Homework Title / No.

: 1

Course Code : CAP201

Course Instructor :Miss Ramandeep Kaur Date of Allotment : 02/09/2012 Student’s Roll No: A23 Date of submission : 02/21/2012 Section No. :D1003

Declaration: I declare that this assignment is my individual work. I have not copied from any other student’s work or from any other source except where due acknowledgment is made explicitly in the text, nor has any part been written for me by another person.

Student’s Signature : Sachin



Evaluator’s comments: _____________________________________________________________ Marks obtained : ___________ out of ______________________ Content of Homework should start from this page only:

The Following drawbacks are there present in OSI model lead to the development and implementation of TCP/IP Model. The Upper Layers The Session layer The Session layer permits two parties to hold ongoing communications called a session across a network.  Not found in TCP/IP model . This is done by converting data into a generic format that could be understood by both sides.Q1: What drawbacks present in OSI model lead to the development and implementation of TCP/ IP Model? Ans.  Not found in TCP/IP model The Presentation Layer The Presentation Layer handles data format information for networked communications.

TCP/IP Transport Layer  TCP provides reliable data transmission  UDP is useful in many applications  eg. It provides a set of interfaces for applications to obtain access to networked services as well as access to the kinds of network services that support applications directly. Transport Layer Transport is responsible for creating and maintaining the basic end-to-end connection between communicating open systems. . Where data needs to be broadcasted or multicasted Network vs. Internet  Connectionless Network Service  Both OSI and TCP/IP support a connectionless network service: OSI as an alternative to network connections and TCP/IP as the only way in use.The Application Layer The Application Layer is the top layer of the reference model.

we can discuss tree topology better.Data link / Physical vs. view other people's work. In Tree Topology. The diagram below will make it clear. and other star networks as the branches.  Majority of the time. With a network. Ethernet protocol is commonly used in this type of topology. This software usually includes other helpful features. A network allows employees to share files. chances are you also use a printer. it will vary from host to host and network to network Q:2 Why there is a need of networking? If we need to establish a network of 30 computers which topology would you adopt and why? Ans) Networking is Important for the following person:-  File sharing: Have you ever needed to access a file stored on another computer? A network makes it easy for everyone to access the same file and prevents people from accidentally creating different versions. and exchange ideas more efficiently. In a larger office. the number of Star networks are connected using Bus. After understanding these two network configurations.  Organization: A variety of scheduling software is available that makes it possible to arrange meetings without constantly checking everyone's schedules. computers (nodes) are connected by each other through central hub. The TCP/IP model does nothing but to high light the fact the host has to connect to the network using some protocol so it can send IP packets over it. you can use e-mail and instant messaging tools to communicate quickly and to store messages for future reference. work station devices are connected by the common cable called Bus. the lower layers below the Interface or Network layer of the TCP/IP model are seldom or rarely discussed. several computers can share the same printer. Although you might need a more expensive printer to handle the added workload. It is also called Expanded Star Topology. Earlier we saw how in Physical Star network Topology. And we also saw in Bus Topology.  Printer sharing: If you use a computer. it's still cheaper to use a network printer than to connect a separate printer to every computer in your office.Such as shared address books and to-do lists If we need to establish a network of 30 computers than we can use tree Topology? Tree Topology integrates the characteristics of Star and Bus Topology. This main cable seems like a main stem of a tree. Because the protocol used is not defines.  Communication and collaboration: It's hard for people to work together if no one knows what anyone else is doing. Subnet  These 2 layers of the OSI correspond directly to the subnet layer of the TCP/IP model. .

Scalability of the network depends on the type of cable used. Error detection and correction is easy. tree topology. 3. the maintenance becomes difficult. Each segment is provided with dedicated point-to-point wiring to the central hub. 6. 3. if it breaks whole network is crippled. Disadvantages of Tree Topology 1. 2. other segments are not affected. When we consider the advantage and disadvantage than we can easily understand. Here. 4.Tree Topology Advantages of Tree Topology 1. It is an extension of Star and bus Topologies. we divide the whole network into segments (star networks). Because of its basic structure. As more and more nodes and segments are added. which can be easily managed and maintained. so in networks where these topologies can't be implemented individually for reasons related to scalability. If one segment is damaged. relies heavily on the main bus cable. 2. . 5. tree topology is the best alternative. Expansion of Network is possible and easy.

These are also called guide media. Three common types of bounded media are used of the data transmission. These are • Coaxial Cable • Twisted Pairs Cable • Fiber Optics Cable COAXIAL CABLE: Coaxial cable is very common & widely used commutation media. • BOUNDED/GUIDED MEDIA • UNBOUNDED/UNGUIDED MEDIA 1. Coaxial cable gets its name because it contains two conductors that are parallel to each other.Q:3 Which are the transmission media available in the market? Which one is the most appropriate to establish a connection between two LANs in two different buildings? Why? Ans) TRANSMISSION MEDIA available in the market:The means through which data is transformed from one place to another is called transmission or communication media. There are two categories of transmission media used in computer communications. Here the most common coaxial standards. The copper can be either a solid wire or stranded martial. BOUNDED MEDIA: Bounded media are the physical links through which signals are confined to narrow path. Bounded media are great for LABS because they offer high speed. . Bounded media are made up o a external conductor (Usually Copper) bounded by jacket material. good security and low cast. However. The center conductor in the cable is usually copper. • 50-Ohm RG-7 or RG-11 : used with thick Ethernet. some time they cannot be used due distance communication. • 50-Ohm RG-58 : used with thin Ethernet • 75-Ohm RG-59 : used with cable television • 93-Ohm RG-62 : used with ARCNET. For example TV wire is usually coaxial.

