message containing request modifiers, client information, and possible body content over a connection with a server. The server responds with a status line, including the message’s protocol version and a success or error code, followed by a MIME-like message containing server information, entity meta information, and possible entitybody content. The first version of HTTP, referred to as HTTP/0.9, was a simple
) and certificate selection. containing meta information about the data transferred and modifiers on the request/response semantics. modes and parameters. Clients may be “primed” to initiate a secure transaction (typically using information supplied in message headers). HTTP/1. S-HTTP differs from Digest-Authentication in that it provides support for public key . and anticipate that principals may have many public key certificates. improved the protocol by allowing messages to be in the format of MIME-like messages.1” includes more stringent requirements than HTTP/1. HTTP/1. However. S-HTTP provides symmetric capabilities to both client and server (in that equal treatment is given to both requests and replies.protocol for raw data transfer across the Internet. S-HTTP supports interoperation among a variety of implementations and is compatible with HTTP.0. With S-HTTP. S-HTTP provides full flexibility of cryptographic algorithms. While S-HTTP is able to take advantage of ubiquitous certification infrastructures. cryptographic algorithms (RSA vs. this may be used to support encryption of fill-out forms. as defined by RFC 1945.0 in order to ensure reliable implementation of its features. no sensitive data need ever be sent over the network in the clear. DSA for signing. although such transactions obviously would not use S-HTTP security features. for example. Option negotiation is used to allow clients and servers to agree on transaction modes. “HTTP/1. although its designers admit to a conscious effort to facilitate multiply-rooted hierarchical trust. or virtual hosts. as it supports symmetric key-only operation modes. S-HTTP supports end-to-end secure transactions. S-HTTP is designed to coexist with HTTP’s messaging model and to be easily integrated with HTTP applications. DES vs. Secure HTTP provides a variety of security mechanisms to HTTP clients and servers. the need for persistent connections. This is significant because it means that spontaneous private transactions can occur without requiring individual users to have an established public key. S-HTTP: Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) is a secure message-oriented communications protocol designed for use in conjunction with HTTP. S-HTTP attempts to avoid presuming a particular trust model. caching. S-HTTP aware clients can communicate with S-HTTP oblivious servers and vice-versa. Several cryptographic message format standards may be incorporated into S-HTTP clients and servers. providing the security service options appropriate to the wide range of potential end uses possible for the World-Wide Web (WWW). its deployment does not require it. S-HTTP does not require client-side public key certificates (or public keys). which will be discussed in a separate document. There is a secure version of HTTP (S-HTTP) specification. etc.0 does not sufficiently take into consideration the effects of hierarchical proxies. as well as for the preferences of both parties) while preserving the transaction model and implementation characteristics of HTTP. RC2 for encrypting.
or be given the choice of doing either. texts. online.cryptography and consequently digital signature capability. . DMSP is largely limited to a single application. Messages in the mail repository can be marked with various status flags (e. DMSP (Distributed Mail System Protocol) and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) among them. IMAP includes operations for creating. and is known primarily for its excellent support of “disconnected” operation. There are several different technologies and approaches to building a distributed electronic mail infrastructure: POP (Post Office Protocol). IMAP allows clients to access messages (both new and saved) from more than one computer. where the client can ask the server for headers or the bodies of specified messages. IMAP offers a superset of POP and DMSP capabilities. In the online mode. and searching. Of the three. deleting and renaming mailboxes. and provides good support for all three modes of remote mailbox access: offline. server-based and MIME parsing. The current version of IMAP is version 4 revision 1(IMAP4 rev1). It is an interactive client-server model. POP is the oldest and consequently the best known. which is HTTP running IMAP & IMAP4: Internet Message Access Protocol (version 4) Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is a method of accessing electronic mail or bulletin board messages that are kept on a mail server. without the need to transfer messages or files back and forth between these computers. Another popular technology for secured web communication is HTTPS. as well as providing confidentiality. permanently removing messages. Allows message access and management from more than one computer. Email stored on an IMAP server can be manipulated from a desktop computer remotely. “deleted” or “answered”) and they stay in the repository until explicitly removed by the user. or to search for messages meeting certain criteria. and portions thereof for efficiency. IMAP permits a “client” email program to access remote message stores as if they were local. Depending on the IMAP client implementation and the mail architecture desired by the system manager. and disconnected. Key features for IMAP4 include: • Fully compatible with Internet messaging standards. setting and clearing flags. PCMAIL. IMAP is designed to permit manipulation of remote mailboxes as if they were local.g. This feature has become extremely important as reliance on electronic messaging and use of multiple computers has increased. the IMAP mail client does not copy mails in a shared server all at once and then delete them. checking for new messages. the user may save messages directly on the client machine or save them on the server. and selective fetching of message attributes.
• Client software needs no knowledge about the server’s file store format.• Allows access without reliance on less efficient file access protocols. • Supports concurrent access to shared mailboxes. “offline”. • Provides support for “online”. and “disconnected” access modes. .
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