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Nevertheless, the concept of creativity has been around long before management speak in many disciplines (the term has16th century etymological origins). For example: In Mathematics as the art of making useful combinations from an almost infinite number of possible useless combinations In Philosophy especially connected with serendipity (which is not pure luck or chance) but results from identifying 'matching pairs' of events that are subsequently put to practical use. Baudrillard uses the analogy of the billiard game playing off the cushion to characterise the rebounding and ricocheting nature of actions and ideas. Business examples of such a process can be found under the topic innovation and include the invention of the Swatch (new combinations or pairings of technologies developed in other industries) CREATIVITY IN ORGANISATIONS Creativity in organisations focuses on achieving innovation, competitive advantage and social benefits by enhancing the level of creativity in the organisation. This, typically, involves: Examining the personality traits and styles of individuals Developing an organisational context in which creativity might be fostered

(organisational cultures etc) Examining systems (collectivises of organised efforts coupled with the physical environment) to see how the systemic tendencies toward stability might be interrupted to stimulate new actions and/or different activities. INCLUDE CHART ON LAST PAGE

Management theory typically assumes creativity is solely about the creation of new ideas. This is innovation, hence the breathless talk of improvisation, jazz and unstructured music, commedia delarte etc. But creativity in the implementation of existing ideas and technologies is equally important. Creativity is therefore a broader concept incorporating both innovation as well as existing ideas, structures and processes. Concepts: ideas and/or technologies Competences: the repertoires of skills and abilities of individuals (and the opportunity to use these skills in the organisation). Connections: the relationships which individuals, teams and organisations create (networks). Sustained by collaboration and can be re-configured as new ideas

emerge/are created Creative Organisations Creative organisations which typically include, advertising, media, music, arts and entertainment organisations. They survive by their creative output be that a magazine, and advertising campaign or a piece of music. To achieve this, they need to employ professional creative individuals, but also professional managers to ensure business success. This can create tensions which have typically been called creatives versus suits. Hierarchy, Power and Creatives Professional managers have to deal with creatives, many of whom feel they have been forced to the bottom of the organisation. (Silos, hierarchy and managerialism) Many creative organisations have become managerially professionalized with the individuals who actually produce the creative product being at the bottom of the pile. Media organisations are just as full of structures, limits and routines as any other type of organisation. And creatives are likely to feel constrained and alienated by them.

Creatives and the Strategy Process The disengagement of creatives from strategic decision processes in a range of creative organisations is striking. To what extent would it make sense to involve creatives to a greater extent in the strategy process? There are countless conflicting arguments about this point. Kanter and others would argue that greater involvement would release greater levels of innovation and Hickson et al (2003) would argue that implementation (and performance) would benefit.Managers of organisations might take the alternative view and argue that only suits should be involved in decision making since getting creatives involved will be disastrous (they assume they dont want to be involved and they are not skilled in strategic thinking) Comparing Creatives and Knowledge Workers There are similarities in some of the above dilemmas between organisations employing creatives and professional service firms employing knowledge workers. In the same ways as creatives, knowledge workers are the core competence of the organisation. They both present similar difficulties for management. Retention is a Key Issue Some creatives inhabit a fluid labour market. They can sell their skills freely and can move from job to job, from contract to contract and from organisation to organisation (dangerous in a competitive market).. Some will leave at the slightest hint of dissatisfaction and seek a job elsewhere. Managements role in maintaining a supportive context is therefore crucial. Professional/knowledge workers display many of the same characteristics. The Knowledge Base and Performance On the basis of empirical evidence, it would be better to involve creatives in the strategic decision process rather than marginalise them and keep them away from the process.