Type 1 STP features two pairs of 22-AWG Type 2 This type include type 1 with 4 telephone pairs Type 6 This type feature two pairs of standard shielded 26-AWG Type 7 This type of STP consist of 1 pair of standard shielded 26-AWG Type 9 This type consist of shielded 26-AWG wire .Twisted Pair Cable:The most popular network cabling is Twisted pair. Category 2 These cables can support up to 4 mps implementation. inexpensive and support many different types of network. UTP cables consist of 2 or 4 pairs of twisted cable. The twists are done to reduce vulnerably to EMI and cross talk. Category 5 This is the highest rating for UTP cable and can support up to 100mps. IBM has defined category for STP cable. It also supports the speed of 100 mps. 2. UTP cost less than STP and easily available due to its many use. Category 4 These are used for large distance and high speed. There are two types of twisted pairs cabling 1. Shielded twisted pair (STP) It is similar to UTP but has a mesh shielding that’s protects it from EMI which allows for higher transmission rate. easy to install. UTP cable normally has an impedance of 100 ohm. Cable with 2 pair use RJ-11 connector and 4 pair cable use RJ-45 connector. It is light weight. There are five levels of data cabling Category 1 These are used in telephone lines and low speed data cable. It can be either voice grade or data grade depending on the condition. Shielded twisted pair (STP) 1. Category 3 These cable supports up to 16 mps and are mostly used in 10 mps. It can support 20mps. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) 2. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) UTP is more common.Twisted pair cabling is made of pairs of solid or stranded copper twisted along each other.

Each stand is responsible for one direction of communication. A laser at one device sends pulse of light through this cable to other device. These pulses translated into “1’s” and “0’s” at the other end. This layer backup the input data frame transmit them frames accordingly and sequentially process the acknowledgement frame. Ans. :There are the following reason to prove the statement true :• • • • The main task of the data link layer to provide the line which a pairs to be free from undetected transmission error . To define the frame boundaries. Advantages Of Fiber Optic Cable: • Fast • Low attenuation • No EMI interference Disadvantages Fiber Optics: • Very costly • Hard to install Q:4 “The data link layer of OSI reference model certify the correct receiving of the data packets to the destination”. The last task of layer fast transmit from drowning as a slow receiver. It uses light. . When we consider that points we can say that data link layer of OSI model the correct receipt of the data packets to the destination. Prove the above statement to be true with appropriate reasons. It is actually two stands of cable. In fiber optic cable light only moves in one direction for two way communication to take place a second connection must be made between the two devices.Fibber Optics Fiber optic cable uses electrical signals to transmit data.

Connectionless Does not require a session connection between sender and receiver. Packet-switched describes the type of network in which relatively small units of data called packets are routed through a network based on the destination address contained within each packet. These are the following comparsion :- . Q:6 Compare the transmission speed and quality of optical fibre and the broadband coaxial cable. Breaking communication down into packets allows the same data path to be shared among many users in the network. but it is useful for periodic burst transfers. That reasons we can say that internet is a totally call internet as a connectionless Network. Ans. Ans.Q:5 why do we call internet as a connectionless Network? Give reasons to support your answer. A connectionless network provides minimal services. This type of communication between sender and receiver is known as connectionless (rather than dedicated). Neither system must maintain state information for the systems that they send transmission to or receive transmission from. The sender simply starts sending packets (called datagrams) to the destination. This service does not have the reliability of the connection-oriented method. Most traffic over the Internet uses packet switching and the Internet is basically a connectionless network.

Every phone call needed its own dedicated copper wire connecting the two phones. The Public Switched Telephone Network:- The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). The connection established between the two phones is called a circuit. literally connecting one piece of copper wire to another so that the call could travel across town or across the country.so overall the coaxial cable quality is not good as compare to optical fibre Optical fibre are Very hard to install But cozxial cable is Easy to install Q:7 How we are using a Public switched telephone networks to carry all our digital contents? Also explain the hardware requirements. Hardware Requirement:• • • • Cable Component Power supplies Facility component Clock or clock synchronization . Optical fibre cable have higher bandwidth co-axial cabel have less bandwidthas compare to Optical fibre . regional. phone calls traveled as analog signals across copper wire. The PSTN relies on circuit switching. co-axial have less information carrying capacity But fiber optics carry more information as compre than the optaical fibre to coaxial cable optical fibre Capable extremely high speed optical fibre price is very High overall the quality of optical fibre is good But coaxial capable Up to 10Mbps capacity But the coaxial price is Low cost. national or international level. The operators sat at a switchboard. the phone call is routed through numerous switches operating on a local. in the early days. That's why you needed operators' assistance in making calls.optical fibre coaxial cable. is the wired phone system over which landline telephone calls are made. Ans. To connect one phone to another. also known as Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS).

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